Skip to main content
The Clergy in the Medieval World
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 1
  • Cited by
    This (lowercase (translateProductType product.productType)) has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Witcombe, Teresa 2018. Maurice and the Mozarabic charter: a cross-cultural transaction in early thirteenth-century Toledo. Journal of Medieval Iberian Studies, Vol. 10, Issue. 2, p. 234.

  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Recommend this book

    Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

    The Clergy in the Medieval World
    • Online ISBN: 9781316091364
    • Book DOI:
    Please enter your name
    Please enter a valid email address
    Who would you like to send this to *
  • Buy the print book

Book description

Unlike monks and nuns, clergy have hitherto been sidelined in accounts of the Middle Ages, but they played an important role in medieval society. This first broad-ranging study in English of the secular clergy examines how ordination provided a framework for clerical life cycles and outlines the influence exerted on secular clergy by monastic ideals before tracing typical career paths for clerics. Concentrating on northern France, England and Germany in the period c.800–c.1200, Julia Barrow explores how entry into the clergy usually occurred in childhood, with parents making decisions for their sons, although other relatives, chiefly clerical uncles, were also influential. By comparing two main types of family structure, Barrow supplies an explanation of why Gregorian reformers faced little serious opposition in demanding an end to clerical marriage in the eleventh and twelfth centuries. Changes in educational provision c.1100 also help to explain growing social and geographical mobility among clerics.


‘Julia Barrow’s magisterial social history of medieval clergy brings into sharp focus many aspects of the medieval Church hitherto only vaguely understood. A previously fragmented field of study is synthesised as a unified whole, resting on deep and secure scholarship. It is a tremendously important book.’

David d’Avray - University College London

‘Julia Barrow has produced a master work that is at once engaging, important, learned, and original. Focusing on Continental Europe and the British Isles, Barrow has tackled the medieval clergy as a whole. Many works treat, say, monks and monasteries, or bishops and cathedrals. But no book has the breadth or depth of coverage that Barrow has achieved. Barrow is attentive to fundamental issues of continuity and change and to regional diversity. This book will be essential reading for medievalists and church historians. It is certain to be a reliable standard for a long time.’

Thomas F. X. Noble - University of Notre Dame

‘This is an impressive book, on a topic that should be well known but is not. It provides an expert overview of the clergy in a period that bridges four dynamic medieval centuries and many regions. It is also a social history that makes ‘the Church’ come alive, in all its human diversity.’

Mayke de Jong - Utrecht University

‘Clergy were central to medieval communities, but studies of them tend to be technical, specific, and obscure for non-specialists. Julia Barrow's thorough but admirably lucid overview is approachable at all levels. Historians will be stimulated by her broad-scale comparisons, and anyone interested in medieval society will find their understanding enriched.’

John Blair - University of Oxford

‘Professor Barrow's ambitious study of the clergy between c.800 and c.1200 provides an excellent framework for understanding the development of an important but surprisingly neglected group. Historians of medieval society and particularly of the medieval church will welcome this book, which provides a deeply researched and comprehensive overview of the subject but will also serve as the starting point for much future work.’

Hugh M. Thomas - University of Miami

Refine List
Actions for selected content:
Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive
  • Send content to

    To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to .

    To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

    Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

    Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

    Please be advised that item(s) you selected are not available.
    You are about to send

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.


Archive and manuscript sources

Bourges, A-D Cher, 8 G 957

Laon, A-D Aisne, G253; G 1850; 8 G 957

Munich, Bayerisches Staatsarchiv, WU 5660

Oxford, Bodl. MS Rawlinson B 329

Würzburg, Staatsarchiv, Mainzer Bücher verschiedenen Inhalts 17; Stift Neumünster Würzburg Urkunden 1160/II; Stift Neumünster Würzburg, Standbuch 184

