Skip to main content Accessibility help
Incentives to Pander
  • Cited by 45
  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Buy the print book

Book description

Policies targeting individual companies for economic development incentives, such as tax holidays and abatements, are generally seen as inefficient, economically costly, and distortionary. Despite this evidence, politicians still choose to use these policies to claim credit for attracting investment. Thus, while fiscal incentives are economically inefficient, they pose an effective pandering strategy for politicians. Using original surveys of voters in the United States, Canada and the United Kingdom, as well as data on incentive use by politicians in the US, Vietnam and Russia, this book provides compelling evidence for the use of fiscal incentives for political gain and shows how such pandering appears to be associated with growing economic inequality. As national and subnational governments surrender valuable tax revenue to attract businesses in the vain hope of long-term economic growth, they are left with fiscal shortfalls that have been filled through regressive sales taxes, police fines and penalties, and cuts to public education.


‘The puzzle of investment incentives like tax breaks and regulatory exemptions is that although they are generally inefficient, governments around the world - from Kansas to Vietnam - use them to attract investors. In this provocative and wide-ranging book, Jensen and Malesky show that politicians choose these policies because they reap political benefits from doing so. By identifying the political logic that drives inefficient policies, this book reveals how citizens may press for better policymaking.'

Thomas Pepinsky - Cornell University, New York

‘Is all politics local? In this intriguing study, Jensen and Malesky show that though separated by geography and political systems, politicians in the United States, Canada, Russia, and Vietnam all use fiscal policy to generate and sustain political support. The authors masterfully weave a variety of evidence - individual level surveys and original data on policymakers' incentives - to show how short term fiscal policies often have dramatically negative long term consequences.'

David Leblang - University of Virginia

Refine List

Actions for selected content:

Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Save to Kindle
  • Save to Dropbox
  • Save to Google Drive

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.



Abrevaya, Jason. 1997. The Equivalence of Two Estimators of the Fixed-Effects Logit Model. Economics Letters 55: 4143.
Ahern, William. 2010. Economic Development Teams in VA, MD, and DC Bid for Northrop Grumman Headquarters. Accessed August 25, 2017.
Aldrich, John H., Sullivan, John L., and Borgida, Eugene. 1989. Foreign Affairs and Issue Voting: Do Presidential Candidates “Waltz Before a Blind Audience?American Political Science Review 83: 123141.
American Federation of Teachers. 2000. AFT Resolution: Corporate Welfare Reform.
American Federation of Teachers. 2009. State Revenue Systems: Options for the Current Fiscal Crisis. Accessed August 25, 2017.
Angrist, Joshua and Pischke, Jorn-Steffen. 2010. Mostly Harmless Econometrics. Princeton N.J.: Princeton University Press.
Ansolabehere, Stephen. 2010. CCES, MIT PORTL Module, 2005. Harvard Dataverse, V2. Accessed August 25, 2017.
Ansolabehere, Stephen, de Figueiredo, John M., and Snyder, James M. Jr. 2003. Why Is There So Little Money in Politics? Journal of Economic Perspectives 17: 105130.
Arceneaux, Kevin. 2006. The Federal Face of Voting: Are Elected Officials Held Accountable for the Functions Relevant to Their Office? Political Psychology 27: 731754.
Auerbach, Alan J and Hines, James R.. 1988. Investment Tax Incentives and Frequent Tax Reforms. American Economic Review 78(2): 211–16.
Bai, Matt. 2013. Curt Schilling, Rhode Island and the Fall of 38 Studios. New York Times (April 20).
Bailey, David and de Ruyter, Alex. 2012. Re-examining the BMW-Rover Affair: A Case Study of Corporate, Strategic and Government Failure? Applied Research Centre for Sustainable Regeneration (SURGE) Working Paper Series, No. 1, Coventry University.
Barlett, Donald L. and Steele, James B.. 1998. Corporate Welfare: The Empire of Pigs. Time Magazine. (November 30).
Baron, David P. 1989. Service-Induced Campaign Contributions and Electoral Equilibrium. Quarterly Journal of Economics 104: 4572.
Barrell, Ray and Pain, Nigel. 1999. Domestic Institutions, Agglomerations and Foreign Direct Investment in Europe. European Economic Review 43: 925934.
Bartels, Larry M. 2000. Partisanship and Voting Behavior. American Journal of Political Science 44: 3550.
Bartik, Timothy J. 2005. Solving the Problems of Economic Development Incentives. Growth and Change 36: 139166.
Baruch, Yehuda and Holtom, Brooks C.. 2008. Survey Response Rate Levels and Trends in Organizational Research. Human Relations 61: 1139.
Basinger, Scott J. and Hallerberg, Mark. 2004. Remodeling the Competition for Capital: How Domestic Politics Erases the Race to the Bottom. American Political Science Review 98: 261276.
Basinger, Scott J. and Lavine, Harold. 2005. Ambivalence, Information, and Electoral Choice. American Political Science Review 99: 169184.
Bateman, Thomas and Schwenk, Charles. 1986. Biases in Investor Decision Making: The Case of John DeLorean. American Journal of Business 1: 512.
Baturo, Alexander and Elkink, Johan A.. 2016. Dynamics of Regime Personalization and Patron-Client Networks in Russia, 1999–2014. Post-Soviet Affairs 32: 7598.
Baturo, Alexander and Gray, Julia. 2009. Flatliners: Ideology and Rational Learning in the Adoption of the Flat Tax. European Journal of Political Research 48: 130159.
Beazer, Quintin. 2015. Who’s to Blame? Punishing Poor Economic Performance in a Centralized Political System. Paper presented at the European Association for Comparative Economic Studies – Higher School of Economics Workshop, Moscow, Russia (June 29).
Bell, Daniel A. 2015. The China Model: Political Meritocracy and the Limits of Democracy. Princeton N.J.: Princeton University Press.
Bernstein, Peter W. 1984. States Are Going Down Industrial Policy Lane. Fortune (March 5).
Bishop, Mac William. 2012. Border War: Kansas City. New York Times (December 1).
Blaydes, Lisa. 2010. Elections and Distributive Politics in Mubarak’s Egypt. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Blomstrom, Magnus and Kokko, Ari. 2003. The Economics of Foreign Direct Investment Incentives. National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper Series, No. 9489.
Bobonis, Gustavo J. and Shatz, Howard J.. 2007. Agglomeration, Adjustment, and State Policies in the Location of Foreign Direct Investment in the United States. The Review of Economics and Statistics 89: 3043.
Boccia, Romina. 2015. Corporate Welfare Wastes Taxpayer Resources. Testimony Before the Subcommittee on Federal Spending Oversight and Emergency Management. Accessed August 25, 2017.
Boix, Carles and Svolik, Milan W.. 2013. The Foundations of Limited Authoritarian Government: Institutions, Commitment, and Power-Sharing in Dictatorships. The Journal of Politics 75: 300316.
Bollinger, Christopher R. and Ihlanfeldt, Keith R.. 2003. The Intraurban Spatial Distribution of Employment: Which Government Interventions Make a Difference? Journal of Urban Economics 53 (3): 396412.
Bondonio, Daniele and Greenbaum, Robert T.. 2007. Do Local Tax Incentives Affect Economic Growth? What Mean Impacts Miss in the Analysis of Enterprise Zone Policies. Regional Science and Urban Economics 37: 121136.
Bratton, Michael and Van de Walle, Nicolas. 1994. Neopatrimonial Regimes and Political Transitions in Africa. World Politics 46: 453489.
Brennan, Geoffrey and Buchanan, James M.. 1980. The Power to Tax: Analytical Foundations of a Fiscal Constitution. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Bronzini, Raffaello and de Blasio, Guido. 2006. Evaluating the Impact of Investment Incentives: The Case of Italy’s Law 488/1992. Journal of Urban Economics 60: 327349.
Brooker, Paul. 2014. Non-Democratic Regimes. New York: Palgrave MacMillan.
Brownlee, Jason. 2007. Authoritarianism in an Age of Democratization. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Bryant, Tim. 2014. IKEA Gets the Green Light as TIF is Approved. St. Louis Post-Dispatch (February 8).
Buettner, Thiess and Ruf, Martin. 2007. Tax Incentives and the Location of FDI Evidence from a Panel of German Multinationals. International Tax and Public Finance 14: 151164.
