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YIVO and the Making of Modern Jewish Culture
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Book description

This book is the first history of YIVO, the original center for Yiddish scholarship. Founded by a group of Eastern European intellectuals after World War I, YIVO became both the apex of secular Yiddish culture and the premier institution of Diaspora Nationalism, which fought for Jewish rights throughout the world at a time of rising anti-Semitism. From its headquarters in Vilna, Lithuania, YIVO tried to balance scholarly objectivity with its commitment to the Jewish masses. Using newly recovered documents that were believed destroyed by Hitler and Stalin, Cecile Esther Kuznitz tells for the first time the compelling story of how these scholars built a world-renowned institution despite dire poverty and anti-Semitism. She raises new questions about the relationship between Jewish cultural and political work, and analyzes how nationalism arises outside of state power.

Reviews

‘Vilna was the capital of Yiddishland and the YIVO was its crown jewel. This excellent study by Cecile Esther Kuznitz shows how scholars and community activists in interwar Poland overcame daunting challenges to turn the YIVO into a great pillar of Jewish secular culture and scholarship. It is an inspiring and important story.’

Samuel D. Kassow - Trinity College, USA

‘This rich account of the achievements and travails of Yiddish scholarship at its height compels us to rethink Eastern European Jewish culture as a whole. Kuznitz shows us that secular Yiddishism, for all its limits, could also provoke tremendous popular enthusiasm. With her matchless knowledge of the old-new Jewish Vilna in which YIVO took root, she shows us the signal importance of place in Jewish diasporism. And her deep understanding of Polish Jewry’s hopes and woes alike renders her account of YIVO’s struggles to square scholarly integrity with the imperatives of nationalism, socialism, and popular obligation not only thought-provoking, but genuinely moving.’

Kenneth B. Moss - The Johns Hopkins University

‘This long-awaited book by Cecile Esther Kuznitz fills an important piece in the puzzle of the history of modern Jewish scholarship. We now have a full and rich account of the rise, fall, and rise of YIVO, the great center of Yiddish research. Kuznitz makes use of a wide array of sources, including previously inaccessible archives, to trace the intriguing personalities, trying material conditions, and key achievements of YIVO. Above all, she illumines with a commendable mix of empathy and precision YIVO’s pendulous swing between the Scylla of political partisanship and the Charybdis of the ivory tower.’

David N. Myers - University of California, Los Angeles

‘One of Eastern European Jewry’s most important pre-Holocaust institutions has finally found its historian. Cecile Esther Kuznitz comes neither to bury nor to praise YIVO, but rather to tell its story in all its complexity and tragedy. In this fine scholarly and readable work, she brings to life the personalities and politics that animated YIVO’s lofty ambitions: to investigate and at the same time to create the Yiddish-speaking Jewish nation.’

David Rechter - University of Oxford

'This is the story, never told at length before, of YIVO, one of the most significant institutions of Jewish (Yiddish) culture … This scholarly work offers a detailed history.'

Source: The Canadian Jewish News

'Before [Kuznitz's] work there was no comprehensive scholarly biography of this institution in its historical, cultural-historical and political context … This richly detailed and informative book can be used reliably by anyone working on East European Jewish history, Yiddish culture and its transmission.'

Source: Translated from Jiddistik Mitteilungen

'Built upon years of meticulous research and written in precise, clear prose, Kuznitz’s book is a lively work of scholarship about … scholars. She judiciously weighs the YIVO’s many accomplishments against its enormous challenges and makes major contributions to Jewish intellectual history, Yiddish cultural history, and … to the history of Jewish archives and libraries. Her outstanding book would surely have made the YIVO founders, zamlers, and many adherents in the Yiddish nation and beyond, proud.'

Yermiyahu Ahron Taub Source: Association of Jewish Libraries News

'Reading [this book], for the first time one understands in its entirety how the world of YIVO was created and the institute’s immeasurable value for an entire generation of Jews in Eastern Europe … Kuznitz succeeds not only in reconstructing many small pieces of the mosaic of the institute’s history, but … in composing a complete picture of YIVO’s broad impact … [she] has succeeded magnificently in reconstructing a part of this destroyed world and bringing it back into public awareness … This book’s most important contribution is in reminding us of the great vision of diaspora nationalism and its cultural and political relevance for East European Jewry’s path to modernity.'