Published primary sources

The Acts of Welsh Rulers 1120–1283, ed. Huw Pryce (Cardiff, 2005)
Adam of Bremen: Magistri Adam Bremensis Gesta Hammaburgensis Ecclesiae Pontificum, ed. Bernhard Schmeidler, MGH SRG in usum scholarum, 2 (Hanover and Leipzig, 1917)
Adelbert of Bamberg: Die Vita sancti Heinrici regis et confessoris und ihre Bearbeitung durch den Bamberger Diakon Adelbert, ed. Marcus Strumpf, MGH SRG in usum scholarum, 69 (Hanover, 1999)
Ælfric Bata: Anglo-Saxon Conversations: The Colloquies of Ælfric Bata, ed. Scott Gwara, tr. David W. Porter (Woodbridge, 1997)
Aelred of Rievaulx: Aelredi Rievallensis, Opera Omnia, ed. A. Hoste and C.H. Talbot, CCCM, 1 (Turnhout, 1971)
Aelred of Rievaulx: Spiritual Friendship, tr. Lawrence C. Braceland, ed. Marsha L. Dutton (Collegeville, MI, 2010)
Agius, Vita Hathumodis, MGH SS, 4, 165–75
Alcuin, The Bishops, Kings and Saints of York, ed. Peter Godman (Oxford, 1982)
Alcvini sive Albini Epistolae, see Epistolae Karolini Aevi
Vita Alcuini, ed. W. Arndt, MGH SS, 15 (1) (Hanover, 1887), 182–97
Alfred the Great: Asser’s Life of King Alfred and Other Contemporary Sources, tr. Simon Keynes and Michael Lapidge (Harmondsworth, 1983)
Altfrid: Vita Sancti Liudgeri auctore Altfrido, ed. Wilhelm Diekamp, Die Geschichtsquellen des Bisthums Münster, 4 (1881)
Amalarii episcopi opera liturgica omnia, ed. Jean-Michel Hanssens, 3 vols. (Vatican City, 1948–50)
Ambrose, De officiis, ed. Maurice Testard, Corpus Christianorum Series Latina, 15 (Turnhout, 2000)
Amiens: Cartulaire du chapitre de la cathédrale d’Amiens, ed. Joseph Roux, 2 vols., Mémoires de la Société des antiquaries de Picardie: Documents inédits concernant la province, 14, 18 (Amiens and Paris, 1905–12)
Anchoress and Abbess in Ninth-Century Saxony: The Lives of Liutbirga of Wendhausen and Hathumoda of Gandersheim, tr. Frederick S. Paxton (Washington, DC, 2009)
Angers: Cartulaire noir de la cathédrale d’Angers, ed. Charles Urseau (Paris, 1908)
Anglia Sacra, ed. Henry Wharton, 2 vols. (London, 1691)
Anglo-Norman Anonymous, see Anonymous, Norman
Anglo-Saxon Charters, ed. and tr. A.J. Robertson, 2nd edn (Cambridge, 1956)
Anglo-Saxon Charters: An Annotated List and Bibliography, ed. P.H. Sawyer, Royal Historical Society Guides and Handbooks, 8 (London, 1968)
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle: Two of the Saxon Chronicles Parallel, ed. Charles Plummer and John Earle, 2 vols. (Oxford, 1892–9)
Anglo-Saxon Wills, ed. Dorothy Whitelock (Cambridge, 1930)
Anglo-Saxon Writs, ed. Florence Harmer (Manchester, 1952)
Anno of Cologne: Vita Annonis archiepiscopi Coloniensis, ed. R. Koepke, MGH SS, 11 (Hanover, 1854)
Anonymous, Norman: Die Texte des Normannischen Anonymus, ed. Karl Pellens (Wiesbaden, 1966)
Anselm of Canterbury: S. Anselmi Cantuariensis Archiepiscopi Opera Omnia, ed. Franciscus Salesius Schmitt, 6 vols. (Edinburgh, 1940–51)
Anselm of Havelberg, Vita Adelberti Maguntini Archiepiscopi, in Monumenta Moguntina, ed. Philipp Jaffé, Bibliotheca Rerum Germanicarum, 3 (Berlin, 1866), 565–603
Anselm of Liège, Gesta episcoporum Leodicensium, ed. Rudolf Koepke, MGH SS, 7 (Hanover, 1846), 189–234
Arnulf: The Letters of Arnulf of Lisieux, ed. Frank Barlow, Camden Society, 3rd series, 61 (London, 1939)
Arras: Le cartulaire du chapitre d’Arras, ed. Auguste de Loisne (Arras, 1896)
Arras: Les chartes des évêques d’Arras (1093–1203), ed. Benoît-Michel Tock, Collection de documents inédits sur l’histoire de France, Section d’histoire médiévale et de philologie, 21 (Paris, 1991)
Aschaffenburg: Urkundenbuch des Stifts St. Peter und Alexander zu Aschaffenburg, I: 861–1325, ed. Matthias Thiel (Aschaffenburg, 1986)
Asser’s Life of King Alfred, ed. W.H. Stevenson, new edn with article by Dorothy Whitelock (Oxford, 1959)
Augustine: Luc Verheijen, La règle de Saint Augustin, 2 vols. (Paris, 1967)
Autun: Cartulaire de l’église d’Autun, ed. Anatole de Charmasse (Paris and Autun, 1865)
Auxerre: Les gestes des évêques d’Auxerre, ed. and tr. Michel Sot, Guy Lobrichon and Monique Goullet, 3 vols. (Paris, 2002–9)
Avitus of Vienne, Letters and Selected Prose, tr. with introduction and notes by Danuta Shanzer and Ian Wood (Liverpool, 2002)
Bamberg: Urbare und Wirtschaftsordnungen des Domstifts zu Bamberg, ed. Erich von Guttenberg and Alfred Wendehorst, Veröffentlichungen der Gesellschaft für fränkische Geschichte, 10, vii (Würzburg, 1969)
Basil, Regulae fusius tractatae (The Longer Rule), PG 31
Bayeux: Antiquus cartularius ecclesiae Baiocensis (Livre Noir), ed. Valentin Bourrienne, 2 vols. (Rouen and Paris, 1902–3)
Bayeux Tapestry: The Bayeux Tapestry: The Complete Tapestry in Colour, with introduction, description and commentary by David M. Wilson (London, 1985)
Bede: Baedae Opera Historica, ed. Charles Plummer, 2 vols. (Oxford, 1896)
Bede: Bede’s Ecclesiastical History of the English People, ed. and tr. Bertram Colgrave and R.A.B. Mynors (Oxford, 1969)
Bede: The Ecclesiastical History of the English People, ed. Judith McClure and Roger Collins (Oxford, 1994)
Benedict: La règle de Saint Benoît, ed. and tr. Adalbert de Vogüé and Jean Neufville, 7 vols., Sources chrétiennes, 181–6 (Paris, 1972–7)
Bernard of Clairvaux: The Letters of St Bernard of Clairvaux, tr. Bruno Scott James (London, 1953)
Bernard of Clairvaux: Opera di San Bernardo, ed. Ferruccio Gastaldelli, 5 vols. in 7 parts to date (Rome, 1984–)
Bernard of Clairvaux: S. Bernardi Opera, ed. Jean Leclercq, Charles Hugh Talbot and Henri Rochais, 8 vols. in 9 parts (Rome, 1957–77)
Béthune: Le cartulaire de Saint-Barthélemy de Béthune, ed. Auguste de Loisne, Société des antiquaires de la Morinie (Saint-Omer, 1895)
Boniface: Die Briefe des heiligen Bonifazius und Lullus, ed. Michael Tangl, MGH Epistolae Selectae, 1 (Berlin, 1916)
Bourges: Catalogue des actes des archevêques de Bourges antérieurs à l’an 1200, ed. Alfred Gandilhon (Bourges and Paris, 1927)
Bremisches Urkundenbuch, ed. D.R. Ehmck and W. von Bippen, 5 vols. (Bremen, 1873–1902)
Bruges: Cartulaire de la prévôté de Bruges, ed. L. Gilliodts van Severen, 2 vols. (Brussels, 1887)
Bruno, De bello saxonico, ed. Hans-Eberhard Lohmann, MGH Deutsches Mittelalter, 2 (Leipzig, 1937)
Byrhtferth of Ramsey, The Lives of St Oswald and St Ecgwine, ed. and tr. Michael Lapidge (Oxford, 2009)
Caesarius of Arles: Caesarius of Arles: Life, Testament, Letters, tr. William E. Klingshirn (Liverpool, 1994)
Caesarius of Heisterbach, Dialogus Miraculorum, ed. Joseph Strange, 2 vols. (Cologne, 1851)
Caesarius of Heisterbach, The Dialogue on Miracles, tr. H. von E. Scott and C.S. Bland, 2 vols. (London, 1929)
