Skip to main content Accessibility help
YIVO and the Making of Modern Jewish Culture
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 9
  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Buy the print book

Book description

This book is the first history of YIVO, the original center for Yiddish scholarship. Founded by a group of Eastern European intellectuals after World War I, YIVO became both the apex of secular Yiddish culture and the premier institution of Diaspora Nationalism, which fought for Jewish rights throughout the world at a time of rising anti-Semitism. From its headquarters in Vilna, Lithuania, YIVO tried to balance scholarly objectivity with its commitment to the Jewish masses. Using newly recovered documents that were believed destroyed by Hitler and Stalin, Cecile Esther Kuznitz tells for the first time the compelling story of how these scholars built a world-renowned institution despite dire poverty and anti-Semitism. She raises new questions about the relationship between Jewish cultural and political work, and analyzes how nationalism arises outside of state power.


‘Vilna was the capital of Yiddishland and the YIVO was its crown jewel. This excellent study by Cecile Esther Kuznitz shows how scholars and community activists in interwar Poland overcame daunting challenges to turn the YIVO into a great pillar of Jewish secular culture and scholarship. It is an inspiring and important story.’

Samuel D. Kassow - Trinity College, USA

‘This rich account of the achievements and travails of Yiddish scholarship at its height compels us to rethink Eastern European Jewish culture as a whole. Kuznitz shows us that secular Yiddishism, for all its limits, could also provoke tremendous popular enthusiasm. With her matchless knowledge of the old-new Jewish Vilna in which YIVO took root, she shows us the signal importance of place in Jewish diasporism. And her deep understanding of Polish Jewry’s hopes and woes alike renders her account of YIVO’s struggles to square scholarly integrity with the imperatives of nationalism, socialism, and popular obligation not only thought-provoking, but genuinely moving.’

Kenneth B. Moss - The Johns Hopkins University

‘This long-awaited book by Cecile Esther Kuznitz fills an important piece in the puzzle of the history of modern Jewish scholarship. We now have a full and rich account of the rise, fall, and rise of YIVO, the great center of Yiddish research. Kuznitz makes use of a wide array of sources, including previously inaccessible archives, to trace the intriguing personalities, trying material conditions, and key achievements of YIVO. Above all, she illumines with a commendable mix of empathy and precision YIVO’s pendulous swing between the Scylla of political partisanship and the Charybdis of the ivory tower.’

David N. Myers - University of California, Los Angeles

‘One of Eastern European Jewry’s most important pre-Holocaust institutions has finally found its historian. Cecile Esther Kuznitz comes neither to bury nor to praise YIVO, but rather to tell its story in all its complexity and tragedy. In this fine scholarly and readable work, she brings to life the personalities and politics that animated YIVO’s lofty ambitions: to investigate and at the same time to create the Yiddish-speaking Jewish nation.’

David Rechter - University of Oxford

'This is the story, never told at length before, of YIVO, one of the most significant institutions of Jewish (Yiddish) culture … This scholarly work offers a detailed history.'

Source: The Canadian Jewish News

'Before [Kuznitz's] work there was no comprehensive scholarly biography of this institution in its historical, cultural-historical and political context … This richly detailed and informative book can be used reliably by anyone working on East European Jewish history, Yiddish culture and its transmission.'

Source: Translated from Jiddistik Mitteilungen

'Built upon years of meticulous research and written in precise, clear prose, Kuznitz’s book is a lively work of scholarship about … scholars. She judiciously weighs the YIVO’s many accomplishments against its enormous challenges and makes major contributions to Jewish intellectual history, Yiddish cultural history, and … to the history of Jewish archives and libraries. Her outstanding book would surely have made the YIVO founders, zamlers, and many adherents in the Yiddish nation and beyond, proud.'

Yermiyahu Ahron Taub Source: Association of Jewish Libraries News

'Reading [this book], for the first time one understands in its entirety how the world of YIVO was created and the institute’s immeasurable value for an entire generation of Jews in Eastern Europe … Kuznitz succeeds not only in reconstructing many small pieces of the mosaic of the institute’s history, but … in composing a complete picture of YIVO’s broad impact … [she] has succeeded magnificently in reconstructing a part of this destroyed world and bringing it back into public awareness … This book’s most important contribution is in reminding us of the great vision of diaspora nationalism and its cultural and political relevance for East European Jewry’s path to modernity.'

Elisabeth Gallas Source: translated from Medaon

'… a cogent and beautifully researched account of [YIVO's] beginnings between the World Wars: the act of collecting that was at its core, and the intellectual commitment to reframing Jewish culture that nourished the vision of its founders.'

Source: Forward (

'[Kuznitz's] analysis is astute, and her judgments solid and thoughtful. She deserves kudos for having written an exemplary academic study … It is likely to remain indispensable to scholars interested in Yiddish studies, and, more generally, in the development of Jewish studies, for a long time to come.'

Source: East European Jewish Affairs

'[I]nvaluable and engaging … YIVO and the Making of Modern Jewish Culture is essential reading for anyone interested in the history of Yiddishism, the cultural politics of eastern European Jewry, and the development of language-centric nationalism in general.'

Source: Journal of Jewish Languages

'In this superbly written book, Cecile Esther Kuznitz not only shows how Yiddish scholars created a home for their work and for Diaspora Nationalists but also [pays] homage to them, even as she critically examines their work.'

Source: The Russian Review

'Cecile Esther Kuznitz has accomplished a remarkable work of research that reconstructs, through rigorous and thorough analysis of a considerable body of sources … the outstanding figures marking this great intellectual adventure and their major accomplishments, stimulated by an unwavering passion, but also by the sad feeling of the fragility of Jewish destiny and the obsession to safeguard a menaced culture at the edge of a precipice … a learned work, rich in unpublished documents and agreeable to read …'

Source: Translated from Revue des études juives

'This book offers a meticulous examination of the birth of YIVO, the Yiddisher Visnshaftlekher Institut (Yiddish Scientific Institute), and its life in Europe before the Holocaust. The author has made a thorough study of correspondence between the Institute’s founders and supporters, men mostly unknown to modern Yiddishists, as well as relevant periodicals … The book is exhaustive in its explication of YIVO’s life in Europe, bringing all the facts together with notes, a bibliography, and an index … Highly recommended for academic and Yiddish-oriented collections.'

Beth Dwoskin Source: Association of Jewish Libraries News

'Kuznitz’s lucid study demonstrates the importance of YIVO as the first institution ever dedicated to researching the language, history, and culture of the Jews in Eastern Europe and in the countries of their immigration. Her meticulous analysis of YIVO’s surviving institutional records carefully reconstructs the institute’s ambitious emancipatory project of freeing the Yiddish language from its allegedly inferior status as a 'jargon' and bestowing it a respectable place among the European national languages.'

Laura Jockusch Source: The American Historical Review

Refine List

Actions for selected content:

Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.



Primary Sources

I. Unpublished Primary Sources

Archives of the YIVO Institute for Jewish Research, New York

  • RG 1: Records of YIVO (Vilna)

    • RG 1.1: YIVO (Vilna): Administration

    • RG 1.2: YIVO (Vilna): Ethnographic Committee

    • RG 1.3: YIVO (Vilna:) Aspirantur

  • RG 4: Autobiographies of Jewish Youth in Poland

  • RG 57: Papers of Nokhem Shtif

  • RG 82: Tcherikower Archive (YIVO, Vilna)

  • RG 100: Records of YIVO (New York)

  • RG 201: Papers of Abraham Liessin

  • RG 227: Papers of Alexander Mukdoni

  • RG 262: Papers of Jacob Mereson

  • RG 271: Papers of Joseph Opatoshu

  • RG 348: Papers of Lucien Wolf and David Mowshowitch

  • RG 540: Papers of Yudel Mark

  • RG 546: Papers of Judah Joffe

  • RG 584: Papers of Max Weinreich

  • Addenda to the following collections (materials brought from Vilnius, Lithuania, in 1995–1996):

    • RG 1.1: YIVO (Vilna): Administration

    • RG 1.1: YIVO (Vilna): Administration, Philological Section

    • RG 1.2: YIVO (Vilna): Ethnographic Committee

    • RG 1.3: YIVO (Vilna): Aspirantur

    • RG 82: Tcherikower Archive (YIVO, Vilna)

    • Lithuanian Central State Archives, Vilnius

  • Collection 53, inventory 23, folder 2150: Documents relating to YIVO’s dealings with Polish government authorities, 1926–1939


Victor Erlich. 15 January 1998. Hamden, CT.
Yonia Fain. 13 January 1998. Brooklyn, NY.
Solomon Krystal. 30 April 1997. New York, NY.
Ezekiel Lifschutz. 10 January 1998. New York, NY.
Eliyahu Yones. 2 July 1999. Jerusalem, Israel.

