Skip to main content Accessibility help
War and the Crisis of Youth in Sierra Leone
  • Cited by 89
  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Buy the print book

Book description

The armed conflict in Sierra Leone and the extreme violence of the main rebel faction - the Revolutionary United Front (RUF) - have challenged scholars and members of the international community to come up with explanations. Up to this point, though, conclusions about the nature of the war are mainly drawn from accounts of civilian victims and commentators who had access to only one side of the war. The present study addresses this currently incomplete understanding of the conflict by focusing on the direct experiences and interpretations of protagonists, paying special attention to the hitherto neglected, and often underage, cadres of the RUF. The data presented challenges the widely canvassed notion of the Sierra Leone conflict as a war motivated by 'greed, not grievance'. Rather, it points to a rural crisis expressed in terms of unresolved tensions between landowners and marginalized rural youth, further reinforced and triggered by a collapsing patrimonial state.


‘This book goes more deeply into an understanding of RUF fighters - their beliefs and their atrocities - than previous studies. It is a very important contribution to our understanding of Sierra Leone and its war.’

David Keen - London School of Economics and Political Science

‘What are the real motivations and goals of rebels that commit atrocities among those for whom they claim to represent? Krijn Peters offers an answer that is as simple as it is profound. Drawing on extraordinary field research in Sierra Leone among former Revolutionary United Front fighters and commanders, Peters finds a deep commitment to an egalitarian millenarian ethos borne of a rejection of a state-sanctioned system of subjugation of young men and women in rural areas. War and the Crisis of Youth in Sierra Leone is among the rare breed of books, essential for scholars and policy analysts, that is sure to make waves for all of the right reasons. It will become a classic for its sober and measured analysis that challenges conventional wisdom and for bringing a critical analysis to bear on the words and actions of members of a violent rebel group.’

William Reno - Northwestern University

‘War and the Crisis of Youth in Sierra Leone is a startling, behind-the-scenes depiction of Sierra Leone’s notorious rebel outfit, the Revolutionary United Front. With compelling clarity and a spotlight on ex-combatant perspectives, Peters challenges readers to set aside easy judgements and take a hard look at thorny wartime realities, including just how a rebel group could be profoundly brutal yet internally coherent. Illuminating links between a predatory prewar society and rationales for predation and misogyny during conflict, Peters leaves the reader with a powerful sense of how and why Sierra Leone’s male youth got caught up in war and what the experience did to them. Strongly and thoroughly recommended.’

Marc Sommers - The Fletcher School, Tufts University

‘War and the Crisis of Youth in Sierra Leone is a work of unique empirical depth and ethnographic knowledge. Peters sheds light on the RUF militia and the role they played during the Sierra Leonean civil war. He illuminates the social logics at play and clarifies the motives behind their constitution, conflict engagement, and conciliation. The book is a crucial contribution to our understanding of one of Africa’s most misunderstood and demonized militias.’

Henrik Vigh - University of Copenhagen

‘War and the Crisis of Youth in Sierra Leone is a welcome addition to the literature on the civil war in this unfortunate land. Not only is this the voice of someone who knows the country and its young people well, but by situating the aetiology of war in terms of a rural crisis as symptomatic of unresolved tensions between landed gerontocracy and déclassé youth, Peters has been able to bring political economy in from the cold, which enabled him to debunk the misguided ‘greed not grievance’ explanation of those intellectually remote from the problems of Sierra Leone. This is invaluable reading for policy makers and all those interested in how a land once described as the ‘Athens of West Africa’ slumped to the poorest of the poor.’

Tunde Zack-Williams - University of Central Lancashire

'… this book is a well-written summary of the debates surrounding the causes of conflict in Sierra Leone, and is a wonderfully rich representative of one camp in the debate.'

Susan Shepler Source: African Affairs

Refine List

Actions for selected content:

Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Save to Kindle
  • Save to Dropbox
  • Save to Google Drive

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.


