Skip to main content
×
Home
The Cambridge History of Christianity
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 2
  • Cited by
    This book has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Casiday, Augustine 2013. The Wiley-Blackwell Companion to Christian Mysticism.


    Casiday, Augustine 2012. The Wiley-Blackwell Companion to Christian Mysticism.


    ×
  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Recommend this book

    Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

    The Cambridge History of Christianity
    • Online ISBN: 9781139054133
    • Book DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521812443
    Please enter your name
    Please enter a valid email address
    Who would you like to send this to? *
    ×
  • Buy the print book

Book description

This volume in the Cambridge History of Christianity presents the 'Golden Age' of patristic Christianity. After episodes of persecution by the Roman government, Christianity emerged as a licit religion enjoying imperial patronage and eventually became the favoured religion of the empire. The articles in this volume discuss the rapid transformation of Christianity during late antiquity, giving specific consideration to artistic, social, literary, philosophical, political, inter-religious and cultural aspects. The volume moves away from simple dichotomies and reductive schematizations (e.g., 'heresy v. orthodoxy') toward an inclusive description of the diverse practices and theories that made up Christianity at this time. Whilst proportional attention is given to the emergence of the Great Church within the Roman Empire, other topics are treated as well - such as the development of Christian communities outside the empire.

Reviews

'The twenty-nine essays in total paint a rich canvas of late antique Christianity in its many facets and illustrate the equally lively and varied engagement of current scholarship with this fascinating period … The contributors, editors and the Press must be congratulated for a volume to which the scholarly community will come back for many years as a standard reference tool.'

Source: Journal of Ecclesiastical History

'… elegant and learned essay … sweeping and evocative narrative … The volume more than justifies the historiographical assumption of contingent and variable early medieval "Christianities" rather an unchanging and immutable "Christianity" …impressive study of conversion … rewarding …splendid … a good and critical survey … excellent … sophisticated and thought-provoking … at once capture[s] the divinity, artfulness, and physical sensuality of texts … outstanding, expertly and eloquently examining how cults and their saints were capable of "endless reinvention" … All in all, Early Medieval Christianities, c.600-c.1100 is a worthy volume about Christians and their various "Christianities".'

Source: Church History

    • Aa
    • Aa
Refine List
Actions for selected content:
Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive
  • Send content to

    To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to .

    To send content to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

    Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

    Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

    Please be advised that item(s) you selected are not available.
    You are about to send:
    Your Kindle email address
    ×