II. Published Primary Sources

YIVO Periodicals

Bibliografishe yorbikher fun yivo (Warsaw: 1928).
Filologishe shriftn (Vilna: 1926–1929).
Heftn far yidisher kunst (Vilna: 1936).
Historishe shriftn (Vilna and Paris: 1929–1939).
Der pinkes (New York: 1927–1929).
Shriftn far ekonomik un statistik (later Ekonomishe shriftn) (Berlin and Vilna: 1928–1932).
Shriftn far psikhologye un pedagogik (Vilna: 1933–1940).
Yedies fun yidishn visnshaftlekhn institut (Warsaw, Vilna, and New York: 1925–present).
Yidish far ale (Vilna: 1938–1939).
Di yidishe ekonomik (Vilna: 1937–1939).
YIVO Annual of Jewish Social Science (later YIVO Annual) (New York: 1946–1996).
Yivo bleter (Vilna and New York: 1931–2003).
Yorbukh fun amopteyl (New York: 1938–1939).

Other Periodicals

Bleter far idisher demografye, statistik, un ekonomik (Berlin: 1923–1925).
Fun noentn over (Warsaw: 1937–1938).
Literarishe bleter (Warsaw: 1924–1939).
Vilner tog (variously Der tog, Unzer tog) (Vilna: 1925–1939).
Yidishe filologye (Warsaw: 1924).
Yunger historiker (Warsaw: 1926–1929).

YIVO Publications

Der alveltlekher tsuzamenfor fun yidishn visnshaftlekhn institut. Vilna: YIVO, 1936.
Der aynheytlekher yidisher oysleyg, materialn un proyektn tsu der ortografisher konferents fun yivo, ershter zamlung. Vilna: YIVO, 1930.
Barikht fun der konferents fun dem yivo. Vilna: YIVO, 1930.
Cahan, Y. L., ed. Yidisher folklor. Vilna: YIVO, 1938.
Dubnow, Simon. Geshikhte fun khsidizm. 2 vols. Vilna: YIVO, 1930–1933.
Etnografishe anketes, heft 1: yontoyvim. Vilna: YIVO, 1928.
Forbaratung vegn dem visnshaftlekhn institut (7–12 oygust 1925, in berlin). Berlin: Organizir-komitet far dem yidishn visnshaftlekhn institut, 1925.
Freud, Sigmund. Araynfir in psikhoanaliz, oytorizirte iberzetsung fun m. vaynraykh. 3 vols. Vilna: YIVO, 1936–1938.
Hersh, Libman. Farbrekherishkeyt fun yidn un nit-yidn in poyln, di farsheydene minim farbrekhns. Vilna: YIVO, 1937.
Hersh, Libman. Yidn-farbrekhers, a paralel tsvishn der yidisher un nit-yidisher farbrekherishkeyt in poyln loyt di ofitsieler poylisher kriminal-statistik. Vilna: YIVO, 1939.
Lestschinsky, Jacob. Vifl yidn zaynen faran oyf der velt? Vilna: YIVO, 1938.
Lestschinsky, Jacob. Der yidisher handl in di shtet fun poyln. Vilna: YIVO, 1938.
Linder, Menakhem. Yidishe vanderungen far di letste 10 yor. Vilna: YIVO, 1938.
Lingvistishe anketes, heft 1: min fun substantiv. Vilna: YIVO, 1928.
Lingvistishe anketes, heft 2: terminologye fun a vogn. Vilna: YIVO, 1938.
Lodzsher visnshaftlekhe shriftn. Łódź: Visnshaftlekher krayz bay der gezelshaft fraynd fun yid visn inst in lodzsh, 1938.
Der matsev fun yidishn shtetl. Vilna: YIVO, 1933.
Onvayzungen far forshung vegn der geshikhte fun yidishe yishuvim. Vilna: YIVO, 1938.
Di organizatsye fun der yidisher visnshaft. Vilna: TSBK and VILBIG, 1925.
Oysleyg takones fun yidish. YIVO: Vilna, 1935.
Spencer, Herbert. Di ershte printsipn, a sistem fun sintetisher filosofye fun herbert spenser, trans. Jacob Mereson. Vilna: YIVO, 1937.
Takones fun yidishn oysleyg. Vilna: YIVO, 1937.
Tcherikower, Elias, ed. Yidn in frankraykh. 2 vols. New York: YIVO, 1942.
Trunk, Isaiah. Geshikhte fun yidn in plotsk, 1237–1657. Warsaw: YIVO, 1939.
Tsvey yor arbet far dem yidishn visnshaftlekhn institut. Vilna: YIVO, 1927.
Dos tsveyte yor aspirantur oyfn nomen fun d”r tsemakh shabad baym yidishn visnshaftlekhn institut. Vilna: YIVO, 1938.
Vos iz azoyns yidishe etnografye? (hantbikhl far zamler). Vilna: YIVO, 1929.
Weinreich, Max. Di shvartse pintelekh, bibliotek fun yivo, populere serye. Vilna: YIVO, 1939.
Weinreich, Max. Der veg tsu undzer yugnt. Vilna: YIVO, 1935.
Yivo-bibliografye 1925–1941. New York: YIVO, 1943.
Der yivo nokh draytsn yor arbet. Vilna: YIVO, 1938.
A yor arbet in der aspirantur afn nomen fun d”r tsemakh shabad baym yidishn visnshaftlekhn institut. Vilna: YIVO, 1937.