Burke, Fred and Vinh, Nguyen. 2005. Provincial Tax Incentives Subject to Review. Tax Notes International (June 8).
Buss, Terry F. 2001. The Effect of State Tax Incentives on Economic Growth and Firm Location Decisions: An Overview of the Literature. Economic Development Quarterly 15: 90105.
Busso, Matias, Gregory, Jesse, and Kline, Patrick M.. 2010. Assessing the Incidence and Efficiency of a Prominent Place Based Policy. National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper Series, No. 16096.
Byrnes, Nanette and Cowan, Coleman. 2007. The High Cost of Wooing Google. Businessweek (July 23).
Canes-Wrone, Brandice, Herron, Michael C., and Shotts, Kenneth W.. 2001. Leadership and Pandering: A Theory of Executive Policymaking. American Journal of Political Science 45: 532550.
Caplan, Bryan. 2007. The Myth of the Rational Voter. Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press.
Caplan and Associates 2009. Analysis of State-Level Economic Development Contingency Funds. (report prepared for Kansas Inc.). Accessed August 25, 2017.
Carlstrom, Gregg. 2012. Candidates Fail to Connect in N Carolina town. Aljazeera (October 30). Accessed August 25, 2017.
Carter, Brandon. 2017. “Layoffs Set to Begin Next Month at Carrier Plan Trump Struck Deal With,” The Hill, June 22. Accessed August 25, 2017.
Calonico, Sebastian, Cattaneo, Matias D., and Titiunik, Rocio. 2014. Robust data-driven inference in the regression-discontinuity design. Stata Journal 14(4):909946.
Celis, William. 1991. Business Tax Breaks Are Hurting Schools, Educators Complain. New York Times (May 22).
Chapman, Dan. 2001. Jobs Carry High Price Tag. Atlanta Journal Constitution, at A1 (August 5).
Charron, Nicholas and Lapuente, Victor. 2010. Does Democracy Produce Quality of Government? European Journal of Political Research 49: 443470.
Cheibub, José Antonio, Gandhi, Jennifer, and Vreeland, James R.. 2010. Democracy and Dictatorship Revisited. Public Choice 143: 67101.
Ye, Chen, Li, Hongbin, and Zhou, Li-An. 2005. Relative Performance Evaluation and the Turnover of Provincial Leaders in China. Economics Letters 88: 421425.
Chen, Ting and Kung, James K.. 2016. “Do Land Revenue Windfalls Create a Political Resource Curse? Evidence from China.” Working Paper Hong Kong University of Science and Technology.!workingpaper/c1etn. Accessed August 26, 2017.
Cheng, Tun-Jen, Haggard, Stephan, and Kang, David. 1998. Institutions and Growth in Korea and Taiwan: The Bureaucracy. The Journal of Development Studies 34: 87111.
Chibber, Vivek. 2002. Bureaucratic Rationality and the Developmental State. American Journal of Sociology 107: 951989.
Clingermayer, James C. and Feiock, Richard C.. 2001. Institutional Constraints and Policy Choice: An Exploration of Local Government. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
Coase, Ronald and Wang, Ning. 2012. How China Became Capitalist. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Cockerham, Sean. 2010. Parnell Seeks Investment Incentives for Oil Companies. Alaska Dispatch News (January 15).
Cohen, Jeffrey E. and King, James D.. 2004. Relative Unemployment and Gubernatorial Popularity. Journal of Politics 66: 12671282.
Cohn, Scott. 2017. “Trump’s Carrier Deal is Not Living Up to the Hype – Jobs Still Going to Mexico,” CNBC (June 24).
Collier, Kiah. 2013. Abbot expands on his view of Perry’s incentive program. Houston Chronicle (July 13).
Converse, Philip E. 1964. The Nature of Belief Systems in Mass Publics. In Apter, David (ed.), Ideology and Discontent. New York: Free.
Converse, Philip E. 1974. Comment: The Status of Nonattitudes. American Political Science Review 68: 650660.
Cook, Shadish and Cambell, Donald. 1970. Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Designs for Generalized Causal Inference. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Coupe, Tom. 2005. Bias in Conditional and Unconditional Fixed Effects Logit Estimation: A Correction. Political Analysis 13: 292295.
Cummings, Ronald G., Harrison, Glen W., and Rutström, Elisabet E.. 1995. Homegrown Values and Hypothetical Surveys: Is the Dichotomous Choice Approach Incentive-Compatible? American Economic Review 85: 260266.
Cycyota, Cynthia and Harrison, David A.. 2006. What (Not) to Expect When Surveying Executives. A Meta-Analysis of Top Manager Response Rates and Techniques over Time. Organizational Research Methods 9: 133160.
Davies, David G. 1959. An Empirical Test of Sales-Tax Regressivity. Journal of Political Economy 67: 7278.
Davies, Ronald B. 2004. Tax Treaties and Foreign Direct Investment: Potential Versus Performance. International Tax and Public Finance 11: 775802.
Davies, Ronald B. and Eckel, Carsten 2010. Tax Competition for Heterogeneous Firms with Endogenous Entry. American Economic Journal: Economic Policy 2(1): 77102.
Davis, Mark. 2015. Applebee’s to Move Headquarters to California, Lay Off Some Area Employees. Kansas City Star (September 4).
de Blasio, Guido, Fantion, Davide, and Pellegrini, Guido. 2015. Evaluating the Impact of Innovation Incentives: Evidence from an Unexpected Shortage of Funds. Industrial and Corporate Change 24(4): 12851314.
Deno, Kevin T. and Mehay, Stephen L.. 1987. Municipal Management Structure and Fiscal Performance: Do City Managers Make a Difference? Southern Economic Journal 53: 627642.
Department of Finance, City of Ferguson. 2014. City of Ferguson, Missouri: Comprehensive Annual Financial Report for the Year Ending June 30, 2014. Accessed August 25, 2017.
Department of Trade and Industry, Republic of South Africa. 2012a. Financial Assistance. 12I Tax Allowance Incentive: Offerings (12I TAI). Accessed August 25, 2017.
Department of Trade and Industry, Republic of South Africa. 2012b. Media Statements: Minister Davies Approves Projects Worth Billions of Rands. Accessed August 25, 2017.
Diaz-Cayeros, Alberto. 2006. Federalism, Fiscal Authority, and Centralization in Latin America. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Dolan, Maura, Garrison, Jessica, and York, Anthony. 2011. California High Court Puts Redevelopment Agencies out of Business. Los Angeles Times (December 29).
Doner, Richard F., Ritchie, Bryan K., and Slater, Dan. 2005. Systemic Vulnerability and the Origins of Developmental States: Northeast and Southeast Asia in Comparative Perspective. International Organization 59(2):327361.
Downs, Anthony. 1957. An Economic Theory of Political Action in a Democracy. The Journal of Political Economy 65: 135150.
Dunning, John H. 1977. Trade, Location of Economic Activity and the MNE: A Search for an Eclectic Approach. In Ohlin, Bertil G., Hesselborn, Per-Ove, and Wijkman, Per Magnus (eds.), The International Allocation of Economic Activity. London: Macmillan, 395418.
Easson, Alex. 2004. Tax Incentives for Foreign Direct Investment. The Hague: Kluwer Law International.
East-West Gateway: Council of Governments. 2011. An Assessment of the Effectiveness and Fiscal Impacts of the Use of Development Incentives in the St. Louis Region: Final Report (January). Accessed August 25, 2017.
Eder, Stephen. 2013. For ESPN, Millions to Remain in Connecticut. New York Times (December 26).
Egorov, Georgy and Sonin, Konstantin. 2011. Dictators and Their Viziers: Endogenizing the Loyalty-Competence Trade-Off. Journal of the European Economic Association 9: 903930.
Eligon, John. 2013. Missouri’s Governor Calls for End to Contest of Incentives. The New York Times (November 12).
Ellis, Stephen and Rogers, Cynthia. 2000. Local Economic Development as a Prisoners’ Dilemma: The Role of Business Climate. The Review of Regional Studies 30(3): 315330.
European Commission. 2016. “Transparency System” for Regional Aid for Large Investment Projects. Accessed August 25, 2017.
Evans, Peter and Rauch, James E.. 1999. Bureaucracy and Growth: A Cross-National Analysis of the Effects of Weberian State Structures on Economic Growth. American Sociological Review 64(5): 748765.