Elisabeth Gallas Source: translated from Medaon

'… a cogent and beautifully researched account of [YIVO's] beginnings between the World Wars: the act of collecting that was at its core, and the intellectual commitment to reframing Jewish culture that nourished the vision of its founders.'

Source: Forward (forward.com)

'[Kuznitz's] analysis is astute, and her judgments solid and thoughtful. She deserves kudos for having written an exemplary academic study … It is likely to remain indispensable to scholars interested in Yiddish studies, and, more generally, in the development of Jewish studies, for a long time to come.'

Source: East European Jewish Affairs

'[I]nvaluable and engaging … YIVO and the Making of Modern Jewish Culture is essential reading for anyone interested in the history of Yiddishism, the cultural politics of eastern European Jewry, and the development of language-centric nationalism in general.'

Source: Journal of Jewish Languages

'In this superbly written book, Cecile Esther Kuznitz not only shows how Yiddish scholars created a home for their work and for Diaspora Nationalists but also [pays] homage to them, even as she critically examines their work.'

Source: The Russian Review

'Cecile Esther Kuznitz has accomplished a remarkable work of research that reconstructs, through rigorous and thorough analysis of a considerable body of sources … the outstanding figures marking this great intellectual adventure and their major accomplishments, stimulated by an unwavering passion, but also by the sad feeling of the fragility of Jewish destiny and the obsession to safeguard a menaced culture at the edge of a precipice … a learned work, rich in unpublished documents and agreeable to read …'

Source: Translated from Revue des études juives

'This book offers a meticulous examination of the birth of YIVO, the Yiddisher Visnshaftlekher Institut (Yiddish Scientific Institute), and its life in Europe before the Holocaust. The author has made a thorough study of correspondence between the Institute’s founders and supporters, men mostly unknown to modern Yiddishists, as well as relevant periodicals … The book is exhaustive in its explication of YIVO’s life in Europe, bringing all the facts together with notes, a bibliography, and an index … Highly recommended for academic and Yiddish-oriented collections.'

Beth Dwoskin Source: Association of Jewish Libraries News

'Kuznitz’s lucid study demonstrates the importance of YIVO as the first institution ever dedicated to researching the language, history, and culture of the Jews in Eastern Europe and in the countries of their immigration. Her meticulous analysis of YIVO’s surviving institutional records carefully reconstructs the institute’s ambitious emancipatory project of freeing the Yiddish language from its allegedly inferior status as a 'jargon' and bestowing it a respectable place among the European national languages.'

Laura Jockusch Source: The American Historical Review

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Contents

Bibliography

Primary Sources

I. Unpublished Primary Sources

Archives of the YIVO Institute for Jewish Research, New York

  • RG 1: Records of YIVO (Vilna)

    • RG 1.1: YIVO (Vilna): Administration

    • RG 1.2: YIVO (Vilna): Ethnographic Committee

    • RG 1.3: YIVO (Vilna:) Aspirantur

  • RG 4: Autobiographies of Jewish Youth in Poland

  • RG 57: Papers of Nokhem Shtif

  • RG 82: Tcherikower Archive (YIVO, Vilna)

  • RG 100: Records of YIVO (New York)

  • RG 201: Papers of Abraham Liessin

  • RG 227: Papers of Alexander Mukdoni

  • RG 262: Papers of Jacob Mereson

  • RG 271: Papers of Joseph Opatoshu

  • RG 348: Papers of Lucien Wolf and David Mowshowitch

  • RG 540: Papers of Yudel Mark

  • RG 546: Papers of Judah Joffe

  • RG 584: Papers of Max Weinreich

  • Addenda to the following collections (materials brought from Vilnius, Lithuania, in 1995–1996):