Other Published Primary Sources

Abramowicz, Dina, Abraham Brumberg, Eleanor Gordon Mlotek, Gabriel Weinreich, Beatrice Silverman Weinreich, and Joshua A. Fishman. “Zikhroynes vegn d”r maks vaynraykh.” Yivo bleter, new series, III (1997): 328–353.
Abramowicz, Hirsz.Tog ayn tog oys, farhit fun farnikhtung unzer folklor!Vilner Tog, 19 November 1925, 2.
“Aroyslozndik di yivo-bleter.” Yivo bleter I, no. 1 (January 1931): 1–3.
B[ałaban], M[ajer].Kronika, O uniwersytet żydowski.” Nowe Życie 1, no. 1–3 (June–August 1924): 119–121 and no. 4–6 (September–December 1924): 271–274.
Berman, Jacob.Di oyfgabn fun der historisher sektsye fun yidishn visnshaftlekhn institut.” Yunger historiker 1 (1926): 18–20.
Borochov, Ber. “Di bibliotek funem yidishn filolog.” In Shprakh-forshung un literatur-geshikhte, ed. Nachman Meisel, 76–136. Tel Aviv: Peretz-farlag, 1966.
Borochov, Ber. “Gramatishe frumkeyt.” In Shprakh-forshung un literatur-geshikhte, ed. Nachman Meisel, 53–75. Tel Aviv: Peretz-farlag, 1966.
Borochov, Ber. “Di oyfgabn fun der yidisher fililogye.” In Shprakh-forshung un literatur-geshikhte, ed. Nachman Meisel, 367–373. Tel Aviv: Peretz-farlag, 1966.
Brutskus, Boris.The Yiddish Scientific Institute.” B’nai Brith Magazine XLII, no. 8 (May 1928): 254–255.
Bystron, Jan Stanisław.Z nauki żydowskiej.” Przegląd Współczesny 18 (August 1926): 282–285.
Charney, Daniel.Vi azoy bergelson hot mikh gemakht in berlin far a ‘kiever.’” Tog (New York) 17 (January 1953): 5.
Charney, Daniel. Vilne (memuarn). Dos poylishe yidntum 78. Buenos Aires: Tsentral-farband fun poylishe yidn in argentine, 1951.
Dawidowicz, Lucy S. From That Place and Time: A Memoir, 1938–1947. New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 1989.
Dubnov-Erlich, Sophie. The Life and Work of S. M. Dubnov. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1991.
Dubnow, Simon. Dos bukh fun mayn lebn. Vols. 2–3. Buenos Aires: Alveltlekher yidisher kultur kongres, 1962–1963.
Dubnow, Simon.Der itstiker tsushtand fun der yidisher historiografye.” Yivo bleter VIII, no. 4 (December 1935): 289–294.
Dubnow, Simon.Nahpesah ve-nahkorah.” Pardes 1 (1891): 221–242.
Dubnow, Simon. Nationalism and History, ed. Koppel S. Pinson. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society of America, 1958.
Dubnow, Simon.Ob izuchenii istorii russkikh evreev i ob uchrezhdenii russko-evreiskago istoricheskago obshchestva.” Voskhod 4, no. 9 (April–September 1891): 1–91.
Fashizirter yidishizm un zayn visnshaft. Minsk: Belorussian Academy of Sciences, 1930.
“Fun dem organizir komitet far dem visenshaftlekhen idishen institut.” Forverts (New York), 24 October 1925, 6.
“Fun di ‘bleter far yidisher demografye statistik un ekonomik.” Literarishe bleter 31 (5 August 1927): 607.
Glants [Glanz-Leieles], A. “Idishe visenshaft – der ingster tsvayg fun der idisher kultur.” Tog (New York), 16 December 1925, 4.
Golomb, Abraham.Tsi konen undzere shuln antviklen on a hoykhshul?Naye shul 7 (November–December 1922): 92–94.
Golomb, Abraham.Vegn a yidisher hoykhshul.” Kultur 1 (November 1922): 35–37.
Grodzenski, A. I., ed. Vilner almanakh. Vilna: Ovnt Kurier, 1939. Reprint, New York: Moriah Offset, 1992.
H. L.Kronika, O uniwersytet żydowski.” Nowe Życie 1, no. 4–6 (September-December 1924): 271–274.
Kalmanovitch, Zelig.Togbukh fun vilner geto (fragmentn).” Yivo bleter, new series, III (1997): 43–113.
Kalmanovitch, Zelig.Der yivo.” Literarishe bleter 45 (4 November 1932): 720.
Kalmanovitch, Zelig. Yoman be-geto Vilnah u-khetavim min ha-‘izavon she-nimtse’u ba-harisot. Tel Aviv: Moreshet Bet-Edut, 1977.
Kuczynski, Meyer.Oyf a visnshaftlekher yivo-ekspeditsye.” Yivo bleter XLVI (1980): 255–268.
Landau, Musia.Di vos hobn undz gelernt dem alef-beys un nokh mer .…Yerusholaimer almanakh 28 (2008): 233–245.
Landau, Musia. Mit shraybers, bikher un mit … vilne. Tel Aviv: H. Leyvik-farlag, 2003.
Lestschinsky, Jacob. Oyfn rand fun opgrunt, fun yidishn lebn in poyln (1927–1933). Dos poylishe yidntum 21. Buenos Aires: Tsentral-farband fun poylishe yidn in argentine, 1947.
Lifschutz, Ezekiel. “D”r yankev shatski vi ikh hob im gekont.” In Shatski-bukh, ed. Ezekiel Lifschutz, 85–106. New York: YIVO, 1958.
Litvak, A.Vegn a yidishn visnshaftlekhn institut.” Literarishe bleter 52 (30 April 1925): 1–2.
Lunski, Khaykel. Fun vilner geto, geshtaltn un bilder, geshribn in shvere tsaytn. Vilna: Farlag fun dem farayn fun di yidishe literatn un zshurnalistn in vilne, 1920.
Lunski, Khaykel. “Shtrashun bibliotek.” In Unzer tog, spetsiele oysgabe far amerike, 43–45. Vilna: n.p., 1921.
Lunski, Khaykel. “Di shtrashun bibliotek in vilne.” In Vilne: a zamelbukh gevidmet der shtot vilne, ed. Yefim Yeshurin, 273–287. New York: Vilner brentsh 367 arbeter-ring, 1935.
Lunski, Khaykel. Vilner kloyzn, di yidishe gas un der shul-hoyf. Vilna: Farlag fun dem farayn fun di yidishe literatn un zshurnalistn in vilne, 1920.
Mark, Yudel.Di ershte yorn fun yivo (a kapitl zikhroynes).” Di tsukunft 81, no. 2 (April 1975): 130–136.
Mark, Yudel.Nokhem shtif – der initsiator fun yivo.” Davka 3, no. 9–10 (February–April 1952): 93–101.
Meisel, Nachman. Geven a mol a lebn. Dos poylishe yidntum 71. Buenos Aires: Tsentral-farband fun poylishe yidn in argentine, 1951.
Meisel, Nachman.Veln mir lozn untergeyn?Literarishe bleter 13 (1 April 1927): 243.
Mendelsohn, Shloyme.Vegn a hoykh-shul.” Shul un lebn 5 (1 October 1921): 6–7.
Niger, Shmuel. “Gelernte yidn un idishe gelernte,” Tog (New York), 3 October 1925, 4.
Niger, Shmuel. ed. Der pinkes, yohrbukh far der geshikhte fun der yudisher literatur un shprakh, far folklor, kritik un bibliografye. Vilna: Kletskin farlag, 1912/3.
Niger, Shmuel. [A. Vilner]. “Vegen dem rayen tsu shafen a yudishe universitet.” Di yudishe velt 2, no. 1 (April 1914): 126–134.
Ormian, Chaim. “Yidishe psikhologishe un pedagogishe forsharbet in poyln.” In Shriftn far psikhologye un pedagogik, tsveyter band, ed. Leibush Lehrer, 188–212. Vilna: YIVO, 1940.
Pekler, A.Di berliner konferents.” Vilner tog, 6 September 1925, 3.
“Di plener far an institut.” Morgn zhurnal (New York), 12 October 1925, 8.
Reisen, Zalman.D”r m. vaynraykh opgeforn keyn amerike.” Literarishe bleter 9 (1 March 1929): 168.