Abbink, J. 2005. ‘Being young in Africa: the politics of despair and renewal’, in Abbink, J. and Kessel, I. (eds.), Vanguard or Vandals? Youth, Politics and Conflict in Africa, Leiden and Boston, MA: Brill.
Abdullah, I. 1997. ‘Bush path to destruction: the origin and character of the Revolutionary United Front (RUF/SL)’, Africa Development, 22 (3/4): 45–76 (Special Issue: ‘Lumpen Culture and Political Violence: the Sierra Leone Civil War’).
Abdullah, I. (ed.) 2004. Between Democracy and Terror: the Sierra Leone Civil War, Dakar: Council for the Development of Social Science Research in Africa (CODESRIA).
Abdullah, I. and Muana, P.. 1997. ‘The Revolutionary United Front of Sierra Leone (RUF/SL): a revolt of the lumpenproletariat’, in Clapham, C. (ed.), African Guerrillas, Oxford: James Currey.
Abdullah, I., Bangura, Y., Blake, C., Gberie, L., Johnson, L., Kallon, K., Kemokai, S., Muana, P., Rashid, I., and Zack-Williams, A.. 1997. ‘Lumpen youth culture and political violence: Sierra Leonenans debate the RUF and the civil war’, Africa Development, 22 (3/4): 171–215 (Special Issue: ‘Lumpen Culture and Political Violence: the Sierra Leone Civil War’).
Abraham, A. 1975. ‘The pattern of warfare and settlement among the Mende in Sierra Leone in the second half of the nineteenth century’, Kroniek van Afrika, 2: 119–40.
Abraham, A. 1978. Mende Government and Politics under Colonial Rule. Freetown and Oxford: University of Sierra Leone Press and Oxford University Press.
Abraham, A. and Sesay, H.. 1993. ‘Regional politics and social services provision since independence’, in Fyle, C. Magbaily (ed.), The State and the Provision of Social Services in Sierra Leone since Independence, 1961–1991, Dakar: CODESRIA.
Alie, J. 1990. A New History of Sierra Leone, London: Macmillan.
,Amnesty International. 1992. ‘Sierra Leone: the extrajudicial execution of suspected rebels and collaborators’, report, London, 29 April.
,Amnesty International. 1995. ‘Sierra Leone: human rights abuses in a war against civilians’, London, 13 September.
Argenti, N. 2007. The Intestines of the State: Youth, Violence and Belated Histories in the Cameroon Grassfields, Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Arnson, C. and Zartman, W. (eds.) 2005. Rethinking the Economics of War: the Intersection of Need, Creed, and Greed. Washington, DC: Woodrow Wilson Center Press.
Arthy, S. 2003. ‘Ex-combatant reintegration: key issues for policy makers and practitioners based on lessons from Sierra Leone’, unpublished report, Department for International Development, London.
‘Assessment Report of the Sierra Leone Disarmament, Demobilisation, and Reintegration Programme’. 2000. Unpublished report for the Multi-Donor Trust Fund for the Sierra Leone Disarmament, Demobilisation, and Reintegration Programme.
Bangura, Y. 1997. ‘Understanding the political and cultural dynamics of the Sierra Leone war: a critique of Paul RichardsFighting for the Rain Forest', Africa Development 22 (3/4): 117–48 (Special Issue: ‘Lumpen Culture and Political Violence: the Sierra Leone Civil War’).
Bangura, Y. 2000. ‘Strategic policy failure and governance in Sierra Leone’, Journal of Modern African Studies, 38 (4): 551–77.
Bijleveld, C. and Hoex, L.. 2008a. ‘Direct and indirect mortality in Sierra Leone, 1991–2002’, in R. Ratnayake, O. Degomme, C. Altare, and D. Guha-Sapir, with C. Bijleveld, S. Mehlbaum, and L. Hoex, ‘Methods and tools to evaluate mortality in conflicts: critical review, case-studies and applications’, CRED Working Paper No. 237, Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters, Catholic University of Louvain, pp. 18–20.
Bijleveld, C. and Hoex, L.. 2008b. ‘Direct and indirect mortality during the conflict in Sierra Leone 1991–2002’, working paper, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam.