Faulk, Dagney. 2002. Do State Economic Development Incentives Create Jobs? An Analysis of State Employment Tax Credits. National Tax Journal 55: 263280.
Feiock, Richard C., Jeong, Moon-Gi, and Kim, Jaehoon. 2003. Credible Commitment and Council-Manager Government: Implications for Policy Instrument Choices. Public Administration Review, 63: 616625.
Feiock, Richard C., Steinacker, Annette, and Park, Hyung Jun. 2009. Institutional Collective Action and Economic Development Joint Ventures. Public Administration Review 69: 256270.
Felix, Alison R. and Hines, James R. Jr. 2013. Who Offers Tax-Based Business Development Incentives? Journal of Urban Economics 75: 8091.
Ferejohn, John. 1974. Pork Barrel Politics: Rivers and Harbor Legislation 1947–1968. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press.
Fox, William F. and Murray, Matthew N.. 2004. Do Economic Effects Justify the Use of Fiscal Incentives? Southern Economic Journal 71: 7892.
Frazier, Eric and Henderson, Bruce. 2013. Google Announces $600M Lenoir Data Center Expansion. Charlotte Observer.
Frederickson, H. George, Johnson, Gary A., and Wood, Curtis H.. 2004. The Adapted City: Institutional Dynamics and Structural Change. Armonk, NY: ME Sharpe.
Freeland, William, Wilterdink, Ben, and Williams, Jonathan. 2014. The Unseen Costs of Tax Cronyism: Favoritism and Foregone Growth. State Factor. (July 23). Accessed August 25, 2017.
Frye, Timothy, Reuter, Ora John, and Szakonyi, David. 2014. Political Machines at Work: Voter Mobilization and Electoral Subversion in the Workplace. World Politics 66: 195228.
Gabe, Todd and Kraybill, David. 2002. The Effect of State Economic Development Incentives on Employment Growth of Establishments. Journal of Regional Science 42: 703730.
Gaines, Brian J., Kuklinski, James H., and Quirk, Paul J.. 2007. The Logic of the Survey Experiment Reexamined. Political Analysis 15: 120.
Gandhi, Jennifer. 2008. Political Institutions Under Dictatorship. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Gandhi, Jennifer and Przeworski, Adam, 2007. Authoritarian Institutions and the Survival of Autocrats. Comparative Political Studies 40:12791301.
Garrett, Geoffrey. 1998. Global Markets and National Politics: Collision Course or Virtuous Circle? International Organization 52: 787824.
Gattiker, Urs E. 1995. Firm and Taxpayer Returns from Training of Semiskilled Employees. Academy of Management Journal 38: 11521173.
Geddes, Barbara. 1990. How the Cases You Choose Affect the Answers You Get: Selection Bias in Comparative Politics. Political Analysis 2: 131150.
Geddes, Barbara. 1999a. What Do We Know About Democratization After Twenty Years? Annual Review of Political Science 2: 115144.
Geddes, Barbara. 1999b. Authoritarian Breakdown: Empirical Test of a Game Theoretic Argument. Presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Atlanta, GA (September 2–5).
Geddes, Barbara, 2008. Party Creation as an Authoritarian Survival Strategy. In Conference on Dictators: Their Governance and Social Consequences. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Geddes, Barbara, Wright, Joseph, and Frantz, Erica. 2014. Autocratic Breakdown and Regime Transitions: A New Data Set. Perspectives on Politics 12: 313331.
Gehlbach, Scott and Keefer, Philip. 2012. Private Investment and the Institutionalization of Collective Action in Autocracies: Ruling Parties and Legislatures. The Journal of Politics 74: 621635.
Gel’man, Vladimir, Ryzhenkov, Sergei, and Brie, Michael. 2003. Making and Breaking Democratic Transitions: The Comparative Politics of Russia’s Regions. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.
Ghanem, Dalia and Zhang, Junjie. 2014. Effortless Perfection: Do Chinese Cities Manipulate Air Pollution Data? Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 68: 203225.
Gillian, Frankie. 2009. Sales Tax for Economic Development in Arkansas. Accessed August 25, 2017.
Glaeser, Edward L. 2001. The Economics of Location-Based Tax Incentives. Discussion Paper No. 1932, Harvard Institute of Economic Research. Accessed August 25, 2017.
Glass, Ira. 2011. This American Life: Episode 435: “How to Create a Job.” Transcript. May 13. Accessed August 25, 2017.
Goode, Paul. 2007. The Puzzle of Putin’s Gubernatorial Appointments. Europe-Asia Studies 59: 365399.
Gordon, Colin. 2009. Mapping Decline: St. Louis and the Fate of the American City. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Gordon, Sanford C. and Hafer, Catherine. 2005. Flexing Muscle: Corporate Political Expenditures as Signals to the Bureaucracy. American Political Science Review 99: 245261.
Gordon, Sanford C. and Hafer, Catherine. 2007. Corporate Influence and the Regulatory Mandate. The Journal of Politics 69: 300319.
Gordon, Sanford C., Hafer, Catherine, and Landa, Dimitri. 2007. Consumption or Investment? On Motivations for Political Giving. The Journal of Politics 69: 10571072.
Goss, Ernest Preston and Phillips, Joseph M.. 1994. State Employment Growth: The Impact of Taxes and Economic Development Agency Spending. Growth and Change 25: 287300.
Goss, Ernest Preston and Phillips, Joseph M.. 2001. The Impact of Tax Incentives: Do Initial Conditions Matter? Growth and Change 32: 236250.
Government Accounting Standards Board (GASB). 2008. GASB Research Brief: State and Local Government Use of Generally Accepted Accounting Principles for General Purpose External Financial Reporting. Accessed August 25, 2017.
Government Accounting Standards Board (GASB). 2014. Exposure Draft – Tax Abatement Disclosures. GASB Exposure Draft. Accessed August 25, 2017.
Government Accounting Standards Board (GASB). 2015. Statement No. 77: Tax Abatement Disclosures. Governmental Accounting Standards Series, No. 353 (August). Accessed August 25, 2017.
Government Accounting Standards Board (GASB). 2015. Online Comment Letters. Project 19-20E. Tax Abatement Disclosures. Accessed June 25, 2016. Accessed August 25, 2017.
Greenbaum, Robert T. and Landers, Jim. 2009. Why Are State Policy Makers Still Proponents of Enterprise Zones? What Explains Their Actions in the Face of a Preponderance of the Research? International Regional Science Review 32: 466479.
Greenbaum, Robert T. and Landers, Jim. 2014. The Tiff over TIF: A Review of the Literature Examining the Effectiveness of Tax Increment Financing. National Tax Journal 67(3): 655674.
Greenblatt, Alan. 2011. Kansas City Businesses Want to End the “Economic Border War.” Governing. (August).
Greene, William. 2004. The Behaviour of the Maximum Likelihood Estimator of Limited Dependent Variable Models in the Presence of Fixed Effects. Econometrics Journal 7: 98119.
Greenstone, Michael and Moretti, Enrico. 2003. Bidding for Industrial Plants: Does Winning a “Million Dollar Plant” Increase Welfare? National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper, No. 9844. Accessed August 25, 2017.
Grieco, Joseph M. 1982. Between Dependency and Autonomy: India’s Experience with the International Computer Industry. International Organization 36: 609632.
Grimmer, Justin, Messing, Solomon, and Westwood, Sean J.. 2012. How Words and Money Cultivate a Personal Vote: The Effect of Legislator Credit Claiming on Constituent Credit Allocation. American Political Science Review 106: 703719.
Grossman, Gene M. and Helpman, Elhanan. 2001. Special Interest Politics. Cambridge: MIT Press.
Guisinger, Alexandra. 2009. Determining Trade Policy: Do Voters Hold Politicians Accountable? International Organization 63: 533557.
Guo, Gang. 2009. China’s Local Political Budget Cycles. American Journal of Political Science 53: 621632.
Gura, David. 2012. Google Search in North Carolina: Jobs. (November 13). Accessed August 25, 2017.
Hadenius, Axel and Teorell, Jan. 2007. Pathways from Authoritarianism. Journal of Democracy 18: 143157.
Hagan, Ken. 2015. Commentary: Keep Hillsborough and Florida in Film Game by Continuing Tax Credit Program. Tampa Tribune. (May 31).