Reisen, Zalman. ed. Pinkes far der geshikhte fun vilne in di yorn fun milkhome un okyupatsye. Vilna: Yidishe historish-etnografishe gezelshaft oyfn nomen fun sh. an-ski, 1922.
Reisen, Zalman. [Z.R.]. “A yidishe universitet in vilne.” Vilner tog, 5 April 1920, 2.
Reisen, Zalman.Dray yor seminar far yidisher geshikhte.” Yunger historiker 1 (1926): 7–11.
R[ingelblum], E[manuel].An interesanter onheyb.” Literarishe bleter 27 (3 July 1931): 518–519 and 28 (10 July 1931): 534.
Rudawski, Michał. Mój obcj kraj? Warsaw: Agencja Wydawnicza TU, 1996.
Shalit, Moyshe.Der arkhiv fun nokhem shtif.” Literarishe bleter 31 (4 August 1933): 495–496 and 32 (11 August 1933): 512–513.
Shalit, Moyshe. “Di naye historiografye fun vilne.” In Unzer tog, spetsiele oysgabe far amerike, 48. Vilna: n.p., 1921.
Shalit, Moyshe. “Di naye historiografye fun vilne.” In Vilne: a zamelbukh gevidmet der shtot vilne, ed. Yefim Yeshurin, 365–370. New York: Vilner brentsh 367 arbeter-ring, 1935.
Shalit, Moyshe.Nokhem shtif – bal-dimyen.” Literarishe bleter 14 (5 April 1934): 209–211 and 15 (13 April 1934): 229–231.
Shalit, Moyshe. ed. Oyf di khurves fun milkhomes un mehumes, pinkes fun gegnt-komitet ‘yekopo’ in vilne (1919–1931). Vilna: EKOPO, 1931.
Shalit, Moyshe.A pekl briv fun nokhem shtif.” Literarishe bleter 26 (30 June 1933): 422.
Shatzky, Jacob. “Finf un tsvontsik yor yivo.” In Shatski-bukh, ed. Ezekiel Lifschutz, 303–317. New York: YIVO, 1958.
Shneur, Zalman. “Rehov ha-Yehudim be-or ve-tsel.” Introduction to Ein Ghetto im Osten (Wilna), by M. Vorobeichic, 3–7. Zurich: Oreil Fussli Verlag, 1931.
Shpigel, Shimen.Vos s’iz noytik tsu ton.” Literarishe bleter 7 (18 February 1927): 130.
Shtif, Nokhem [Bal-dimyen].Feliton, literatur (siluetn fun romanishes cafe).” Dos fraye vort 5 (1 August 1923): 31–35.
Shtif, Nokhem [Bal-dimyen].Fun nokhem shtifs oytobiografye.” Ed. Moyshe Shalit. Literarishe bleter 33 (18 August 1933): 527–528 and 34 (25 August 1933): 545.
Shtif, Nokhem [Bal-dimyen].Der idisher komunist, di kultur-lige un dos idishe bukh.” Di tsukunft 28, no. 1 (January 1923): 30–34.
Shtif, Nokhem [Bal-dimyen].Oytobiografye fun nokhem shtif.” Yivo bleter V nos. 3–5 (March–May 1933): 195–225.
Shtif, Nokhem [Bal-dimyen]. [Bal-dimyen]. “Der pinkes.” Di yudishe velt 1, no. 2 (February 1914): 247–261 and no. 3 (March 1914): 395–410.
Shtif, Nokhem [Bal-dimyen]. “Vegn a yidishn akademishn institut.” In Di organizatsye fun der yidisher visnshaft, 3–33. Vilna: TSBK and VILBIG, 1925.
Shtif, Nokhem [Bal-dimyen]. [Bal-dimyen]. “Der yidisher visnshaftlekher institut, a yor arbet.” Varshever shriftn 1926–1927: 2–15.
Sprawozdanie Instytutu Nauk Judaistycznych w Warszawie za Lata Akademickie 1927/8–1928/9. Warsaw: Spoldruk, 1929.
Sutzkever, Abraham. “A vort tsum zekhtsikstn yoyvl fun yivo.” In Baym leyenen penimer, ed. Abraham Novershtern, 205–211. Jerusalem: Hebrew University, 1993.
Szabad, Tsemakh and Moyshe Shalit, ed. Vilner zamelbukh. 2 vols. Vilna: N. Rosental, 1916–1918.
Szyk, Zalman. 1000 yor vilne. Vilna: Gezelshaft far landkentenish in poyln, vilner opteylung, 1939.
Tcherikower, Elias.Tsu der geshikhte fun a gelungenem pruv.” Literarishe bleter 13 (28 March 1930): 237–239.
Tsivyon [Ben-Zion Hofman]. “Idishe interesen.” Forverts (New York), 21 November 1925, 3.
“Tsu ale yidishe filologn!” Vilner tog, 13 May 1923, 3.
Unzer tog, spetsiele oysgabe far amerike. Vilna: n.p., 1921.
Urinski, G., M. Wolanski, and N. Zukerman, ed. Pinkes fun der shtot pruzshene. Prużana: Wydawnictwo “Pinkos,” 1930.
“Vegen idishen institut.” Morgn zhurnal (New York), 19 November 1925, 6.
“Vilner tezisn vegn a yidishn visnshaftlekhn institut.” In Di organizatsye fun der yidisher visnshaft, 34–39. Vilna: TSBK and VILBIG, 1925.
Weichert, Michael.Yidishe akademye.” Literarishe bleter 70 (4 September 1925): 65–66.
Weinreich, Gabriel. Confessions of a Jewish Priest. Cleveland, OH: Pilgrim Press, 2005.
Weinreich, Max.Derkenen dem haynt.” Yivo bleter III, no. 4–5 (April–May 1932): 289–299.
Weinreich, Max. Introduction to Farshvundene geshtaltn, by Hirsz Abramowicz, 7–8. Dos poylishe yidntum 138. Buenos Aires: Tsentral-farband fun poylishe yidn in argentine, 1958.
Weinreich, Max. Geschichte der jiddischen Sprachforschung, ed. Jerold Frakes. Atlanta, GA: Scholars’ Press, 1993. Reprint of “Geschichte und gegenwärtiger Stand der jiddischen Sprachforschung,” Diss. University of Marburg, 1923.
Weinreich, Max. History of the Yiddish Language, ed. Paul Glasser, trans. Shlomo Noble with the assistance of Joshua A. Fishman. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2008.
Weinreich, Max.Ein jiddisches wissenschaftliches Institut.” Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft, new series, 5 (1 April 1926): 68–70.
Weinreich, Max.Nokhem shtif.” Di tsukunft 38, no. 6 (June 1933): 345–348.
Weinreich, Max. Oysgeklibene shriftn, ed. Samuel Rollansky. Musterverk fun der yidisher literatur 60. Buenos Aires: Ateneo Literario en el IWO, 1974.
Weinreich, Max. Psikhoanaliz: zigmund froyd un zayn shite. Vilna: Druk. D. Krejnesa, 1937.
Weinreich, Max.Di yidishe visnshaft in der hayntiker tsayt.” Yivo bleter XVII, no. 1 (January–February 1941): 1–13.
Weinreich, Max. “Der yidisher visnshaftlekher institut (yivo).” In Vilne: a zamelbukh gevidmet der shtot vilne, ed. Yefim Yeshurin, 322–331. New York: Vilner brentsh 367 arbeter-ring, 1935.
Weinreich, Max.Der yivo un di problemen fun undzer tsayt.” Yivo bleter XXV, no. 1 (February–April 1945): 3–18.
Weinreich, Max. “Yivo tsu zayn bar-mitsve.” In Vilner almanakh, ed. A. I. Grodzenski, 75–80. Vilna: Ovnt Kurier, 1939. Reprint, New York: Moriah Offset, 1992.
Weizmann, Chaim. Letters and Papers of Chaim Weizmann, ed. Leonard Stein, et al. Series A: Letters. Vols. 1–6. London: Oxford University Press and Jerusalem: Israel Universities Press, 1968–1974.
Weizmann, Chaim. Trial and Error. New York: Harpers, 1949.
Yeshurin, Yefim, ed. Vilne: a zamelbukh gevidmet der shtot vilne. New York: Vilner brentsh 367 arbeter-ring, 1935.
Yeshurin, Yefim, Der vilner. New York: Vilner brentsh 367 arbeter-ring, 1929.
“A yidisher akademisher institut.” Vilner tog, 29 March 1925, 2.
“Z.” “Der yidisher visnshaftlekher institut.” Vilner tog, 14 April 1925, 3.
Zhitlowsky, Chaim. “Tsionizm oder sotsializm?” In Gezamlte shriftn. Vol. 5, 47–76. New York: n.p., 1917.