Bledsoe, C. 1980. Women and Marriage in Kpelle Society, Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Bratton, M. and Walle, N.. 1998. ‘Neopatrimonial regimes and political transitions in Africa’, in Lewis, P. (ed.), Africa: The Dilemmas of Development and Change. Boulder, CO: Westview.
Brett, R. and Specht, I. (2004) Young Soldiers: Why They Choose to Fight, Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers and the International Labour Organisation.
Buah, F. K. 1986. A History of West Africa from AD 1000, London: Macmillan.
Chabal, P. and Daloz, J.. 1999. Africa Works: Disorder as Political Instrument, Oxford: James Currey.
Chauveau, J. P. 2005. ‘Les rapports entre générations ont une histoire: accès à la terre et gouvernementalité locale en pays gban (centre-ouest de la Côte d'Ivoire)’, Afrique contemporaine, 214 (2): 59–83.
Cilliers, J. K. 1985. Counter-Insurgency in Rhodesia, London: Routledge.
Clausewitz, C. von. 1968 [1832]. On War (trans. J. J. Graham), Harmondsworth: Penguin Books.
Collier, P. 2001. ‘Economic causes of civil conflict and their implications for policy’, in Crocker, C. A. et al. (eds) Turbulent Peace: The Challenge of Managing International Conflict, Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace.
Collier, P. and Hoeffler, A.. 1999. Loot-Seeking and Justice-Seeking in Civil War, Washington, DC: World Bank, Development Research Group.
Collier, P. and Hoeffler, A.. 2001. Greed and Grievance in Civil War, Washington, DC: World Bank, Development Research Group.
Collins, R. and Makowsky, M.. 1993. The Discovery of Society, fifth edition, New York,McGraw-Hill.
,Conciliation Resources 2000. Paying the Price: the Sierra Leone Peace Process, Issue 9 of Accord, an International Review of Peace Initiatives, London: Conciliation Resources.
Coulter, C. 2009. Bush Wives and Girl Soldiers: Women's Lives through War and Peace in Sierra Leone, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Danner, M. 1993. ‘The truth of El Mozote’, The New Yorker, 6 December 1993,
Davies, R. 1996. ‘The Sierra Leone situation: the spill-over of the Liberian civil war into Sierra Leone: peace-making and peace-keeping possibilities’, report, UN Institute for Training and Research/International Peace Academy, New York, May.
Deluz, A. and Godelier, M.. 1967. ‘A propos de deux textes d'anthropologie économique’, L'Homme, 7: 78–91.
Dingle, R. 1984. ‘Swamp rice development, Sierra Leone: observations and recommendations’, unpublished paper, Food and Agriculture Organisation, Rome.
Dokubo, C. 2000. ‘The Revolutionary United Front: fronting for democracy or fuelling destruction?Nigerian Journal of International Affairs, 26 (2): 1–19.
Dorjahn, V. 1961. ‘The initiation of Temne Poro officials’, Man, 61: 36–40.
Douglas, M. 1987. How Institutions Think. Routledge: London.
Douglas, M. 1993. In the Wilderness: The Doctrine of Defilement in the Book of Numbers, Sheffield: JSOT Press.
Douglas, M. and Ney, S.. 1998. Missing Persons, Berkeley CA: University of California Press.
Dupré, G. and Rey, P.. 1973. ‘Reflections on the pertinence of a theory of the history of exchange’, Economy and Society 2: 131–63.
Durkheim, E. 1964 [1893]. The Division of Labor in Society, New York: Free Press.
Durkheim, E. 1995 [1912]. The Elementary Forms of Religious Life (trans. Karen E. Fields), New York: Free Press.
Ellis, S. 1999. The Mask of Anarchy: the Destruction of Liberia and the Religious Dimension of an African Civil War, London: Hurst and Company.
Fanthorpe, R. 2001. ‘Neither citizen not subject? “Lumpen” agency and the legacy of Native Administration in Sierra Leone’, African Affairs, 100 (400): 363–86.
Fenton, J. S. 1948. Outline of Native Law in Sierra Leone, Freetown: Government Printer.
Ferme, M. C. 2001. The Underneath of Things, Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Finnström, S. 2005. ‘“For God and my life”: war and cosmology in northern Uganda’, in Richards, P. (ed.), No Peace, No War: an Anthropology of Contemporary Armed Conflicts, Oxford: James Currey, pp. 117–36.
