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Religion and State in Syria
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    Dragovic, Denis 2017. The Role of Religion in Rebuilding the State of Syria: A Case Study of Sunni Islam. The Review of Faith & International Affairs, Vol. 15, Issue. 3, p. 44.

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    Religion and State in Syria
    • Online ISBN: 9781139207720
    • Book DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139207720
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Book description

While Syria has been dominated since the 1960s by a determinedly secular regime, the 2011 uprising has raised many questions about the role of Islam in the country's politics. This book demonstrates that with the eradication of the Muslim Brothers after the failed insurrection of 1982, Sunni men of religion became the only voice of the Islamic trend in the country. Through educational programs, charitable foundations and their deft handling of tribal and merchant networks, they took advantage of popular disaffection with secular ideologies to increase their influence over society. In recent years, with the Islamic resurgence, the Alawi-dominated Ba'thist regime was compelled to bring the clergy into the political fold. This relationship was exposed in 2011 by the division of the Sunni clergy between regime supporters, bystanders and opponents. This book affords a new perspective on Syrian society as it stands at the crossroads of political and social fragmentation.

Reviews

'Empirically rich and with penetrating analysis, Pierret's book provides an alternative history of modern Syrian politics, quite different from those focusing on the Ba'th regime. It challenges simplistic views about Syrian Islam and its relation to the state, showing the great complexity both of the Islamic sphere in the country and of the relations by which both the Ba'th regime and the variegated ulama and Islamists have sought to use or oppose the other.'

Raymond Hinnebusch - Centre for Syrian Studies, University of St Andrews

'Thomas Pierret's pathbreaking study takes us into the networks and mindset of Syria' sunni religious leaders, a unique analysis of the fabric of the Syrian upheaval, that holds many keys for the reading of the future.'

Gilles Kepel - Sciences Po Paris

'This recent study of Thomas Pierret is a welcome addition to the existing literature on the subject, and is a comprehensive study of Syria’s little known religious scene … Pierrett’s book is a thought provoking, complex and engaging work. It is well written and includes useful explanations that help the reader navigate through a complex and very condensed history. The author’s arguments are also enriched by an impressive list of references.'

Abderrahman Zouhir Source: Middle East Media and Book Reviews

'This remarkably informative and timely book analyzes the struggle of the high hereditary ulama (clergy) in Syria … Recommended. Graduate and research collections.'

R. W. Olson Source: Choice

'… the author offers … a solid analysis of the networks, the ideas, and the activities of the Sunni clerics in modern Syria. I highly recommend the book to students and scholars of political science and sociology of religion, especially those interested in modern Islam.'

Abdessamad Belhaj Source: Journal of Church and State

'Throws new light on the Sunni establishment in Syria.'

Source: The Times Literary Supplement

'… highlights the regime’s overarching concern with security versus institution building.'

Elie Chalala Source: Al Jadid: A Review and Record of Arab Culture and Arts

'… Thomas Pierret has done the world a service with Religion and State in Syria: The Sunni Ulama from Coup to Revolution. The book portrays a holistic analysis of condensed historical events from 1920 to 2012 … The book will be of interest to both academics and a more general readership.'

