Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Review: Sustainability of crossbreeding in developing countries; definitely not like crossing a meadow…

  • G. Leroy (a1), R. Baumung (a1), P. Boettcher (a1), B. Scherf (a1) and I. Hoffmann (a1)...

Abstract

Crossbreeding, considering either terminal or rotational crossing, synthetic breed creation or breed replacement, is often promoted as an efficient strategy to increase farmers’ income through the improvement of productivity of local livestock in developing countries. Sustainability of crossbreeding is however frequently challenged by constraints such as poor adaptation to the local environment or lack of logistic support. In this review, we investigate factors that may influence the long-term success or the failure of crossbreeding programs, based on the scientific literature and country reports submitted for The Second Report on the State of the World’s Animal Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. Crossbreeding activities vary widely across species and countries. Its sustainability is dependent on different prerequisites such as continual access to adequate breeding stock (especially after the end of externally funded crossbreeding projects), the opportunity of improved livestock to express their genetic potential (e.g. through providing proper inputs) and integration within a reliable market chain. As formal crossbreeding programs are often associated with adoption of other technologies, they can be a catalyst for innovation and development for smallholders. Given the increasing global demand for animal products, as well as the potential environmental consequences of climate change, there is a need for practical research to improve the implementation of long-term crossbreeding programs in developing countries.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Review: Sustainability of crossbreeding in developing countries; definitely not like crossing a meadow…
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Review: Sustainability of crossbreeding in developing countries; definitely not like crossing a meadow…
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Review: Sustainability of crossbreeding in developing countries; definitely not like crossing a meadow…
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

