Skip to main content
The Ideology of Failed States
  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Recommend this book

    Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

    The Ideology of Failed States
    • Online ISBN: 9781316816936
    • Book DOI:
    Please enter your name
    Please enter a valid email address
    Who would you like to send this to? *
  • Buy the print book

Book description

What do we mean when we use the term 'failed states'? This book presents the origins of the term, how it shaped the conceptual framework for international development and security in the post-Cold War era, and why. The book also questions how specific international interventions on both aid and security fronts - greatly varied by actor - based on these outsiders' perceptions of state failure create conditions that fit their characterizations of failed states. Susan L. Woodward offers details of international interventions in peacebuilding, statebuilding, development assistance, and armed conflict by all these specific actors. The book analyzes the failure to re-order the international system after 1991 that the conceptual debate in the early 1990s sought - to the serious detriment of the countries labelled failed or fragile and the concept's packaging of the entire 'third world', despite its growing diversity since the mid-1980s, as one.


'The Ideology of Failed States reflects a lifetime of professional engagement with the subject of intervention in weak, war-torn and fragile states. Constructed as an extended critique of the concept of 'state failure', its institutionalisation, and the uses to which the term has been put, mainly by Western governments and Western-dominated institutions, Woodward persuasively and very effectively demonstrates that the concept of state failure is not only conceptually vague but also empirically thin and politically provocative. She has succeeded in lifting what she describes as the 'veil of self-evidence' that typically surrounds the use of the concept in public discourse and, especially, in policy-making circles.'

Mats Berdal - Director of Conflict, Security and Development Research Group (CSDRG), King's College London

'The history of external interventions aimed at 'fixing failed states' is littered with the detritus of repeated failures. In her provocative and persuasively argued new book, political scientist Susan L. Woodward draws on a wealth of empirical research and her own astute observations to skewer the conventional wisdom that has long driven these failures. Her central thesis is that the concept of failed states - a notion whose flaws she authoritatively catalogues - 'is not just a label but an ideology'. Together with its semantic siblings, it spawned both a set of strongly held and unquestioned principles and, most consequentially, a strategic plan of action for putting these principles into practice … Not content with leaving her inquiry to speak for itself or to append to it a set of anodyne policy recommendations, Woodward concludes with a provocation to both the policy and academic worlds to pursue that most elusive but critical of goals - cumulative learning.'

S. Del Rosso - Director, International Peace and Security, Carnegie Corporation of New York

    • Aa
    • Aa
Refine List
Actions for selected content:
Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive
  • Send content to

    To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to .

    To send content to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

    Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

    Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

    Please be advised that item(s) you selected are not available.
    You are about to send:

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

T. Addison and T. Brück , eds. 2009. Making Peace Work: The Challenges of Social and Economic Reconstruction. Houndmills, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.

Olu Ajakaiye and Ali Abdel Gadir Ali . 2009. “Managing Post-Conflict Recovery in Africa: An Overview,” Journal of African Economies 18 (AERC Supplement 1): i3i11 (Based on Plenary Session of African Economic Research Consortium May 2007).

Karen J. Alter and Sophie Meunier . 2009. “The Politics of International Regime Complexity: Symposium,” Perspectives on Politics 7 (1): 1324.

Louise Andersen , Bjørn Møller , and Finn Stepputat , eds. 2007. Fragile States and Insecure People? Violence, Security, and Statehood in the Twenty-First Century. New York, NY, and Houndsmills, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.

Severine Autesserre . 2014. Peaceland: Conflict Resolution and Everyday Politics of International Intervention. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Severine Autesserre . 2010. The Trouble with the Congo: Local Violence and the Failure of International Peacebuilding. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Severine Autesserre . 2009. “Hobbes and the Congo – Frames, Local Violence, and International Intervention in the Congo,” International Organization 63: 249280.

Mohammed Ayoob . 1991. “The Security Problematic of the Third World,” World Politics 43 (2): 257283.

Brendan Ballou . 2014. “Research Article: Why America’s Nation Building Office Failed and What Congress Had to Do With It,” Stability: International Journal of Security and Development 3 (1): Art. 30: 117.

Sultan Barakat and Anna Larson . 2014. “Fragile States: A Donor-serving Concept? Issues with Interpretations of Fragile Statehood in Afghanistan,” Journal of Intervention and Statebuilding 8 (1): 2141.

