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Fractional Freedoms
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  • Cited by 3
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    This book has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Kennedy, Sarah A. and Norman, Scotti M. 2019. Introduction to Status and Identity in the Imperial Andes: A Collection of Transhistorical Studies. International Journal of Historical Archaeology,

    Salazar-Rey, Ricardo R. 2018. Paper trail: slavery and governance in the Spanish Empire. Journal of Iberian and Latin American Studies, Vol. 24, Issue. 2, p. 205.

    Madar, Allison 2017. Servitude in the 18th-century British Atlantic World: Old Paradigms and New Directions. History Compass, Vol. 15, Issue. 11, p. e12411.

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Book description

Fractional Freedoms explores how thousands of slaves in colonial Peru were able to secure their freedom, keep their families intact, negotiate lower self-purchase prices, and arrange transfers of ownership by filing legal claims. Through extensive archival research, Michelle A. McKinley excavates the experiences of enslaved women whose historical footprint is barely visible in the official record. She complicates the way we think about life under slavery and demonstrates the degree to which slaves were able to exercise their own agency, despite being ensnared by the Atlantic slave trade. Enslaved women are situated as legal actors who had overlapping identities as wives, mothers, mistresses, wet-nurses and day-wage domestics, and these experiences within the urban working environment are shown to condition their identities as slaves. Although the outcomes of their lawsuits varied, Fractional Freedoms demonstrates how enslaved women used channels of affection and intimacy to press for liberty and prevent the generational transmission of enslavement to their children.

Reviews

'This is, without a doubt, one of the richest, most complex and well-researched studies of urban slavery in colonial Latin America. McKinley brings acute legal knowledge, both of the content of law and of its performative practice, to a study of enslaved men and women. The archival wealth here, plus the author's ability to tell a compelling yarn, produce an engaging and scholarly tome.'

Karen B. Graubart - University of Notre Dame

'Michelle A. McKinley has written a book that embodies the richness of recent Latin American legal history and also transcends that literature. Fractional Freedoms is rooted in heroic work in recondite and intractable archives in Europe and in the Americas. It is shaped by an incredibly sophisticated historical imagination, and is also filled with really interesting and well told stories about the negotiations and the local lives of enslaved Africans in early modern Lima. There are surprises on every page. For anyone interested in the global history of slavery, which by rights should be every serious student of history, this is the state of the art.'

Hendrik Hartog - Princeton University, New Jersey

'This is a first-rate piece of original, archive-based scholarship. It is a meticulous and extremely thoughtful examination of women's lives under slavery in and around Lima, Peru, a part of the Americas few connect with this institution. What really sets this book manuscript apart is the author's razor-sharp understanding and clear explanation of the colonial legal system. This book is a fully accessible social history that … contributes substantially to the growing history of the African diaspora.'

Kris Lane - Tulane University, Louisiana

'Michelle McKinley’s Fractional Freedoms is an impressive contribution to this literature. Her careful analysis of previously underutilized ecclesiastical archives and her empathetic evocation of the slave experience should establish Fractional Freedoms as a model for future research.'

Lyman Johnson Source: H-Law

'McKinley’s extensive work with church documents complicates the existing scholarship on slaves as legal actors … a primer on the most prominent types of legal disputes involving slaves.'

Emily Berquist Soule Source: Latin American Research Review

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The primary sources for Fractional Freedoms include fragments of lawsuits, as well as the complete court record. Given my interest in the relationships among owners and enslaved peoples, as well as the social constellations in which they circulated, I worked with a number of parochial sources and sacramental ledgers. These included marriage petitions and declarations of consent and baptism and marriage books for Spaniards and those for African-descent peoples. I also used numerous biographies and the voluminous records left by Lima’s luminaries to glean clues about the intertwined lives of elite owners and slaves. To get a better sense of the directives and administrative priorities of the church and the court, I consulted the synods of the Lima Diocese (concilios limenses) and the town council books (libros de cabildo).

Perhaps unsurprisingly, religious orders had the best-kept local records and estate inventories, all of which were important sources for Chapter 4. I referenced diaries and journals of the period written by priests, viceregal legal advisers, bureaucrats, and scholars, sources that provide a vivid account of the daily rituals, processions, and ceremonial life of the baroque City of Kings. Writers of these accounts record when the city trembled (which it did with frequent earthquakes) and when the port of Callao came under siege by privateers. They note the death of a prominent Spaniard or the public execution of minor criminals. As agents of empire, these chroniclers reflect the staunch regalism, devout Catholicism, and gossipy proclivities of their social milieu. The accounts recorded by elite criollos exude a constant anxiety born of a desire to prove the city’s grandeur, wealth, and nobility to their peninsular counterparts. In seeking to convince their rivals on the peninsula, their chronicles impart a sense of the elegance and joie de vivre of the baroque city.

I also used notarial records housed at the AGN under the Protocoles notariales series. Fredrick Bowser used the Protocoles and the town council records in his masterful The African Slave in Colonial Peru. Bowser left meticulous notes, and so it was possible to trace the afterlife of some of the individuals he studied for my own purposes. In that spirit, I have tried to include all the notarial and biographical details in the notes and text so that other researchers can pursue these leads in future studies.

I became aware of the censuras while I was on sabbatical in the final stages of writing. Although I badly wanted to finish writing the manuscript, I had three choices: write a huge footnote that alerted readers and researchers to their existence, save the discovery for a later project, or delve into the box. I chose the third option. In the interest of time, I deliberately chose to focus on the censuras that pertained to baptismal and childhood manumission. Nonetheless, these censuras represent an untapped source that demand further study, archival cataloguing, and digital preservation.

All materials were found in Lima’s Archbishopric archive (AAL), Peru’s National archive (AGN), and the Fondo Reservado (Special Collections) at the National Library (BNP). The Franciscan archive (Archivo Franciscano) also contains critical information about rural haciendas. When possible, I consulted primary sources at the Firestone Library, the Newberry Library, and the Library of Congress in the United States.

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