Finnström, S. 2006. ‘Meaningful rebels? Young adult perceptions on the Lord's Resistance Movement/Army in Uganda’, in Christiansen, C., Utas, M., and Vigh, H. (eds.), Navigating Youth, Generating Adulthood: Social Becoming in an African Context, Uppsala: The Nordic Africa Institute.
Fithen, C. 1999. ‘Diamonds and War in Sierra Leone: Cultural Strategies for Commercial Adaptation to Endemic Low-Intensity Conflict’, unpublished PhD thesis, University College London.
Fithen, C. and Richards, P. 2005. ‘Making war, crafting peace: militia solidarities and demobilization in Sierra Leone’, in Richards, P. (ed.), No Peace, No War: An Anthropology of Contemporary Armed Conflicts, Oxford: James Currey, pp. 117–36.
Fyfe, C. 1962. A Short History of Sierra LeoneLondon: Longmans.
Gberie, L. (2000) ‘First stages on the road to peace: the Abidjan process (1995–96)’, Accord, an International Review of Peace Initiatives, 9 (Paying the Price: The Sierra Leone Peace Process), London: Conciliation Resources.
Gberie, L. 2005. A Dirty War in West Africa: The RUF and the Destruction of Sierra Leone, London: Hurst and Company.
Gellner, E. 1977. ‘Patrons and clients’ in Gellner, E. and Waterbury, J. (eds.), Patrons and Clientelism in Mediterranean Societies, London: Duckworth.
Getz, T. 2004. Slavery and Reform in West Africa: Toward Emancipation in Nineteenth-Century Senegal and the Gold Coast, Athens, OH: Ohio University Press.
Grace, J. J. 1977. ‘Slavery and emancipation among the Mende in Sierra Leone’, in Miers, S. and Kopytoff, I. (eds.), Slavery in Africa: Historical and Anthropological Perspectives, Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press.
Hoffman, D. 2005. ‘Violent events as narrative blocks: the disarmament at Bo, Sierra Leone’, Anthropological Quarterly, 78 (2): 329–53.
Holsoe, S. E. 1974. ‘The manipulation of traditional political structures among coastal people in western Liberia during the nineteenth century’, Ethnohistory, 21: 158.
Hooper, J. 2002. Bloodsong! First Hand Accounts of a Modern Private Army in Action (including Appendix: Sierra Leone), London: HarperCollins Publishers.
,Human Rights Watch (HRW). 2005. Youth, Poverty and Blood: The Lethal Legacy of West Africa's Regional Warriors, HRW Report, Vol. 17, No. 5(A) (April 2005).
Humphreys, M. and Weinstein, J.. 2004. ‘What the fighters say: a survey of ex-combatants in Sierra Leone, June–August 2003’, CGSD Working Paper No. 20, Columbia University, New York.
,IRIN. 1999. ‘Sierra Leone: IRIN Special Report on Demobilisation [19990713]’,.
Jackson, P. 2007. ‘Reshuffling an old deck of cards? The politics of local government reform in Sierra Leone’, African Affairs, 106 (422): 95–111.
Johnny, M., Karimu, J., and Richards, P.. 1981. ‘Upland and swamp rice farming systems in Sierra Leone: the social context of technological change’, Africa, 51 (2): 596–620.
Jones, A. 1983. From Slaves to Palm Kernels: A History of the Galinhas Country (West Africa) 1730–1890, Wiesbaden: Steiner.
Kandeh, J. 2001. ‘Subaltern terror in Sierra Leone’, in Zack-Williams, T., Frost, D., and Thomson, A. (eds.), Africa in Crisis: New Challenges and Possibilities, London: Pluto Press.
Kaplan, R. D. 1994. ‘The coming anarchy: how scarcity, crime, overpopulation and disease are rapidly destroying the social fabric of our planet’, Atlantic Monthly, February, pp. 44–76.
Kaplan, R. D. 1996. The Ends of the Earth, a Journey at the Dawn of the Twenty-First Century, New York, NY: Random House.
Keen, D. 1994. The Benefits of Famine: A Political Economy of Famine and Relief in South-Western Sudan, 1983–1989, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Keen, D. 1998. ‘The political economy of war’, paper at the Workshop on Economic and Social Consequences of Conflict, Queen Elizabeth House, University of Oxford.