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.
×

Page 1 of 2


  • 1 - Western Christianities
    pp 7-51
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521812443.003
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The story of Western Christianities from Constantine to the close of the sixth century is one of both expansion and the formation of diverse Christianities. The themes that were in evidence across the Christian West throughout the period under consideration: political transformation and the formation of competing orthodoxies, the Christianisation of Western aristocracies, and the interplay between political and ecclesiastical structures. This chapter discusses the endorsement of bishops of the Nicene orthodoxy, the adherences of Roman Christianities by the provinces of Italy, Gaul, Spain and North Africa, to Nicene orthodoxy. As schisms within the churches of the Nicene tradition broke out after Chalcedon, the emperors and bishops of Constantinople faced the consequences. In the autumn of 482, Emperor Zeno addressed a letter to the Alexandrian church that proposed a compromise formula drafted by Acacius of Constantinople. Pope Vigilius had an aristocratic background and exemplified the trend towards the aristocratisation of the papacy.
  • 2 - Germanic and Celtic Christianities
    pp 52-69
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521812443.004
  • View abstract
    Summary
    This chapter discusses the development of Christianity among the Germanic, Gothic, Celtic, Frankish and Anglian communities. Christianity began to spread in the Germanic world during the latter part of the third century among the Goths. Early Gothic Christianity consisted not of Christianised Goths but of Gothicised Christians. Instances of persecution among the Goths are exceptional events in the history of Germanic Christianisation due to the fact that early Gothic Christianity did not originate among the ruling classes. Christianity reached Roman Britain during the third century at the latest. In the course of the sixth century the Celtic churches were taken over by coenobitic monasticism. The conversions of Clovis, king of the Franks in the last years of the sixth century, came to assume fundamental significance for the further development of Christianities in the West. Pope Gregory the Great planned and launched a long-distance mission to Anglo-Saxon England, a novel enterprise without precedent in the history of late antique Christianities.
  • 3 - Greek Christianities
    pp 70-117
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521812443.005
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The movement of large numbers of Christians from one place to another, as immigrants, pilgrims, monks, bishops and theologians, connected numerous local forms of Christianity across the Greek-speaking world. Churches and monasteries were built in urban and rural locations, to provide fixed points for the daily lives of Greek Christians. Of the numerous councils held circa 300-600, most were strictly regional or local. The majority were never recognised as ecumenical, though some could be regarded as trial runs in which significant positions and terms were aired. What should be remembered about the five councils in this era that eventually came to be recognised as ecumenical (Nicaea in 325; Constantinople in 381; Ephesus in 431; Chalcedon in 451; Constantinople in 553) is, first, that they were directly under the influence of emperors who wanted their wishes fulfilled. Second, the Christian leaders who attended these councils often wrangled at least as much over the ranking of their sees as over theological issues.
  • 4 - Early Asian and East African Christianities
    pp 118-148
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521812443.006
  • View abstract
    Summary
    There are similarities in the fragmentary stories of the development of Christianity in Asia and Eastern Africa during the fourth to sixth centuries. As it had from the beginning, it followed the trade routes as merchants and missionaries took with them their faith. There was a Christian presence in Edessa (ancient and modern Urfa) from the earliest days of Christianity. This chapter first discusses three primary theories of the development of Christianity in this region: the Thomas traditions; the Abgar-Addai traditions; and Jewish origins. Next, it explores the evidence of Christianity in northern Mesopotamia during the second, third and fourth centuries. The diffusion of Christianity throughout Persia was caused by various factors including adaptation of Christian ideas within existing communities (which may be related to trade patterns). The chapter focuses on the major geographical, political or ethnic factors under which Christianity developed in Adiabene, Armenia, Georgia, India, Egypt (Coptic Christians), Nubia, Ethiopia, South Arabia, Soqotra, Central Asia and China.
  • 5 - Religious dynamics between Christians and Jews in late antiquity (312–640)
    pp 149-172
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521812443.007
  • View abstract
    Summary
    This chapter reviews some of the ways in which Jews and Christians interacted under the Christianised Roman empire, as well as under the Sassanid empire, where both were religious minorities. Jews and Christians were competing in a direct and sometimes violent clash, while both communities claiming the same inheritance. The koinos bios of both in late antiquity is highly significant for a richer understanding of the cultural dynamics between them. Significant Jewish communities existed throughout the Christian Roman empire, whether East or West. Christian attitudes toward Jews, both public and private, apparently varied in different areas. Christian scriptures were translated into various languages, in and outside the empire. Such a web of communities went against the grain of a civic religion that could provide a unification principle for the empire. The chapter also discusses the Jewish-Christian interaction in a Christian empire, and also the developments in Palestine, where both communities lived in towns and villages.
  • 6 - Christianity and paganism, I: Egypt
    pp 173-188
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521812443.008
  • View abstract
    Summary
    To understand the Christianisation of Egypt as well as the conflicts with native religion that this process entailed, we need to make some tentative distinction between the Christianity of texts and the Christianities assembled locally in villages. If the ancient gods and their shrines were often demonised, the new Christian worldview also depended upon familiar notions of harmful and beneficial power, ritual efficacy, and communication with divine beings. The author calls this inevitable process of mediating new ideologies within traditional schemes of ritual power syncretism, but only to the extent that it involves indigenous local agency and a genuine engagement with the authority of the new worldview, and not in the older sense of pagan survival or native misunderstanding. A growing intolerance among Christian leaders for Egyptian temple cults from the late fourth century probably arose with a revival of martyrological lore. The secret corridors and austere priestly rites once romanticised in Hellenistic literature now became the loci of sorcery.