Calendar of Entries in the Papal Registers Relating to Great Britain and Ireland: Papal Letters (1198–1492), ed. W.H. Bliss and J.A. Twemlow, 14 vols. (London, 1893–1960)
Cambrai: Les chartes de Gérard Ier, Liébert et Gérard II, évêques de Cambrai et d’Arras, comtes du Cambrésis (1012–1092/3), ed. Erik Van Mingroot (Leuven, 2005)
Cambrai: Gesta episcoporum Cameracensium, ed. Ludwig Bethmann, MGH SS, 7 (Hanover, 1846), 393–525
Canterbury: Epistolae Cantuarienses, ed. William Stubbs, Rolls Series, 38 (London, 1865)
Canterbury: The Register of John Pecham, Archbishop of Canterbury 1279–1292, ed. F.N. Davies and Decima Douie, 2 vols., Canterbury and York Society64–5 (London, 1968–9)
Capitula episcoporum, ed. Peter Brommer, Rudolf Pokorny and Martina Stratmann, 4 vols., MGH (Hanover, 1984–2005)
Capitularia regum Francorum, ed. Alfred Boretius, 2 vols., MGH Leges, 2 (Hanover, 1883–97)
Charles the Bald: Recueil des actes de Charles II le Chauve, Roi de France, ed. Georges Tessier, 3 vols. (Paris, Imprimerie nationale, 1943–55)
Chartres: Cartulaire de Notre-Dame de Chartres, ed. Eugène de Lépinois and Lucien Merlet, 3 vols. (Chartres, 1862–5)
Cher: Statistique monumentale du department du Cher, ed. Alphonse Buhot de Kersers, 8 vols. (1875–98)
Chrodegang: S. Chrodegangi Metensis episcopi regula canonicorum, ed. Wilhelm Schmitz (Hanover, 1889)
Chrodegang: The Chrodegang Rules: The Rules for the Common Life of the Secular Clergy from the Eighth and Ninth Centuries, ed. and tr. Jerome Bertram (Aldershot, 2005)
Chrodegang: The Old English Version of the Enlarged Rule of Chrodegang, ed. Brigitte Langefeld, Münchener Universitätsschriften, 26 (Frankfurt am Main, 2003)
La coleccion canonica hispana, IV: Concilios galos; concilios hispanos: primera parte, ed. Gonzalo Martinez Diez and Felix Rodriguez (Madrid, 1984)
Commentarius Cantabrigiensis in Epistolas S. Pauli e Schola Petri Abaelardi, ed. Artur Landgraf, 2 vols. (Notre Dame, IN, 1939–45)
Compiègne: Cartulaire de l’Abbaye de Saint-Corneille de Compiègne, ed. Émile-Épiphanius Morel, Société historique de Compiègne, 3 vols. (Montdidier and Paris, 1904–9)
Concilia Aevi Karolini, ed. Albert Werminghoff, 2 vols., MGH Concilia, 2 (Hanover and Leipzig, 1906)
Concilia Galliae A. 314– A. 506, ed. Charles Munier, Corpus Christianorum Series Latina, 148 (Turnhout, 1963)
Corpus iuris canonici, ed. Emil Friedberg, 2 vols. (Leipzig 1879–81)
Councils and Ecclesiastical Documents Relating to Great Britain and Ireland, ed. Arthur West Haddan and William Stubbs, 3 vols. in 4 (Oxford, 1869–79)
Councils and Synods, with Other Documents Relating to the English Church, I: A.D. 871–1204, ed. Dorothy Whitelock, Martin Brett and C.N.L. Brooke (Oxford, 1981)
Coventry: The Register of Walter Langton, Bishop of Coventry and Lichfield, 1296–1321, ed. J.B. Hughes, 2 vols., Canterbury and York Society, 91 and 97 (London, 2001–7)
David I: The Charters of King David I, ed. G.W.S. Barrow (Woodbridge, 1999)
Dhuoda, Handbook for Her Warrior Son: Liber Manualis, ed. and tr. Marcelle Thiébaux (Cambridge, 1998)
Diplomata: Die Urkunden Friedrichs I., ed. Heinrich Appelt, with Rainer Maria Herkenrath, 5 vols., MGH DD, 10 (Hanover, 1975–90)
Dhuoda, Die Urkunden Heinrichs IV., ed. Dietrich von Gladiss and Alfred Gawlik, MGH Diplomata regum et imperatorum Germaniae, 6 (Berlin, Weimar and Hanover, 1941–78)
Dhuoda, Die Urkunden Konrads III. und seines Sohnes Heinrich, ed. Friedrich Hausmann, MGH Diplomata regum et imperatorum Germaniae, 9 (Vienna, Cologne and Graz, 1969)
Dhuoda, Die Urkunden Lothars III. und der Kaiserin Richenza, ed. Emil von Ottenthal und Hans Hirsch, MGH Diplomata regum et imperatorum Germaniae, 8 (Berlin, 1957)
Dhuoda, Die Urkunden Pippins, Karlmanns und Karls des Großen, ed. Engelbert Mühlbacher, MGH Diplomata Karolinorum, 1 (Hanover, 1906)
Domesday Book, gen. ed. John Morris, 38 vols. (Chichester, 1975–92)
Dunstan: The Early Lives of St Dunstan, ed. Michael Winterbottom and Michael Lapidge (Oxford, 2012)
Durham: Durham Episcopal Charters, 1071–1152, ed. H.S. Offler, Surtees Society, 179 (1968 for 1964)
Eadmer, Historia Novorum, ed. Martin Rule, Rolls Series, 81 (London, 1884)
Early Scottish Charters Prior to A.D. 1153, ed. Archibald C. Lawrie (Glasgow, 1905)
Early Sources of Scottish History, AD 500 to 1286, collected and translated by Alan Orr Anderson, 2 vols. (Edinburgh, 1922, repr. Stamford, 1990)
Eddius Stephanus: The Life of Bishop Wilfrid by Eddius Stephanus, ed. and tr. Bertram Colgrave (Cambridge, 1927)
Edward the Confessor: The Life of King Edward Who Rests at Westminster, ed. Frank Barlow, 2nd edn (Oxford, 1992)
Einhard, Vita Karoli Magni, ed. O. Holder-Egger, MGH SRG, 25 (Hanover and Leipzig, 1911)
English Episcopal Acta, I: Lincoln, 1067–1185, ed. David M. Smith (London, 1980)
English Episcopal Acta, II: Canterbury, 1162–1190, ed. C.R. Cheney and Bridgett E.A. Jones (London, 1986)
English Episcopal Acta, IV: Lincoln, 1186–1206, ed. David M. Smith (London, 1986)
English Episcopal Acta, V: York, 1070–1154, ed. Janet E. Burton (Oxford, 1988)
English Episcopal Acta, VI: Norwich, 1070–1214, ed. Christopher Harper-Bill (Oxford, 1990)
English Episcopal Acta, VII: Hereford 1079–1234, ed. Julia Barrow (Oxford, 1993)
English Episcopal Acta, VIII: Winchester, 1070–1204, ed. M.J. Franklin (Oxford, 1993)
English Episcopal Acta, IX: Winchester, 1205–1238, ed. Nicholas Vincent (Oxford, 1994)
English Episcopal Acta, X: Bath and Wells 1061–1205, ed. Frances M.R. Ramsey (Oxford, 1995)
English Episcopal Acta, XI: Exeter, 1046–1184, ed. Frank Barlow (Oxford, 1996)
English Episcopal Acta, XV: London, 1075–1187, ed. Falko Neininger (Oxford, 1999)
English Episcopal Acta, XVI: Coventry and Lichfield, 1072–1159, ed. M.J. Franklin (London, 1998)
English Episcopal Acta, XVII: Coventry and Lichfield, 1183–1208, ed. M.J. Franklin (Oxford, 1998)
English Episcopal Acta, XVIII: Salisbury, 1078–1217, ed. B.R. Kemp (Oxford, 1999)
English Episcopal Acta, XX: York, 1154–1181, ed. Marie Lovatt (Oxford, 2000)
English Episcopal Acta, XXIV: Durham, 1153–1195, ed. M.G. Snape (Oxford, 2002)
English Episcopal Acta, XXVI: London, 1189–1228, ed. D.P. Johnson (Oxford, 2003)
English Episcopal Acta, XXVII: York, 1189–1212, ed. Marie Lovatt (Oxford, 2004)
English Episcopal Acta, XXVIII: Canterbury 1070–1136, ed. Martin Brett and Joseph A. Gribbin (Oxford, 2004)
English Episcopal Acta, XXXI: Ely, 1109–1197, ed. Nicholas Karn (Oxford, 2005)
English Episcopal Acta, XXXIII: Worcester, 1062–1185, ed. Mary Cheney, David Smith, Christopher Brooke and Philippa Hoskin (Oxford, 2007)
English Episcopal Acta, XXXV: Hereford, 1234–1275, ed. Julia Barrow (Oxford, 2009)