Hainmueller, Jens. 2012. Entropy Balancing for Causal Effects: A Multivariate Reweighting Method to Produce Balanced Samples in Observational Studies. Political Analysis 20: 2546.
Hainmueller, Jens and Xu, Yiqing. 2013. Ebalance: A Stata Package for Entropy Balancing. Journal of Statistical Software 54: 118.
Hancock, Jason. 2011. Mo. Senate Committee Launches Probe of Mamtek Deal. St. Louis Post-Dispatch. (October 6).
Hanson, Andrew and Rohlin, Shawn. 2011. Do Location-Based Tax Incentives Attract New Business Establishments? Journal of Regional Science 51 (3): 427449.
Harrington, Joseph E. 1993. Economic Policy, Economic Performance, and Elections. American Economic Review 83: 2742.
Harris, Aisha. 2013. The Incredible Story of the Film-Tax Fraudsters. Slate. Accessed August 25, 2017.
Hays, Jude C. 2003. Globalization and Capital Taxation in Consensus and Majoritarian Democracies. World Politics 56: 79113.
Head, Keith, Ries, John, and Swenson, Deborah. 1995. Agglomeration Benefits and Location Choice: Evidence from Japanese Manufacturing Investments in the United States. Journal of International Economics 38: 223247.
Head, Keith C., Ries, John C., and Swenson, Deborah L.. 1999. Attracting Foreign Manufacturing: Investment Promotion and Agglomeration. Regional Science and Urban Economics 29: 197218.
Hellwig, Timothy. 2008. Globalization, Policy Constraints and Vote Choice. The Journal of Politics 70: 11281141.
Hellwig, Timothy and Samuels, David. 2008. Electoral Accountability and the Variety of Democratic Regimes. British Journal of Political Science 38: 6590.
Hetherington, Marc J. 2001. Resurgent Mass Partisanship: The Role of Elite Polarization. American Political Science Review 95: 619631.
Hickey, Jason. 2013. Federal and State Legislative Moves to Boost Competitiveness & Business Climate. Area Development. Accessed August 25, 2017.
Hicks, Michael J. and LaFaive, Michael. 2011. The Influence of Targeted Economic Development Tax Incentives on County Economic Growth: Evidence from Michigan’s MEGA credits. Economic Development Quarterly 25: 193205.
Hines, James R Jr, 1996. Altered States: Taxes and the Location of Foreign Direct Investment in America. American Economic Review 86(5): 10761094.
Huang, Haifeng, 2013. Signal Left, Turn Right Central Rhetoric and Local Reform in China. Political Research Quarterly 66(2): 292305.
Huber, Greg. A. and Gordon, Sandy C.. 2004. Accountability and Coercion: Is Justice Blind When It Runs for Office? American Political Science Review 48: 247263.
Iacus, Stefano M., King, Gary, and Porro, Giuseppe. 2012. Causal Inference Without Balance Checking: Coarsened Exact Matching. Political Analysis 20: 124.
Illinois Tax Increment Association. 2016. About TIF: The TIF Concept. Accessed August 25, 2017.
Imbens, Guido and Kalyanaraman, Karthik. 2012. Optimal Bandwidth Choice for the Regression Discontinuity Estimator. The Review of Economic Studies 79: 933959.
Institute on Taxation & Economic Policy (ITEP). 2015. Who Pays? A Distributional Analysis of the Tax Systems in All 50 States. 5th ed. Accessed August 25, 2017.
International Center for the Study of Institutions and Development. 2015. Research Project: Institutions and Economic Development: The Role of Bureaucracy, and Experiments as a Method for Analysis and Evaluation of Reforms (project 2011–2013). Accessed August 25, 2017.
International City/County Management Association; National League of Cities. Economic Development Dataset 1999 – Full Dataset, Accessed August 25, 2017.
International City/County Management Association; National League of Cities. Economic Development Dataset 2004 – Full Dataset, Accessed August 25, 2017.
International City/County Management Association; National League of Cities. Economic Development Dataset 2009 – Full Dataset, Accessed August 25, 2017.
International Monetary Fund. 2014. Vietnam: 2014 Article IV Consultation – Staff Report. IMF Country Report No. 14/311. Accessed August 26, 2017.
Isaacs, Rico and Whitmore, Sarah. 2014. The Limited Agency and Life-Cycles of Personalized Dominant Parties in the Post-Soviet Space: The Cases of United Russia and Nur Otan. Democratization 21: 699721.
James, Sebastian. 2007. The Effect of Tax Rates on Declared Income: An Analysis of Indian Taxpayer Response to Changes in Income Tax Rates. PhD dissertation, Harvard University.
James, Sebastian, 2009. Incentives and Investments: Evidence and Policy Implications. Accessed August 26, 2017.
Jandl, Thomas. 2014. State Versus State: The Principal-Agent Problem in Vietnam’s Decentralizing Economic Reforms. In London, Jonathan (ed.), Politics in Contemporary Vietnam: Party, State, and Authority Relations. London: Palgrave MacMillan, 6583.
Jensen, Nathan M. 2017. Job Creation and Firm-Specific Location Incentives. Journal of Public Policy 37(1): 85112.
Jensen, Nathan M., Malesky, Edmund J., Medina, Mariana, and Ozdemir, Ugur. 2014. Pass the Bucks: Investment Incentives as Political Credit-Claiming Devices. International Studies Quarterly 58: 433447.
Jensen, Nathan M., Malesky, Edmund J., and Walsh, Matthew. 2015. Competing for Global Capital or Local Voters? The Politics of Business Location Incentives. Public Choice 164: 331356.
Jia, Ruixue, Kudamatsu, Masayuki, and Seim, David. 2015. Political Selection in China: The Complementary Roles of Connections and Performance. Journal of the European Economic Association 13: 631668.
Johnson, Walter. 2015. Ferguson’s Fortune 500 Company: Why the Missouri City – Despite Hosting a Multinational Corporation – Relied on Municipal Fees and Fines to Extract Revenue from its Poorest Residents. Atlantic. (April 26).
Jolley, G. Jason, Lancaster, Mandee Foushee, and Gao, Jiang. 2015. Tax Incentives and Business Climate: Executive Perceptions from Incented and Nonincented firms. Economic Development Quarterly 29: 180186.
Kaiser, Borid. 2014. RDCV: Stata module to perform Sharp Regression Discontinuity Design with Cross Validation Bandwidth Selection. Statistical Software Components S457908, Boston College Department of Economics, revised November 7, 2015.
Katz, Ethan. 2001. Bias in Conditional and Unconditional Fixed Effects Logit Estimation. Political Analysis 9: 379384.
Keefer, Philip. 2009. Inequality, Collective Action, and Democratization. Political Science and Politics 42: 661666.
Keen, Michael and Mansour, Mario. 2010. Revenue Mobilization in Sub-Saharan Africa: Challenges from Globalization II-Corporate Taxation. Development Policy Review 28: 573596.
Kenyon, Daphne A., Langley, Adam H., and Paquin, Bethany P.. 2012. Property Tax Incentive Pitfalls. National Tax Journal 65: 10111022.
King, Gary, Keohane, Robert O., and Verba, Sidney. 1994. Designing Social Inquiry: Scientific Inference in Qualitative Research. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Klemm, Alexander and Van Parys, Stefan. 2012. Empirical Evidence on the Effects of Tax Incentives. International Tax and Public Finance 19: 393423.
Kline, Patrick and Moretti, Enrico. 2014. People, Places, and Public Policy: Some Simple Welfare Economics of Local Economic Development Programs. Annual Review of Economics 6: 629662.
Konitzer, Andrew. 2005. Voting for Russia’s Governors. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Konitzer, Andrew and Wegren, Stephen. 2006. Federalism and Political Recentralization in the Russian Federation: United Russia as the Party of Power. Publius 36: 503522.
Kono, Daniel. 2006. Optimal Obfuscation: Democracy and Trade Policy Transparency. American Political Science Review 100: 369384.
Krause, Lawerence B. 1987. Thinking About Singapore. In Krause, Lawrence, Koh, Ai Tee, and Lee Tsao, Yuan (eds.), The Singapore Economy Reconsidered. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies.
Landry, Pierre F. 2008. Decentralized Authoritarianism in China. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Langfitt, Frank. 2009. Laid-Off Furniture Workers Try to Leap to Google. (December 16). Accessed August 26, 2017.