Ahmed Sajjad Source: Middle East Policy

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Stenberg, Leif ‘Young, Male and Sufi Muslim in the City of Damascus’‚ in Youth and Youth Culture in the Contemporary Middle East, ed. Simonsen, Jørgen Bæck (Aarhus: Aarhus University Press, 2005), 68–91.
Sunayama, Sonoko. Syria and Saudi Arabia: Collaboration and Conflicts in the Oil Era (London: I. B. Tauris, 2007).
Szanto, Edith. ‘Inter-Religious Dialogue in Syria: Politics, Ethics and Miscommunication’, Political Theology 9, no. 1 (2008), 93–113.
Talhamy, Yvette. ‘The Fatwas and the Nusayri/Alawis of Syria’‚ Middle Eastern Studies 46, no. 2 (2010), 175–94.
Tapiéro, Norbert. Les Idées réformistes d’al-Kawakibi, 1265–1320=1849–1902: contribution à l’étude de l’Islam moderne (Paris: Les Editions Arabes, 1956).
Teitelbaum, Joshua. ‘The Muslim Brotherhood and the “Struggle for Syria”, 1947–1958: Between Accommodation and Ideology’, Middle Eastern Studies 40, no. 3 (2004), 134–58.
Thompson, Elizabeth. Colonial Citizens: Republican Rights, Paternal Privilege, and Gender in French Syria and Lebanon (New York: Columbia University Press, 2000).
Torrey, Gordon. Syrian Politics and the Military 1945–1958 (Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1964).
Tripp, Charles. Islam and the Moral Economy: The Challenge of Capitalism (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006).
Valter, Stéphane. La Construction nationale syrienne (Paris: CNRS éditions, 2002).
Volpi, Frédéric and Turner, Bryan (eds.). ‘Authority and Islam’, Theory, Cultures & Society 24, no. 2 (2007), 1–240.
Weber, Max. Economy and Society: An Outline of Interpretive Sociology (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1978).
Wedeen, Lisa. Ambiguities of Domination: Politics, Rhetoric, and Symbols in Contemporary Syria (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999).
Weismann, Itzchak. ‘Democratic Fundamentalism? The Practice and Discourse of the Muslim Brothers Movement in Syria’, The Muslim World 100 (2010), 1–16.
Weismann, ItzchakThe Forgotten Shaykh: ‘Isa al-Kurdi and the Transformation of the Naqshbandi–Khalidi Order in Twentieth Century Syria’, Die Welt des Islams 43 (2003), 273–93.
Weismann, ItzchakThe Hidden Hand: The Khalidiyya and the Orthodox–Fundamentalist Nexus in Aleppo’, Journal of the History of Sufism 5 (2007), 41–58.
Weismann, ItzchakThe Invention of a Populist Islamic Leader: Badr al-Din al-Hasani, the Religious Educational Movement and the Great Syrian Revolt’, Arabica 52, no. 1 (2005), 109–39.
Weismann, ItzchakThe Politics of Popular Religion: Sufis, Salafis, and Muslim Brothers in 20th-Century Hamah’, International Journal of Middle East Studies 37, no. 1 (2005), 39–58.
Weismann, ItzchakSa‘id Hawwa: The Making of a Radical Muslim Thinker in Modern Syria’, Middle Eastern Studies 29, no. 4 (1993), 601–23.
Weismann, Itzchak ‘The Shadhiliyya–Darqawiyya in the Arab East’‚ in La Shadhiliyya: une voie soufie dans le monde, ed. Geoffroy, Éric (Paris: Maisonneuve et Larose, 2004), 255–70.
Weismann, ItzchakSufi Brotherhoods in Syria and Israel: A Comparative Overview’, History of Religions 43 (2004), 303–18.