  • 7 - Christianity and paganism, II: Asia Minor
    pp 189-209
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521812443.009
  • View abstract
    Summary
    Significant communities of Jews and Christians populated the cities and their territories in Asia Minor amid the great pagan Greek majority. Christianity's institutional expansion is reflected in the fact that, in 325, the representatives of some 150 episcopal sees in Asia Minor attended the Council of Nicaea. This posed a serious ideological challenge to the pagan temple cults of Asia Minor. The co-operation between the Tetrarchs and city councillors provoked Christian attacks on Greek temples. This was a response to the destruction of churches, beginning with the Christian basilica lying opposite the imperial palace in Nicomedia. The formalities of Christianisation, in terms of baptising the population of Asia Minor, were completed by the late sixth century, but the full acculturation of villages to the standards of the Mediterranean cities was a longer process that was still incomplete in some villages even in the early twentieth century.
  • 8 - Christianity and paganism, III: Italy
    pp 210-230
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521812443.010
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The spread of Christianity in Italy, as elsewhere throughout the empire, was greatly aided by the imperial support it received from the time of the emperor Constantine's conversion. The conversion of Italy's elites is one significant marker of religious change; once the elite, in Rome especially, but also throughout Italy, had converted, the empire could be proclaimed Christian. This chapter focuses on three separate social elites in three different but important cities in Italy: the senatorial aristocracy in Rome; the municipal provincial elite in Aquileia; and the imperial bureaucratic upper class in Milan. The elite of each city adopted Christianity over the course of the fourth and fifth centuries, but the paths they took and the Christianity they embraced differed. The conversion of Italy's elites was a gradual process of change within which the encouragements of emperors and bishops were mediated by specific elite institutions, ideas and behaviours. This involved a gradual turning away of pagans from pagan institutions.
  • 9 - Christianity and paganism, IV: North Africa
    pp 231-247
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521812443.011
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The diffusion of Christianity in North Africa involved complex interaction on several fronts, first among the pagans and the Christians, and then within the church itself as schisms occurred. The Christianisation of North Africa was followed by a progressive acquisition of power (both religious and secular/ economic) by the clergy. This chapter synthesises the main phases of this process, focusing on the role of the clergy, its transformation over the centuries, and the impact of Christianisation on society and economy. The combative posture of the Catholic Church against pagans is striking. Even as pagans become decreasingly visible in the history of Roman North Africa, Christians who are self-consciously not in communion with Rome come to fill their place as the other. In 439, the Vandals, who were Germanic Arians, entered Carthage. The Vandal kings showed varying attitudes towards the Catholic Church in North Africa; persecution and tolerance followed one another, sometimes within the same reign.
  • 10 - The intellectual debate between Christians and pagans
    pp 248-278
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521812443.012
  • View abstract
    Summary
    When one speaks of Christian-pagan intellectual debate, it is about an intellectual debate between pagans and Christians on religious matters that late antique Christians had with anyone and everyone who was neither Christian nor Jewish. Despite this internal heterogeneity of paganism, late antique Christian-pagan intellectual debate possessed considerable uniformity. For it was always conducted with reference to the framework of the Platonic philosophical thought of the day. The debate began in the first Christian centuries when intellectual pagans objected that specific fundamental aspects of Christianity could not be coherently understood in terms of this Platonic framework, and that Christianity therefore had to be rejected as alogon. Christians responded to polemical pagan objections to Christianity through the composition of apologiae, in which they defended themselves from the pagan criticisms of Christianity and mounted anti-pagan counter-objections of their own. This apologetical tradition reached its climax with Eusebius of Caesarea's mammoth Praeparatio and Demonstratio evangelica in the first half of the fourth century.
  • 11 - Christianity and Manichaeism
    pp 279-295
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521812443.013
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The religion of Mani arose from a Judaeo-Christian milieu in southern Mesopotamia in the third century, which was a time of both cultural and religious syncretism. Central to Mani's self identity as the leader of a universal religion was his self-declared title of 'Apostle of Jesus Christ' and in Western Manichaean sources he was sometimes identified as the personification of the Paraclete. Mani was a prodigious author who was anxious that his teaching should survive him, and the sect came to revere a canon of his writings. The titles of most of the canonical works were known to the fathers, with the result that citations from them have survived in polemical as well as Manichaean texts. One of the earliest notices of the missionary endeavours of Manichaeism in the Roman East is a pastoral letter from a Christian leader warning the faithful against followers of the madness (a pun on Mani's name in Greek) of Mani.
  • 12 - Heresiology: The invention of ‘heresy’ and ‘schism’
    pp 296-314
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521812443.014
  • View abstract
    Summary
    Heresiology was the combative theological genre for asserting true Christian doctrine. Rhetorical techniques such as labeling, and literary genres such as intellectual catalogues can be examined in historical context to reveal not only social or religious attempts at expulsion, but also theological negotiation with contemporary cultural problems of multiplicity and difference in Roman society. The increasing classification of error reflected the dynamism of the theological tradition as well as the general codification of Roman life and thought during the later empire. Like many products of late antiquity, heresiology was a hybrid of various local cultural and religious traditions that had been placed in dialogue by the unified Roman empire. The development of handbooks of heresies or the diptychs of holy ancestors were the expansion and public codification of early individual polemical techniques. The demonisation and exaggeration of the teaching of Pelagius theology was part of a means of excluding not only actual teaching, but theological possibilities, from orthodoxy.