    • RG 1.1: YIVO (Vilna): Administration

    • RG 1.1: YIVO (Vilna): Administration, Philological Section

    • RG 1.2: YIVO (Vilna): Ethnographic Committee

    • RG 1.3: YIVO (Vilna): Aspirantur

    • RG 82: Tcherikower Archive (YIVO, Vilna)

    • Lithuanian Central State Archives, Vilnius

  • Collection 53, inventory 23, folder 2150: Documents relating to YIVO’s dealings with Polish government authorities, 1926–1939

Interviews

Victor Erlich. 15 January 1998. Hamden, CT.
Yonia Fain. 13 January 1998. Brooklyn, NY.
Solomon Krystal. 30 April 1997. New York, NY.
Ezekiel Lifschutz. 10 January 1998. New York, NY.
Eliyahu Yones. 2 July 1999. Jerusalem, Israel.

II. Published Primary Sources

YIVO Periodicals

Bibliografishe yorbikher fun yivo (Warsaw: 1928).
Filologishe shriftn (Vilna: 1926–1929).
Heftn far yidisher kunst (Vilna: 1936).
Historishe shriftn (Vilna and Paris: 1929–1939).
Der pinkes (New York: 1927–1929).
Shriftn far ekonomik un statistik (later Ekonomishe shriftn) (Berlin and Vilna: 1928–1932).
Shriftn far psikhologye un pedagogik (Vilna: 1933–1940).
Yedies fun yidishn visnshaftlekhn institut (Warsaw, Vilna, and New York: 1925–present).
Yidish far ale (Vilna: 1938–1939).
Di yidishe ekonomik (Vilna: 1937–1939).
YIVO Annual of Jewish Social Science (later YIVO Annual) (New York: 1946–1996).
Yivo bleter (Vilna and New York: 1931–2003).
Yorbukh fun amopteyl (New York: 1938–1939).

Other Periodicals

Bleter far idisher demografye, statistik, un ekonomik (Berlin: 1923–1925).
Fun noentn over (Warsaw: 1937–1938).
Literarishe bleter (Warsaw: 1924–1939).
Vilner tog (variously Der tog, Unzer tog) (Vilna: 1925–1939).
Yidishe filologye (Warsaw: 1924).
Yunger historiker (Warsaw: 1926–1929).