Sultan Barakat , Sean Deely , and Steven A. Zyck . 2010. “ ‘A Tradition of Forgetting’: Stabilization and Humanitarian Action in Historical Perspective,” Disasters 34 (S3): S297S319.

Robert H. Bates 2008a. When Things Fell Apart: State Failure in Late-Century Africa. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Robert H. Bates 2008b. “State Failure,” Annual Review of Political Science 11: 112.

Anthony Bebbington , Scott Guggenheim , Elizabeth Olson , and Michael Woolcock . 2004. “Exploring Social Capital Debates at the World Bank,” The Journal of Development Studies 40 (5): 3364.

Nora Bensahel . 2007. “Organising for Nation Building,” Survival 49(2): 4376.

Mats Berdal and Spyros Economides , eds. 2007. United Nations Interventionism 1991–2004. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Eva Bertram . 1995. “Reinventing Governments: The Promise and Perils of United Nations Peace Building,” The Journal of Conflict Resolution 39 (3): 387418.

Richard Betts . 1997. “Should Strategic Studies Survive?World Politics 50 (1): 733.

Richard Betts . 1994. “The Delusion of Impartial Intervention,” Foreign Affairs 73 (6): 2033.

Stephen Biddle , Stathis N. Kalyvas , Wendy Brown , and Douglas A. Ollivant . 2008. “Review Symposium: The New US Army/Marine Corps Counterinsurgency Field Manual as Political Science and Political Praxis,” Perspectives on Politics 6 (2): 347360.

Pinar Bilgin and Adam David Morton . 2004. “From ‘Rogue’ to ‘Failed’ States? The Fallacy of Short-termism,” Politics 24 (3): 169180.

Pinar Bilgin and Adam David Morton . 2002. “Historicising Representations of ‘Failed States’: Beyond the Cold-War Annexation of the Social Sciences?Third World Quarterly 23 (1): 5580.

Morten Bøås , and Kathleen M. Jennings . 2007. “‘Failed States’ and ‘State Failure’: Threats or Opportunities?Globalizations 4 (4): 475585.

Morten Bøås , and Kathleen M. Jennings . 2005. “Insecurity and Development: The Rhetoric of the ‘Failed State’,” European Journal of Development Research 17 (3): 385395.

Vesna Bojicic-Dzelilovic . 2002. “World Bank, NGOs and the Private Sector in Postwar Reconstruction,” International Peacekeeeping 9 (2): 8198.

Lisa Bornstein . 2000. “Politics and District Development Planning in Mozambique,” Journal of Contemporary African Studies 18 (2): 243264.

Dawn Brancati and Jack L. Snyder . 2011. “Rushing to the Polls: The Causes of Premature Post-Conflict Elections,” Journal of Conflict Resolution 55 (3): 469492.

Deborah A. Bräutigam and Stephen Knack . 2004. “Foreign Aid, Institutions, and Governance in Sub-Saharan Africa,” Economic Development and Cultural Change 52: (2): 255285.

Derick W. Brinkerhoff and Jennifer M. Brinkerhoff . 2002. “Governance Reforms and Failed States: Challenges and Implications,” International Review of Administrative Sciences 68: 511531.

Risa A. Brooks 2003. “Making Military Might: Why Do States Fail and Succeed? A Review Essay,” International Security 28 (2): 149191.

Jason Brownlee . 2007. “Can America Nation-Build? A Review Article,” World Politics 59: 314340.

Rogers Brubaker and Frederick Cooper . 2000. “Beyond ‘Identity’,” Theory and Society 29: 147.

Michael Brzoska . 2008. “Extending ODA or Creating a New Reporting Instrument for Security-related Expenditures for Development?Development Policy Review 26 (2): 131150.

Christian Bueger and Felix Bethke . 2014. “Actor-networking the ‘Failed State’: An Enquiry into the Life of Concepts,” Journal of International Relations and Development 17: 3060.

Valerie Bunce . 1985. “The Empire Strikes Back: The Evolution of the Soviet Bloc from a Soviet Asset to a Soviet Liability,” International Organization 39 (1): 146.

Craig Burnside and David Dollar . 2000. “Aid, Policies, and Growth,” American Economic Review 90 (4): 847868.

Charles Call and Elizabeth Cousens . 2008. “Ending Wars and Building Peace: International Responses to War-Torn Societies,” International Studies Perspectives 9 (1): 121.