  • 13 - Towards defining a Christian culture: The Christian transformation of classical literature
    pp 315-342
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521812443.015
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The culture of late antiquity was a curious blend of classical pagan forms and newly developed Christian ones. This chapter deals solely with aspects of late antique literary culture, and investigates the degree to which the rise of Christianity impacted traditional Greco-Roman literary forms. It provides an introduction to the six most outstanding proponents of literary genres: Jerome, Ambrose of Milan, Augustine of Hippo, John Chrysostom, Gregory of Nazianzus, and Theodoret of Cyrrhus. The most interesting aspect of the Christian appropriation of pagan genres involves how they adapted these forms to suit new audiences and new themes. The chapter examines the continuities with existing genres, and the innovations and subversions introduced by Christian authors. After dealing briefly with the genre of florilegia, the chapter examines the effect of the eastern expansion of Christian culture on the Syriac, Armenian and Coptic communities, which were somewhat freer from the constraints of the Hellenistic heritage.
  • 14 - Bishops and society
    pp 343-366
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521812443.016
  • View abstract
    Summary
    Constantine, the first Christian emperor respected churchmen and bishops. The patronage of Constantine and subsequent emperors during late antiquity changed bishops and their roles in unforeseen ways. Earlier the number of bishops was few; now almost every city in the empire had a bishop, and classical cities survived as episcopal sees. As the bishops and many of their lesser clerics were recruited primarily from the class of local notables, the ecclesiastical hierarchy weaned men away from service as municipal magistrates. The consolidation of this new hierarchy resulted in an emphasis on new attitudes about clerical service, such as rivalry and ambition, which seemed at odds with Christian ideals. During the late antiquity period, Christianity became not just the leading religion in the old Roman world. When its bishops sanctioned or appropriated more and more nominally secular activities, Christian spirituality became the dominant worldview.
  • 15 - Synods and councils
    pp 367-385
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521812443.017
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The first council that could boast an imperial mandate was convened at Arles in 314, after Constantine had been asked to review the acquittal of Caecilian by a synod of Italian and Gallic bishops under Miltiades of Rome. At Ancyra penalties commensurate with the fault were enjoined on those who had lapsed under persecution; the chief concern of a council held in Neocaesarea was to provide for the expulsion and restoration of those who committed heinous sins in a time of peace. The principal aim of many Western councils was the preservation of unity through order. Pope Innocent, in his own codicil to a synod which appeased a Gallic schism, urged that Rome should be the sole arbiter of disputes that could not be resolved within one province. In 402, at the Synod of the Oak held near Chalcedon in Asia Minor, John Chrysostom, bishop of Constantinople, was arraigned by Theophilus of Alexandria and thirty-six of his confederates.
  • 16 - The growth of church law
    pp 386-402
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521812443.018
  • View abstract
    Summary
    For more than five centuries, Christian communities lived without a comprehensive body of written law. Thus, in the early church, canon law as a system of norms that governed the church or a large number of Christian communities, was not present. Early Christian texts share several characteristics. Their authority derived from their apostolic origins, not from ecclesiastical institutions. Although church fathers, especially John Chrysostom, did justify conciliar assemblies on the basis of Acts 15, modern scholars have concluded that the assembly described in Acts 15 at Jerusalem cannot be described as a council or synod. During the course of the fourth century, two sources of authoritative norms emerged in the Christian church: the writings of the fathers of the church and the letters of bishops, particularly the bishops of Rome. John Scholasticus' Synagoge of 50 titles is the first important collection of canon law in the East. All later Greek canonical collections were based on it.
  • 17 - The church, society and political power
    pp 403-428
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521812443.019
  • View abstract
    Summary
    In Caesaropapism there are two distinct entities, a secular state and a spiritual church, each with its own defined sphere of authority. The problem arises when the secular ruler, Caesar, asserts authority over the church, acting thus like a pope. Eusebius was a bishop and Agapetus a deacon. Both represented an institution, the Christian church, with an identity akin to that of the Roman senate. The judgment of emperors, the decision as to whether they were to be remembered as heavenly icons or wild beasts, now lay with the clergy. Moreover, Christianity's unique development in the first centuries of its existence had left this institution with a capacity for acting and behaving independently such as senators had not known since the closing days of the republic. The suppression of traditional religions in the new Christian empire is the point at which the church, society and power, intersect.
  • 18 - Discourse on the Trinity
    pp 429-459
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521812443.020
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The first major instance of a debate on conceptualising the Christian experience of God as Trinity took place in the third century. The church of the fourth century inherited a tradition of Trinitarian discourse that was pervasively embedded in its worship and proclamation, even if it was lacking in conceptual definition. Origen was the greatest and most influential theologian of the third century, whose teaching cast a large shadow on the Trinitarian controversies of the fourth century. The Cappadocian synthesis is best seen as a response to the anti-Nicene developments that began in the 350s, spearheaded by Aetius and Eunomius. Augustines's influence on the subsequent Western tradition of Trinitarian reflection is difficult to overestimate. His characterisations of the Trinitarian image in humanity in terms of a procession of the intellect and a procession of love are taken over by Aquinas. Controversies of the fifth and sixth centuries are referred to as Christological controversies, instead of Trinitarian controversies.