Weismann, Itzchak ‘Sufi Fundamentalism between India and the Middle East’, in Sufism and the ‘Modern’, ed. Bruinessen, Martin van and Howell, Julia (London: I. B. Tauris, 2007), 115–28.
Weismann, ItzchakTaste of Modernity: Sufism, Salafiyya, and Arabism in Late Ottoman Damascus (Leiden: Brill, 2001).
White, Benjamin Thomas. The Emergence of Minorities in the Middle East: The Politics of Community in French Mandate Syria (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2011).
Zaman, Muhammad Qasim. The Ulama in Contemporary Islam: Custodians of Change (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2002).
Zarcone, Thierry. ‘The Transformation of the Sufi Orders (Tarikat) in the Turkish Republic and the Question of Crypto-Sufism’, in Cultural Horizons: A Festschrift in Honor of Talat S. Halman, ed. Warner, Jayne (New York: Syracuse University Press, 2001), 198–209.
Zarcone, ThierryLa Turquie moderne et l’islam (Paris: Flammarion, 2004).
Zeghal, Malika. Gardiens de l’islam: les oulémas d’Al Azhar dans l’Egypte contemporaine (Paris: Presses de la Fondation nationale des sciences politiques, 1996).
Zisser, Eyal. ‘Syria, the Ba‘th Regime and the Islamic Movement: Stepping on a New Path?’, The Muslim World, no. 95 (2005), 43–65.
Publications in Arabic
Abaza, Nizar. al-Shaykh Ali al-Daqr: Rajul ahya Allah bihi al-umma [Sheikh Ali al-Daqr: the man through whom God reawakened the umma] (Damascus: Dar al-Fikr, 2010).
Abaza, Nizar‘Ulama’ Dimashq wa a‘yanuha fi al-qarn al-khamis ‘ashar al-hijri (1401–1425) [The ulama and noteworthy people of Damascus in the fifteenth century AH (1980–2004)] (Damascus: Dar al-Fikr, 2007).
Abaza, Nizar and al-Hafiz, Muti ‘. Tarikh ‘ulama’ Dimashq fi al-qarn al-rabi‘ ‘ashar al-hijri [History of the ulama of Damascus in the fourteenth century AH] (Damascus: Dar al-Fikr, 1986–91).
‘Abd al-Hakim, ‘Umar (aka Abu Mus‘ab al-Suri). al-Thawra al-islamiyya al-jihadiyya fi Suriyya [The jihadi Islamic revolution in Syria] (n.p.: n.p., n.d.).
‘Abduh, Samir. Hadatha dhat marra fi Suriyya: dirasa li-l-siyasat al-suriyya–al-‘arabiyya fi ‘ahday al-wahda wa-l-infisal 1958–1963 [It happened in Syria: a study of Syrian–Arab politics during the union and the secession] (Damascus: Dar ‘Ala’ al-Din, 1998).
‘Absu, Fayyad. ‘al-Madrasa al-Sha‘baniyya’ (, 2 August 2008).
al-Ahmad, Khalid. ‘Mi’dhana wa dabbaba’ [A minaret and a tank] (, 21 April 2007).
‘Akkam, Mahmud. Min maqulat al-fikr al-islami [On the philosophical categories of Islamic thought] (Aleppo: Fussilat, 2002).
al-‘Alawna, Ahmad. Dhayl al-a‘lam [Continuation of the great men] (Jeddah: Dar al-Manara, 1998).
al-Albani, Nasir al-Din. al-Radd ‘ala al-Ta‘aqqub al-hathith li-l-Shaykh Abdullah al-Habashi [Refutation of The Winged Monitoring of Sheikh Abdullah al-Habashi] (Damascus: al-Tamaddun al-Islami, 1958).
al-‘Ali, Ibrahim Muhammad. Muhammad Nasir al-Din al-Albani: muhaddith al-‘asr wa nasir al-sunna [Muhammad Nasir al-Din al-Albani: hadith scholar of the century and defender of the Sunna] (Damascus: Dar al-Qalam, 2001).
al-‘Ammar, Muhammad. ‘Jawdat Sa‘id: kama afhamuhu wa kayfa ‘araftuhu’ [Jawdat Sa‘id: how I understand him and how I met him], in Buhuth wa maqalat muhaddat ilayhi [Festschrift in honour of Jawdat Sa‘id] (Damascus: Dar al-Fikr, 2006), 47–71.