Giovanni Capoccia and R. Daniel Kelemen . 2007. “The Study of Critical Junctures: Theory, Narrative, and Counterfactuals in Historical Institutional Analysis,” World Politics. 59 (3): 341369.

Sonia Cardenas . 2009. “Book Review of Abouharb and Cingranelli Human Rights and Structural Adjustment,” Perspectives on Politics 7 (2): 441442.

David Carment . 2003. “Assessing State Failure: Implications for Theory and Policy,” Third World Quarterly 24 (3): 407427.

Thomas Carothers . 2002. “The End of the Transition Paradigm,” Journal of Democracy 13 (1): 521.

263 Jose Antonio Cheibub and Fernando Limongi . 2002. “Democratic Institutions and Regime Survival: Parliamentary and Presidential Democracies Reconsidered,” Annual Review of Political Science 5: 151179.

Simon Chesterman . 2010. “International Territorial Administration and the Limits of Law: A Review Essay,” Leiden Journal of International Law 23: 437447.

Vasudha Chhotray and David Hulme . 2009. “Contrasting Visions for Aid and Governance in the 21st Century: The White House Millennium Challenge Account and DFID’s Drivers of Change,” World Development 37 (1): 3649.

Christopher Clapham . 1998. “Degrees of Statehood,” Review of International Studies 24 (2): 143157.

Alexander Cooley and James Ron . 2002. “The NGO Scramble: Organizational Insecurity and the Political Economy of Transnational Action,” International Security 27 (1): 539.

Christopher Cramer and Jonathan Goodhand . 2002. “Try Again, Fail Again, Fail Better? War, the State, and the ‘Post-Conflict’ Challenge in Afghanistan,” Development and Change 33 (5): 885909.

Gordon Crawford . 2005. “Evaluating Democracy Assistance: The Inadequacy of Numbers and the Promise of Participation,” in Jeremy Holland with John Campbell , eds., Methods in Development Research: Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches. Warwickshire, UK: ITDG Publishing: 205218.

Gordon Crawford . 2003. “Promoting Democracy from Without – Learning from Within (Part I),” Democratization 10 (1): 7798.

Chester A. Crocker 2003. “Engaging Failed States,” Foreign Affairs 82 (5): 3244.

Carl-Johan Dalgaard and Henrik Hansen . 2001. “On Aid, Growth, and Good Policies,” Journal of Development Studies 37: 1741.

Carl-Johan Dalgaard , Henrik Hansen , and Finn Tarp . 2004. “On the Empirics of Foreign Aid and Growth,” Economic Journal 114 (496): F191F216.

Graciana Del Castillo . 2008b. Rebuilding War-Torn States: The Challenge of Post-Conflict Economic Reconstruction. Oxford and New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Christian Dennys . 2013. “For Stabilization,” Stability: International Journal of Security and Development 2 (1), 1: 114.

Alex De Waal . 2009. “Mission Without End? Peacekeeping in the African Political Marketplace,” International Affairs 85 (1): 99113.

Jeroen De Zeeuw . 2005. “Projects Do Not Create Institutions: The Record of Democracy Assistance in Post-Conflict Societies,” Democratization 12 (4): 481504.

Larry Diamond , Francis Fukuyama , Donald L. Horowitz , and Marc Plattner . 2014. “Reconsidering the Transition Paradigm,” Journal of Democracy 25 (1): 86100.

Jonathan DiJohn . 2010. “The Concept, Causes and Consequences of Failed States: A Critical Review of the Literature and Agenda for Research with Specific Reference to Sub-Saharan Africa,” European Journal of Development Research 22 (1): 1030.

Toby Dodge . 2013. “Intervention and Dreams of Exogenous Statebuilding: The Application of Liberal Peacebuilding in Afghanistan and Iraq,” Review of International Studies, 39: 11891212.

Martin Doornbos . 2006. Global Forces and State Restructuring: Dynamics of State Formation and Collapse. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

Martin Doornbos . 2002. “State Collapse and Fresh Starts: Some Critical Reflections,” Development and Change 33 (5): 797815.

Michael W. Doyle 2010. “A Few Words on Mill, Walzer, and Nonintervention,” Ethics and International Affairs 23 (4): 349369.