  • 19 - History of Christology to the seventh century
    pp 460-500
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521812443.021
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The death of Jesus Christ demonstrated God's salvation; his resurrection proclaimed him alive. As the Christian community moved from the Old Testament, the word of God, to the Christian Bible, different Christologies were connected. Still, in constantly changing contexts, diverse Christological confessions came up within a wider understanding of the apostolic kerygma. Apollinarius confessed that the incarnate Logos is the subject of all Christological statements, and therefore also of all the antitheses that separate God and creatures. Athanasius' anti-Arian exegesis excludes any Christology that confesses two separate subjects and, confesses a duality of them. When Nestorius, after his appointment as patriarch of Constantinople in 428, triggered the dispute about the Marian title mother of God, he entered the fray with homilies in which he called upon the Antiochene Christology familiar to him. Cyril of Alexandria intervened with the journalistic means available at that time. His attitude was heavily biased against Nestorius.
  • 20 - Sin and salvation: Experiences and reflections
    pp 501-530
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521812443.022
  • View abstract
    Summary
    Baptism and the events surrounding it provide important evidence for how early Christians dealt with sin as well as how they conceived of salvation. By the time of the Constantinian settlement, abundant resources were already available to Christians for the purposes of discussing sin and salvation in terms of baptism. Origen had long since remarked that 'those who have been regenerated through divine baptism are established in paradise, that is, in the church, to do the spiritual deeds that are within'. One major function of the Eastern Christians was to ensure that the deeply personal encounter with God through baptism became more than deeply personal, became in fact the point at which the Christian entered a new, sacramental, community. Thanks to the renewal brought about by baptism, this new community was characterised as a return to paradise in that the waters of baptism washed away all sins, collective and private, that had previously separated God's creatures from God.
  • 21 - From Antioch to Arles: Lay devotion in context
    pp 531-547
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521812443.023
  • View abstract
    Summary
    Linked to the paucity of written sources by lay Christians, there remains the challenge of locating lay Christians in an age better known for its ascetics. Place, particularly home, church and saint's tomb, can serve as a framework for examining lay devotion. With reference to these places, this chapter investigates what practices and dispositions constituted lay devotion. It also considers how places were more than a backdrop for practices, but even moulded those practices. Built space can reveal many features of piety, such as the typical size of a gathering, how bodies moved through space, and what perceptions shaped devotions in that space. Church leaders like Athanasius of Alexandria and Caesarius of Arles recommended that Christians dedicate the forty days prior to Easter to adopting an ascetic regime of prayers, vigils, sexual abstinence, fasting, devotional reading, charity and hospitality.
  • 22 - Saints and holy men
    pp 548-566
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521812443.024
  • View abstract
    Summary
    This chapter shows that many acts of veneration shown to saints after their death had their origin in the connections of the faithful to living holy men. The Christian notion of personal sanctity can be understood from its cultural context. The idea that certain individuals held an elevated status among humans because of their connection to the divine was common in ancient culture. In pre-Constantinian times, individual Christians proved their faith through martyrdom, and Christian communities derived their group identity from witnessing the death of their martyrs. The cult of a saint was prepared long before that person's death. The chapter illustrates the interplay between discipleship, the production and dissemination of texts, and patronage in creating a cult by presenting three examples from different regions of the later Roman empire: Martin of Tours in Gaul, Felix of Nola in Italy and Symeon the Stylite in Syria. Central to the cult of saints are their relics.
  • 23 - Pastoral care and discipline
    pp 567-584
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521812443.025
  • View abstract
    Summary
    Any attempt to imagine and describe pastoral care in the early church encounters a great many obstacles. This chapter first deals with three paradigms of the pastoral ideal as it was articulated in the fourth century. Gregory Nazianzen, John Chrysostom, and Cicero Ambrose agree that the character of the pastor is a crucial prerequisite for his work. Next, the chapter deals with the way people experienced care from holy people and monastics, and from resorting to the shrines of martyrs and the holy places. In broad terms there is continuity with the paradigms of pastoral care articulated by Nazianzen, Chrysostom and Ambrose. At the same time, Gregory no longer draws explicitly upon Platonism or Stoicism, and late antiquity has begun to fade. From a pastoral perspective the implementation of moral discipline attached first of all to catechetical preparation for baptism. As a consequence of the Constantinian revolution the church tended to tighten discipline at this level.
  • 24 - Sexuality, marriage and the family
    pp 585-600
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521812443.026
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The ancient period witnessed the remarkable transformation of Christianity from a persecuted minority sect into the dominant political and cultural force in the Mediterranean world. One aspect of this development was the formation of a set of discourses and practices regarding sexual, marital and familial life. If imperial legislation showed only modest influence from Christian teaching, the efforts of ecclesiastical authorities were more ambitious. Through preaching and the imposition of penitential discipline, the bishops of the fourth, fifth and sixth centuries scrutinised and attempted to regulate the sexual lives of their congregations with rigorous precision. Over time, the sexual lives of married Christians were circumscribed by numerous prescriptions. Only in the fourth century do we see the beginnings of specifically Christian liturgical practices for marriage, initially within the context of ceremonies in the family home. As marriage rituals in antiquity were notably boisterous affairs, clergy were hesitant at first to participate.