Secondary Sources

I. Unpublished secondary sources

Aleksiun-Madrzak, Natalia Dorota. “Ammunition in the Struggle for National Rights: Jewish Historians in Poland Between the Two World Wars.” Ph.D. diss., New York University, 2010.
Dekel, Aviva L. “The Idea of the Jewish University.” Ph.D. diss., George Peabody College for Teachers, Vanderbilt University, 1984.
Fishman, David E. “The Vilna Jewish Museum, 1944–1949.” Unpublished paper.
Karlip, Joshua Michael. “The Center That Could Not Hold: Afn Sheydveg and the Crisis of Diaspora Nationalism.” Ph.D. diss., Jewish Theological Seminary of America, 2006.
Kiel, Mark W. “A Twice Lost Legacy: Ideology, Culture, and the Pursuit of Jewish Folklore in Russia until Stalinization, 1930–1931.” Ph.D. diss., Jewish Theological Seminary of America, 1991.
Kölch, Martina. “Das YIVO-Institut in Berlin und Wilna (1925–1940), Eine neue Wissenschaft für eine neue Geisteswelt.” M.A. thesis, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, 2000.
Seltzer, Robert M. “Simon Dubnow: A Critical Biography of His Early Years.” Ph.D. diss., Columbia University, 1970.
Shneer, David Benjamin. “A Revolution in the Making: Yiddish and the Creation of Soviet Jewish Culture.” Ph.D. diss., University of California at Berkeley, 2001.
Weiser, Kalman. “Saving Yiddish, Saving American Jewry: Max Weinreich in 1940s New York City.” Unpublished paper.