‘Arrabi, Nizar. Murafa‘at wa ahkam [Pleadings and judgments] (Damascus: Dar Tlass, 2007).
As‘id, Muhammad Shakir. al-Barlaman al-suri fi tatawwurihi al-tarikhi [The Syrian parliament in its historical development] (Damascus: al-Mada, 2002).
al-Atasi, Ali. ‘al-Faqih wa-l-sultan: Shaykh al-Buti namudhijan’ [The faqih and the sultan: the example of Sheikh al-Buti] (, 19 November 2004).
al-Atasi, Basil. Tarikh al-usra al-atasiyya wa tarajim mashahiriha [History of the al-Atasi family and the biographies of its famous men]. Unpublished document, undated.
‘Ayntabi, Fawzi and ‘Uthman, Najwa. Halab fi mi‘a ‘am [Aleppo through one hundred centuries] (Aleppo: Ma‘had al-Turath al-‘Ilmi al-‘Arabi, 1993).
al-‘Ayti, Yasir. Li-‘uyunik ya Quds [For your eyes, O Jerusalem] (Beirut: al-Maktab al-Islami, 2001).
Barut, Jamal. ‘Suriyya: usul wa ta’arrujat al-sira‘ bayn al-madrasatayn at-taqlidiyya wa al-radikaliyya’ [Syria: origins and twists and turns of the conflict between the traditional and radical schools], in al-Ahzab wa-l-harakat wal-jama‘at al-islamiyya [Islamic parties, movements, and groups], ed. Barut, Jamal and Darraj, Faysal (Damascus: Arab Center for Strategic Studies, 2000), 255–324.
al-Ba‘th al-shi‘i fi Suriyya 1919–2007 [The Shiite renaissance in Syria] (n.p.: n.p., 2008).
Bayan mu’tamar al-‘ulama’ al-awwal al-mun‘aqad bi-Dimashq 11–13 rajab 1357 [Communiqué of the First Congress of Ulama Held in Damascus, 6–8 September 1938] (, 1 May 2006).
al-Bayanuni, ‘Abd al-Majid. Ahmad ‘Izz al-Din al-Bayanuni: al-da‘iya al-murabbi (1913–1975) [Ahmad ‘Izz al-Din al-Bayanuni: the preacher and educator (1913–1975)] (Damascus: Dar al-Qalam, 2006).
al-Bayanuni, Ahmad ‘Izz al-Din. al-Iman bi-l-llah [Faith in God] (Cairo: n.p., 1987).
al-Bayanuni, Ali Sadr al-Din. ‘Ziyara khassa’, al-Jazira, 26 November 2005.
‘Bayna sufiyya Dimashq wa sufiyya Dar al-Mustafa bi-Tarim, wa lu‘bat al-salibiyyin al-judud bi-tawatu’ wa qasd ma‘a al-mutasawwifa’ [Between the Sufis of Damascus and the Sufis of Dar al-Mustafa in Tarim, and the game of the new Crusaders with the voluntary complicity of the Sufis] ( [2003])
al-Bayruti, Mahmud. al-Shaykh Muhammad Badr al-Din al-Hasani wa athr majalisihi fi al-mujtama‘ al-dimashqi [Sheikh Muhammad Badr al-Din al-Hasani and the influence of his teachings on Damascene society] (Damascus: Dar al-Bayruti, 2009).
al-Buti, Sa‘id Ramadan. al-‘Aqidat al-islamiyya wa-l-fikr al-mu‘asir [The Islamic creed and contemporary thought] (Damascus: University of Damascus, 1982).
al-Buti, Sa‘id Ramadan ‘al-Asha‘ira wa-l-maturidiyya’ [The Ash‘aris and the Maturidis] (, 3 December 2004).
al-Buti, Sa‘id RamadanFiqh al-sira al-nabawiyya [Fiqh of the life of the Prophet] (Damascus: Dar al-Ghazali, 1968).
al-Buti, Sa‘id RamadanHadha ma qultuhu amama ba‘d al-ru’asa’ wa-l-muluk [Here is what I said in front of some presidents and kings] (Damascus: Dar al-Farabi, 2002).
al-Buti, Sa‘id RamadanHadha walidi: al-qissa al-kamila li-hayat al-shaykh Mulla Ramadan al-Buti [This was my father: the full story of the life of Sheikh Mulla Ramadan al-Buti] (Damascus: Dar al-Fikr, 1995).