Larano, Cris. 2012. JG Summit Holdings, Inc.: Summit’s Naphtha Cracking Plant to Start Operations November 2013. Manila Times (Philippines). (October 22).–15411914/. Accessed August 26, 2017.
Lazarev, Valery. 2005. Economics of One-Party State: Promotion Incentives and Support for the Soviet Regime. Comparative Economic Studies 47: 346363.
Le, Diep, Miloslavsky, Eli, and Shatz, Howard J.. 2003. State Foreign Office Database. Public Policy Institute of California (electronic database) (on file with authors).
Lee, David S. and Lemieux, Thomas. 2010. Regression Discontinuity Designs in Economics. Journal of Economic Literature 48: 281355.
Legislative Division of Post Audit. 2013. Performance Audit Report. Economic Development: Determining Which Economic Development Tools Are Most Important and Effective in Promoting Job Creation and Economic Growth in Kansas, Part 1.–010.pdf. Accessed August 26, 2017.
Legislative Division of Post Audit. 2014. Economic Development: Determining Which Economic Development Tools Are Most Important and Effective in Promoting Job Creation and Economic Growth in Kansas, Part 3.–011.pdf. Accessed August 26, 2017.
LeRoy, Greg. 2007. Nine Concrete Ways to Curtail the Economic War Among the States. In Markusen, Ann (ed.), Reining in the Competition for Capital. Kalamazoo, MI: W.E. Upjohn Institute.
Li, Quan. 2006. Democracy, Autocracy, and Tax Incentives to Foreign Direct Investors: A Cross-National Analysis. Journal of Politics 68: 6274.
Li, Quan. 2016. Fiscal Decentralization and Tax Incentives in the Developing World. Review of International Political Economy 23: 232260.
Li, Hongbin and Zhou, Li-An. 2005. Political Turnover and Economic Performance: The Incentive Role of Personnel Control in China. Journal of Public Economics 89:17431762.
Liang, Jiaqi. 2015. Who Maximizes (or Satisfices) in Performance Management? An Empirical Study of the Effects of Motivation-Related Institutional Contexts on Energy Efficiency Policy in China. Public Performance and Management Review 38: 284315.
Lieb, David A. 2013. Analysis: Boeing Bid Could Impact Mo. Regardless. St. Louis Post-Dispatch. (December 15).
Lobao, Linda and Kraybill, David S.. 2005. The Emerging Roles of County Governments in Metropolitan and Nonmetropolitan Areas: Findings from a National Survey. Economic Development Quarterly 19: 245259.
Logan, Tim. 2013. What Boeing Wants: A look at the 777X Request for Proposals. St. Louis Post Dispatch (December 5).
Long, J. Scott and Freese, Jeremy. 2005. Regression Models for Categorical Outcomes Using Stata. 2nd ed. College Station, TX: Stata.
, Xiaobo and Landry, Pierre. F. 2014. Show Me the Money: Interjurisdiction Political Competition and Fiscal Extraction in China. American Political Science Review 108(3): 706722.
Lupia, Arthur and McCubbins, Matthew D.. 1998. The Democratic Dilemma: Can Citizens Learn What They Need to Know? New York: Cambridge University Press.
Magaloni, Beatriz. 2008. Voting for Autocracy: Hegemonic Party Survival and its Demise in Mexico. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Magaloni, Beatrice and Kricheli, Ruth. 2010. Political Order and One-Party Rule. Annual Review of Political Science 13: 123143.
Magaloni, Beatriz, Chu, Jonathan, and Min, Eric. 2013. Autocracies of the World, 1950–2012 (Version 1.0). Dataset. Stanford University. Accessed August 26, 2017.
Magaloni, Beatriz and Kricheli, Ruth. 2010. Political Order and One-Party Rule. Annual Review of Political Science 13: 123143.
Malesky, Edmund J. 2008a. Provincial Governance and Foreign Direct Investment in Vietnam. Twenty Years of Foreign Investment in Vietnam. Ho Chi Minh City: Knowledge Publishing House.
Malesky, Edmund J. 2008b. Straight Ahead on Red: How Foreign Direct Investment Empowers Subnational Leaders. Journal of Politics 70: 97119.
Malesky, Edmund J. and Schuler, Paul. 2011. The Single-Party Dictator’s Dilemma: Information in Elections Without Opposition. Legislative Studies Quarterly 36: 491530.
Malesky, Edmund J. 2015. The Vietnam Provincial Competitiveness Index: Measuring Economic Governance for Private Sector Development, 2014 Final Report. Hanoi: Vietnam Chamber of Commerce and Industry and United States Agency for International Development. Accessed August 27, 2017.
Manion, Melanie. 1993. Retirement of Revolutionaries in China: Public Policies, Social Norms, Private Interests. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Markusen, Ann and Nesse, Katherine. 2007. Institutional and Political Determinants of Incentive Competition. In Markusen, Ann (ed.), Reining in the Competition for Capital. Kalamazoo, MI: W.E. Upjohn Institute.
Marshall, Alfred. 1920. Principles of Economics. 8th ed. London: Macmillan.
Maskin, Eric, Qian, Yingyi, and Xu, Chenggang. 2000. Incentives, Information, and Organizational Form. The Review of Economic Studies 67: 359378.
Maskin, Eric and Tirole, Jean. 2004. The Politician and the Judge: Accountability in Government. American Economic Review 94: 10341054.
Mason, Susan and Thomas, Kenneth P.. 2010. Tax Incremental Financing in Missouri: An Analysis of Determinants, Equity, and Path Dependency. Economic Development Quarterly 24: 169179.
Massachusetts Department of Revenue. 2014. Report on the Impact of Massachusetts Film Industry Tax Incentives Through Calendar Year 2012. Accessed August 26, 2017.
Masunaga, Samantha. 2015. Applebee’s Is Moving Its Headquarters to Glendale. Los Angeles Times. (September 4).
Mattera, Philip, Cafcas, Thomas, McIlvaine, Leigh, Seifter, Andrew, and Tarczynska, Kasia. 2012. Money-Back Guarantees for Taxpayers: Clawbacks and Other Enforcement Safeguards in State Economic Development Subsidy Programs. Accessed August 26, 2017.
Mattera, Philip, Tarczynska, Kasia, and LeRoy, Greg. 2013. Megadeals: The Largest Economic Development Subsidy Packages Ever Awarded by State and Local Governments in the United States. Accessed August 26, 2017.
Mattera, Philip, Tarczynska, Kasia, Mcllvaine, Leigh, Cafcas, Thomas, and LeRoy, Greg. 2012. Paying Taxes to Their Bosses: How a Growing Number of States Subsidize Companies with the Withholding Taxes of Workers. Accessed August 26, 2017.
Mauzy, Diane K. and Milne, Robert Stephen. 2002. Singapore Politics Under the People’s Action Party. New York: Routledge.
Mayhew, David. 1974. Congress: The Electoral Connection. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
McCrary, Justin. 2008. Manipulation of the Running Variable in the Regression Discontinuity Design: A Density Test. Journal of Econometrics 142: 698714.
McCulloch, Neil and J. Malesky, Edmund. 2014. What Determines the Quality of Subnational Economic Governance? Comparing Indonesia and Vietnam. In Hill, Hall (ed.), Indonesia Update: Regional Dynamics in a Decentralized Indonesia. Canberra: Australia National University, ch. 9.
McDowall, David. 1980. Interrupted Time Series Designs. In Lewis-Beck, Michael S., Bryman, Alan, and Liao, Tim Futing (eds.), The Sage Encyclopedia of Social Science Research Methods. New York: Sage.
McKelvey, Richard D. and Zavoina, William. 1975. A Statistical Model for the Analysis of Ordinal Level Dependent Variables. Journal of Mathematical Sociology 4: 103120.
Mekong Private Sector Development Facility. 2004. Good Local Governance: A Key to Economic Growth. Business Issues Bulletin 3(6) (August). Accessed August 26, 2017.
Miller, Gerald J. 2011. Government Budgeting and Financial Management in Practice. Boca Raton, FL: CRC.
Miller, Rich. 2013. Google Expands in North Carolina, Will Boost Renewables. Data Center Knowledge. (April 19). Accessed August 26, 2017.
Misra, Tanvi. 2012. How Local Sales Taxes Target the Poor and Widen the Income Gap. Atlantic. (January 20).