Page 1 of 2


This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.


H. C.Brennecke, Hilarius von Poitiers und die Bischofsopposition gegen Konstantius II. Untersuchungen zur dritten Phase des arianischen Streites (337–361), Patristische Texte und Studien 26 (Berlin, 1984).

H.Chadwick, Boethius (Oxford, 1990).

H.Chadwick, The church in ancient society: From Galilee to Gregory the Great (Oxford, 2001).

Robert A. Markus, Gregory the great and his world (Cambridge, 1997).

S.Rebenich, Jerome (London, 2002).

K.Schäferdiek, Die Kirche in den Reichen der Westgoten und Suewen bis zur Errichtung der westgotischen katholischen Staatskirche (Berlin, 1967).

C.Sotinel, Emperors and popes in the sixth century’, in M. Maas, ed., The Cambridge companion to the age of Justinian (Cambridge, 2005).

K.-H.MUthemann, Kaiser Justinian als Kirchenpolitiker und Theologe’, in Christus, Kosmos, Diatribe (Berlin, 2005).

D. H.Williams, Ambrose of Milan and the end of the Nicene–Arian conflicts (Oxford, 1995).

Charles-Edwards, Thomas Mowbray. Early Christian Ireland (Cambridge, 2000).

Geuenich, Dieter. ‘Chlodwigs Alemannenschlacht(en) und Taufe’, in Die Franken und die Alemannen bis zur ‘Schlacht bei Zülpich’ (496/97) (Berlin/New York, 1998).

Wallace-Hadrill, John Michael. The Frankish church (Oxford, 1983).

P.Allen, and C. T. R. Haywood. Severus of Antioch (London, 2004).

K.Anatolios, Athanasius,Early Church Fathers (London, 2004).

A.Casiday, Evagrius Ponticus (London, 2006).

Elizabeth A. Clark, The Origenist Controversy: The cultural construction of an early Christian debate (Princeton, 1992).

B.Croke, Justinian’s Constantinople’, in M. Maas, ed., The Cambridge companion to the age of Justinian (Cambridge, 2005).

K.Fitschen, Serapion von Thmuis, Echte und Unechte Schriften sowie die Zeugnisse des Athanasius und Anderer, Patristische Texte und Studien 37 (Berlin, 1992).

P. T. R.Gray, The legacy of Chalcedon: Christological problems and their significance’, in M. Maas, ed., The Cambridge companion to the age of Justinian (Cambridge, 2005).

G.Greatrex, Byzantium and the East in the sixth century’, in M. Maas, ed., The Cambridge companion to the age of Justinian (Cambridge, 2005).

R.Krawiec, Shenoute and the women of the White Monastery: Egyptian monasticism in late antiquity (Oxford, 2002).

A. D.Lee, The empire at war’, in M. Maas, ed., The Cambridge companion to the age of Justinian (Cambridge, 2005).

A.Louth, Palestine: Cyril of Jerusalem and Epiphanius’, in F. Young et al., eds., The Cambridge History of Early Christian Literature (Cambridge, 2004).

Pausanius. Description of Greece, trans. W. H. S. Jones and R. Wycherley, Loeb Classical Library (London, 1918–35).

W.Pohl, Justinian and the barbarian kingdoms’, in M. Maas, ed., The Cambridge companion to the age of Justinian (Cambridge, 2005).

A. M.Ritter, Das Konzil von Konstantinopel und sein Symbol. Studien zur Geschichte und Theologie des 11 ökumenischen Konzils,Forschung zur Kirchen- und Dogmengeschichte15 (Göttingen, 1965).

S.Wessel, Cyril of Alexandria and the Nestorian controversy: The making of a saint and of a heretic (Oxford, 2004).