al-Buti, Sa‘id RamadanHakadha nasha’at al-qawmiyya’ [This is how nationalism was born], Hadarat al-Islam 3, no. 6 (1963); reprinted in Shawqi Abu Khalil: buhuth wa maqalat muhaddat ilayhi [Festschrift in honour of Shawqi Abu Khalil] (Damascus: Dar al-Fikr, 2004), 169−82.
al-Buti, Sa‘id RamadanIla kull fatat tu’min bi-llah [To every girl who believes in God] (Damascus: Dar al-Farabi, 1973).
al-Buti, Sa‘id Ramadanal-Jihad fi al-islam: kayfa nafhamuhu wa kayfa numarisuhu [Jihad in Islam: How we understand it, how we practise it] (Damascus: Dar al-Fikr, 1993).
al-Buti, Sa‘id Ramadan ‘Kayfa sarat ma‘rifati li-l-ustadh al-duktur Wahba al-Zuhayli’ [How I met Dr Wahba al-Zuhayli]’, in Wahba al-Zuhayli buhuth wa maqalat muhaddat ilayhi [Festschrift in honour of Wahba al-Zuhayli] (Damascus: Dar al-Fikr, 2003), 24−43.
al-Buti, Sa‘id RamadanKubra al-yaqiniyyat al-kawniyya [The great convictions of the universe] (Damascus: Dar al-Fikr, 1969).
al-Buti, Sa‘id Ramadanal-La madhhabiyya: akhtar bid‘a tuhaddid al-shari‘a al-islamiyya [Anti-madhhabism: the dangers of an innovation that threatens sharia] (Damascus: Dar al-Fikr, 1970).
al-Buti, Sa‘id Ramadan ‘Laysat al-mushkila ghiyab al-hadatha innama al-mushkila ghiyab al-hawiya’ [The problem is not the absence of modernity but that of identity] (, 8 August 2008)
al-Buti, Sa‘id RamadanMin al-fikr wa-l-qalb: fusul al-naqd fi al-‘ulum wa-l-ijtima‘ wa-l-adab [From thought and heart: chapters of critique in the realms of sciences, society, and literature] (Damascus: Dar al-Farabi, 1972).
al-Buti, Sa‘id RamadanNaqd awham al-jadaliyya al-maddiyya al-diyaliktikiyya [Refutation of the illusions of dialectical materialism] (Damascus: Dar al-Fikr, 1986).
al-Buti, Sa‘id Ramadan ‘Qadiyat al-Hariri wa ‘alaqatuha bi-mukhattat al-qada’ ‘ala al-Islam’ [The Hariri affair and its relation to the plan to destroy Islam] (, December 2005).
al-Buti, Sa‘id Ramadanal-Salafiyya; marhala zamaniyya mubaraka la madhhab islami [Salafiyya: a blessed historical period, not a school of fiqh] (Damascus: Dar al-Fikr, 1991).
al-Buti, Sa‘id RamadanShakhsiyyat istawqafatni [People who attracted my attention] (Damascus: Dar al-Fikr, 1999).
al-Dawalibi, Ma‘ruf. Mudhakkirat [Memoirs] (Riyadh: ‘Ubaykan, 2006).
Habannaka, ‘Abd al-Rahman. al-Walid al-da‘iya al-murabbi al-shaykh Hasan Habannaka al-Midani [My father the preacher and educator Sheikh Hasan Habannaka al-Midani] (Jeddah: Dar al-Bashir, 2002).
Habash, Muhammad. Alf yawm fi majlis al-sha‘b [A thousand days in the People’s Council] (Damascus: Nadwat al-‘Ulama’, 2007).
Habash, Muhammadal-Shaykh Ahmad Kaftaru wa manhajuhu fi al-tajdid wa-l-islah [Sheikh Ahmad Kaftaru and his method for renewal and reform] (Damascus: Dar Abu al-Nur, 1996).
Haddad, Jibril. Tuhfat al-labib bi-nusrat al-Habib Ali al-Jifri [The true substance in the defence of al-Habib Ali al-Jifri] (Damascus: Dar Tayyibat al-Gharra’, 2007).
Hadid, Marwan. ‘Nida’ ila al-‘ulama’ al-‘amilin wa-l-muslimin al-mukhlisin wa-l-jama‘at al-islamiyya’ [Call to the active scholars, the sincere Muslims, and the Islamic groups] ( [written in 1975]).
al-Hafiz, Muti‘. Dar al-Hadith al-Ashrafiyya bi-Dimashq: dirasa tarikhiyya wa tawthiqiyya [Dar al-Hadith al-Ashrafiyya in Damascus: a historical and documentary study] (Damascus: Dar al-Fikr, 2001).
al-Hajj Ibrahim, ‘Abd al-Rahman. ‘al-Shaykh ‘Abd al-Qadir al-Arna’ut’ (, 20 March 2002).