English Episcopal Acta, XLII: Ely, 1198–1256, ed. Nicholas Karn (Oxford, 2013)
Ennodius: Ennode, Lettres, ed. Stéphane Gioanni, 2 vols. (Paris, 2006–10)
Epistolae Karolini Aevi, ii, ed. Ernst Duemmler, MGH Epp., 4 (Berlin, 1895)
Eusebius, The Ecclesiastical History, ed. Kirsopp Lake and H.J. Lawlor, tr. Kirsopp Lake and J.E.L. Oulton, 2 vols. (Cambridge, MA, 1926–32)
Exeter: Death and Memory in Medieval Exeter, ed. David Lepine and Nicholas Orme, Devon and Cornwall Record Society, new series, 46 (Exeter, 2003)
Facsimiles of English Royal Writs to AD 1100 Presented to V.H. Galbraith, ed. T.A.M. Bishop and Pierre Chaplais (Oxford, 1957)
Felix: Felix’s Life of St Guthlac, ed. and tr. Bertram Colgrave (Cambridge, 1956)
Flodoard, Historia Remensis ecclesiae, ed. J. Heller and G. Waitz, MGH SS, 13 (Hanover, 1881), 405–599
Formulae Merowingici et Karolini Aevi, ed. Karl Zeumer, MGH Leges (Hanover, 1886)
Freising: Die Traditionen des Hochstifts Freising, ed. Theodor Bitterauf, 2 vols. (Munich 1905–9; repr. Aalen, 1967)
Frotharius: La correspondance d’un évêque carolingien: Frothaire de Toul (ca. 813–847), ed. Michel Parisse (Paris, 1998)
Fulbert of Chartres: The Letters and Poems of Fulbert of Chartres, ed. Frederick Behrends (Oxford, 1976)
Galbert of Bruges: Galbert of Bruges, De multro, traditione et occisione gloriosi Karoli comities Flandriarum, ed. Jeff Ryder, Corpus Christianorum, Continuatio Mediaevalis, 131 (Turnhout, 1994)
Galbert: Galbert of Bruges, The Murder of Charles the Good, tr. James Bruce Ross (New York, 1959)
Gellone: Liber sacramentorum gellonensis, ed. A. Dumas, O.S.B., 2 vols., Corpus Christianorum, Series Latina, 159 and 159a (Turnhout, 1981)
Gerard of Brogne: Vita Gerardi abbatis Broniensis, ed. L. de Heinemann, MGH SS, 15, part 2 (Hanover, 1888), 654–73
Gerbert of Aurillac: The Letters of Gerbert with His Papal Privileges as Sylvester II, tr. Harriet P. Lattin (New York, 1961)
Gerhard von Augsburg, Vita Sancti Uodalrici: Die älteste Lebensbeschreibung des heiligen Ulrich, ed. and tr. Walter Berschin and Angelika Häse (Heidelberg, 1993)
Gesetze: Die Gesetze der Angelsachsen, ed. Felix Liebermann, 3 vols. (Halle, 1898–1916)
Gilbert Foliot: Letters and Charters of Gilbert Foliot, ed. Adrian Morey and C.N.L. Brooke (Cambridge, 1967)
Gilbert of Sempringham: The Book of St Gilbert, ed. and tr. Raymonde Foreville and Gillian Keir (Oxford, 1987)
Giraldus Cambrensis, De invectionibus, ed. W.S. Davies, Y Cymmrodor, 30 (1920)
Giraldus Cambrensis, Opera omnia, ed. J.S. Brewer, J.F. Dimock and G.F. Warner, 8 vols., Rolls Series, 21 (London, 1861–91)
Giraldus Cambrensis, Speculum duorum, ed. Yves Lefèvre and R.B.C. Huygens, tr. Brian Dawson, gen. ed. Michael Richter (Cardiff, 1974)
Gloucester: Earldom of Gloucester Charters, ed. R.B. Patterson (Oxford, 1973)
Goslar: Urkundenbuch der Stadt Goslar, ed. Georg Bode and Uwo Hölscher, 5 vols. (Halle, 1893–1922)
Gregory I, Registrum Epistolarum, ed. Paul Ewald and Ludwig Hartmann, 2 vols., MGH Epistolarum, 1–2 (Berlin, 1887–99)
Gregory of Tours, Libri Historiarum X, ed. Bruno Krusch and Wilhelm Levison, MGH SRM, 1, part 1 (Hanover, 1951)
Grenoble: Cartulaires de l’église cathédrale de Grenoble, ed. J. Marion (Paris, 1869)
Guibert de Nogent, Autobiographie, ed. and tr. Edmond-René Labande (Paris, 1981)
Guibert de Nogent, Self and Society in Medieval France, ed. John F. Benton (New York, 1970)
Halberstadt: Urkundenbuch des Hochstifts Halberstadt und seiner Bischöfe, ed. Gustrav Schmidt, 4 vols. (Osnabrück, 1883–9)
Hariulf, Chronique de l’abbaye de Saint-Riquier (Ve siècle–1104), ed. Ferdinand Lot (Paris, 1894)
Henry, Archdeacon of Huntingdon, Historia Anglorum, ed. and tr. Diana Greenway (Oxford, 1996)
Henry the Liberal: Recueil des actes d’Henri le Libéral, comte de Champagne (1152–1181), ed. John Benton and Michel Bur, 1 vol. to date (Paris, 2009)
Henry the Lion: Die Urkunden Heinrichs des Löwen, Herzogs von Sachsen und Bayern, ed. Karl Jordan, MGH Laienfürsten- und Dynastenurkunden der Kaiserzeit, 1 (repr. Stuttgart, 1995; originally 1941–9)
Hereford: Charters of the Earldom of Hereford, 1095–1201, ed. David Walker, Camden Miscellany, 22, Camden Society, 4th series, 1 (1964), 1–75
Hereford: Registrum Thome de Cantilupo, episcopi Herefordensis, AD MCCLXXV–MCCLXXXII, ed. R.G. Griffiths and W.W. Capes, Canterbury and York Society, 2 (London, 1907)
Hereford: Registrum Ricardi de Swinfield, episcopi Herefordensis, A.D. MCCLXXXIII–MCCCXVII, ed. W.W. Capes, Canterbury and York Society, 6 (London, 1909)
Herman of Tournai: Herimanni liber de restauratione monasterii Sancti Martini Tornacensis, ed. Georg Waitz, MGH SS, 14 (Hanover, 1883), 274–317
Herman of Tournai, The Restoration of the Monastery of St Martin of Tournai, tr. Lynn H. Nelson (Washington, DC, 1996)
Herman of Tournai Hermanni monachi, De miraculis S. Mariae Laudunensis: PL 156, 962–1020
Hexham: The Priory of Hexham, Its Chroniclers, Endowments, and Annals, ed. James Raine, I (only one published), Surtees Society, 44 (Durham, 1834 for 1833)
Hildemar: Expositio Regulae ab Hildemaro tradita, ed. Rupert Mittermüller (Regensburg, 1880)
Hildesheim: Die jüngere Hildesheimer Briefsammlung, ed. Rolf de Kegel, MGH, Die Briefe der deutschen Kaiserzeit, 7 (Munich, 1995)
Hildesheim: Urkundenbuch des Hochstifts Hildesheim und seiner Bischöfe, ed. Karl Janicke and Hermann Hoogeweg, 6 vols. (Leipzig, 1896–1911)
Hildesheim: Urkundenbuch der Stadt Hildesheim, I: c.996–1346, ed. Richard Doebner (Hildesheim, 1889, repr. Aalen, 1980)
Hincmar: Hinkmar von Reims, Collectio de ecclesiis et capellis, ed. Martina Stratmann, MGH Fontes iuris Germanici antiqui, 14 (Hanover, 1990)
Hincmar: De ordine palatii, ed. and tr. Thomas Gross and Rudolf Schieffer, MGH Fontes Iuris Germanici Antiqui, 3 (Hanover, 1980)
Hincmar: Die Streitschriften Hinkmars von Reims und Hinkmars von Laon 869–871, ed. Rudolf Schieffer, MGH Concilia, 4, supplementum II (Hanover, 2003)
Hrabanus Maurus, De institutione clericorum, ed. and tr. Detlev Zimpel, Fontes Christiani, 61, i–ii (Turnhout, 2006)
Hrabanus Maurus, De institutione clericorum libri tres, ed. Detlev Zimpel, Beiträge zur mittelalterlichen Geschichte, 7 (Frankfurt am Main, 1996)
Iotsald von Saint-Claude, Vita des Abtes Odilo von Cluny, ed. Johannes Staub, MGH SRG in usum scholarum, 68 (Hanover, 1999)
Isidore, De ecclesiasticis officiis, ed. C.M. Lawson, Corpus Christianorum Series Latina, 113 (Turnhout, 1989)
Isidore, Isidori Hispalensis episcopi etymologiarum sive originum libri XX, ed. W.M. Lindsay, 2 vols. (Oxford, 1911)