II. Published secondary sources

Abramowicz, Dina.A pruv tsu shafn a natsionaln bibliografishn tsenter far yidish.” Yivo bleter XLVI (1980): 102–132.
Abramowicz, Dina.The YIVO Library.” Jewish Book Annual 25 (1967–1968): 87–102.
Abramson, Henry. A Prayer for the Government (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1999).
Agronovski, Henrikh.Opgefunene dokumentn vegn der geshikhte fun vilner yivo.” Yivo bleter, new series, II (1994): 343–348.
Aleksiun, Natalia. “Historiyonim Yehudim veha-hazon shel rabanut me-sug hadash. Bet ha-midrash le-rabanim Tahkemoni ve-ha-makhon lemada’e ha-Yahadut be-Varshah ben milhamot ha-‘olam.” In From Breslau to Jerusalem: Rabbinical Seminaries Past, Present and Future, ed. Guy Miron, 165–202. Jerusalem: Machon Schechter, 2009.
Aleksiun, Natalia.Setting the Record Straight: Polish-Jewish Historians and Local History in Interwar Poland.” Jahrbuch des Simon-Dubnow-Instituts 7 (2008): 127–141.
Aleksiun, Natalia. “Training a New Generation of Jewish Historians: Majer Bałaban’s Seminar on the History of Polish Jews.” In Zwischen Graetz und Dubnow: Jüdische Historiographie in Ostmitteleuropa im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert, ed. François Guesnet, 147–176. Leipzig: Akademische Verlaganstalt, 2009.
Alroey, Gur.Demographers in the Service of the Nation: Liebmann Hersch, Jacob Lestschinsky, and the Early Study of Jewish Migration.” Jewish History 20 (2006): 265–282.
Alt, Arthur Tilo.A Survey of Literary Contributions of the Post-World War I Yiddish Journals of Berlin.” Yiddish 7 (1987): 42–52.
Baár, Monika. Historians and Nationalism: East-Central Europe in the Nineteenth Century. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2010.
Baker, Zachary M.Die Amerikanisierung der jiddischen Wissenschaft.” Judaica 4 (December 1995): 222–236.
Baker, Zachary M.The Yiddish Collections of the YIVO Library: Their History, Scope, and Significance.” YIVO Annual 22 (1995): 253–273.
Bar-Itzhak, Haya. Pioneers of Jewish Ethnography and Folkloristics in Eastern Europe. Ljubljana, Slovenia: Scientific Research Centre of the Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts, 2010.
Bassok, Ido, ed. and trans. ‘Alilot ne’urim: otobiyografiyot shel bene no’ar Yehudim mi-Polin ben shete milhamot ha-‘olam. Tel Aviv: Beit Shalom Aleichem, Mercaz Zalman Shazar and Tel Aviv University, 2011.
Bassok, Ido, “Li-she’elat ‘erkan ha-histori shel ha-otobiyografiyot me-osef Yivo,” Mada’e ha-Yahadut 44 (2007): 137–164.
Baumgarten, Jean.Les études juives en Europe orientale: Science du judaisme, emancipation et lutte nationale.” Pardes 1 (19–20, 1994): 163–185.
Bechtel, Delphine. “Les chercheurs en linguistique et histoire littéraire yiddish: Une génération d’intellectuels engagés dans la première moitié du xxe siècle.” In Écriture de l’histoire et identité juive, L’Europe ashkénaze XIXe-XXe siècle, ed. Delphine Bechtel, Évelyne Patlagean, Jean-Charles Szurek, and Paul Zawadzki, 253–278. Paris: Les Belles Letters, 2003.
Bechtel, Delphine. La Renaissance culturelle juive en Europe centrale et orientale, 1897–1930: Langue, littérature et construction nationale. Paris: Editions Belin, 2002.
Bechtel, Delphine.Les revues modernistes yiddish à Berlin et à Varsovie de 1922 à 1924: La quête d’une nouvelle Jérusalem.” Etudes germaniques 46, no. 2 (April–June 1991): 161–177.
Biran, Ronnie.Parashat Berl Verblunski, asfan folklor be-Polin ben shete milhamot ha-‘olam.” Mekhere Yerushalayim be-folklor Yehudi 19–20 (1997–1998): 239–270.
Blau, Amy. “Max Weinreich in Weimar Germany.” In Yiddish in Weimar Berlin, ed. Gennady Estraikh and Mikhail Krutikov, 163–178. London: Legenda, 2010.
Bramson-Alpernienė, Esfir. Yivo in Wilna, Zur Geschichte des “Jüdischen Wissenschaftlichen Instituts.” Leipzig: Simon-Dubnow-Institut für jüdishe Geschichte und Kultur, 1997.
Brenner, Michael. Prophets of the Past. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2010.
Brenner, Michael. The Renaissance of Jewish Culture in Weimar Germany. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1996.
Cała, Alina, ed. Ostatnie Pokolenie: Autobiografie Polskiej Młodzieży żydowskiej Okresu Międzywojennego. Warsaw: Wydawnictwo Sic!, 2003.
Cohen, Israel. Vilna. Jewish Community Series. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 1943. Reprint 1992.
Dawidowicz, Lucy S. “Max Weinreich: Scholarship of Yiddish.” In The Jewish Presence, 163–176. New York: Holt, Reinhart and Winston, 1977.
Daxelmüller, Christoph.Ostjüdische Volkskultur – Ostjüdische Volkskunde, Das ‘Jidishe Visnshaftlekehe Institut’ (JIWO, YIVO) in Wilna im Fokus Politischer und Nationalkultureller Interessen Zwischen Ost und West.” Jahrbuch für Deutsche und Osteuropäische Volkskunde XXXVII (1994): 3–33.
Deletant, Dennis, and Harry Hanak, ed. Historians as Nation-Builders: Central and South-East Europe. London: Macmillan Press, 1988.
Deutsch, Nathaniel. The Jewish Dark Continent. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2011.
Dick, Ernst. “The Folk and Their Culture: The Formative Concepts and the Beginnings of Culture.” In The Folk: Identity, Landscapes and Lores, ed. Robert J. Smith and Jerry Stannard, 11–28. Lawrence: University of Kansas, 1989.
Dobroszycki, Lucjan. “YIVO in Interwar Poland: Work in the Historical Sciences.” In The Jews of Poland Between Two World Wars, ed. Yisrael Gutman, Ezra Mendelsohn, Jehuda Reinharz, and Chone Shmeruk, 494–518. Hanover, NH: University Press of New England, 1989.
Dold, Maria. “‘A Matter of National and Civic Honour’: Majer Bałaban and the Institute of Jewish Studies in Warsaw.” East European Jewish Affairs 34, no. 2 (Winter 2004): 55–72.
Eisenbach, Arthur. “Jewish Historiography in Interwar Poland.” In The Jews of Poland Between Two World Wars, ed. Yisrael Gutman, Ezra Mendelsohn, Jehuda Reinharz, and Chone Shmeruk, 453–493. Hanover, NH: University Press of New England, 1989.
Eisenstein, Miriam. Jewish Schools in Poland, 1919–39. New York: King’s Crown Press, 1950.
Estraikh, Gennady. “The Berlin Bureau of the New York Forverts.” In Yiddish in Weimar Berlin, ed. Gennady Estraikh and Mikhail Krutikov, 141–162. London: Legenda, 2010.
Estraikh, Gennady.Jacob Lestschinsky: A Yiddishist Dreamer and Social Scientist.” Science in Context 20, no. 2 (2007): 215–237.
Estraikh, Gennady. Soviet Yiddish: Language Planning and Linguistic Development. Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press, 1999.
Estraikh, Gennady, and Mikhail Krutikov, ed. Yiddish in Weimar Berlin. London: Legenda, 2010.
Fink, Carole. Defending the Right of Others: The Great Powers, the Jews, and International Minority Protection, 1878–1938. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2004.
Fishman, David E.Bamerkungen vegn vaynraykhs role in der antviklung fun der yidisher visnshaft.” Yivo bleter, new series, III (1997): 298–307.
Fishman, David E. Embers Plucked from the Fire: The Rescue of Jewish Cultural Treasures in Vilna. 2nd ed. New York: YIVO, 2009.
Fishman, David E. The Rise of Modern Yiddish Culture. Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2005.
Fishman, Joshua A. “Attracting a Following to High-Culture Functions for a Language of Everyday Life: The Role of the Tshernovits Language Conference in the ‘Rise of Yiddish.’” In Never Say Die! A Thousand Years of Yiddish in Jewish Life and Letters, ed. Joshua A. Fishman, 369–391. The Hague: Mouton Publishers, 1981.
Fishman, Joshua A. Ideology, Society, & Language: The Odyssey of Nathan Birnbaum. Ann Arbor, MI: Karoma Publishers, 1987.
Fishman, Joshua A.Yivo in amerike.” Yivo bleter XLVI (1980): 98–101.
Frakes, Jerold C. The Politics of Interpretation: Alterity and Ideology in Old Yiddish Studies. Albany: State University of New York, 1989.
Frank, Herman. A. s. zaks: kemfer far folks-oyflebung. New York: A. s. zaks gezelshaft, 1945.
Frankel, Jonathan. “The Dilemmas of Jewish National Autonomism: The Case of Ukraine 1917–1920.” In Ukrainian-Jewish Relations in Historical Perspective, ed. Howard Aster and Peter J. Potichnyj, 263–279. Edmonton, AB: Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies and the University of Alberta, 1990.
Frankel, Jonathan. Introduction to Essays in Jewish Social and Economic History, by Arcadius Kahan, xi–xx. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1986.
Frankel, Jonathan.The Paradoxical Politics of Marginality: Thoughts on the Jewish Situation During the Years 1914–1921.” Studies in Contemporary Jewry IV (1988): 3–21.
Frankel, Jonathan. “S. M. Dubnov, Historian and Ideologist.” Introduction to The Life and Work of S. M. Dubnov, by Sophie Dubnov-Erlich, 1–33. Bloomington: Indiana University Press: 1991.
Friedman, Philip.Polish-Jewish Historiography Between the Two World Wars.” Jewish Social Studies 11 (1949): 373–408.
Frost, Shimon. Schooling as a Socio-Political Expression: Jewish Education in Interwar Poland. Jerusalem: Magnes Press, 1988.
Fuks, Leo, and Renate Fuks. “Yiddish Publishing Activities in the Weimar Republic, 1920–1933.” Leo Baeck Institute Yearbook 33 (1988): 417–434.
Gitelman, Zvi. “A Century of Jewish Politics in Eastern Europe.” In The Emergence of Modern Jewish Politics: Bundism and Zionism in Eastern Europe, ed. Zvi Gitelman, 3–19. Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2003.
Goldsmith, Emanuel S. Modern Yiddish Culture: The Story of the Yiddish Language Movement. New York: Fordham University Press, 1997.