al-Hakami al-Fifi, Yahya. ‘Muhammad Krayyim Rajih’ (, 10 July 2007).
al-Hamid, Muhammad. [On Mustafa al-Siba‘i’s Socialism of Islam], in Hadarat al-Islam 3, no. 10 (1963), 1128–31.
Hassun, Adib. Ala’ al-rahman ‘ala al-‘arif al-Nabhan [Benedictions of the merciful upon the knower of God al-Nabhan] (Aleppo: n.p., n.d.).
Hawwa, Sa‘id. Hadhihi tajribati … wa hadhihi chahadati [This is my experience … this is my testimony] (Cairo: Maktaba Wahba, 1987).
al-Humsi, Hasan. al-Du‘at wa-l-da‘wa al-islamiyya al-mu‘asira al-muntaliqa min masajid Dimashq [The preachers and contemporary Islamic call stemming from the mosques of Damascus] (Damascus: Mu’assasat al-Iman, 1991).
al-Humsi, Lina. al-Muftun al-‘ammun fi Suriyya [The Grand Muftis in Syria] (Damascus: Dar al-‘Asma’, 1996).
Ibrahim, al-Tahir. ‘al-Jama‘at al-islamiyya bayn al-ihtiwa’ wa-l-ilgha’ [Islamic groups between restraint and self-effacement], Majallat al-‘Asr, 28 June 2007.
‘Itr, Nur al-Din. Safahat min hayat al-imam shaykh al-islam al-shaykh Abdullah Siraj al-Din al-Hussayni [Pages from the life of the Imam Sheikh of Islam, Sheikh Abdullah Siraj al-Din al-Husseini] (Aleppo: Dar al-Ru’ya, 2003).
Jam‘iyyat al-muhaddith al-akbar al-shaykh Badr al-Din al-Hasani [Association of the supreme hadith scholar Sheikh Badr al-Din al-Hasani] (Damascus: n.p., 2007).
al-Janabi, Abdullah. ‘al-Shaykh Najib Salim’ (, 7 April 2007).
al-Jarrah, ‘A’ida. ‘Abd al-Rahman Hasan Habannaka al-Midani, al-‘alim al-mufakkir al-mufassir: zawji kama ‘araftuhu [‘Abd al-Rahman Hasan Habannaka al-Midani, the scholar, thinker, and exegete: my husband as I have known him] (Damascus: Dar al-Qalam, 2001).
al-Jibali, Mundhir. ‘al-Da‘iya al-shaykh Shawkat al-Jibali’ [The sheikh and preacher Shawkat al-Jibali] (, 19 April 2008).
Ka‘ayyid, Ahmad Taysir. Mawsu‘at al-du‘at wa-l-a’imma wa-l-khutaba‘ fi Halab (al-‘asr al-hadith) [Encylopaedia of the imams and preachers in Aleppo (the modern period)] (Aleppo: Dar al-Qalam al-‘Arabi, 2008).
Kallas, Ahmad. ‘Tarjamat al-‘allamat al-murabbi al-zahid al-faqih al-shaykh Muhammad Adib Kallas’ [Biography of the savant, educator, ascetic, and faqih, Sheikh Muhammad Adib Kallas] (, 2007).
Katibi, ‘Adnan. al-Ta‘lim al-shar‘i wa madarisuhu fi Halab fi al-qarn al-rabi‘ ‘ashar al-hijri [Religious teaching and its schools in Aleppo in the fourteenth century AH] (Aleppo: n.p., 2006).
Katibi, ‘AdnanTarikh al-ifta’ fi Halab al-shahba’ [History of ifta’ in Aleppo-the-Grey] (Aleppo: Maktabat al-Turath, n.d.).
Katibi, ‘Adnan‘Ulama’ min Halab fi al-qarn al-rabi‘ ‘ashar [Ulama from Aleppo in the fourteenth century AH] (Aleppo: n.p., 2008).
al-Khatib, Ahmad Mu‘adh. ‘al-Imam al-mazlum, nasir al-sunna al-‘allama ‘Abd al-Qadir al-Arna’ut’ [The oppressed imam, the defender of Sunna, the savant ‘Abd al-Qadir al-Arna’ut] (, 3 November 2006).
al-Khatib, Ahmad Mu‘adh ‘Musawwada Ittihad al-‘Ulama’ wa-l-A’imma wa-l-Du‘at’ [Draft project for the Union of Ulama, Imams and Preachers] (, 8 May 2006).
al-Kittani, ‘Abd al-Qadir. ‘al-‘Allamat al-imam al-mujahid al-sayyid Makki al-Kittani’ [The savant, imam, combatant, and descendant of the Prophet Makki al-Kittani], al-Thawra, 16 March 2007.