Major General (ret’d) John Drewienkiewicz . 2003. “Budgets as Arms Control: The Bosnian Experience,” The RUSI Journal 148 (2): 3035.

William Easterly . 2008. Can the West Save Africa? Working Paper 14363 (September), Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.

268 William Easterly and Tobias Pfutze . 2008. “Where Does the Money Go? Best and Worst Practices in Foreign Aid,” Journal of Economic Perspectives 22 (2): 124 and A1A12.

David M. Edelstein 2004. “Occupational Hazards: Why Military Occupations Succeed or Fail,” International Security 29 (1): 4991.

Stuart Eizenstadt , J. E. Porter , and J.M. Weinstein . 2005. “Rebuilding Weak States,” Foreign Affairs 84 (1): 134146.

Thomas Ertman . 1997. Birth of the Leviathan: Building Sates and Regimes in Medieval and Early Modern Europe. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Peter Evans . 1997. “The Eclipse of the State? Reflections on Stateness in an Era of Globalization,” World Politics 50 (1): 6287.

James D. Fearon and David D. Laitin . 2004. “Neotrusteeship and the Problem of Weak States,” International Security 28 (4): 543.

Thomas Edward Flores and Irfan Nooruddin . 2009. “Financing the Peace: Evaluating World Bank Post-conflict Assistance Programs,” Review of International Organization 4: 127.

Michael W. Foley 2010. “Cautionary Tales: Soft Intervention and Civil Society,” in Matthew Hoddie and Caroline Hartzell , eds., Strengthening Peace in Post-Civil War States: Transforming Spoilers into Stakeholders. Chicago, IL, and London: University of Chicago Press: 163188.

Karsten Friis . 2010. “Peacekeeping and Counter-insurgency – Two of a Kind?International Peacekeeping 17 (1): 4966.

Leslie Gelb . 1994. “Quelling the Teacup Wars: the New World’s Constant Challenge,” Foreign Affairs 73 (6): 26.

271 Carl Gershman . 2008. “A Forward Strategy for Democracy Promotion in 2008 and Beyond: Regaining the Momentum,” Journal of Intervention and Statebuilding 2 (2): 201208.

Nils Petter Gleditsch , Peter Wallensteen , Mikael Eriksson , Margareta Sollenberg , and Håvard Strand . 2002. “Armed Conflict 1946–2001: A New Dataset,” Journal of Peace Research 39 (5): 615637.

Jonathan Goodhand and Mark Sedra . 2013. “Rethinking Liberal Peacebuilding, Statebuilding and Transition in Afghanistan: An Introduction,” Central Asian Survey 32 (3): 239254.

Jonathan Goodhand and Mark Sedra . 2010. “Who Owns the Peace? Aid, Reconstruction, and Peacebuilding in Afghanistan,” Disasters 34 (s1): S78S102 (January; online publication March 2009).

Stuart Gordon . 2010. “The United Kingdom’s Stabilization Model and Afghanistan: the Impact on Humanitarian Actors,” Disasters 34 (S3): S368S387.

Merilee Grindle . 2007. “Good Enough Governance Revisited,” Development Policy Review 25 (5): 553574.

Merilee Grindle . 2004. “Good Enough Governance: Poverty Reduction and Reform in Developing Countries,” Governance: An International Journal of Policy, Administration and Institutions 17: 525548.

Jean-Germain Gros . 1996. “Towards a Taxonomy of Failed States in the New World Order: Decaying Somalia, Liberia, Rwanda, and Haiti,” Third World Quarterly 17 (3): 455471.

Shahar Hameiri . 2007. “Failed States or a Failed Paradigm? State Capacity and the Limits of Institutionalism,” Journal of International Relations and Development 10 (2): 122149.

John J. Hamre and Gordon R. Sullivan . 2002. “Toward Postconflict Reconstruction,” The Washington Quarterly 25 (4): 8596.

S. Hanafi and L. Tabar . 2004. “Donor Assistance, Rent-Seeking and Elite Formation,” in Mushtaq Hussain Khan , ed., with George Giacaman and Inge Amundsen , State Formation in Palestine: Viability and Governance during a Social Transformation. London: RoutledgeCurzon: 215238.

H. Hansen and F. Tarp 2001. “Aid and Growth Regressions,” Journal of Development Economics 64: 547570.

H. Hansen and F. Tarp 2000. “Aid Effectiveness Disputed,” Journal of International Development 12 (3): 375398.

Lotta Harbom and Peter Wallensteen . 2010. “Armed Conflicts, 1946–2009,” Journal of Peace Research 47 (4): 501509.