H. J. W.Drijvers, Cults and beliefs at Edessa, études préliminaires aux religions orientales dans l’empire romain 82 (Leiden, 1980).

G.Quispel, Makarius: Das Thomasevangelium und das Lied von der Perle, Supplements to Novum Testamentum 15 (Leiden, 1967).

N.de Lange, Jews and Christians in the Byzantine empire: Problems and prospects’, in D. Wood, ed., Christianity and Judaism (Oxford, 1992).

A.Külzer, Disputationes Graecae contra Judaeos: Untersuchungen zur byzantinischen antijüdischen Dialogliteratur und ihrem Judenbild (Stuttgart, 1999).

J.Neusner, Judaism and Christianity in the age of Constantine: History, Messiah, Israel, and the initial confrontation (Chicago, 1987).

G. G.Stroumsa, Christ’s laughter: Docetic origins reconsidered’, Journal of early Christian studies 12 (2004).

FrançoiseDunand, . Religion populaire en égypte romaine (Leiden, 1979).

J. G. C.Anderson, Exploration in Galatia cis Halym’, Journal of Hellenic studies 19 (1899).

C.Brixhe, Interactions between Greek and Phrygian under the Roman empire’, in J. N. Adams, M. Janse and S. Swain, eds., Bilingualism in ancient society. Language contact and written text (Oxford, 2002).

W. H. Buckler, , W. M. Calder and C. W. M. Cox. ‘Asia Minor, 1924. v. – Monuments from the Upper Tembris valley’, Journal of Roman studies 18 (1928).

W. H.Buckler, , W. M. Calder and C. W. M. Cox. ‘Asia Minor, 1924. 1. – Monuments from Iconium, Lycaonia and Isauria’, Journal of Roman studies 14 (1924).

W. M.Calder, Colonia Caesareia Antiocheia’, Journal of Roman studies 2 (1912).

W. M.Calder, Corpus inscriptionum neo-Phrygianum. – II’, Journal of Hellenic studies 33 (1913).

W. M.Calder, Corpus inscriptionum neo-Phrygianum’, Journal of Hellenic studies 31 (1911).

W. M.Calder, Julia-Ipsus and Augustopolis’, Journal of Roman studies 2 (1912).

W. M.Calder, Studies in early Christian epigraphy: II’, Journal of Roman studies 14 (1924).

W. M.Calder, Studies in early Christian epigraphy’, Journal of Roman studies 10 (1920).

A.Chaniotis, Zwischen Konfrontation und Interaktion: Christen, Juden und Heiden im spätantiken Aphrodisias’, in A. Ackermann and K. E. Müller, eds., Patchwork (Bielefeld, 2002).

J.Hahn, Gewalt und religiöser Konflikt (Berlin, 2004).

R. P. C.Hanson, The transformation of pagan temples into churches in the early Christian centuries’, Journal of Semitic studies 23 (1978).

S.Mitchell, Maximinus and the Christians in A. D. 312: A new Latin inscription’, Journal of Roman studies 78 (1988).

M.Colish, Why the Portiana? Reflections on the Milanese basilica crisis of 386’, Journal of early Christian studies 10 (2002).

R.Lizzi, Ambrose’s contemporaries and the Christianization of Northern Italy’, Journal of Roman studies (1990): 156–73.

N.Duval, and J. C. Golvin.Haidra à l’époque chrétienne. Le monument à auges et les bâtiments similaires’, Comptes rendus des séances de l’Académie des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres (1972).

A.Leone, Topographies of production in North African cities during the Vandal and Byzantine periods’, in L. Lavan and W. Bowden, eds., Theory and practice in late antique archaeology (Leiden, 2003).

F.Millar, Italy and the Roman empire: Augustus to Constantine’, Phoenix (1986).

E. R.Dodds, Pagan and Christian in an age of anxiety (Cambridge, 1965).

Minucius Felix. Octavius. Ed. B. Kytzler (Stuttgart, 1992).

J.Pelikan, The Christian tradition: A history of Christian doctrine (Chicago, 1971–89).

I. M. F. Gardner , and S. N. C. Lieu, eds. Manichaean texts from the Roman empire (Cambridge, 2004).

A.Louth, St. John Damascene: Tradition and originality in Byzantine theology (Oxford, 2002).

R.Lyman, Arians and Manichees on Christ’, Journal of theological studies N.S. 40 (1989).

H.Maier, Private space as the social context of Arianism in Ambrose’s fourth century Milan’, Journal of theological studies N.S. 45 (1994).