al-Majmu‘a al-ihsa’iyya [Statistical yearbook] (Damascus: Central Bureau of Statistics, 1962–78).
Makki, Majd. ‘Hussein Khattab: shaykh qurra’ al-Sham’ [Hussein Khattab: sheikh of the Quran readers of Damascus] (, 10 July 2007).
Makki, Majd ‘al-Shaykh Ahmad Raf’at Ikbazli Zadeh’ (, 22 January 2011).
Makki, Majd ‘al-Shaykh Muhammad al-Hajjar’ (, 25 January 2007).
Makki, Majd ‘al-Shaykh Muhammad Raghib al-Tabbakh’ (, 24 July 2007).
Makki al-Hasani, Khaldun. Ila ayn? Ayyuha al-Habib al-Jifri [How far, O al-Habib al-Jifri?] (Damascus: al-Bayyina, 2007).
Mardini, Raghda’. ‘Rahil al-‘allama al-mawsu‘a al-duktur ‘Abd al-Karim al-Yafi’ [Death of the eminent scholar, the encyclopaedia Dr ‘Abd al-Karim al-Yafi] (, 18 October 2008).
Mastu, Muhi al-Din Dib. Mustafa Sa‘id al-Khann: al-‘alim al-murabbi wa shaykh ‘ilm usul al-fiqh fi bilad al-Sham [Mustafa Sa‘id al-Khann: the scholar, educator, and sheikh of usul al-fiqh in Bilad al-Sham] (Damascus: Dar al-Qalam, 2001).
Mubayyid, ‘Amir Rashid. Mi’a awa’il min Halab [One hundred prominent figures from Aleppo] (Aleppo: Dar al-Rifa‘i, 2004).
al-Mujahid al-samit, shaykh Muhammad al-Ashmar: siratuhu wa jihaduhu [The silent combatant, Sheikh Muhammad al-Ashmar: his life and jihad] ([Beirut]: [al-Maktab al-Islami], 2002).
Mujamma‘ al-shaykh Ahmad Kaftaru [Sheikh Ahmad Kaftaru Academy] (Damascus: Kaftaru Academy, 2006).
al-Mun‘im al-Badawi, Usama Muhammad.al-Nafahat al-rabbaniyya fi hayat al-qutb sayyidi al-shaykh Yahya al-Sabbagh al-dimashqi [Divine inspirations in the life of the Pole, my master Sheikh Yahya al-Sabbagh the Damascene] (Damascus: n.p., n.d.).
al-Nabhan, Faruq. al-Shaykh Muhammad al-Nabhan: shakhsiyyatuhu – fikruhu – atharuhu [Sheikh Muhammad al-Nabhan: his personality – his thought – his influence] (Aleppo: Dar al-Turath, 2004).
al-Nabulsi, Ratib. Mawsu‘at al-i‘jaz al-‘ilmi fi al-qur’an wa-l-sunna [The encyclopaedia of scientific miracle in the Quran and Sunna] (Damascus: Dar al-Maktabi, 2007).
Nadaf, ‘Imadal-Latif, ‘Abd. al-Shaykh Ahmad Kaftaru yatahaddath [Sheikh Ahmad Kaftaru speaks] (Damascus: Dar al-Rachid, 2005).
al-Nadwi, Abu al-Hassan Ali. Mudhakkirat sa’ih fi al-sharq al-‘arabi [Memories of a tourist in the Arab East] (Beirut: Dar Ibn Kathir, 1975).
Qanun jam‘iyyat arbab al-sha‘a’ir al-diniyya al-asasi [Statutes of the Association of Officers of Religious Rites] (Damascus: Dar al-Taraqqi, 1950).
al-Qudmani, Muhammad Yasir. Muhammad Fawzi Fayd Allah (Damascus: Dar al-Qalam, 2002).
al-Rashid, ‘Imad al-Din. al-Muwatana fi al-mafhum al-islami [Citizenship in its Islamic conception] (Damascus: Nahwa al-Qimma, 2005).
al-Rifa‘i, ‘Abd al-Karim. al-Awrad al-mukhtara [Selected litanies] (Damascus: al-Ghazali, 1992).
al-Rifa‘i, ‘Abd al-Karimal-Ma‘rifa fi bayan ‘aqidat al-muslim [Knowledge in the statement of the doctrine of the Muslim] (Damascus: al-Ghazali, 1990).
al-Rifa‘i, Basil. ‘al-Jam‘iyyat al-diniyya fi Suriyya: al-Hidayat al-Islamiyya’ [Religious associations in Syria: al-Hidayat al-Islamiyya] (, 7 June 2008).
al-Rifa‘i, Sariya. ‘Min fiqh al-da‘wa’ [From fiqh of da‘wa] (, 10 May 2006).
al-Rifa‘i, Sariya ‘al-Qidwat al-rabbaniyya asas al-da‘wat al-islamiyya’ [The rabbanian model is the foundation of da‘wa] (, 5 April 2008).