Barbara Harff . 2003. “No Lessons Learned from the Holocaust? Assessing Risks of Genocide and Political Mass Murder Since 1955,” American Political Science Review 97: 5773.

Caroline Hartzell and Matthew Hoddie , with Molly Bauer . 2010. “Economic Liberalization via IMF Structural Adjustment: Sowing the Seeds of Civil War?International Organization 64: 339356.

Aiden Hehir . 2007. “The Myth of the Failed State and the War on Terror: A Challenge to the Conventional Wisdom,” Journal of Intervention and Statebuilding 1 (3): 307332.

Aiden Hehir and Neil Robinson , eds. 2007. Statebuilding: Theory and Practice. London: Routledge.

J.N.C. Hill 2009. “Challenging the Failed State Thesis: IMF and World Bank Intervention and the Algerian Civil War,” Civil Wars 11 (1): 3956.

Matthew Hoddie and Caroline A. Hartzell , eds. 2010. Strengthening Peace in Post-Civil War States: Transforming Spoilers into Stakeholders. Chicago, IL, and London: The University of Chicago Press.

Michael J. Hogan 1987. The Marshall Plan: America, Britain, and the Reconstruction of Western Europe, 1947–1952. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Tanja Hohe . 2002. “The Clash of Paradigms: International Administration and Local Political Legitimacy in East Timor,” Contemporary Southeast Asia 24 (3): 569589.

J. L. Holagrefe and Robert O. Keohane , eds. 2003. Humanitarian Intervention: Ethical, Legal, and Political Dilemmas. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Sören Holmberg , Bo Rothstein , and Naghmeh Nasiritousi . 2009. “Quality of Government: What You Get,” Annual Review of Political Science 12: 135–61.

Samuel P. Huntington 1993. “The Clash of Civilizations?Foreign Affairs 72 (3): 2249.

Robert Jackson . 1987. “Quasi-States, Dual Regimes, and Neo-classical Theory: International Jurisprudence and the Third World,” International Organization 41: 519549.

Robert H. Jackson and Carl G. Rosberg . 1982. “Why Africa’s Weak States Persist: The Empirical and Juridical in Statehood,” World Politics 35 (1): 124.

Kathleen M. Jennings and Anja T. Kasperson . 2008. “Integrated Missions Revisited: Policy and Practitioner Perspectives,” Special Issue, International Peacekeeping 15 (4): 443452.

Robert Jervis . 2002. “Theories of War in an Era of Leading-Power Peace,” Presidential Address, American Political Science Association, 2001, American Political Science Review 96 (1): 114.

Branwen Gruffydd Jones . 2008. “The Global Political Economy of Social Crisis: Towards a Critique of the ‘Failed State’ Ideology,” Review of International Political Economy 15 (2): 180205.

Jonathan Joseph . 2012. The Social in the Global: Social Theory, Governmentality and Global Politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Stathis N. Kalyvas 2006. The Logic of Violence in Civil War. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

278 Stathis N. Kalyvas and Laia Balcells . 2010. “International System and Technologies of Rebellion: How the End of the Cold War Shaped Internal Conflict,” American Political Science Review 104 (3): 415429.

Seth Kaplan . 2010. “Rethinking State-building in a Failed State,” The Washington Quarterly 33 (1): 8197.

Daniel Kaufmann , Aart Kraay , and Massimo Mastruzzi . 2010. “Response to ‘What do the Worldwide Governance Indicators Measure?’European Journal of Development Research 22 (1): 5558.

279 Mayeul Kauffmann . 2007. “Short Term and Event Interdependence Matter: A Political Economy Continuous Model of Civil War,” Peace Economics, Peace Science and Public Policy 13 (1): Art. 1, 117, The Berkeley Electronic Press.

Edward Keene . 2013. “International Hierarchy and the Origins of the Modern Practice of Intervention,” Review of International Studies 39: 10771090.

Mushtaq H. Khan , with George Giacaman and Inge Amundsen , eds. 2004. State Formation in Palestine: Viability and Governance during a Social Transformation. London: Routledge Curzon.

Gary King and Langzhe Zheng . 2001. “Improving Forecasts of State Failure,” World Politics 53 (4): 623658.