R.Markus, Christianity and dissent in Roman North Africa: Changing perspectives in recent work’, in D. Baker, ed., Schism, heresy and religious protest (Cambridge, 1972).

R.Markus, The legacy of Pelagius: Orthodoxy, heresy and conciliation’, in R. Williams, ed., The making of orthodoxy. Essays in honour of Henry Chadwick (Cambridge, 1989).

Ronald E. Heine, The commentaries of Origen and Jerome on St Paul’s epistle to the Ephesians (Oxford, 2002).

F.Norris, Your honor, my reputation: St. Gregory of Nazianzus’s funeral oration on St. Basil the Great’, in Thomas Hägg and Philip Rousseau, eds., Greek biography and panegyric in late antiquity (Berkeley, 2000).

Plotinus. Enneads, trans. A. H. Armstrong, Loeb Classical Library (London, 1966).

Frances M. Young, The rhetorical schools and their influence on patristic exegesis’, in R. Williams, ed., The making of orthodoxy: Essays in honour of Henry Chadwick (Cambridge, 1989).

W.Klingshirn, Caesarius of Arles (Cambridge, 1994).

C.Rapp, Holy bishops in late antiquity (Berkeley, 2005).

R.Van Dam, Becoming Christian: The conversion of Roman Cappadocia (Philadelphia, 2003).

H.Hess, The early development of canon law and the Council of Serdica (Oxford, 2002).

M. E.Kulikowski, Two councils of Turin’, Journal of theological studies 47 (1996).

G. C.Stead, Marcel Richard on Malchion and Paul of Samosata’, in H. C. Brennecke, E. L. Grasmück and C. Markschies, eds., Logos. Festschrift für Luise Abramowski (Berlin, 1993).

C.Ando, Pagan apologetics and Christian intolerance in the ages of Themistius and Augustine’, Journal of early Christian studies 4 (1996).

P.Garnsey, Religious toleration in classical antiquity’, in W. J. Shiels, ed., Persecution and toleration (Oxford, 1984).

K.Hopkins, Christian number and its implications’, Journal of early Christian studies 6 (1998).

E.Leach, Melchisedech and the emperor: Icons of subversion and orthodoxy’, Proceedings of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland1972 (London, 1973).

S. R. F.Price, Between man and God: Sacrifice in the Roman imperial cult’, Journal of Roman studies 70 (1980).

L.Ayres, “Remember that you are Catholic” (serm. 52, 2): Augustine on the unity of the triune God’, Journal of early Christian studies 8 (2000).

R.Lorenz, Arius judaizans? Untersuchungen zur dogmengeschichte Einordnung des Arius (Göttingen, 1979).

Rebecca J. Lyman, Christology and cosmology: Models of divine activity in Origen, Eusebius, and Athanasius (Oxford, 1993).

E.Mühlenberg, Apollinaris von Laodicea (Göttingen, 1969).

K.Seibt, Die Theologie des Markell von Ankyra (Berlin/New York, 1994).

J. P.Burns, Cyprian the bishop (London, 2001).

A. M. C.Casiday, Tradition and theology in St John Cassian (Oxford, 2006).

Josephus. Jewish War, Loeb Classical Library (Josephus, II–III) (London, 1927–8).

Michael J. Kruger, P. Oxy. 840: Amulet or miniature codex?’, Journal of theological studies N.S. 53 (2002).

G.Fowden, The pagan holy man in late antique society’, Journal of Hellenic studies 102 (1982).

B.Kötting, Der frühchristliche Reliquienkult und die Bestattung im Kirchengebäude (Cologne, 1965).

C.Rapp, , ‘Storytelling as spiritual communication in early Greek hagiography: The use of diegesis ’, Journal of early Christian studies 6 (1998).

James A. Brundage, Law, sex, and Christian society in medieval Europe (Chicago, 1987).

David G. Hunter, Augustine and the making of marriage in Roman North Africa’, Journal of early Christian studies 11 (2003).

David G. Hunter, Marriage, celibacy, and heresy in ancient Christianity (Oxford, 2007).

G.Nathan, The family in late antiquity (London and New York, 2000).

Bryan D. Spinks, The Sanctus in the eucharistic prayer (Cambridge, 1991).

Augustine. De doctrina Christiana. Ed. R. P. H. Green (Oxford, 1996).

T. D.Barnes, The date of the Council of Gangra’, Journal of theological studies 40 (1989).

Life of the fathers, trans. and ed. Edward James (Liverpool, 1985).

Vitruvius. On architecture; trans. F. Granger, Loeb Classical Library (London, 1931–4).

U.Volp, Tod und Ritual in den christlichen Gemeinden der Antike (Leiden, 2002).