al-Rifa‘i, SariyaRisala min Nahj al-Islam ila al-Thawra’ [Message from Nahj al-Islam to al-Thawra], Nahj al-Islam, no. 107 (2007), 20–2.
al-Rifa‘i, Usama. ‘Ba‘d al-masa’il allati hiya mathar jadal ma‘a al-ikhwa al-salafiyyin’ [Some questions that are a source of controversy with our Salafi brothers] (, 4 November 2008).
al-Rifa‘i, Usama ‘al-Bid‘a bayn al-salafiyya wa ahl al-sunna wa-l-jama‘a’ [Innovation between the Salafis and the Sunnis](, 27 August 2008).
al-Rifa‘i, Usama ‘Durus min hayat al-shaykh ‘Abd al-Karim al-Rifa‘i’ [Lessons from the life of Sheikh ‘Abd al-Karim al-Rifa‘i] (, 17 April 2008).
al-Rifa‘i, Usama ‘al-Salafiyya wa ahl al-sunna wa-l-jama‘a’ [The Salafis and the Sunnis] (, 4 June 2008).
al-Rifa‘i, Yusuf. Nasiha li-ikhwanina ‘ulama’ Najd [Advice to our brothers the ulama of Najd] (Kuwait: Dar Iqra’, 2000).
al-Sabbagh, Muhammad Lutfi. ‘Muhammad Amin al-Masri’, Majallat al-Jami‘at al-Islamiyya fi al-Madinat al-Munawwara 39 (n.d.), 17.
Sa‘d al-Din, ‘Adnan. al-Ikhwan al-muslimun fi Suriyya: ma qabla al-ta’sis wa hatta ‘am 1954 [The Muslim Brothers in Syria: from before the foundation to 1954] (Amman: Dar‘Ammar, 2006).
Sa‘id, Jawdat and Bennabi, Malik. Foreword, ‘Hatta yughayyiru ma bi-anfusihim’: bahth fi sunan taghyiir al-nafs wa-l-mujtama’ [‘As long as they do not change themselves’: research on the laws of change of the soul and society] (Beirut: Matba‘at al-‘Ilm, 1972).
al-Sali‘i, Sulayman. ‘al-Shaykh al-‘allamat al-shahid Mahmud ‘Abd al-Rahman al-Shuqfa’ [The savant and martyr Sheikh Mahmud ‘Abd al-Rahman al-Shuqfa] (, 11 October 2007).
Salim, Zuhayr. ‘Safha min tarikh al-ikhwan al-muslimin fi Suriyya’ [A page from the history of the Muslim Brothers in Syria] (, 19 September 2010).
al-Sawwaf, Sharif. Mu‘jam al-usar wa-l-a‘lam al-dimashqiyya [Dictionary of Damascene families and notables] (Damascus: Bayt al-Hikma, 2004).
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Interviews
Mahmud ‘Akkam, Aleppo, 20 November 2006
‘Isam al-‘Attar, Aachen, 29 September 2007.
‘Adil ‘Aziza, Aleppo, 21 November 2006
Abu al-Fath al-Bayanuni, Aleppo, 20 April 2008
Ali Sadr al-Din al-Bayanuni, London, 15 April 2009
Hisham al-Burhani, Damascus, 4 August 2007
Mundhir al-Daqr, Damascus, 7 February 2007
Husam al-Din al-Farfur, Damascus, 28 June 2006
Muhammad Habash, Damascus, 9 December 2006
Muhammad al-Hawari, Aachen, 11 August 2008
Mahmud Abu al-Huda al-Husseini, Aleppo, 9 March 2006
‘Abd al-Rahman al-Hajj Ibrahim, Damascus, 2005–7
‘Abd al-Hadi al-Kharsa, Damascus, 15 April 2007
Ahmad Mu‘adh al-Khatib, Damascus, 23 April 2008
‘Abd al-Qadir al-Kittani, Damascus, 12 February 2007
Haytham al-Malih, Damascus, 13 May 2008
Qasim al-Nuri, Damascus, 29 November 2006
‘Imad al-Din al-Rashid, Damascus, 29 July 2007
‘Ammar al-Rifa‘i, Damascus, 17 June 2007
Usama al-Rifa‘i, Damascus, 5 March 2007
Zuhayr al-Shawish, Beirut, 23 February 2006
Nadim al-Shihabi, Aleppo, 22 November 2006
Ahmad Shmays, Damascus, 5 May 2008
Muhammad Khayr al-Tarshan, Damascus, 13 April 2008
Suleiman al-Zabibi, Damascus, 5 July 2007
‘Abd al-Qadir al-Za‘tari, Aleppo, 9 November 2005
Radwan Ziadeh, New York, 12 March 2010
Muhammad al-Zu‘bi, Damascus, 8 May 2007

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