Steven Knack . 2013. “Building or Bypassing Recipient Country Systems: Are Donors Defying the Paris Declaration?” Policy Research Working Paper Series 6423. Washington, DC: The World Bank. Published 2014 in Journal of Development Studies 50 (6): 839854.

Steven Knack and Aminur Rahman . 2007. “Donor Fragmentation and Bureaucratic Quality in Aid Recipients,” Journal of Development Economics 83(1): 176197.

Martin Knoll and Petra Zloczysti . 2012. “The Good Governance Indicators of the Millennium Challenge Account: How Many Dimensions are Really Being Measured?World Development 40 (5): 900915.

Stephen D. Krasner 2005. “The Case for Shared Sovereignty,” Journal of Democracy 16 (1): 6983.

Stephen D. Krasner 2004. “Sharing Sovereignty: New Institutions for Collapsed and Failing States,” International Security 29 (2): 85120.

Stephen D. Krasner 2000. “Wars, Hotel Fires, and Plane Crashes,” Review of International Studies 26 (1): 131137.

Stephen D. Krasner and Carlos Pascual . 2005. “Addressing State Failure,” Foreign Affairs 84 (4): 153163.

Stephen D. Krasner and Jeremy M. Weinstein . 2014. “Improving Governance from the Outside In,” Annual Review of Political Science 17: 123145.

Anthony Lake . 1994. “Confronting Backlash States,” Foreign Affairs 73 (2): 4546.

Tonya Langford . 1999. “Things Fall Apart: State Failure and the Politics of Intervention,” International Studies Review 1 (1): 5979.

Christopher Layne . 2009. “The Waning of US Hegemony – Myth or Reality? A Review Essay,” International Security 34 (1): 147172.

Kristoffer Lidén , Roger MacGinty , and Oliver P. Richmond . 2009. “Introduction: Beyond Northern Epistemologies of Peace: Peacebuilding Reconstructed?International Peacekeeping 16 (5): 587598.

282 Seymour Martin Lipset . 1959. “Some Social Requisites of Democracy: Economic Development and Political Legitimacy,” American Political Science Review 53: 69105.

Michael Lipson . 2007. “Peacekeeping: Organized Hypocrisy?European Journal of International Relations 13 (1): 534.

John Macmillan . 2013. “Intervention and the Ordering of the Modern World,” Review of International Studies 39: 10391056.

Charles S. Maier 1981. “The Two Postwar Eras and the Conditions for Stability in Twentieth-Century Western Europe,” American Historical Review 86 (2): 327352, and “Reply,” 363367.

Sebastian Mallaby . 2002. “The Reluctant Imperialist,” Foreign Affairs 81 (2): 27.

Carrie Manning . 2008. The Making of Democrats: Elections and Party Development in Postwar Bosnia, El Salvador, and Mozambique. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.

James G. March and Johan P. Olsen . 1998. “The Institutional Dynamics of International Political Orders,” International Organization 52 (4): 943969.

Roland Marchal . 2007. “Warlordism and Terrorism: How to Obscure an Already Confusing Crisis? The Case of Somalia,” International Affairs 83 (6): 10911106.

Peter Marsden . 2003. “Afghanistan: The Reconstruction Process,” International Affairs 79 (1): 91105.

Michael Mastanduno . 1998. “Economics and Security in Statecraft and Scholarship,” International Organization 52 (4): 825854.

James Mayall , ed. 1996. The New Interventionism 1991–1994: United Nations Experience in Cambodia, Former Yugoslavia and Somalia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Kenneth Menkhaus . 2006/2007. “Governance without Government in Somalia: Spoilers, State Building, and the Politics of Coping,” International Security 31 (3): 74106.

C. Mercer 2003. “Performing Partnership: Civil Society and the Illusions of Good Governance in Tanzania,” Political Geography 22: 741763.

Joel Migdal . 2001. State in Society: Studying How States and Societies Transform and Constitute One Another. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Jennifer Milliken and Keith Krause . 2002. “State Failure, State Collapse, and State Reconstruction: Concepts, Lessons and Strategies,” Development and Change 33 (5): 753774.

Thandika Mkandawire . 2001. “Thinking about Development States in Africa,” Cambridge Journal of Economics 25 (3): 289313.