Isidore, The Etymologies of Isidore of Seville, ed. and tr. Stephen A. Barney, W.J. Lewis, J.A. Beach and Oliver Berghof (Cambridge, 2006)
Ivo of Chartres, Correspondence, I: 1090–1098, ed. Jean Leclercq (Paris, 1949: only vol. publ.)
Jacques de Vitry: The Historia Occidentalis of Jacques de Vitry: A Critical Edition, ed. John Frederick Hinnebusch, O.P. (Fribourg, 1972)
Jocelin of Brakelond: The Chronicle of Jocelin of Brakelond, ed. H.E. Butler (London and Edinburgh, 1949)
John of Avranches: Le De officiis ecclesiasticis de Jean d’Avranches, archevêque de Rouen (1067–1079), ed. R. Delamare (Paris, 1923)
John Borough (de Burgh), Pupilla Oculi (London, 1510)
John the Deacon: Sancti Gregorii magni vita, a Joanne diacono scripta libris quatuor, PL 75, 59–242
John of Ford: Wulfric of Haselbury, by John, Abbot of Ford, ed. Dom Maurice Bell, Somerset Record Society, 47 (Frome and London, 1933)
John of Saint-Arnoul: La Vie de Jean, abbé de Gorze, ed. and tr. Michel Parisse (Paris, 1999)
John of Salerno: St Odo of Cluny, Being the Life of St Odo of Cluny by John of Salerno and the Life of St Gerald of Aurillac by St Odo, tr. Gerard Sitwell (London, 1958)
John of Salisbury: The Letters of John of Salisbury, ed. W.J. Millor, H.E. Butler and C.N.L. Brooke, 2 vols. (Oxford, 1979–86)
John of Worcester, Chronicle, ed. and tr. R.R. Darlington and Patrick McGurk, 2 vols., in progress (Oxford, 1995–)
Lanfranc: Vita Lanfranci, ed. Margaret Gibson in Lanfranco di Pavia, ed. Giulio D’Onofrio (Rome, 1993), 661–715
Langres: Cartulaire du chapitre cathédral de Langres, ed. Hubert Flammarion, Atelier de recherche sur les textes médiévaux, 7 (Turnhout, 2004)
Laon: Actes des évêques de Laon des origines à 1151, ed. Annie Dufour-Malbezin (Paris, 2001)
Laon: Annales Laudunenses, ed. Oswald Holder-Egger, MGH SS (2) (Hanover, 1888), 15, 1293–5
Le Mans: Cartulaire de l’évêché du Mans 965–1786, ed. Arthur Bertrand de Broussillon, Société des archives historiques du Mans, 9 (Le Mans, 1908)
Le Mans: Chartularium insignis ecclesiae Cenomannensis quod dicitur Liber Albus Capituli, ed. A. Cauvin (Le Mans, 1869)
Le Mans: Geschichte des Bistums Le Mans von der Spätantike bis zur Karolingerzeit: Actus pontificum cenomannis in urbe degentium und Gesta Aldrici, ed. Margarete Weidemann, 3 vols., Römisch-Germanisches Zentralmuseum Monographien, 56, i–iii (Mainz and Bonn, 2002)
Leo IX: Die Touler Vita Leos IX., ed. and tr. Hans-Georg Krause, with Detlev Jasper and Veronika Lukas, MGH SRG, 70 (Hanover, 2007)
Leo IX: La vie du pape Léon IX (Brunon, évêque de Toul), ed. Michel Parisse, tr. Monique Goullet, 2nd edn (Paris, 2009)
Leo IX: The Papal Reform of the Eleventh Century: Lives of Pope Leo IX and Pope Gregory VII, tr. and annotated by I.S. Robinson (Manchester, 2004)
Libelli de lite, ed. Ernst Dümmler, 3 vols., MGH (Hanover, 1891–7)
Libellus de diversis ordinibus et professionibus qui sunt in aecclesia, ed. and tr. Giles Constable and Bernard Smith (Oxford, 1972)
Le Liber Pontificalis, ed. L. Duchesne, 3 vols. (Paris, 1955–7)
Leo IX: The Book of the Pontiffs (Liber Pontificalis): The Ancient Biographies of the First Ninety Roman Bishops to AD 715, tr. Raymond Davis, Translated Texts for Historians, 6 (Liverpool, 1989)
Leo IX: Libri pontificalis pars prior, ed. Theodor Mommsen, MGH Gestorum Pontificum Romanorum, 1 (Berlin, 1898)
Liège: Actes des princes-évêques de Liège: Hugues de Pierrepont, 1200–1229, ed. Édouard Poncelet (Brussels, 1941)
Liège: Cartulaire de l’église Saint Lambert de Liège, ed. Stanislas Bormans, Émile Schoolmeesters and Édouard Poncelet, 6 vols. (Brussels, 1893–1933)
Liège: L’obituaire de Saint-Lambert Liège (XIe–XVe siècles), ed. Alain Marchandisse (Brussels, 1991)
Liège: Jean Paquay, La collégiale Saint-Barthélemy à Liège: Inventaire analytique des chartes, Analecta Ecclesiastica Leodiensis, 1 (Liège, 1935)
Lille: Cartulaire de l’église collégiale Saint-Pierre de Lille, ed. Édouard Hautcoeur, 2 vols. (Lille and Paris, 1894)
Limoges: Actes des évêques de Limoges des origines à 1197, ed. Jean Becquet (Paris, 1999)
Lincoln: The Acta of Hugh of Wells, Bishop of Lincoln 1209–1235, ed. David M. Smith, Lincoln Record Society, 88 (Woodbridge, 2000)
Lincoln: The Registrum Antiquissimum of the Cathedral Church of Lincoln, ed. C.W. Foster and Kathleen Major, 10 vols. in 12, Lincoln Record Society, 27–9, 32, 34, 41–2, 46, 51, 62, 67–8 (Lincoln, 1931–73)
Lincoln: The Rolls and Register of Bishop Oliver Sutton, 1280–1299, ed. R.M.T. Hill, 8 vols., Lincoln Record Society 39, 43, 48, 52, 60, 64, 69, 76 (Lincoln, 1948–86)
Lincoln: Statutes of Lincoln Cathedral, ed. Henry Bradshaw and Christopher Wordsworth, 2 vols. in 3 (Cambridge, 1892–7)
Liverani, Francesco: Spicilegium Liberianum, ed. Francesco Liverani (Florence, 1863)
Llandaff: Llandaff Episcopal Acta, 1140–1287, ed. David Crouch, South Wales Record Society, 5 (Cardiff, 1988)
Llandaff: The Text of the Book of Llan Dâv Reproduced from the Gwysaney Manuscript, ed. J. Gwenogvryn Evans (Oxford, 1893)
London: The Cartulary of Holy Trinity Aldgate, ed. Gerald Hodgett, London Record Society, 7 (London, 1971)
Llandaff: London: Early Charters of the Cathedral Church of St Paul, London, ed. M. Gibbs, Camden Society, 3rd series, 58 (London, 1939)
Llandaff: London: Registrum Statutorum et Consuetudinum Ecclesiae Cathedralis Sancti Pauli Londinensis, ed. W. Sparrow Simpson (London, 1873)
Louis VI, king of France: Recueil des actes de Louis VI, ed. Jean Dufour, 4 vols. (Paris, 1992–4)
Mainz: Mainzer Urkundenbuch, ed. Manfred Stimming and Peter Acht, 2 vols. in 3 (Darmstadt, 1931–71)
Mainz: Monumenta Moguntina, ed. Philipp Jaffé, Bibliotheca rerum Germanicarum, 3 (Berlin, 1866; repr. Darmstadt, 1964)
Marmoutier: Cartulaire de Marmoutier pour le Dunois, ed. Émile Mabille (Châteaudun, 1874)
Marmoutier: Cartulaire de Marmoutier pour le Perche, ed. Philibert Barret (Mortagne, 1894)
Marmoutier: Cartulaire de Marmoutier pour le Vendômois, ed. Charles-Auguste de Trémault (Paris and Vendôme, 1893)
Marmoutier: Le livre des serfs de l’abbaye de Marmoutier, ed. André Salmon (Paris, 1845)
Mediae Latinitatis Lexicon Minus, ed. J.F. Niermeyer and C. van de Kieft, new edn in 2 vols. by J.W.J. Burgers (Leiden, 2002)
Medieval Handbooks of Penance, tr. John T. McNeill and Helena M. Gamer (New York, 1938)
Meinwerk: Vita Meinwerci : Vita Meinwerci episcopi Patherbrunnensis, ed. Franz Tenckhoff, MGH SRG, 59 (Hanover, 1921)
Merton: A.C. Heales, Records of Merton Priory in the County of Surrey (London, 1898)
Minden: Necrologien, Anniversarien- und Obödienzverzeichnisse des Mindener Domkapitels aus dem 13. Jahrhundert, ed. Ulrich Rasche, MGH Libri Memoriales et necrologia, nova series, 5 (Hanover, 1998)