Gottesman, Itzik Nakhmen. Defining the Yiddish Nation: The Jewish Folklorists of Poland. Detroit, MI: Wayne State University Press, 2003.
Greenbaum, Alfred Abraham. Jewish Scholarship and Scholarly Institutions in Soviet Russia, 1918–1953. Jerusalem: Hebrew University of Jerusalem, 1978.
Grinberg, Maria.Przyczynek do historii powstania Żydowskiego Instytutu Naukowego w Wilnie.” Biuletyn Żydowskiego Instytutu Historycznego w Polsce 145–146 (1988): 91–96.
Harshav, Benjamin. The Meaning of Yiddish. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990.
Hart, Mitchell B. Social Science and the Politics of Modern Jewish Identity. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2000.
Hiley, Shmuel. “Solomon A. Birnbaum.” In History of Yiddish Studies, ed. Dov-Ber Kerler, 3–13. Winter Studies in Yiddish 3. Chur, Switzerland: Harwood, 1991.
Hoffman, Matthew. “From Czernowitz to Paris: The International Yiddish Culture Congress of 1937.” In Czernowitz at 100, ed. Kalman Weiser and Joshua A. Fogel, 151–164. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2010.
Hroch, Miroslav. “The Social Interpretation of Linguistic Demands in European National Movements.” Working Paper no. 94/1. Florence: European University Institute, 1994.
Hroch, Miroslav. Social Preconditions of National Revival in Europe. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1985.
Hundert, Gershon, ed. The YIVO Encyclopedia of Jews in Eastern Europe. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2008.
Hutton, Christopher. “What Was Going on at the 1935 Yivo Conference.” In The Politics of Yiddish, ed. Dov-Ber Kerler, 29–40. Walnut Creek, CA: Alta Mira Press, 1998.
Jacobs, Jack. Bundist Counterculture in Interwar Poland. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 2009.
Jacobs, Neil G.Introduction: A Field of Jewish Geography.” Shofar 17, no. 1 (Fall 1998): 1–18.
Janowsky, Oscar I. Jews and Minority Rights (1898–1919). New York: Columbia University Press, 1933.
Kahan, Arcadius.Der derekh fun yivo in zayn vilner tkufe.” Yivo bleter XLVI (1980): 9–21.
Kahan, Arcadius. “Vilna – The Socio-Cultural Anatomy of a Jewish Community in Interwar Poland.” In Essays in Jewish Social and Economic History, ed. Roger Weiss, 149–160. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1986.
Kahn, Leybl. “Bibliography of Max Weinreich’s Writings.” In For Max Weinreich on His Seventieth Birthday, ed. Lucy S. Dawidowicz, Alexander Erlich, Rachel Erlich, and Joshua A. Fishman, 287–305. The Hague: Mouton, 1964.
Kahn, Leybl.Der terminologisher oyftu fun yivo.” Yivo bleter XLVI (1980): 229–241.
Kamusella, Tomasz. The Politics of Language Nationalism in Modern Central Europe. Houndsmills, UK and New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009.
Kassow, Samuel D. “Community and Identity in the Interwar Shtetl.” In The Jews of Poland Between Two World Wars, ed. Yisrael Gutman, Ezra Mendelsohn, Jehuda Reinharz, and Chone Shmeruk, 198–220. Hanover, NH: University Press of New England, 1989.
Kassow, Samuel D.Jewish Communal Politics in Transition: The Vilna Kehile, 1919–1920.” YIVO Annual 20 (1991): 61–91.
Kassow, Samuel D. “The Left Poalei Zion in Inter-War Poland.” In Yiddish and the Left: Papers of the Third Mendel Friedman International Conference on Yiddish, ed. Gennady Estraikh and Mikhail Krutikov, 109–128. Oxford, UK: Legenda, 2001.
Kassow, Samuel D. “Travel and Local History as a National Mission.” In Jewish Topographies, ed. Julia Brauch, Anna Lipphardt, and Alexandra Nocke, 242–264. Hampshire, UK: Ashgate, 2009.
Kassow, Samuel D. Who Will Write Our History?: Emanuel Ringelblum, the Warsaw Ghetto, and the Oyneg Shabes Archive. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2007.
Kassow, Samuel D.Zalmen reyzen un zayn gezelshaftlekh-politishe arbet, 1915–1922.” Yivo bleter, new series, III (1994): 67–97.
Katz, Dovid. “On Yiddish, in Yiddish and for Yiddish: 500 Years of Yiddish Scholarship.” In Identity and Ethos: A Festschrift for Sol Liptzin on the Occasion of his 85th Birthday, ed. Mark H. Gelber, 23–36. New York: P. Lang, 1986.
Kazdan, Chaim Shloyme. Di geshikhte fun yidishn shulvezn in umophengikn poyln. Mexico: Gezelshaft “kultur un hilf,” 1947.
Kazdan, Chaim Shloyme. ed. Lerer yisker-bukh: di umgekumene lerer fun tsisho shuln in poyln. New York: Komitet tsu fareybikn dem ondenk fun di umgekumene lerer fun di tsisho shuln in poyln, 1954.
Kazdan, Chaim Shloyme. “The Yiddish Secular School Movement Between the Two World Wars.” In The Jewish People Past and Present. Vol. 2, 131–143. New York: Jewish Encyclopedic Handbooks and CYCO, 1948.
Kijek, Kamil.Max Weinreich, Assimilation, and the Social Politics of Jewish Nation-Building.” East European Jewish Affairs 41, no. 1–2 (April–August 2011): 25–55.
Kijek, Kamil.Między uniwersalną nauką a narodową polityką: Charakter projektu badań nad młodzieżą Żydowskiego Instytutu Naukowego (JIWO) w Polsce międzywojennej.” Kwartalnik Historii Żydów 2 (2010): 157–193.
King, Robert D. The Weinreich Legacy. Oxford, UK: Oxford Centre for Postgraduate Hebrew Studies, 1988.
Kirshenblatt-Gimblett, Barbara.Coming of Age in the Thirties: Max Weinreich, Edward Sapir, and Jewish Social Science.” YIVO Annual 23 (1996): 1–103.
Klausner, Israel. Vilnah, Yerushalayim de-Lita, dorot aharonim, 1881–1939. 2 vols. Israel: Ghetto Fighters’ House, 1983.
Kuznitz, Cecile E. “An-sky’s Legacy: The Vilna Historic-Ethnographic Society and the Shaping of Modern Jewish Culture.” In The Worlds of S. An-sky, ed. Gabriella Safran and Steven J. Zipperstein, 320–345. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2006.
Kuznitz, Cecile E. “On the Jewish Street: Yiddish Culture and the Urban Landscape in Interwar Vilna.” In Yiddish Language and Culture: Then and Now, ed. Leonard J. Greenspoon, 65–92. Omaha, NE: Creighton University Press, 1998.
Kuznitz, Cecile E. “Yiddish Studies.” In The Oxford Handbook of Jewish Studies, ed. Martin Goodman, 552–554. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2002.
Kuznitz, Cecile E. “YIVO.” In The YIVO Encyclopedia of Jews in Eastern Europe, ed. Gershon Hundert, 2090–2096. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2008. Reprinted in YIVO and Its Founders. New York: YIVO, 2009.
Kuznitz, Cecile E. “YIVO Institute for Jewish Research in the United States.” In Encyclopedia of American Jewish History, ed. Stephen H. Norwood and Eunice G. Pollack, 768–770. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-Clio, 2008.
Lederhendler, Eli. “Language, Culture, and Politics.” In Jewish Responses to Modernity, 9–22. New York: New York University Press, 1994.
Lempert, Israel.Der goyrl fun yivo in historishn iberbrokh (1939–1941).” Yivo bleter, new series, III (1997): 9–42.
Levin, Dov.Tsvishn hamer un serp, di geshikhte fun yidishn visnshaftlekhn institut in vilne unter der sovetisher memshole.” Yivo bleter XLVI (1980): 78–97.
Mahler, Raphael. Historiker un vegvayzer. Tel Aviv: Yisroel-bukh, 1967.
Mauersberg, Stanisław. Szkolnictwo powszechne dla mniejszości narodowych w Polsce w latach 1918–1939. Wrocław: Wydawnictwo P.A.N. im. Ossolińskich, 1968.
Melzer, Emanuel. No Way Out: The Politics of Polish Jewry, 1935–1939. Cincinnati, OH: Hebrew Union College Press, 1997.
Mendelsohn, Ezra. “Interwar Poland: Good for the Jews or Bad for the Jews?” In The Jews in Poland, ed. Chimen Abramsky, Maciej Jachimczyk, and Antony Polonsky, 130–139. Oxford, UK: Basil Blackwell, 1986.
Mendelsohn, Ezra. “Jewish Politics in Interwar Poland: An Overview.” In The Jews of Poland Between Two World Wars, ed. Yisrael Gutman, Ezra Mendelsohn, Jehuda Reinharz, and Chone Shmeruk, 9–19. Hanover, NH: University Press of New England, 1989.
Mendelsohn, Ezra. On Modern Jewish Politics. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.
Mich, Włodzimierz. Obcy w polskim domu: nacjonalistyczne koncepcje rozwiązania problemu mniejszości narodowych 1918–1939. Lublin, Poland: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Marii Curie-Sklodowskiej, 1994.
Michels, Tony. A Fire in Their Hearts: Yiddish Socialists in New York. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2005.
Miron, Dan.Between Science and Faith: Sixty Years of the YIVO Institute.” YIVO Annual 19 (1990): 1–15.
Mlotek, Eleanor Gordon, and Shmuel Goldenberg. “Hesofe tsu der maks vaynraykh-bibliografye.” Yivo bleter, new series, III (1997): 370–440.
Mlotek, Eleanor Gordon, and Marek Web. “Der tsurikgekrogener kheylek fun vilner yivo-arkhiv.” Yivo bleter, new series, III (1997): 441–452.
Mohrer, Fruma, and Marek Web. Guide to the YIVO Archives. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 1998.
Moseley, Marcus.Life, Literature: Autobiographies of Jewish Youth in Interwar Poland.” Jewish Social Studies 7, no. 3 (2001): 1–51.
Moss, Kenneth B. Jewish Renaissance in the Russian Revolution. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2009.
Myers, David N. “‘Distant Relatives Happening Onto the Same Inn:’ The Meeting of East and West as Literary Theory and Cultural Ideal.” Jewish Social Studies 1, no. 2 (Winter 1995): 75–100.
Myers, David N.The Fall and Rise of Jewish Historicism: The Evolution of the Akademie für die Wissenschaft des Judentums (1919–1934).” Hebrew Union College Annual LXIII (1992): 107–144.
Myers, David N. Re-Inventing the Jewish Past: European Jewish Intellectuals and the Zionist Return to History. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.