M.K. Mlambo , A. B. Kamara , and M. Nyende . 2009. “Financing Post-Conflict Recovery in Africa: The Role of International Development Assistance,” Journal of African Economies 18, AERC Supplement 1: i53i76 (online date May 22, 2009).

Terry Moe . 2005. “Power and Political Institutions,” Perspectives on Politics 3 (2): 215233.

Nadia Molenaers and Leen Nijs . 2009. “From the Theory of Aid Effectiveness to the Practice: The European Commission’s Governance Incentive Tranche,” Development Policy Review 27 (5): 561580.

Ben Moxham . 2005. “The World Bank’s Land of Kiosks: Community Driven Development in Timor-Leste,” Development in Practice 15 (3 and 4): 522528.

Olivier Nay . 2014. “International Organisations and the Production of Hegemonic Knowledge: How the World Bank and the OECD Helped Invent the Fragile State Concept,” Third World Quarterly 35 (2): 210231.

Olivier Nay . 2013. “Fragile and Failed States: Critical Perspectives on Conceptual Hybrids,” International Political Science Review 34 (3): 326341.

Irfan Nooruddin and Joel W. Simmons . 2006. “The Politics of Hard Choices: IMF Programs and Government Spending,” International Organization 60: 10011033.

Douglass C. North 1990. Institutions, Institutional Change, and Economic Performance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

286 Marios Obwona and Madina Guloba . 2009. “Poverty Reduction Strategies during Post-Conflict Recovery in Africa,” Journal of African Economies 18, AERC Supplement 1: i77i98.

John M. Owen , IV. 2002. “The Foreign Imposition of Domestic Institutions,” International Organization 56 (2): 375409.

Roland Paris . 2004. At War’s End: Building Peace after Civil Conflict. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Roland Paris . 2001. “Human Security: Paradigm Shift or Hot Air?International Security 26 (2): 87102.

Roland Paris . 1997. “Peacebuilding and the Limits of Liberal Internationalism,” International Security 22 (2): 5489.

Stewart Patrick . 2011. Weak Links: Fragile States, Global Threats, and International Security. New York, NY: Council on Foreign Relations.

Daniel Philpott . 2001. “Usurping the Sovereignty of Sovereignty?World Politics 53: 297324.

Jan Pronk . 2003. “Aid as Catalyst,” Development and Change 32: 611629.

Adam Przeworski . 1991. Democracy and the Market: Political and Economic Reforms in Eastern Europe and Latin America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Michael Pugh , Neil Cooper , and Mandy Turner , eds. 2008. Whose Peace? Critical Perspectives on the Political Economy of Peacebuilding. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave.

Karen Remmer . 2004. “Does Foreign Aid Promote the Expansion of Government?American Journal of Political Science 48: 7792.

Christian Reus-Smit . 2013. “The Concept of Intervention,” Review of International Studies 39: 10571076.

Condoleeza Rice . 2000. “Campaign 2000: Promoting the National Interest,” Foreign Affairs 79 (1): 4562.

Adam Roberts . 1999. “NATO’s ‘Humanitarian War’ over Kosovo,” Survival 41 (3): 102123.

Adam Roberts and Dominik Zaum . 2008. Selective Security: War and the United Nations Security Council since 1945, Adelphi Paper 47 (395). London: IISS.

William I. Robinson 1996. Promoting Polyarchy: Globalization, US Intervention, and Hegemony. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Dani Rodrik . 1998. “Why Do More Open Economies Have Bigger Governments?Journal of Political Economy 106 (5): 9971032.

Barnett R. Rubin 2007. “Peace Building and State-building in Afghanistan: Constructing Sovereignty for Whose Security?Third World Quarterly 27 (1): 175185.

Barnett R. Rubin 2005. “Constructing Sovereignty for Security,” Survival 47 (4): 93106.

James A. Russell 2005. “Strategy, Security, and War in Iraq: The United States and the Gulf in the 21st Century,” Cambridge Review of International Affairs 18 (2): 283301.

Dankwart A. Rustow 1970. “Transitions to Democracy: Toward a Dynamic Model,” Comparative Politics 2 (3): 337363.

Giovanni Sartori . 1970. “Concept Misformation in Comparative Politics,” American Political Science Review 64: 4: 10331053.

Philippe C. Schmitter and Terry Lynn Karl . 1991. “What Democracy Is … and Is Not,” Journal of Democracy 2 (3): 7588.