Missouri Department of Economic Development. 2014. Missouri Quality Jobs Program: Program Guidelines. Accessed August 26, 2017.
Missouri Department of Revenue. 2015. Tax Increment Financing in Missouri. Local TIF Local Project Information and Financial Disclosure. Accessed August 26, 2017.
Mitchell, Robert C. and Carson, Richard T.. 1989. Using Surveys to Value Public Goods: The Contingent Valuation Method. Baltimore, MD: John Hopkins University Press.
Montjoy, Robert S. and Watson, Douglas J.. 1993. Within-Region Variation in Acceptance of Council-Manager Government: Alabama and the Southeast. State and Local Government Review 25: 1927.
Moran, Theodore. 1998. Foreign Direct Investment and Development. Washington, DC: Institute for International Economics.
Moran, Theodore H. 2002. Beyond Sweatshops: Foreign Direct Investment and Globalization in Developing Countries. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.
Moran, Theodore. 2005. How Does FDI Affect Host Country Development? Using Industry Case Studies to Make Reliable Generalizations. In Moran, Theodore H., Graham, Edward M., and Blomström, Magnus (eds.), Does Foreign Direct Investment Promote Development? Washington, DC: Institute for International Development.
Moran, Theodore, Graham, Edward M., and Blomström, Magnus. 2005. Does Foreign Direct Investment Promote Development? New York: Peterson Institute for International Economics.
Morisset, Jacques and Pirnia, Neda. 1999. How Tax Policy and Incentives Affect Foreign Direct Investment. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 2509.
Morley, Hugh R. March 13, 2011. Panasonic Deal Stirs Criticism of N.J. Tax-Credit Programs.
Morton, Rebecca and Cameron, Charles. 1992. Elections and the Theory of Campaign Contributions: A Survey and Critical Analysis. Economics & Politics 4: 79108.
Mrozek, Paul. 2013. Speaker Critical of Tax Incentive Packages for Retail Projects. The Daily News. May 31. Accessed June 15, 2014.
Munshi, Neil. 2013. US States Trade Tax Offers in Battle to Host Boeing. Financial Times. (December 13).
Mutz, Diana C. and Pemantle, Robin. 2015. Standards for Experimental Research: Encouraging a Better Understanding of Experimental Methods. Journal of Experimental Political Science 2(2): 192215.
Myagkov, Mikhail, Ordeshook, Peter, and Shakin, Dimitri. 2009. The Forensics of Electoral Fraud. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Nash, Betty. 2011. When South Carolina Met BMW. Region Focus 9(2): 2022.
National Education Association. 2003. Protecting Public Education: From Tax Giveaways to Corporations: Property Tax Abatements, Tax Increment Financing, and Funding for Schools. NEA Research Working Paper. Accessed August 26, 2017.
Nelson, Kimberly. 2011. State-Level Autonomy and Municipal Government Structure: Influence on Form of Government Outcomes. American Review of Public Administration 41: 542561.
Neumark, David and Kolko, Jed. 2010. Do Enterprise Zones Create Jobs? Evidence from California’s Enterprise Zone Program. Journal of Urban Economics 68: 119.
Neumark, David, Wall, Brandon, and Zhang, Junfu. 2011. Do Small Businesses Create More Jobs? New Evidence from the National Establishment Time Series. Review of Economics and Statistics 93: 1629.
Newport, Frank. 2011. Americans Favor Jobs Plan Proposals, Including Taxing Rich. Gallup. (September 20). Accessed August 26, 2017.
Newport, Frank. 2012. Americans Focus on Jobs as Best Way to Improve US Economy. Gallup. (July 19). Accessed August 26, 2017.
New York State. 2015. Governor Cuomo Announces $181 Million to Fund Projects Generating Economic Opportunity Throughout New York State. (June 1). (Governor Cuomo press release). Accessed August 26, 2017.
New York State. 2014. Governor Cuomo Announces $709.2 Million in Economic Development Resources Awarded in Fourth Round of Regional Council Initiative. (December 11). (Governor Cuomo press release). Accessed August 26, 2017.
Dung, Nguyen Tan. 2010. Decision No. 24/2010/NĐ-CP: Regulations on Hiring, Use, and Management of State Officials. Office of the Government, Hanoi, Vietnam. (March 15).–2010-ND-CP-tuyen-dung-su-dung-quan-ly-cong-chuc-102412.aspx. (in Vietnamese). Accessed August 26, 2017.
Norton, Edward C., Wang, Hua, and Ai, Chunrong. 2004. Computing Interaction Effects and Standard Errors in Logit and Probit Models. The Stata Journal 4: 154167.
Oates, Wallace E. 1972. Fiscal Federalism. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
Oakley, Deirdre and Tsao, Hui-Shien. 2006. A New Way of Revitalizing Distressed Urban Communities? Assessing the Impact of the Federal Empowerment Zone Program. Journal of Urban Affairs 25: 443471.
Office of Missouri Governor Jay Nixon. 2012. Gov. Nixon Helps Automotive Parts Supplier Break Ground on New $42 Million Production Facility in Liberty. (June 25). Accessed August 26, 2017.
Office of Missouri Governor Jay Nixon. 2016. Building Missouri’s Future. Accessed June 14, 2016. Accessed August 26, 2017.
Oman, Charles. 2000. Policy Competition for Foreign Direct Investment: A Study of Competition Among Governments to Attract FDI. Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.
Orlando Sentinel. 2009. We Think: Incentives Will Allow State to Become Competitive in Film Game. (January 2). Accessed August 26, 2017.
Paiva, Roberto, Marques, Sergio F., Sanches, Jefferson L. B., and de Meijer, Frank. 2012. Brazil: The State VAT Competition Reaches a New Stage. Indirect Tax Briefing 5 (August): 5861.–the-state-vat-competition-reaches-a-new-stage.aspx. Accessed August 26, 2017.
Paquette, Daniel. 2017. “Trump Said He Would Save Jobs at Carrier. The Layoffs Start June 20,” The Washington Post Wong Blog (May 24) Accessed August 5, 2017.
Patrick, Carlianne Elizabeth. 2014. Does Increasing Available Non-Tax Economic Development Incentives Result in More Jobs? National Tax Journal 67: 351386.
Patton, Zach. February 8, 2007. Betting the Farm. Governing. Accessed August 26, 2017.
Persson, Torten, Roland, Gérald, and Tabellini, Guildo. 1997. Separation of Powers and Political Accountability. Quarterly Journal of Economics 112: 11631202.
Peters, Alan H. 1993. Clawbacks and the Administration of Economic Development Policy in the Midwest. Economic Development Quarterly 7(4): 328340.
Peters, Alan H. and Fisher, Peter. 2004. The Failures of Economic Development Incentives. Journal of the American Planning Association 70: 2737.
Petrocik, John R. 2009. Measuring Party Support: Leaners are Not Independents. Electoral Studies 28: 562572.
Pew Center on the States. 2012. Evidence Counts. Evaluating State Tax Incentives for Jobs and Growth. Washington, DC: The Pew Foundation.
Khai, Pham. 2000. Decision No. 71/2000/NĐ-CP: Regulations Concerning the Working Period of Bureaucrats and Civil Servants at Retirement Age. Office of the Government, Hanoi, Vietnam. (November 23).–2000-ND-CP-quy-dinh-viec-keo-dai-thoi-gian-cong-tac-cua-can-bo-cong-chuc-den-do-tuoi-nghi-huu-47037.asp. (in Vietnamese). Accessed August 26, 2017.
Khai, Pham. 2002. Official Letter 18/2002/CT-TTg: On the Implementation of the Party’s on Official Work and Legal Decisions on the Retirement of Bureaucrats and Civil Servants of the State. Prime Minister’s Office, Hanoi, Vietnam. (September 5).–2002-CT-TTg-thuc-hien-nghiem-chinh-Quyet-dinh-Dang-cong-tac-can-bo-quy-dinh-phap-luat-nghi-huu-can-bo-cong-chuc-vien-chuc-nha-nuoc-49962.aspx. (in Vietnamese). Accessed August 26, 2017.