Keen, D. 2003. ‘Greedy elites, dwindling resources, alienated youths: the anatomy of protracted violence in Sierra Leone’, Internationale Politik und Gesellschaft, 2/2003.
Keen, D. 2005. Conflict and Collusion in Sierra Leone, Oxford and Basingstoke: James Currey and Palgrave Macmillan.
Kelsall, T. 2005. ‘Truth, lies and ritual: preliminary reflections on the Truth and Reconciliation Commission in Sierra Leone’, Human Rights Quarterly, 27 (2): 361–91.
Kuper, A. 1999. Culture: The Anthropologists' Account, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Billon, P. 2005. ‘Resource wealth and Angola's uncivil wars’, in Arnson, C. and Zartman, W. (eds.), Rethinking the Economics of War: The Intersection of Need, Creed, and Greed, Washington, DC: Woodrow Wilson Center Press.
MacGaffey, J. 1992. ‘Solving the problems of urban living: opportunities for youth in the second economy’, in d'Ameida-Topor, H., Coquéry-Vidrovitch, C., Goerg, O., and Guitart, F. (eds.), Les Jeunes en Afrique, Paris: Editions l'Harmattan.
Maconachie, R. 2008. ‘New agricultural frontiers in post-conflict Sierra Leone? Exploring institutional challenges for wetland management in the Eastern ProvinceJournal of Modern African Studies, 46 (2): 235–66.
Mamdani, M. 1996. Citizen and Subject: Contemporary Africa and the Legacy of Late Colonialism, London: James Currey.
Marx, K. and Engels, F.. 1955 [1848]. The Communist Manifesto, New York:Harlan Davidson.
McConnan, I. and Uppard, S.. 2001. Children, Not Soldiers: Guidelines for Working with Child Soldiers and Children Associated with Fighting Forces, London: Save the Children.
McIntyre, A. (ed.). 2005. Invisible Stakeholders: Children and War in Africa, Pretoria: Institute for Security Studies.
McIntyre, A., Aning, E., and Addo, P.. 2002. ‘Politics, war and youth culture in Sierra Leone: an alternative interpretation’, African Security Review, 11 (3): 7–15.
Meillassoux, C. 1960. ‘Essai d'interprétation du phénomène économique dans les sociétés traditionelles d'autosubsistance’, Cahiers d'études africaines, 4: 38–67.
,Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 2004. ‘Deelambstbericht, Maart 2004’, report, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, The Netherlands.
Mkandawire, T. 2002. ‘The terrible toll of post-colonial “rebel movements” in Africa: towards an explanation of the violence against the peasantry’, Journal of Modern African Studies 40 (2): 181–215.
Moran, M. H. 2008. Liberia: the Violence of Democracy, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Muana, P. K. 1997. ‘The Kamajoi militia: civil war, internal displacement and the politics of counter-insurgency’, Africa Development, 22 (3/4): 77–100 (Special Issue: ‘Lumpen Culture and Political Violence: the Sierra Leone Civil War’).
Murphy, W. P. 1980. ‘Secret knowledge as property and power in Kpelle society: elders versus youth’, Africa, 50 (2): 193–207.
Murphy, W. and Bledsoe, C.. 1987. ‘Kinship and territory in the history of a Kpelle chiefdom (Liberia)’, in Kopytoff, I. (ed.), The African Frontier: the Reproduction of Traditional African Societies, Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
,National Commission for Disarmament, Demobilisation and Reintegration. 2004. National Commission for Disarmament, Demobilisation and Reintegration, Final Reports,
Olson, M. 1997. ‘The new institutional economics: the collective choice approach to economic development’, in Clague, C. (ed.), Institutions and Economic Development: Growth and Governance in Less-Developed and Post-Socialist Countries, Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Opala, J. 1996. ‘Sierra Leone: a brief overview’, Report to the Japanese Government on the Situation in Sierra Leone, International Crisis Group,