Mittelrhein: Urkundenbuch zur Geschichte der jetzt die preussischen Regierungsbezirke Coblenz und Trier bildenden mittelrheinischen Territorien, ed. H. Beyer, L. Eltester and A. Goerz, 3 vols. (Koblenz, 1860–74)
Monumenta Boica, 60 vols. (Munich, 1763–1956)
Mouzon: Chronique ou livre de foundation du monastère de Mouzon, ed. Michel Bur (Paris, 1989)
Mowbray, Honour of: The Charters of the Honour of Mowbray, 1107–1191, ed. D.E. Greenway (London, 1972)
Namur: J. Barbier, ‘Documents extraits du cartulaire du chapitre de Saint-Aubain, à Namur’, Analectes pour servir à l’histoire ecclésiastique de la Belgique, 5 (1868), 198–204 and 480–91, 6 (1869), 182–203, 7 (1870), 465–6, 9 (1872), 495–501 and 11 (1874), 99–128
Nigel de Longchamp’s Speculum Stultorum, ed. John H. Mozley and Robert R. Raymo (Berkeley, CA, 1960)
Norbert of Iburg: Vita Bennonis II episcopi Osnabrugensis, auctore Nortberto abbate Iburgensi, ed. Harry Bresslau, MGH SRG in usum scholarum, 56 (Hanover and Leipzig, 1902)
Notker, Gesta Karoli Magni, ed. H. Haefele, MGH SRG, new series, 12 (Berlin, 1959)
Obituaires de la province de Sens, ed. A. Molinier and A. Longnon, 4 vols. (Paris, 1902–23)
Odo of Cluny: Odon de Cluny, Vita sancti Geraldi Auriliacensis, ed. and tr. Anne-Marie Bultot-Verleysen, Subsidia Hagiographica, 89 (Brussels, 2009)
Orderic: The Ecclesiastical History of Orderic Vitalis, ed. and tr. Marjorie Chibnall, 6 vols. (Oxford, 1969–80)
Orléans: Cartulaire de Sainte-Croix d’Orléans (814–1300), ed. Joseph Thillier and Eugène Jarry (Orléans, 1906)
Osnabrück: Osnabrücker Urkundenbuch, ed. Friedrich Philippi and Max Bär, 4 vols. (Osnabrück, 1892–1902)
Otto of Freising: Otto and Rahewin, Gesta Friderici I. imperatoris, ed. Georg Waitz and B. de Simson, 3rd edn, MGH SRG, 46 (Hanover, 1912)
Ottonian Germany: The Chronicon of Thietmar of Merseburg, tr. and annotated by David Warner (Manchester, 2001)
Oxford: The Cartulary of the Monastery of St Frideswide at Oxford, ed. S.R. Wigram, 2 vols., Oxford Historical Society, 28, 31 (Oxford, 1895–6)
Paris: Cartulaire de l’église Notre-Dame de Paris, ed. Benjamin Guérard, 4 vols. (Paris, 1850)
Passau: Die Regesten der Bischöfe von Passau, I: 731–1206, ed. Egon Boshof (Munich, 1992)
Passau: Die Traditionen des Hochstifts Passau, ed. Max Heuwieser (Munich, 1930; repr. Aalen, 1969)
Patrick, bishop of Dublin: The Writings of Bishop Patrick, 1074–1084, ed. Aubrey Gwynn, S.J., Scriptores Latini Hiberniae, I (Dublin, 1955)
Paul the Deacon: Pauli Warnefridi liber de episcopis Mettensibus, ed. G.H. Pertz, MGH SS, 2 (Hanover, 1829), 260–8
Peter Abelard: Historia Calamitatum, texte critique avec une introduction, ed. Jacques Monfrin (Paris, 1959)
Peter Abelard: The Letter Collection of Peter Abelard and Heloise, ed. and tr. David Luscombe, after the translation by Betty Radice (Oxford, 2013)
Peter Abelard: The Letters of Abelard and Heloise, tr. Betty Radice, rev. M.T. Clanchy (London, 2003)
Peter of Blois: The Later Letters of Peter of Blois, ed. Elizabeth Revell, Auctores Britannici Medii Aevi, 13 (Oxford, 1993)
Peter of Cluny: Petri Cluniacensis abbatis de miraculis libri duo, ed. Dionysia Bouthillier, CCCM, 83 (Turnhout, 1988), 103 (II, c. 4)
Philip I: Recueil des actes de Philippe Ier, roi de France, ed. Maurice Prou (Paris, 1908)
Poetae latini aevi carolini, I, II, ed. Ernst Duemmler (Berlin 1881, 1884); III, ed. Ludwig Traube (Berlin 1896); IV, i, ed. Paul de Winterfeld (Berlin, 1899); IV, ii, ed. Karl Strecker (Berlin, 1923)
Le pontifical romano-germanique du dixième siècle, ed. Cyrille Vogel and Reinhard Elze, 2 vols., Studi e testi, 226–7 (Vatican City, 1963)
Pseudo-Isidore: Decretales Pseudo-Isidorianae et Capitula Angilramni, ed. Paul Hinschius (Leipzig, 1863)
Reading: Reading Abbey Cartularies, ed. B.R. Kemp, 2 vols., Camden Society, 4th series, 31, 33 (London, 1986–7)
Recueil des actes des ducs de Normandie de 911 à 1066, ed. Marie Fauroux (Caen, 1961)
Recueil des historiens des Gaules et de la France, ed. Léopold Delisle, 24 vols. in 25 (Paris, 1840–1904)
Redon: Cartulaire de l’abbaye de Redon en Bretagne, ed. Aurélien de Courson (Paris, 1863)
Regensburg: Die Traditionen des Hochstifts Regensburg und des Klosters S. Emmeram, ed. Josef Widemann (Munich, 1943, repr. Aalen, 1969)
Regesta Regum Anglo-Normannorum: The Acta of William I (1066–1087), ed. David Bates (Oxford, 1998)
Reginald of Durham: Libellus de vita et miraculis S. Godrici, heremitae de Finchale, auctore Reginaldo monacho Dunelmensi, ed. Joseph Stevenson, Surtees Society, 20 (London and Edinburgh, 1847)
Regino: Reginonis abbatis Prumiensis chronicon cum continuatione Treverensi, ed. Friedrich Kurze, MGH SRG, 50 (Hanover, 1890)
Regino: History and Politics in Late Carolingian and Ottonian Europe: The Chronicle of Regino of Prüm and Adalbert of Magdeburg, tr. Simon MacLean (Manchester, 2009)
Regula Magistri: La règle du maître, ed. Adalbert de Vogüé, with concordance by Jean-Marie Clément, Jean Neufville and Daniel Demeslay, 3 vols., Sources chrétiennes, 105–7 (Paris, 1964–5)
Regularis Concordia: The Monastic Agreement of the Monks and Nuns of the English Nation, ed. and tr. Thomas Symons (Edinburgh and London, 1953)
Rheims: Le polyptyque et les listes de cens de l’abbaye de Saint-Remi de Reims (IXe–XIe siècles), ed. Jean-Pierre Devroey, Travaux de l’Académie de Reims, 163 (Rheims, 1984)
Richard Fitz Nigel: Dialogus de Scaccario by Richard, Fitz Nigel, and Constitutio Domus Regis, ed. and tr. Charles Johnson, with corrections by F.E.L. Carter and D.E. Greenway (Oxford, 1983)
Robert I, king of France: Recueil des actes de Robert Ier et de Raoul, rois de France: 922–936, ed. Jean Dufour (Paris, 1978)
Robert of Arbrissel: Les deux vies de Robert d’Arbrissel, fondateur de Fontevraud, ed. Jacques Dalarun et al. (Turnhout, 2006)
Rodulfus of Cambrai: Vita Lietberti Episcopi Cameracensis auctore Rodulfo monacho S. Sepulcri Cameracensis, ed. A. Hofmeister, MGH SS, 30, ii (Hanover, 1934), 838–68
Ruotger: Ruotgeri vita Brunonis archiepiscopi Coloniensis, ed. Irene Ott, MGH SRG, new series, 10 (Cologne, 1958)
Rupert of Deutz, De divinis officiis, ed. Hrabanus Haacke, Corpus Christianorum, Continuatio Mediaevalis, 7 (Turnhout, 1967)
Sacrorum conciliorum nova et amplissima collectio, ed. Giovanni Domenico Mansi, completed by Louis Petit and Jean-Baptiste Martin, 54 vols. in 59 (repr. Graz 1960–1 from Paris 1901 edition)
St Albans: Anglo-Saxon Charters, XII: Charters of St Albans, ed. Julia Crick (Oxford, 2007)
St Andrews: Liber Cartarum Prioratus Sancti Andree in Scotia, Bannatyne Club (Edinburgh, 1841)