Nathans, Benjamin. “On Russian-Jewish Historiography.” In Historiography of Imperial Russia: The Profession and Writing of History in a Multi-National State, ed. Thomas Sanders, 397–432. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 1999.
Novershtern, Abraham. “Shir halel, shir kinah: dimuyah shel Vilnah be-shirat Yidish ben shete milhamot ha-‘olam.” In Studies in East European Jewish History and Culture in Honor of Professor Shmuel Werses, ed. David Assaf et al., 485–511. Jerusalem: Magnes Press, 2002.
Novershtern, Abraham, and Cecile Esther Kuznitz, “Yiddish Research after the Holocaust.” In Encyclopaedia Judaica, 2nd ed. Vol. 21, 358–367. Detroit, MI: Macmillan Reference and Keter, 2007.
Noy, Dov.Araynfir tsu di etnografishe anketes, heft 1: yontoyvim, 1928.” The Mendele Review 02.018 (27 May 1998). [Online journal.] Available at:
Ogonowski, Jerzy. Uprawnienia językowe mniejszości narodowych w Rzeczypospolitej Polkskiej, 1918–1939. Warsaw: Wydawnictwo Sejmowe, 2000.
Olson, Jess. Nathan Birnbaum and Jewish Modernity. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2013.
Petersen, Heidemarie. “‘Mir zen far zikh di geshikhte nit fun a historisher mumie’: Die Historische Sektion des YIVO und die jüdische Geschichtsschreibung im Polen der Zwischenkriegszeit.” In Jüdische Kultur(en) im Neuen Europa, Wilna 1918–1939, ed. Marina Dmitrieva and Heidemarie Petersen, 163–179. Wiesbaden, Germany: Harrassowitz, 2004.
Polonsky, Antony. Politics in Independent Poland 1921–1939: The Crisis of Constitutional Government. Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press, 1972.
Rabinovitch, Simon.The Dawn of the New Diaspora: Simon Dubnov’s Autonomism, from St. Petersburg to Berlin.” Leo Baeck Institute Yearbook 50 (2005): 267–288.
Rafes, Yulian I. Doctor Tsemakh Shabad: A Great Citizen of the Jewish Diaspora. Baltimore, MD: VIA Press, 1999.
Robinson, Jacob, Oscar Karbach, Max M. Laserson, Nehemiah Robinson, and Mark Vichniak. Were the Minorities Treaties a Failure? New York: American Jewish Congress, 1943.
Roshwald, Aviel. “Jewish Cultural Identity in Eastern and Central Europe during the Great War.” In European Culture in the Great War, ed. Aviel Roshwald and Richard Stites, 89–126. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1999.
Roskies, David G. Against the Apocalypse: Responses to Catastrophe in Modern Jewish Culture. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1984.
Roskies, David G. Introduction to S. Ansky, The Dybbuk and Other Writings, xi-xxxvi. New York: Schocken, 1992.
Roskies, David G.Maks vaynraykh: oyf di shpurn fun a lebedikn over.” Yivo bleter, new series, III (1997): 308–318.
Roskies, Diane K.Der kheyder-proyekt bay der psikhologish-pedagogisher sektsye fun yivo.” Yivo bleter XLVI (1980): 269–281.
Safran, Gabriella. Wandering Soul: The Dybbuk’s Creator, S. An-sky. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2010.
Safran, Gabriella, and Steven J. Zipperstein, ed. The Worlds of S. An-sky. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2006.
Schaechter, Mordkhe. “Fun folkshprakh tsu kulturshprakh.” In Der aynheytlekher yidisher oysleyg, 1–111. New York: YIVO and the League for Yiddish, 1999.
Schaechter, Mordkhe.Dem yivos yidish-oyftu, roshey-protimdike observatsyes un sakh-haklen tsun a yoyvl-date.” Yivo bleter XLVI (1980): 192–228.
Schreiner, Stefan.Die Wissenschaft des Ostjudentums – eine Erinnerung an die Gründung des YIVO von 70 Jahren.” Judaica: Beitrage zum Verständnis des jüdischen Schicksals in Vergangenheit und Gegenwart 51, no. 4 (1995): 209–221.
Shandler, Jeffrey, ed. Awakening Lives: Autobiographies of Jewish Youth in Poland Before the Holocaust. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2002.
Shneer, David.A Study in Red: Jewish Scholarship in the 1920s Soviet Union.” Science in Context 20, no. 2 (2007): 197–213.
Shneer, David. Yiddish and the Creation of Soviet Jewish Culture. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2004.
Shulman, Victor. “Yidisher visnshaftlekher inst. (yivo) in lite.” In Lite. Vol. 2., ed. Ch. Leikowicz, 441–447. Tel Aviv: Peretz-farlag, 1965.
Soyer, Daniel.Documenting Immigrant Lives at an Immigrant Institution: Yivo’s Autobiography Contest of 1942.” Jewish Social Studies 6, no. 3 (Spring/Summer 1999): 218–243.
Sunshine, Andrew. “The Making of a Chair: Uriel Weinreich and the Yiddish Chair at Columbia University.” In Eydes, Evidence of Yiddish Documented in European Societies, The Language and Cultural Atlas of Ashkenazic Jewry, ed. Marvin Herzog et al., 306–19. Tübingen,Germany: Max Niemayer Verlag, 2008.
Sussex, Roland. “Lingua Nostra: The Nineteenth-Century Slavonic Language Revivals.” In Culture and Nationalism in Nineteenth-Century Eastern Europe, ed. Roland Sussex and J. C. Eade, 111–127. Columbus, OH: Slavica Publishers, 1983.
Szajkowski, Zosa. “The Struggle for Yiddish During World War I: The Attitude of German Jewry.” In Never Say Die! A Thousand Years of Yiddish in Jewish Life and Letters, ed. Joshua A. Fishman, 565–589. The Hague: Mouton Publishers, 1981.
Szajkowski, Zosa.Der yivo un zayne grinders.” Yivo bleter XLVI (1980): 22–77.
Tartakower, Aryeh. “Ha-Makhon le-mada’e ha-Yahadut be-Varshah.” In Studies in Memory of Moses Schorr. Vol. 1., ed. Louis Ginzberg and Abraham Weiss, 163–176. New York: Moses Schorr Memorial Committee, 1944.
Taylor, J. The Economic Development of Poland, 1919–1950. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1952.
Tomaszewski, Jerzy. Ojczyzna nie tylko Polaków: mniejszości narodowe w Polsce w latach 1918–1939. Warsaw: Młodzieżowa Agencja Wydawnicza, 1985.
Trachtenberg, Barry.Di Algemeyne Entsiklopedye, the Holocaust, and the Changing Mission of Yiddish Scholarship.” Journal of Modern Jewish Studies 5, no. 3 (November 2006): 285–300.
Trachtenberg, Barry.Ber Borochov’s ‘The Tasks of Yiddish Philology.’” Science in Context 20, no. 2 (June 2007): 341–352.
Trachtenberg, Barry. “Inscribing the Yiddish Past: Inter-War Explorations of Old Yiddish Texts.” In Yiddish and the Left: Papers of the Third Mendel Friedman International Conference on Yiddish, ed. Gennady Estraikh and Mikhail Krutikov, 208–225. Oxford, UK: Legenda, 2001.
Trachtenberg, Barry. “Jewish Universalism, the Yiddish Encyclopedia, and the Nazi Rise to Power.” In Yiddish in Weimar Berlin, ed. Gennady Estraikh and Mikhail Krutikov, 195–214. London: Legenda, 2010.
Trachtenberg, Barry. The Revolutionary Roots of Modern Yiddish, 1903–1917. New York: Syracuse University Press, 2008.
Trunk, Isaiah. “Historians of Russian Jewry.” In Russian Jewry (1860–1917), ed. Jacob Frumkin, Gregor Aronson, and Alexis Goldenweiser, 454–472. New York: T. Yoseloff, 1966.
Trunk, Isaiah.Yivo un der yidisher historisher visnshaft.” Yivo bleter XLVI (1980): 242–254.
Trzeciakowski, Lech.The Role of Learned Societies in the Development of Polish Culture During the Period of Partitions.” East European Quarterly 3 (1988): 291–303.
Veidlinger, Jeffrey. Jewish Public Culture in the Late Russian Empire. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2009.
Web, Marek. “Dubnov and Jewish Archives: An Introduction to his Papers at the YIVO Institute.” In A Missionary for History: Essays in Honor of Simon Dubnov, ed. Kristi Groberg and Avraham Greenbaum, 87–92. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, 1998.
Web, Marek.Tsu der geshikhte funem yivo-arkhiv.” Yivo bleter XLVI (1980): 168–191.
Web, Marek, et al. “Yidishe zamlungen in der hayntiker vilne.” Yivo bleter, new series, I (1991): 281–298.
Weinberg, David H. Between Tradition and Modernity: Haim Zhitlowski, Simon Dubnow, Ahad Ha-Am, and the Shaping of Modern Jewish Identity. New York: Holmes and Meier, 1996.
Weinreich, Beatrice Silverman, ed. Yiddish Folktales. New York: Pantheon, 1988.
Weiser, Kalman. “Coming to America: Max Weinreich and the Emergence of YIVO’s American Center.” In Choosing Yiddish: Studies on Yiddish Literature, Culture, and History, ed. Shiri Goren, Hannah Pressman, and Lara Rabinovitch, 233–252. Detroit, MI: Wayne State University Press, 2013.
Weiser, Kalman.The Jewel in the Yiddish Crown: Who Will Occupy the Chair for Yiddish at the University of Vilnius?Polin 24 (2012): 223–255.
Weiser, Kalman. Jewish People, Yiddish Nation: Noah Prylucki and the Folkists in Poland. Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press, 2011.
Weiss, Abraham, and Pninah Kraemer-Weiss. “Makhon le-mada’e ha-Yahadut be-Varshah.” In Sefer ha-shanah/Yorbukh. Vol. 2., ed. Aryeh Tartakower, 359–380. Tel Aviv: World Federation of Polish Jews, 1967.
Wissenschaft des Ostjudentums. Tübingen, Germany: Universitätsbibliotek, 2000.
Young, Jennifer. “Race, Culture, and the Creation of Yiddish Social Science: Max Weinreich’s Trip to Tuskegee, 1932.” In Choosing Yiddish: Studies on Yiddish Literature, Culture, and History, ed. Shiri Goren, Hannah Pressman, and Lara Rabinovitch, 217–232. Detroit, MI: Wayne State University Press, 2013.
Zipperstein, Steven J. Imagining Russian Jewry: Memory, History, Identity. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1999.
Zipperstein, Steven J.The Politics of Relief: The Transformation of Russian Jewish Communal Life During the First World War.” Studies in Contemporary Jewry IV (1988): 22–40.
Zweig, Ferdynand. Poland Between Two Wars: A Critical Study of Social and Economic Changes. London: Secker & Warburg, 1944.
Żyndul, Jolanta. Państwo w państwie? Autonomia narodowo-kulturalna w Europie Środkowowschodniej w XX wieku. Warsaw: Wydawnictwo DiG, 2000.