Khai, Pham. 2003. Decision No. 27/2003/QĐ-TTg: On the Time Period Allowed for Officials, Retiring Officials, and Civil Servants Exiting Service, Hanoi, Vietnam. (February 19).–2003-QD-TTg-quy-che-bo-nhiem-bo-nhiem-lai-luan-chuyen-tu-chuc-mien-nhiem-can-bo-cong-chuc-lanh-dao/50527/noi-dung.aspx. (in Vietnamese). Accessed August 26, 2017.
Phillips, Joseph M. and Goss, Ernest P.. 1995. The Effect of State and Local Taxes on Economic Development. Southern Economic Journal 62(2): 320333.
Plümper, Thomas, Troeger, Vera E., and Winner, Hannes. 2009. Why There is No Race to the Bottom in Capital Taxation. International Studies Quarterly 53: 761786.
Pluta, Rick. 2013. Governor Hopes to Rely Less on State Incentives for Future Jobs. Michigan Radio. (January 24). Accessed August 26, 2017.
Png, Ivan. 2013. Climate Change in China: Communism is Cooler. Paper presented at the Department of Geography Seminar Series, National University of Singapore (April 19).
Polimetrix. 2005. American Public Opinion Poll, October 2005. Accessed August 26, 2017.
Poole, Keith and Romer, Thomas. 1985. Patterns of Political Election Contributions to the 1980 Campaign for the US House of Representatives. Public Choice 47: 63112.
PricewaterhouseCoopers. 2016. Vietnam Pocket Tax Book 2016. Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Accessed August 26, 2017.
Pries, Ludger. 2006. Cost Competition or Innovation Competition? Lessons from the Case of the BMW Plant Location in Leipzg, Germany. Transfer: European Review of Labour and Research 12: 1129.
Prilliman, Soledad Artiz and Meier, Kenneth J.. 2014. Taxes, Incentives, and Economic Growth: Assessing the Impact of Pro-Business Taxes on U.S. State Economies. Journal of Politics 76(2): 364379.
Rauch, James E. 1995. Bureaucracy, Infrastructure, and Economic Growth: Evidence from US Cities During the Progressive Era. The American Economic Review 85: 968979.
Reese, Laura A. 2014. The Alchemy of Local Economic Development. Economic Development Quarterly 28: 206219.
Reuter, Ora John. Forthcoming. The Origins of Dominant Parties: Building Authoritarian Institutions in Post-Soviet Russia. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Reuter, Ora John and Buckley, Noah. 2015. Why Authoritarian Elections? An Elite-Based Theory with Evidence from Russian Mayoral Elections. Paper presented at the European Association for Comparative Economic Studies – Higher School of Economics Workshop, Moscow, Russia (June 29).
Reuter, Ora John and Robertson, Graham. 2012. Subnational Appointments in Authoritarian Regimes: Evidence from Russian Gubernatorial Appointments. Journal of Politics 74: 10231037.
Reuter, Ora John and Turovsky, Rostilav. 2014. Dominant Party Rule and Legislative Leadership in Authoritarian Regimes. Party Politics 20: 663674.
Rice, Bradley Robert. 1977. Progressive Cities: The Commission Movement in America, 1901–1920. Austin: University of Texas Press.
Richter, Brian Kelleher, Samphantharak, Krislert, and Timmons, Jeffrey. 2009. Lobbying and Taxes. American Journal of Political Science 53: 893909.
Rodríguez-Pose, Andrés and Arbix, Glauco 2001. Strategies of Waste: Bidding Wars in the Brazilian Automotive Sector. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 25: 134154.
Rodrik, Dani. 1997. Has Globalization Gone Too Far? Washington, DC: Institute for International Economics.
Rudra, Nita. 2008. Globalization and the Race to the Bottom in Developing Countries. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Rundlett, Ashley and Svolik, Milan W.. 2016. “Deliver the Vote! Micromotives and Macrobehavior in Electoral Fraud,” American Political Science Review 110(1): 180197.
Ryan, Kelsey. 2014. Incentive at Heart of Wichita Debate over Sales Tax Jobs Fund. Wichita Eagle. (October 25).
Schiesl, Martin J. 1977. The Politics of Efficiency: Municipal Administration and Reform in America: 1880–1920. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Schumacher-Matos, Edward. 2011. Planet Money Misfires on Local Economic Developers. (June 22). Accessed August 26, 2017.
Schurmann, Franz. 1968. Ideology and Organization in Communist China. 2nd ed. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Schweich, Thomas A. 2012. Schweich Issues Audit of Missouri Department of Economic Development-Business and Community Service Division. Accessed August 26, 2017.
Scott, Alwyn. 2013. Boeing 777x Aircraft: Will New Jet Be Built in South Carolina? Christian Science Monitor. (October 31).
Selznick, Philip. 1952. The Organizational Weapon: A Study of Bolshevik Strategy and Tactics. Washington, DC: RAND Corporation.
Sharafutdinova, Gulnaz. 2010. Subnational Governance in Russia: How Putin Changed the Contract with His Agents and the Problems It Created for Medvedev. Publius 40: 672696.
Sharp, Elaine B. and Mullinix, Kevin. 2012. Holding Their Feet to the Fire: Explaining Variation in City Governments’ Use of Controls on Economic Development. Economic Development Quarterly 26: 138150.
Shevtsova, Liliya. 2007. Russia: Lost in Transition. Washington, DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.
Shih, Victor, Adolph, Christopher, and Liu, Mingxing. 2012. Getting Ahead in the Communist Party: Explaining the Advancement of Central Committee Members in China. American Political Science Review 106: 166187.
Sinnaeve, Adina. 2007. How the EU Manages Subsidy Competition. In Markusen, Ann (ed.), Reining in the Competition for Capital. Kalamazoo, MI: W.E. Upjohn Institute.
Slater, Dan. 2003. Iron Cage in an Iron Fist: Authoritarian Institutions and the Personalization of Power in Malaysia. Comparative Politics 36: 81101.
Slemrod, Joel. 2006. The Role of Misconceptions in Support for Regressive Tax Reform. National Tax Journal 59: 5775.
Smart, Michael and Sturm, Daniel M.. 2013. Term Limits and Electoral Accountability. Journal of Public Economics 107: 93102.
Smith, Benjamin. 2005. Life of the Party: The Origins of Regime Breakdown and Persistence Under Single-Party Rule. World Politics 57: 421451.
Smith, Richard. 2016. Did the Community Renal Tax Incentives Pirate Businesses from Other Places? Economic Development Quarterly 30: 146–61.
Snyder, James M. 1990. Campaign Contributions as Investments: The House of Representatives 1980–1986. Journal of Political Economy 98: 11951227.
Spielman, Fran. 2015. Chicago to Get $250 Million as Emanuel Winds Down 7 Downtown TIF Districts. Chicago Sun-Times. (July 12).
State of Mississippi. 2016. Edison Chouest Offshore Locating Shipbuilding Operations, TopShip, LLC, in Gulfport, Miss. (February 8). (Governor Bryant press release). Accessed August 26, 2017.
State of New Jersey. 2016. Lt. Governor Guadagno Attends Axtria Inc. Grand Opening. (February 23). (Governor Christie press release). Accessed August 26, 2017.
Story, Louis. 2012. As Companies Seek Tax Deals, Governments Pay High Price. New York Times. (December 1).
Suits, Daniel B. 1977. Measurement of Tax Progressivity. The American Economic Review 67(4): 747752.
Sullivan, Daniel Monroe. 2002. Local Governments as Risk-Takers and Risk-Reducers: An Examination of Business Subsidies and Subsidy Controls. Economic Development Quarterly 16(2): 115126.
Sullivan, Daniel Monroe and Green, Gary. 1999. Business Subsidies and Municipal Controls. Journal of Urban Affairs 21(3): 267279.
Svolik, Milan. 2012. The Politics of Authoritarian Rule. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Swank, Duane. 2002. Global Capital, Political Institutions, and Policy Change in Developed Welfare States. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Swank, Duane. 2006. Tax Policy in an Era of Internationalization: Explaining the Spread of Neoliberalism. International Organization 60: 847882.
Swank, Duane and Steimo, Sven. 2002. The New Political Economy of Taxation in Advanced Capitalist Democracies. American Journal of Political Science 46: 642655.
Szakonyi, David and Nazrullaevay, Eugenia. 2015. Policy Unfamiliarity: Political Uncertainty and Private Investment in Hybrid Regimes. Dataset. Supplied directly to authors.
Talton, Jon. 2014. Seattle Needs to Get off the Bench in the Global-Investment Game Seattle Times. (April 12).