YIVO Publications

Der alveltlekher tsuzamenfor fun yidishn visnshaftlekhn institut. Vilna: YIVO, 1936.
Der aynheytlekher yidisher oysleyg, materialn un proyektn tsu der ortografisher konferents fun yivo, ershter zamlung. Vilna: YIVO, 1930.
Barikht fun der konferents fun dem yivo. Vilna: YIVO, 1930.
Cahan, Y. L., ed. Yidisher folklor. Vilna: YIVO, 1938.
Dubnow, Simon. Geshikhte fun khsidizm. 2 vols. Vilna: YIVO, 1930–1933.
Etnografishe anketes, heft 1: yontoyvim. Vilna: YIVO, 1928.
Forbaratung vegn dem visnshaftlekhn institut (7–12 oygust 1925, in berlin). Berlin: Organizir-komitet far dem yidishn visnshaftlekhn institut, 1925.
Freud, Sigmund. Araynfir in psikhoanaliz, oytorizirte iberzetsung fun m. vaynraykh. 3 vols. Vilna: YIVO, 1936–1938.
Hersh, Libman. Farbrekherishkeyt fun yidn un nit-yidn in poyln, di farsheydene minim farbrekhns. Vilna: YIVO, 1937.
Hersh, Libman. Yidn-farbrekhers, a paralel tsvishn der yidisher un nit-yidisher farbrekherishkeyt in poyln loyt di ofitsieler poylisher kriminal-statistik. Vilna: YIVO, 1939.
Lestschinsky, Jacob. Vifl yidn zaynen faran oyf der velt? Vilna: YIVO, 1938.
Lestschinsky, Jacob. Der yidisher handl in di shtet fun poyln. Vilna: YIVO, 1938.
Linder, Menakhem. Yidishe vanderungen far di letste 10 yor. Vilna: YIVO, 1938.
Lingvistishe anketes, heft 1: min fun substantiv. Vilna: YIVO, 1928.
Lingvistishe anketes, heft 2: terminologye fun a vogn. Vilna: YIVO, 1938.
Lodzsher visnshaftlekhe shriftn. Łódź: Visnshaftlekher krayz bay der gezelshaft fraynd fun yid visn inst in lodzsh, 1938.
Der matsev fun yidishn shtetl. Vilna: YIVO, 1933.
Onvayzungen far forshung vegn der geshikhte fun yidishe yishuvim. Vilna: YIVO, 1938.
Di organizatsye fun der yidisher visnshaft. Vilna: TSBK and VILBIG, 1925.
Oysleyg takones fun yidish. YIVO: Vilna, 1935.
Spencer, Herbert. Di ershte printsipn, a sistem fun sintetisher filosofye fun herbert spenser, trans. Jacob Mereson. Vilna: YIVO, 1937.
Takones fun yidishn oysleyg. Vilna: YIVO, 1937.
Tcherikower, Elias, ed. Yidn in frankraykh. 2 vols. New York: YIVO, 1942.
Trunk, Isaiah. Geshikhte fun yidn in plotsk, 1237–1657. Warsaw: YIVO, 1939.
Tsvey yor arbet far dem yidishn visnshaftlekhn institut. Vilna: YIVO, 1927.
Dos tsveyte yor aspirantur oyfn nomen fun d”r tsemakh shabad baym yidishn visnshaftlekhn institut. Vilna: YIVO, 1938.
Vos iz azoyns yidishe etnografye? (hantbikhl far zamler). Vilna: YIVO, 1929.
Weinreich, Max. Di shvartse pintelekh, bibliotek fun yivo, populere serye. Vilna: YIVO, 1939.
Weinreich, Max. Der veg tsu undzer yugnt. Vilna: YIVO, 1935.
Yivo-bibliografye 1925–1941. New York: YIVO, 1943.
Der yivo nokh draytsn yor arbet. Vilna: YIVO, 1938.
A yor arbet in der aspirantur afn nomen fun d”r tsemakh shabad baym yidishn visnshaftlekhn institut. Vilna: YIVO, 1937.