,OTI. 2000. ‘Diamonds and armed conflict in Sierra Leone: proposal for implementation of a new diamond policy and operations’, working paper, USAID Office of Transition Initiatives, Washington, DC,
Outram, Q. 1997. ‘“It's terminal either way”: an analysis of armed conflict in Liberia, 1989–1996’, Review of African Political Economy, 73: 355–71.
,PEA. 1989. Bras, Greens and Ballheads: Interviews with Freetown “Street Boys”', Freetown: People's Educational Association of Sierra Leone.
Peters, K. 2004. Re-examining Voluntarism: Youth Combatants in Sierra Leone, Institute for Security Studies Monograph 100, Pretoria: Institute for Security Studies.
Peters, K. 2006. ‘Footpaths to Reintegration: Armed Conflict, Youth and the Rural Crisis in Sierra Leone’ PhD thesis, Wageningen University.
Peters, K. 2007a. ‘Reintegration support for young ex-combatants: a right or a privilege?’, International Migration, 45 (5): 35–59.
Peters, K. 2007b. ‘From weapons to wheels: young Sierra Leonean ex-combatants become motorbike taxi-riders’, Journal of Peace, Conflict and Development, 10 (March): 1–23.
Peters, K. 2010. ‘Generating rebels and soldiers: on the socio-economic crisis of rural youth in Sierra Leone before the war’, in Knörr, J. and Filho, T. (eds.), The Powerful Presence of the Past: Integration and Conflict along the Upper Guinea Coast, Leiden: Brill.
Peters, K. and Richards, P.. 1998a. ‘Why we fight: voices of under-age youth combatants in Sierra Leone’, Africa, 68 (2): 183–210.
Peters, K. and Richards, P.. 1998b. ‘Jeunes combattants parlant de la geurre et de la paix en Sierra Leone’, Cahiers d'études africaines, 38 (150–2): 581–617.
Peters, K. with Laws, S.. 2003. When Children Affected by War Go Home: Lessons Learned from Liberia, London: Save the Children.
,Physicians for Human Rights (PHR). 2002. ‘War-related sexual violence in Sierra Leone: a population-based assessment’,
Ponchaud, F. 1989. ‘Social change in the vortex of revolution’, in Jackson, K. (ed.), Cambodia 1975–1978: Rendezvous with Death, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Rashid, I. 1997. ‘Subaltern reactions: Lumpens, students and the left’, African Development, 22 (3/4): 19–44 (Special Issue: ‘Lumpen Culture and Political Violence: The Sierra Leone Civil War’).
Rawls, A. 2003. ‘Conflict as a foundation for consensus: contradictions of industrial capitalism in Book III of Durkheim's Division of Labor’, Critical Sociology 29 (3): 295–335.
Reno, W. 1995. Corruption and State Politics in Sierra Leone, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Reno, W. 2003. ‘Political networks in a failing state: the roots and future of violent conflict in Sierra Leone’, Internationale Politik und Gesellschaft, 2/2003: 123– 54.
Rey, P. 1979. ‘Class contradiction in lineage societies’, Critique of Anthropology, 3: 27–79.
Richards, P. 1986. Coping with Hunger: Hazard and Experiment in an African Rice-Farming System, London: Allen and Unwin.
Richards, P. 1996. Fighting for the Rainforest: War, Youth and Resources in Sierra Leone (reprinted with additional material, 1998). Oxford: James Currey.
Richards, P. 1998. ‘Sur la nouvelle violence politique en Afrique: le sectarisme séculier au Sierra Leone’, Politique africaine, 70 (June): 85–103.
Richards, P. 2000. ‘Chimpanzees as political animals in Sierra Leone’, in Knight, J. (ed.), Natural Enemies: People–Wildlife Conflicts in Anthropological Perspective, London: Routledge.
Richards, P. 2002. ‘The political economy of internal conflict in Sierra Leone’, Clingendael Paper, Clingendael Institute, The Hague.
Richards, P. 2005a. ‘Green Book millenarians? The Sierra Leone war from the perspective of an anthropology of religion’, in Kastfelt, N. (ed.), Religion and Civil War in Africa, London: C. Hurst and Company.
Richards, P. 2005b. ‘War as smoke and mirrors: Sierra Leone 1991–2, 1994–5, 1995–6’, Anthropological Quarterly, 28: 377–402.