St Benet of Holme, 1020–1210, ed. James West, 2 vols., Norfolk Record Society, 2–3 (London, 1932)
Saint-Bertin: The Annals of St-Bertin, tr. Janet L. Nelson (Manchester, 1991)
St Davids: St Davids Episcopal Acta 1085–1280, ed. Julia Barrow, South Wales Record Society, 13 (Cardiff, 1998)
St Gall: The Plan of St Gall, ed. Walter Horn and Ernest Born, 3 vols. (Berkeley, CA, 1979)
St Gall: Urkundenbuch Sanct Gallen, ed. Hermann Wartmann, 2 vols. (Zürich, 1863–6, repr. Frankfurt am Main, 1981)
Salisbury: Charters and Documents Illustrating the History of the Cathedral, City and Diocese of Salisbury, in the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries, ed. William Henry Rich Jones, RS, 97 (London, 1891)
Salisbury: The Use of Sarum, ed. Walter Howard Frere, 2 vols. (Cambridge, 1898–1901)
Salisbury: Vetus registrum Sarisberiense, ed. W.H. Rich Jones, 2 vols., Rolls Series, 78 (London, 1883–4)
Sarum, see Salisbury
Sherborne: Charters of Sherborne, ed. M.A. O’Donovan, Anglo-Saxon Charters, 3 (Oxford, 1988)
Simund de Freine: Les œuvres de Simund de Freine, ed. John E. Matzke, Société des anciens textes français (Paris, 1909)
Speyer: Urkundenbuch zur Geschichte der Bischöfe zu Speyer, ed. Franz Xaver Remling, 2 vols. (Mainz, 1852–3)
Les statuts synodaux français du XIIIe siècle, ed. Odette Pontal and Joseph Avril, 6 vols. to date (Paris, 1971–2011)
Stephen of Tournai: Lettres d’Etienne de Tournai, ed. Jules Desilve (Valenciennes and Paris, 1893)
Sulpicius Severus: Sulpice Sévère, Vie de Saint Martin, ed. and tr. Jacques Fontaine, 3 vols., Sources chrétiennes, 133–5 (Paris, 1967–9)
Sulpicius Severus: Sulpicii Severi opera, ed. Karl Halm, Corpus Scriptorum Ecclesiasticorum Latinorum, 1 (Vienna, 1866)
Symeon of Durham, Libellus de Exordio atque Procursu istius hoc est Dunhelmensis Ecclesie, ed. and tr. David Rollason (Oxford, 2000)
Symeon of Durham, Symeonis Monachi Opera Omnia, ed. Thomas Arnold, 2 vols., Rolls Series, 75 (London, 1882–5)
Thérouanne: Cartulaires de l’église de Térouane, ed. Théodore Duchet and Arthur Giry, Société des antiquaires de la Morinie (St-Omer, 1881)
Thietmar of Merseburg: Die Chronik des Bischofs Thietmar von Merseburg, ed. Robert Holtzmann, MGH SRG, nova series, 9 (Berlin, 1935)
Thomas Becket: Materials for the History of Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury, ed. James Craigie Robertson, 7 vols., Rolls Series, 67 (London, 1875–85)
Thomas of Monmouth, The Life and Miracles of St William of Norwich, ed. and tr. Augustus Jessopp and M.R. James (Cambridge, 1896)
Troyes: Cartulaire de Saint-Pierre de Troyes. Cartulaire de la collégiale Saint-Urbain de Troyes, ed. Charles Lalore, Collection des principaux cartulaires du diocèse de Troyes, 5 (Paris and Troyes, 1880)
Twelfth-Century English Archidiaconal and Vice-Archidiaconal Acta, ed. B.R. Kemp, Canterbury and York Society, 92 (Woodbridge, 2001)
Two Anglo-Saxon Pontificals (the Egbert and Sidney Sussex Pontificals), ed. H.M.J. Banting, Henry Bradshaw Society, 104 (London, 1989)
Utrecht: Oorkondenboek van het Sticht Utrecht tot 1301, ed. Samuel Muller and Arie Cornelis Bouman, 5 vols. in 7 (Utrecht, 1920)
Utrecht: Het oudste cartularium van het Sticht Utrecht, ed. Samuel Muller (The Hague, 1892)
Verden: Urkundenbuch der Bischöfe und des Domkapitels von Verden, I, ed. Arend Mindermann (Stade, 2001)
Walter Map, De Nugis Curialium: Courtiers’ Trifles, ed. and tr. M.R. James, C.N.L. Brooke and R.A.B. Mynors (Oxford, 1983)
Waltham: The Early Charters of the Augustinian Canons of Waltham Abbey, Essex, 1062–1230, ed. Rosalind Ransford (Woodbridge, 1989)
Waltham: The Waltham Chronicle, ed. and tr. Leslie Watkiss and Marjorie Chibnall (Oxford, 1994)
Warwick: The Cartulary of St Mary’s Collegiate Church, Warwick, ed. Charles Fonge (Woodbridge, 2004)
Wells: Calendar of the Manuscripts of the Dean and Chapter of Wells, 2 vols., Historical Manuscripts Commission (London, 1907–14)
Wells: Historiola de Primordiis Episcopatus Somersetensis, in Ecclesiastical Documents, ed. J. Hunter, Camden Society, 8 (London, 1840)
Westfalen: Westfälisches Urkundenbuch, 11 vols. to date, in progress (Münster, 1847–); Vols. I, II published under the title Regesta historiae Westfaliae: Accedit codex diplomaticus, ed. H.A. Erhard (Münster, 1847–51), III: Die Urkunden des Bisthums Münster 1201–1300, ed. Roger Wilmans (Münster, 1871); IV: Die Urkunden des Bistums Paderborn 1201–1300, ed. Roger Wilmans (Münster, 1874); VI: Die Urkunden des Bisthums Minden vom Jahre 1201–1300, ed. Hermann Hoogeweg (Münster, 1898)
Wibald: Das Briefbuch Abt Wibalds von Stablo und Corvey, ed. Martina Hartmann, with Heinz Zatschek and Timothy Reuter, 3 vols., MGH, Die Briefe der deutschen Kaiserzeit, 9 (Hanover, 2012)
Widric: Widrici vita S. Gerardi episcopi Tullensis, ed. G. Waitz, MGH SS, 4 (Hanover, 1841), 485–505
William of Malmesbury, Gesta Pontificum Anglorum, ed. and tr. Michael Winterbottom, with commentary by R.M. Thomson, 2 vols. (Oxford, 2007)
William of Malmesbury, Saints’ Lives, ed. and tr. Michael Winterbottom and R.M. Thomson (Oxford, 2002)
Winchcombe: Landboc sive Registrum Monasterii Beatae Mariae Virginis et Sancti Cenhelmi de Winchelcumba, ed. David Royce, 2 vols. (Exeter, 1892–1903)
Winchester: The Liber Vitae of the New Minster and Hyde Abbey, Winchester: British Library Stowe 944, ed. Simon Keynes (Copenhagen, 1996)
Winchester: Property and Piety in Early Medieval Winchester: Documents Relating to the Topography of the Anglo-Saxon and Norman City and Its Minsters, ed. Alexander R. Rumble, Winchester Studies 4, iii (Oxford, 2002)
Worms: Die ältere Wormser Briefsammlung, ed. Walther Bulst, MGH, Die Briefe der deutschen Kaiserzeit, 3 (Weimar, 1949)
Wulfstan of Winchester, Life of St Æthelwold, ed. and tr. Michael Lapidge and Michael Winterbottom (Oxford, 1991)
Wulfstan of York (the Homilist): Wulfstan’s Canon Law Collection, ed. J.E. Cross and Andrew Hamer (Cambridge, 1999)
Wulfstan of York (the Homilist): Die ‘Institutes of Polity, Civil and Ecclesiastical’, ed. Karl Jost (Bern, 1959)
Würzburg: Corpus regulae seu kalendarium domus S. Kiliani Wirceburgensis, ed. F.X. Wegele, Abhandlungen der königlichen bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, III Klasse, 13, part 2 (Munich, 1877)
Xanten: Die Stiftskirche des hl. Viktor zu Xanten: Das älteste Totenbuch des Stiftes Xanten, ed. F.W. Oediger (Kevelaer, 1958)
Yonne: Cartulaire général de l’Yonne, ed. Maximilien Quantin, 2 vols. (Auxerre, 1854–60)
York: Historians of the Church of York, ed. James Raine, 3 vols., Rolls Series, 71 (London, 1879–94)