Other Published Primary Sources

Abramowicz, Dina, Abraham Brumberg, Eleanor Gordon Mlotek, Gabriel Weinreich, Beatrice Silverman Weinreich, and Joshua A. Fishman. “Zikhroynes vegn d”r maks vaynraykh.” Yivo bleter, new series, III (1997): 328–353.
Abramowicz, Hirsz.Tog ayn tog oys, farhit fun farnikhtung unzer folklor!Vilner Tog, 19 November 1925, 2.
“Aroyslozndik di yivo-bleter.” Yivo bleter I, no. 1 (January 1931): 1–3.
B[ałaban], M[ajer].Kronika, O uniwersytet żydowski.” Nowe Życie 1, no. 1–3 (June–August 1924): 119–121 and no. 4–6 (September–December 1924): 271–274.
Berman, Jacob.Di oyfgabn fun der historisher sektsye fun yidishn visnshaftlekhn institut.” Yunger historiker 1 (1926): 18–20.
Borochov, Ber. “Di bibliotek funem yidishn filolog.” In Shprakh-forshung un literatur-geshikhte, ed. Nachman Meisel, 76–136. Tel Aviv: Peretz-farlag, 1966.
Borochov, Ber. “Gramatishe frumkeyt.” In Shprakh-forshung un literatur-geshikhte, ed. Nachman Meisel, 53–75. Tel Aviv: Peretz-farlag, 1966.
Borochov, Ber. “Di oyfgabn fun der yidisher fililogye.” In Shprakh-forshung un literatur-geshikhte, ed. Nachman Meisel, 367–373. Tel Aviv: Peretz-farlag, 1966.
Brutskus, Boris.The Yiddish Scientific Institute.” B’nai Brith Magazine XLII, no. 8 (May 1928): 254–255.
Bystron, Jan Stanisław.Z nauki żydowskiej.” Przegląd Współczesny 18 (August 1926): 282–285.
Charney, Daniel.Vi azoy bergelson hot mikh gemakht in berlin far a ‘kiever.’” Tog (New York) 17 (January 1953): 5.
Charney, Daniel. Vilne (memuarn). Dos poylishe yidntum 78. Buenos Aires: Tsentral-farband fun poylishe yidn in argentine, 1951.
Dawidowicz, Lucy S. From That Place and Time: A Memoir, 1938–1947. New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 1989.
Dubnov-Erlich, Sophie. The Life and Work of S. M. Dubnov. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1991.
Dubnow, Simon. Dos bukh fun mayn lebn. Vols. 2–3. Buenos Aires: Alveltlekher yidisher kultur kongres, 1962–1963.
Dubnow, Simon.Der itstiker tsushtand fun der yidisher historiografye.” Yivo bleter VIII, no. 4 (December 1935): 289–294.
Dubnow, Simon.Nahpesah ve-nahkorah.” Pardes 1 (1891): 221–242.
Dubnow, Simon. Nationalism and History, ed. Koppel S. Pinson. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society of America, 1958.
Dubnow, Simon.Ob izuchenii istorii russkikh evreev i ob uchrezhdenii russko-evreiskago istoricheskago obshchestva.” Voskhod 4, no. 9 (April–September 1891): 1–91.
Fashizirter yidishizm un zayn visnshaft. Minsk: Belorussian Academy of Sciences, 1930.
“Fun dem organizir komitet far dem visenshaftlekhen idishen institut.” Forverts (New York), 24 October 1925, 6.
“Fun di ‘bleter far yidisher demografye statistik un ekonomik.” Literarishe bleter 31 (5 August 1927): 607.
Glants [Glanz-Leieles], A. “Idishe visenshaft – der ingster tsvayg fun der idisher kultur.” Tog (New York), 16 December 1925, 4.
Golomb, Abraham.Tsi konen undzere shuln antviklen on a hoykhshul?Naye shul 7 (November–December 1922): 92–94.
Golomb, Abraham.Vegn a yidisher hoykhshul.” Kultur 1 (November 1922): 35–37.
Grodzenski, A. I., ed. Vilner almanakh. Vilna: Ovnt Kurier, 1939. Reprint, New York: Moriah Offset, 1992.
H. L.Kronika, O uniwersytet żydowski.” Nowe Życie 1, no. 4–6 (September-December 1924): 271–274.
Kalmanovitch, Zelig.Togbukh fun vilner geto (fragmentn).” Yivo bleter, new series, III (1997): 43–113.