Tavares-Lehmann, Anna-Teresa. 2016. “Types of Investment Incentives.” In Tavares-Lehman, Anna-Teresa, Sachs, Lisa, Johnson, Lise, and Toldano, Perrine (eds.), Rethinking Investment Incentives: Trends and Policy Options. New York: Columbia University Press.
Tavits, Margit. 2009. Presidents with Prime Ministers: Do Direct Elections Matter? Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Teorell, Jan, Dahlström, Carl, and Dahlberg, Stefan. 2011.The QoG Expert Survey Dataset University of Gothenburg, The Quality of Government Institute.
Terbush, Jon. 2011. Rick Perry’s Job Creation Numbers May Be Artificially Inflated. Business Insider. (October 11).
Texans for Public Justice. 2010. Phantom Jobs: The Texas Enterprise Fund’s Broken Promises. Accessed August 26, 2017.
Texans for Public Justice. 2011. Perry’s Piggybank: Texas Enterprise Fund Recipients Gave $7 Million to Rick Perry and His Republican Governors Association. (October). Accessed August 26, 2017.
TexasAhead. 2016. Type A and B Economic Development Corporations Overview. Accessed June 14, 2016. Accessed August 26, 2017.
Thai Press Reports. January 6, 2006. Government Moves on Illegal Incentives (on file with authors).
Thomas, Kenneth P. 2007. Investment Incentives: Growing Use, Uncertain Benefits, Uneven Controls. Geneva, Switzerland: Global Subsidies Initiative of the International Institute for Sustainable Development.
Thomas, Kenneth P. 2011. Investment Incentives and the Global Competition for Capital. New York: Palgrave Macmillian.
Thomas, Kenneth and Wishlade, Fiona. 2009. Locational Tournaments in the U.S. and the EU. Paper presented at the Biennial Conference of the European Studies Association, Los Angeles, CA. (2325 April). Accessed August 26, 2017.
Tiebout, Charles. 1956. A Pure Theory of Local Expenditures. The Journal of Political Economy 64: 416426.
Today’s Zaman (Turkey). May 18, 2012. Hyundai to Invest $607 Mln, Double Its Production in Turkey. Accessed August 26, 2017.
Tullock, Gordon, 1958. A General Theory of Politics. Charlottesville: University of Virginia.
Tullock, Gordon. 1972. The Purchase of Politicians. Western Economic Journal 10: 354355.
Tullock, Gordon; Rowley, Charles K. (ed.). 2005. The Selected Works of Gordon Tullock. Vol. IV, The Economics of Politics. Indianapolis, IN: Liberty Fund.
UNCTAD. 1996. Incentives and Foreign Direct Investment. Current Studies, Series A, No. 30, New York: United Nations Conference on Trade and Development.
UNCTAD. 2002. World Investment Report. New York: United Nations Conference on Trade and Development. Accessed August 26, 2017.
Utah Office of the Legislative Auditor General. 2013. A Performance Audit of Utah Science Technology and Research Initiative. Report to the Utah Legislature No. 2013–12.
Vietnam Chamber of Commerce and Industry VCCI 2015. Annual Provincial Competitiveness Index – Foreign Investment Survey (PCI-FDI). Accessed August 26, 217.
Vietnam National Assembly. 2005. Law No. 59/2005/QH11: Investment Law, Hanoi, Vietnam. (November 29).–59-2005-QH11-6916.aspx. (in Vietnamese). Accessed August 26, 2017.
Vietnam National Assembly. 2014. Law No. 67/2014/QH13: Investment Law. Hanoi, Vietnam. (November 26).–259729.aspx. (in Vietnamese). Accessed August 26, 2017.
Vlaicu, Razvan and Whalley, Alexander. 2016. Hierarchical Accountability in Government. Journal of Public Economics 134: 8599.
Volden, Craig 2002. The Politics of Competitive Federalism: A Race to the Bottom in Welfare Benefits? American Journal of Political Science 46(2): 352363.
Van Kiet, Vo. 1994. Official Letter No. 668-TTg: A Few Issues in the Implementation of Retirement Law for Civil Servants and Bureaucrats. Prime Ministers Office, Hanoi, Vietnam. (November 11). (in Vietnamese). Accessed August 26, 2017.
Long, Vu. 2005. State Hits out at Illegal Investment Incentives. Vietnam Investment Review 1 (May 23).
Tu Anh, Vu Thanh, Thai, Le Viet, and Thang, Vo Tat. 2007. Provincial Extralegal Investment Incentives in the Context of Decentralization in Viet Nam: Mutually Beneficial or a Race to the Bottom. Policy Dialogue Paper, United Nations Development Program. Accessed August 26, 2017.
Wagner, Richard E. 1976. Revenue Structure, Fiscal Illusion, and Budgetary Choice. Public Choice 25: 4561.
Walker, Robert and Greenstreet, David. 1991. The Effect of Government Incentives and Assistance on Location and Job Growth in Manufacturing. Regional Studies 25: 1330.
Wallace, Jeremy L. 2016. Juking the Stats? Authoritarian Information Problems in China. British Journal of Political Science 46: 1129.
Warne, Russell T. 2014. A Primer on Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) for Behavioral Scientists. Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation 19: 110.
Wassmer, Robert W. and Anderson, John E.. 2001. Bidding for Business: New Evidence on the Effect of Locally Offered Economic Development Incentives in a Metropolitan Area. Economic Development Quarterly 15(2): 132148.
Weber, Rachel. 2003. Equity and Entrepreneurialism: The Impact of Tax Increment Financing on School Finance. Urban Affairs Review 38: 619644.
Weeks, Jessica. 2008. Autocratic Audience Costs: Regime Type and Signaling Resolve. International Organization 62: 3564.
Weeks, Jessica. 2014. Dictators at War and Peace. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Weingast, Barry R. and Moran, Mark J.. 1983. Bureaucratic Discretion or Congressional Control? Regulatory Policymaking by the Federal Trade Commission. Journal of Political Economy 91: 765800.
Wells, Louis T., Allen, Nancy J., Morisset, Jacques, and Pirnia, Neda. 2001. Using Tax Incentives to Compete for Foreign Investment: Are They Worth the Costs? Foreign Investment Advisory Service, Occasional Paper No. 15. Accessed August 26, 2017.
Wichita Eagle. 2011. Applebee’s to move headquarters, 390 jobs to Kansas City, Mo. from Lenexa. Wichita Eagle. (May 27). Accessed August 26, 2017.
Wildasin, David E. 1989. Interjurisdictional Capital Mobility: Fiscal Externality and a Corrective Subsidy. Journal of Urban Economics 25: 193212.
Wilson, John Douglas. 1986. A theory of interregional tax competition. Journal of Urban Economics 19: 296315.
Wilson, John Douglas and Wildasin, David E.. 2004. Capital Tax Competition: Bane or Boon? Journal of Public Economics 88: 10651091.
Wishlade, Fiona. 2008. The Control of Regional Aid to Large Investment Projects: Workable Compromise or Arbitrary Restraint? European State Aid Law Quarterly 3: 495506.
Wolfers, Justin. 2002. Are Voters Rational? Evidence from Gubernatorial Elections. Working Paper No. 1730, Graduate School of Business, Stanford University.
Wright, Joseph. 2008. Do Authoritarian Institutions Constrain? How Legislatures Affect Economic Growth and Investment. American Journal of Political Science 52: 322343.
Xu, Chenggang. 2011. The Fundamental Institutions of China’s Reforms and Development. Journal of Economic Literature 49: 10761151.
Zee, Howell H., Stotsky, Janet G., and Ley, Eduardo. 2002. Tax Incentives for Business Investment: A Primary for Policy Makers in Developing Countries. World Development 30: 14971516.
Zheng, Yu. 2012. When World’s Workshop Meets Its Office: Comparative Advantage, Institutions, and Foreign Investment in China and India. East Asia Institute Fellows Program Working Paper Series No. 34, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
Zheng, Yu. 2014. Governance and Foreign Investment in China, India, and Taiwan: Credibility, Flexibility, and International Business. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Zodrow, George R. and Mieszkowski, Peter. 1986. Pigou, Tiebout, Property Taxation, and the Underprovision of Public Goods. Journal of Urban Economics 19: 356370.


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Book summary page views

Total views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between #date#. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.