Secondary Works

Abb, Gustav and Gottfried Wentz, Das Bistum Brandenburg, I, Germania Sacra, 1, i (Berlin, 1929)
Abrams, Lesley, ‘The Anglo-Saxons and the Christianization of Scandinavia’, Anglo-Saxon England, 24 (1995), 213–49
Acht, Peter, Die Cancellaria in Metz (Frankfurt am Main, 1940)
Aird, W.M., ‘An absent friend: the career of Bishop William of St Calais’, in Anglo-Norman Durham, ed. David Rollason, Margaret Harvey and Michael Prestwich (Woodbridge, 1994), 283–97
Aird, W.M., ‘The political context of the Libellus de Exordio’, in Symeon of Durham: Historian of Durham and the North, ed. David Rollason (Stamford, 1998), 32–45
Aird, W.M., St Cuthbert and the Normans: The Church of Durham, 1071–1153 (Woodbridge, 1998)
Airlie, Stuart, ‘Bonds of power and bonds of association in the court circle of Louis the Pious’, in Charlemagne’s Heir: New Perspectives on the Reign of Louis the Pious, ed. Peter Godman and Roger Collins (Oxford, 1990), 191–204
Alexander, J.J.G. and M.T. Gibson (eds.), Medieval Learning and Literature: Essays Presented to Richard William Hunt (Oxford, 1976)
Allen, Richard, ‘Five charters concerning the early history of the chapter at Avranches’, Tabularia, 8 (2008), 1–33, published at, consulted 9 September 2013
Althoff, Gerd, ‘Heinrich der Löwe und das Stader Erbe’, Deutsches Archiv, 41 (1985), 66–100
Amiet, Louis, Essai sur l’organisation du chapitre cathédral de Chartres (Chartres, 1922)
Amrhein, August, ‘Reihenfolge der Mitglieder des adeligen Domstiftes zu Wirzburg, St. Kilians-Brüder genannt, von seiner Gründung bis zur Säkularisation 742–1803’, Archiv des historischen Vereines von Unterfranken und Aschaffenburg, 32 (1889), 1–315 and 33 (1890), 1–380
Andenna, Cristina, ‘Kanoniker sind Gott für das ganze Volk verantwortlich’: Die Regularkanoniker Italiens und die Kirche im 12. Jahrhundert, Schriftenreihe der Akademie der Augustiner-Chorherren von Windesheim, 9 (Paring, 2004)
Andrieu, Michel, ‘L’Ordo romanus antiquus et le Liber de divinis officiis du Pseudo-Alcuin’, Revue des sciences religieuses, 5 (1925), 642–50
Anton, Hans Hubert, ‘Liutwin – Bischof von Trier und Gründer von Mettlach (+ um 722). Zugleich ein Beitrag zu dem historischen Wandlungsprozess im ausgehenden siebenten und im frühen achten Jahrhundert’, Zeitschrift für die Geschichte der Saargegend, 38–9 (1990–1), 21–51
Arnoux, Mathieu, Des clercs au service de la réforme: Études et documents sur les chanoines réguliers de la province de Rouen, ed. Mathieu Arnoux, Bibliotheca Victorina, 11 (Turnhout, 2000), 39–55
Arnoux, Mathieu, ‘La réforme de Sainte-Barbe-en-Auge et les débuts du mouvement canonial dans la province de Rouen’, in Des clercs au service de la réforme: Études et documents sur les chanoines réguliers de la province de Rouen, ed. Mathieu Arnoux, Bibliotheca Victorina, 11 (Turnhout, 2000), 11–30
Arnoux, Mathieu, ‘Réforme ecclésiastique et mouvement canoniale’, in Des clercs au service de la réforme: Études et documents sur les chanoines réguliers de la province de Rouen, ed. Mathieu Arnoux, Bibliotheca Victorina, 11 (Turnhout, 2000), 31–69
Arnoux, Mathieu, ‘Réseaux canoniaux’, in Des clercs au service de la réforme: Études et documents sur les chanoines réguliers de la province de Rouen, ed. Mathieu Arnoux, Bibliotheca Victorina, 11 (Turnhout, 2000), 70–105
Asaert, Gustaaf, Willy Buntinx and Jan Albert Van Houtte (eds.), Recht en instellingen in de oude Nederlanden tijdens de middeleeuwen en de nieuwe tijd. Liber amicorum Jan Buntinx (Leuwen, 1981)
Aston, Trevor Henry and Rosamond Faith, ‘The endowments of the university and colleges to circa 1348’, in The History of the University of Oxford, I: The Early Oxford Schools, ed. J.I. Catto, with Ralph Evans (Oxford, 1984), 265–309
Atherton, Ian, Eric Fernie, Christopher Harper-Bill and Hassell Smith (eds.), Norwich Cathedral: Church, City and Diocese, 1096–1996 (London, 1996)
Atsma, Hartmut and Jean Vezin, ‘Le dossier suspect des possessions de Saint-Denis en Angleterre revisité (VIIIe–IXe siècles)’, Fälschungen im Mittelalter, 6 vols. (Hanover, 1988–90), IV, 211–36
Aubrun, Michel, La paroisse en France des origines au XVe siècle (Paris, 1986)
Aylmer, Gerald and John Tiller (eds.), Hereford Cathedral: A History (London, 2000)
Baker, Nigel and Richard Holt, Urban Growth and the Medieval Church: Gloucester and Worcester (Aldershot, 2004)
Baldovin, John F., The Urban Character of Christian Worship: The Origins, Development and Meaning of the Stational Liturgy, Orientalia Christiana Analecta, 228 (Rome, 1987)
Baldwin, John W., The Government of Philip Augustus: Foundations of French Royal Power in the Middle Ages (Berkeley, CA, 1986)
Baldwin, John W., ‘Masters at Paris from 1179 to 1215: a social perspective’, in Renaissance and Renewal in the Twelfth Century, ed. Robert L. Benson and Giles Constable, with Carol D. Lanham (Oxford, 1982), 138–72
Baldwin, John W., Masters, Princes and Merchants: The Social Views of Peter the Chanter and His Circle, 2 vols. (Princeton, NJ, 1970)
Baldwin, John W., Paris, 1200 (Stanford, CA, 2010)
Baldwin, John W., ‘Studium et regnum: the penetration of university personnel into French and English administration at the turn of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries’, Revue des études islamiques, 44 (1976), 199–215
Bandmann, Günter, ‘Die vorgotische Kirche als Himmelsstadt’, Frühmittelalterliche Studien, 6 (1972), 67–93
Bardy, G., ‘Saint Grégoire VII et la réforme canoniale’, Studi gregoriani, 1 (1947), 47–64
Barker, Katherine, David A. Hinton and Alan Hunt (eds.), St Wulfsige and Sherborne: Essays to celebrate the Millennium of the Benedictine Abbey 998–1998, Bournemouth School of Conservation Sciences Occasional Papers, 8 (Oxford, 2005)
Barlow, Frank, The English Church 1000–1066, 2nd edn (London, 1979)
Barlow, Frank, ‘John of Salisbury and his brothers’, Journal of Ecclesiastical History, 46 (1995), 95–109
Barlow, Frank, Thomas Becket (London, 1986)
Barron, Caroline M. and Jenny Stratford (eds.), The Church and Learning in Later Medieval Society: Essays in Honour of R.B. Dobson, Harlaxton Medieval Studies, 11 (Donington, 2002)
Barrow, G.W.S., ‘The clergy at St Andrews’, in G.W.S. Barrow, The Kingdom of the Scots, 2nd edn (Edinburgh, 2003), 187–202
Barrow, G.W.S., The Kingdom of the Scots, 2nd edn (Edinburgh, 2003)
Barrow, G.W.S., ‘The royal house and the religious orders’, in G.W.S. Barrow, The Kingdom of the Scots, 2nd edn (Edinburgh, 2003), 151–68
Barrow, Julia, ‘Athelstan to Aigueblanche, 1056–1268’, in Hereford Cathedral: A History, ed. Gerald Aylmer and John Tiller (London, 2000), 21–47
Barrow, Julia, ‘Bishops and clergy in English, Scottish and Welsh dioceses, 900–1215’, in La pastorale della Chiesa in occidente dall’età ottoniana al concilio lateranense IV, ed. G. Andenna, Atti della quindicesima Settimana