Kalmanovitch, Zelig.Der yivo.” Literarishe bleter 45 (4 November 1932): 720.
Kalmanovitch, Zelig. Yoman be-geto Vilnah u-khetavim min ha-‘izavon she-nimtse’u ba-harisot. Tel Aviv: Moreshet Bet-Edut, 1977.
Kuczynski, Meyer.Oyf a visnshaftlekher yivo-ekspeditsye.” Yivo bleter XLVI (1980): 255–268.
Landau, Musia.Di vos hobn undz gelernt dem alef-beys un nokh mer .…Yerusholaimer almanakh 28 (2008): 233–245.
Landau, Musia. Mit shraybers, bikher un mit … vilne. Tel Aviv: H. Leyvik-farlag, 2003.
Lestschinsky, Jacob. Oyfn rand fun opgrunt, fun yidishn lebn in poyln (1927–1933). Dos poylishe yidntum 21. Buenos Aires: Tsentral-farband fun poylishe yidn in argentine, 1947.
Lifschutz, Ezekiel. “D”r yankev shatski vi ikh hob im gekont.” In Shatski-bukh, ed. Ezekiel Lifschutz, 85–106. New York: YIVO, 1958.
Litvak, A.Vegn a yidishn visnshaftlekhn institut.” Literarishe bleter 52 (30 April 1925): 1–2.
Lunski, Khaykel. Fun vilner geto, geshtaltn un bilder, geshribn in shvere tsaytn. Vilna: Farlag fun dem farayn fun di yidishe literatn un zshurnalistn in vilne, 1920.
Lunski, Khaykel. “Shtrashun bibliotek.” In Unzer tog, spetsiele oysgabe far amerike, 43–45. Vilna: n.p., 1921.
Lunski, Khaykel. “Di shtrashun bibliotek in vilne.” In Vilne: a zamelbukh gevidmet der shtot vilne, ed. Yefim Yeshurin, 273–287. New York: Vilner brentsh 367 arbeter-ring, 1935.
Lunski, Khaykel. Vilner kloyzn, di yidishe gas un der shul-hoyf. Vilna: Farlag fun dem farayn fun di yidishe literatn un zshurnalistn in vilne, 1920.
Mark, Yudel.Di ershte yorn fun yivo (a kapitl zikhroynes).” Di tsukunft 81, no. 2 (April 1975): 130–136.
Mark, Yudel.Nokhem shtif – der initsiator fun yivo.” Davka 3, no. 9–10 (February–April 1952): 93–101.
Meisel, Nachman. Geven a mol a lebn. Dos poylishe yidntum 71. Buenos Aires: Tsentral-farband fun poylishe yidn in argentine, 1951.
Meisel, Nachman.Veln mir lozn untergeyn?Literarishe bleter 13 (1 April 1927): 243.
Mendelsohn, Shloyme.Vegn a hoykh-shul.” Shul un lebn 5 (1 October 1921): 6–7.
Niger, Shmuel. “Gelernte yidn un idishe gelernte,” Tog (New York), 3 October 1925, 4.
Niger, Shmuel. ed. Der pinkes, yohrbukh far der geshikhte fun der yudisher literatur un shprakh, far folklor, kritik un bibliografye. Vilna: Kletskin farlag, 1912/3.
Niger, Shmuel. [A. Vilner]. “Vegen dem rayen tsu shafen a yudishe universitet.” Di yudishe velt 2, no. 1 (April 1914): 126–134.
Ormian, Chaim. “Yidishe psikhologishe un pedagogishe forsharbet in poyln.” In Shriftn far psikhologye un pedagogik, tsveyter band, ed. Leibush Lehrer, 188–212. Vilna: YIVO, 1940.
Pekler, A.Di berliner konferents.” Vilner tog, 6 September 1925, 3.
“Di plener far an institut.” Morgn zhurnal (New York), 12 October 1925, 8.
Reisen, Zalman.D”r m. vaynraykh opgeforn keyn amerike.” Literarishe bleter 9 (1 March 1929): 168.
Reisen, Zalman. ed. Pinkes far der geshikhte fun vilne in di yorn fun milkhome un okyupatsye. Vilna: Yidishe historish-etnografishe gezelshaft oyfn nomen fun sh. an-ski, 1922.
Reisen, Zalman. [Z.R.]. “A yidishe universitet in vilne.” Vilner tog, 5 April 1920, 2.
Reisen, Zalman.Dray yor seminar far yidisher geshikhte.” Yunger historiker 1 (1926): 7–11.
R[ingelblum], E[manuel].An interesanter onheyb.” Literarishe bleter 27 (3 July 1931): 518–519 and 28 (10 July 1931): 534.
Rudawski, Michał. Mój obcj kraj? Warsaw: Agencja Wydawnicza TU, 1996.