Jillian Schwedler . 2002. “Yemen’s Aborted Opening,” Journal of Democracy 13 (4): 4855.

Mark Sedra . 2013. “The Hollowing-out of the Liberal Peace Project in Afghanistan: The Case of Security Sector Reform,” Central Asian Survey 32 (3): 371387.

Robbie Shilliam . 2013. “Intervention and Colonial-Modernity: Decolonizing the Italy/Ethiopia Conflict through Psalms 68:31,” Review of International Studies 39: 11311147.

Stephen John Stedman . 1997. “Spoiler Problems in Peace Processes,” International Security 22: 553.

Hansjörg Strohmeyer . 2001. “Collapse and Reconstruction of a Judicial System: The United Nations Missions in Kosovo and East Timor,” The American Journal of International Law 95 (1): 4663.

Astri Suhrke . 2001. “Peace-keepers as Nation-builders: Dilemmas of the UN in East Timor,” International Peacekeeping 8 (4): 120.

Astri Suhrke . 1999. “Human Security and the Interests of States,” Security Dialogue 30 (3): 265276.

Astri Suhrke and Julia Buckmaster . 2005. “Postwar Aid: Patterns and Purposes,” Development in Practice 15 (6): 737746.

Hung-En Sung . 2004State Failure, Economic Failure, and Predatory Organized Crime: A Comparative Analysis,” Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 41 (2): 111129.

Shahrbanou Tadjbakhsh . 2009. “Conflicted Outcomes and Values: (Neo)Liberal Peace in Central Asia and Afghanistan,” International Peacekeeping 16 (5): 635651.

295 M. A. Thomas 2010. “What Do the Worldwide Governance Indicators Measure?European Journal of Development Research 22 (1): 3154.

Denis M. Tull 2010. “Troubled State-building in the D.R. Congo: The Challenge from the Margins,” Journal of Modern African Studies 48 (4): 643661.

Denis M. Tull 2003. “A Reconfiguration of Political Order? The State of the State in North Kivu (D.R. Congo),” African Affairs 102: 429446.

David H. Ucko and Robert Egnell . 2013. Counterinsurgency in Crisis: Britain and the Challenges of Modern Warfare. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.

Richard Ullman . 1983. “Redefining Security,” International Security 8 (1): 129153.

Jan Vandemoortele . 2009. “The MDG Conundrum: Meeting the Targets Without Missing the Point,” Development Policy Review 27 (4): 355371.

Tuong Vu . 2010. “Studying the State through State Formation,” World Politics 62 (1): 148175.

C. Dale Walton . 2009. “The Case for Strategic Traditionalism: War, National Interest and Liberal Peacebuilding,” International Peacekeeping 16 (5): 717734.

Myron Weiner . 1996. “Bad Neighbors, Bad Neighborhoods: An Inquiry into the Causes of Refugee Flows,” International Security 21 (1): 542.

Michael Woolcock . 2010. “The Rise and Routinization of Social Capital, 1988–2008,” Annual Review of Political Science 13: 469–87.

Susan L. Woodward 2010. “Soft Intervention and the Puzzling Neglect of Economic Actors,’” in Matthew Hoddie and Caroline A. Hartzell , eds., Strengthening Peace in Post-Civil War States: Transforming Spoilers into Stakeholders. Chicago, IL, and London. University of Chicago Press, Ch. 9: 189218.

Susan L. Woodward 2005. “Construire l’État: légitimité internationale contre légitimité nationale?Critique Internationale. Paris 28 (October).

Susan L. Woodward 2001. “Humanitarian War: A New Consensus?Disasters 25 (4): 331344.

Robert Wuthnow . 2010. Be Very Afraid: The Cultural Response to Terror, Pandemics, Environmental Devastation, Nuclear Annihilation, and Other Threats. Oxford and New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Dominik Zaum . 2007. The Sovereignty Paradox: The Norms and Politics of International Statebuilding. Oxford and New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Robert B. Zoellick 2008–2009. “Fragile States: Securing Development,” speech to the International Institute for Strategic Studies, 6th Global Strategic Review Conference, Geneva (September 12, 2008), published in Survival 50 (6) (Dec. 2008–Jan. 2009).


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 6
Total number of PDF views: 148 *
Loading metrics...

Book summary page views

Total views: 522 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 4th July 2017 - 23rd September 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.