Richards, P., Abdullah, I., Amara, J., Muana, P., Stanley, E., and Vincent, J.. 1997. ‘Reintegration of war-affected youth and ex-combatants: a study of the social and economic opportunity structure in Sierra Leone’, unpublished report, Ministry of Relief, Rehabilitation, and Reintegration, Freetown.
Richards, P., Bah, K., and Vincent, J.. 2004a. ‘Social capital and survival: prospects for community-driven development in post-conflict Sierra Leone’, Social Development Papers: Community Driven Development/Conflict Prevention and Reconstruction, 12, World Bank, Washington, DC.
Richards, P., Archibald, S., Bah, K., and Vincent, J.. 2004b. ‘Where have all the young people gone? Transitioning ex-combatants towards community reconstruction after the war in Sierra Leone’, unpublished report submitted to the National Commission for Disarmament, Demobilisation, and Reintegration, Government of Sierra Leone.
Riley, S. and Sesay, M.. 1995. ‘Sierra Leone: the coming anarchy?’, Review of African Political Economy, 22 (63): 121–6.
,Revolutionary United Front of Sierra Leone (official name of the RUF). 1989. ‘Basic Document of the Revolutionary United Front of Sierra Leone (RUF/SL): the Second Liberation of Africa’.
,Revolutionary United Front of Sierra Leone (official name of the RUF). 1995. ‘Footpaths to democracy: towards a New Sierra Leone’,
Sadomba, W. 2008. ‘War Veterans in Zimbabwe's Land Occupations: Complexities of a Liberation Movement in an African Post-Colonial Settler Society’, PhD thesis, Wageningen University.
Sesay, M. A. 1993. ‘Interdependence and Dependency in the Political Economy of Sierra Leone’, PhD thesis, University of Southampton.
Shepler, S. 2005. ‘Conflicted Childhoods: Fighting Over Child Soldiers in Sierra Leone’. PhD thesis, University of California, Berkeley.
Siddle, D. 1968. ‘War towns in Sierra Leone: a study in social change’, Africa 38 (1): 47–56.
Skelt, J. 1997. ‘Rethinking Peace Education in War-Torn Societies: A Theoretical and Empirical Investigation with Special Reference to Sierra Leone’, Masters thesis, International Extension College, Cambridge.
Smillie, I., Gberie, L., and Hazleton, R.. 2000. The Heart of the Matter: Sierra Leone, Diamonds and Human Security, Ottawa: Partnership of Africa.
Thompson, M. G., Ellis, R., and Wildavsky, A. (eds). 1990. Cultural Theory. Boulder, CO: Westview.
,Truth and Reconciliation Commission. 2004. ‘Witness to truth: report of the Sierra Leone Truth and Reconciliation Commission’, <>.
,UN Experts. 2000. ‘Report of the Panel of Experts appointed pursuant to the UN Security Council Resolution 1306 (2000), para. 19, in relation to Sierra Leone’, mimeograph, United Nations Organization, December 2000.
Valeton, A. P. 1981. Sierra Leone, ‘s-Gravenhage: Koninklijk Instituut voor de Tropen.
Laan, H. 1965. The Sierra Leone Diamonds: An Economic Study Covering the Years 1952–1961. London: Oxford University Press.
Veale, A. 2003. From Child Soldier to Ex-Fighter: Female Fighters, Demobilisation and Reintegration in Ethiopia, Institute for Security Studies Monograph 85, Pretoria: Institute for Security Studies.
Vigh, H. 2006. Navigating Terrains of War: Youth and Soldiering in Guinea-Bissau, New York, NY and Oxford: Berghahn Books.
Wessells, M. 2006. Child Soldiers: From Violence to Protection, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Wright, C. 1997. ‘Reflections on Sierra Leone’, case study presented at a workshop on educational destruction and reconstruction in disrupted societies (International Bureau of Education and University of Geneva), 15–16 May.
Zack-Williams, A. 1995. Tributors, Supporters and Merchant Capital: Mining and Under-Development in Sierra Leone. Aldershot: Avebury Press.


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Book summary page views

Total views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between #date#. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.