Shalit, Moyshe.Der arkhiv fun nokhem shtif.” Literarishe bleter 31 (4 August 1933): 495–496 and 32 (11 August 1933): 512–513.
Shalit, Moyshe. “Di naye historiografye fun vilne.” In Unzer tog, spetsiele oysgabe far amerike, 48. Vilna: n.p., 1921.
Shalit, Moyshe. “Di naye historiografye fun vilne.” In Vilne: a zamelbukh gevidmet der shtot vilne, ed. Yefim Yeshurin, 365–370. New York: Vilner brentsh 367 arbeter-ring, 1935.
Shalit, Moyshe.Nokhem shtif – bal-dimyen.” Literarishe bleter 14 (5 April 1934): 209–211 and 15 (13 April 1934): 229–231.
Shalit, Moyshe. ed. Oyf di khurves fun milkhomes un mehumes, pinkes fun gegnt-komitet ‘yekopo’ in vilne (1919–1931). Vilna: EKOPO, 1931.
Shalit, Moyshe.A pekl briv fun nokhem shtif.” Literarishe bleter 26 (30 June 1933): 422.
Shatzky, Jacob. “Finf un tsvontsik yor yivo.” In Shatski-bukh, ed. Ezekiel Lifschutz, 303–317. New York: YIVO, 1958.
Shneur, Zalman. “Rehov ha-Yehudim be-or ve-tsel.” Introduction to Ein Ghetto im Osten (Wilna), by M. Vorobeichic, 3–7. Zurich: Oreil Fussli Verlag, 1931.
Shpigel, Shimen.Vos s’iz noytik tsu ton.” Literarishe bleter 7 (18 February 1927): 130.
Shtif, Nokhem [Bal-dimyen].Feliton, literatur (siluetn fun romanishes cafe).” Dos fraye vort 5 (1 August 1923): 31–35.
Shtif, Nokhem [Bal-dimyen].Fun nokhem shtifs oytobiografye.” Ed. Moyshe Shalit. Literarishe bleter 33 (18 August 1933): 527–528 and 34 (25 August 1933): 545.
Shtif, Nokhem [Bal-dimyen].Der idisher komunist, di kultur-lige un dos idishe bukh.” Di tsukunft 28, no. 1 (January 1923): 30–34.
Shtif, Nokhem [Bal-dimyen].Oytobiografye fun nokhem shtif.” Yivo bleter V nos. 3–5 (March–May 1933): 195–225.
Shtif, Nokhem [Bal-dimyen]. [Bal-dimyen]. “Der pinkes.” Di yudishe velt 1, no. 2 (February 1914): 247–261 and no. 3 (March 1914): 395–410.
Shtif, Nokhem [Bal-dimyen]. “Vegn a yidishn akademishn institut.” In Di organizatsye fun der yidisher visnshaft, 3–33. Vilna: TSBK and VILBIG, 1925.
Shtif, Nokhem [Bal-dimyen]. [Bal-dimyen]. “Der yidisher visnshaftlekher institut, a yor arbet.” Varshever shriftn 1926–1927: 2–15.
Sprawozdanie Instytutu Nauk Judaistycznych w Warszawie za Lata Akademickie 1927/8–1928/9. Warsaw: Spoldruk, 1929.
Sutzkever, Abraham. “A vort tsum zekhtsikstn yoyvl fun yivo.” In Baym leyenen penimer, ed. Abraham Novershtern, 205–211. Jerusalem: Hebrew University, 1993.
Szabad, Tsemakh and Moyshe Shalit, ed. Vilner zamelbukh. 2 vols. Vilna: N. Rosental, 1916–1918.
Szyk, Zalman. 1000 yor vilne. Vilna: Gezelshaft far landkentenish in poyln, vilner opteylung, 1939.
Tcherikower, Elias.Tsu der geshikhte fun a gelungenem pruv.” Literarishe bleter 13 (28 March 1930): 237–239.
Tsivyon [Ben-Zion Hofman]. “Idishe interesen.” Forverts (New York), 21 November 1925, 3.
“Tsu ale yidishe filologn!” Vilner tog, 13 May 1923, 3.
Unzer tog, spetsiele oysgabe far amerike. Vilna: n.p., 1921.
Urinski, G., M. Wolanski, and N. Zukerman, ed. Pinkes fun der shtot pruzshene. Prużana: Wydawnictwo “Pinkos,” 1930.
“Vegen idishen institut.” Morgn zhurnal (New York), 19 November 1925, 6.
“Vilner tezisn vegn a yidishn visnshaftlekhn institut.” In Di organizatsye fun der yidisher visnshaft, 34–39. Vilna: TSBK and VILBIG, 1925.
Weichert, Michael.Yidishe akademye.” Literarishe bleter 70 (4 September 1925): 65–66.
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