References

Hide All
Abdulai, A and Huffman, WE 2005. The diffusion of new agricultural technologies: the case of crossbred-cow technology in Tanzania. American Journal of Agricultural Economics 87, 645659.
Aby, BA and Meuwissen, T 2014. Selection strategies utilizing genetic resources to adapt livestock to climate change. Proceedings of the 10th World Congress of Genetics Applied to Livestock Production, Vancouver, Canada, August 17–22.
Ahuja, V, Dhawan, M, Punjabi, M and Maarse, L 2008. Poultry based livelihoods of rural poor: case of Kuroiler in West Bengal. South Asia Pro Poor Livestock Policy Program. Retrieved February 6, 2015, from http://sapplpp.org/files-repository/goodpractices/Report_Kuroiler%20Study%20Report_Final.pdf/at_download/file.
Ayalew, W 2000. Do smallholder farmers benefit more from crossbred (Somali×Anglo-Nubian) than from indigenous goats? PhD thesis, Georg-August University of Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany.
Ayalew, W, Rischkowsky, B, King, JM and Bruns, E 2003. Crossbreds did not generate more net benefits than indigenous goats in Ethiopian smallholdings. Agricultural Systems 76, 11371156.
Bebe, BO, Udo, HMJ, Rowlands, GJ and Thorpe, W 2003. Smallholder dairy systems in the Kenya highlands: breed preferences and breeding practices. Livestock Production Science 82, 117127.
Burrow, HW 2006. Utilization of diverse breed resources for tropical beef production. Proceedings of the 8th World Congress on Genetics Applied to Livestock Production, Belo Horizonte, Brasil, August 13–18.
Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS) 2013. National sample census of agriculture, Nepal, 2011/12. Government of Nepal, Kathmandu, Nepal.
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) 2005. The legal framework for the management of animal genetic resources. FAO, Rome, Italy.
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) 2007. Methods for economic valuation. In The State of the World’s Animal Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (ed. B Richkowsky and D Pilling), pp. 429–440. FAO Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture Assessments, Rome, Italy.
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) 2010a. Chicken genetic resources used in smallholder production systems and opportunities for their development. FAO Smallholder Poultry Production Paper No 5 (ed. P Sørensen). FAO, Rome, Italy.
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) 2010b. Breeding strategies for sustainable management of animal genetic resources. FAO Animal Production and Health Guidelines No 3. FAO, Rome, Italy.
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) 2011. Dairy development in Kenya. FAO, Rome, Italy.
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) 2012. Livestock sector development, economic growth and poverty reduction. In Livestock sector development for poverty reduction: an economic and policy perspective – livestock’s many virtues (ed. J Otte, A Costales, J Dijkman, U Pica-Ciamarra, T Robinson, V Ahuja, C Ly and D Roland-Holst), pp. 57–75. FAO, Rome, Italy.
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) 2014. Ecosystem services provided by livestock species and breeds, with special consideration of small-scale livestock keepers and pastoralists. CGRFA Background Study Paper No. 66 rev.1 (ed. I Hoffmann, T From and D Boerma). FAO, Rome, Italy, 158pp.
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) 2015. 2nd State of the World’s Animal Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (ed. BD Scherf and D Pilling). FAO Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture Assessments, Rome, Italy.
FAO, IDF and IFCN 2014. World mapping of animal feeding systems in the dairy sector. FAO, Rome, Italy.
Galukande, E, Mulindwa, H, Wurzinger, M, Roschinsky, R, Mwai, AO and Sölkner, J 2013. Crossbreeding cattle for milk production in the tropics: achievements, challenges and opportunities. Animal Genetic Resources 52, 111125.
Gizaw, S, Rischkowsky, B, Valle-Zarate, A, Haile, A, van Arendonk, JAM, Mwai, AO and Dessie, T 2014. Breeding programs for smallholder sheep farming systems: I. Evaluation of alternative designs of breeding schemes. Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics 131, 341349.
GoI/MoA 1997. 16th livestock census-2012 All India report. Government of India. Retrieved February 6, 2015, from http://dahd.nic.in/dahd/16th-indian-livestock-census-all-india-summary-report.aspx
GoI/MoA 2012. 19th livestock census-2012 All India report. Government of India. Retrieved February 6, 2015, from http://dahd.nic.in/dahd/statistics/livestock-census/19th-indian-livestock-census.aspx
Hassen, Y, Sölkner, J, Gizaw, S and Baumung, R 2002. Performance of crossbred and indigenous sheep under village conditions in the cool highlands of central-northern Ethiopia: growth, birth and body weights. Small Ruminant Research 43, 195202.
Havenstein, GB, Ferket, PR and Qureshi, MA 2003. Carcass composition and yield of 1957 versus 2001 broilers when fed representative 1957 and 2001 broiler diets. Poultry Science 82, 15091518.
Herold, P, Roessler, R, Valle Zarate, AV and Momm, H 2012. Development of organisation and planning in animal breeding: I. A review on breeding organisation. Archiv Tierzucht 55, 402414.
Herold, P, Roessler, R, William, A, Momm, H and Valle Zarate, A 2010. Breeding and supply chain systems incorporating local pig breeds for small-scale pig producers in Northwest Vietnam. Livestock Science 129, 6372.
Hoffmann, I 2009. The global plan of action for animal genetic resources and the conservation of poultry genetic resources. World’s Poultry Science Journal 65, 286297.
Hoffmann, I 2013. Adaptation to climate change – exploring the potential of locally adapted breeds. Animal 7, 346362.
Instituto Nacional de Estadistica e Informatica (INEI) 2012. IV censo nacional agropecuario 2012. Instituto Nacional de Estadistica e Informatica, Lima, Peru.
Kahi, AK, Kosgey, IS, Cardoso, VL and Van Arendonk, JAM 1998. Influence of production circumstance and economic evaluation criteria on economic comparison of breeds and breed crosses. Journal of Dairy Science 81, 22712279.
Kardivel, G, Kumaresan, A, Das, A, Bujarbaruah, KM, Venkatasubramanian, V and Ngachan, SV 2013. Artificial insemination of pigs reared under smallholder production system in northeastern India: success rate, genetic improvement, and monetary benefit. Tropical Animal Health and Production 45, 679686.
Karugia, JT, Mwai, OA, Kaitho, R, Drucker, AG, Wollny, CBA and Rege, JEO 2001. Economic analysis of crossbreeding programmes in sub-Saharan Africa: a conceptual framework and Kenyan case study. Animal Genetics Resources Research 2. ILRI, Nairobi, Kenya.
Kim, ES and Rothschild, MF 2014. Genomic adaptation of admixed dairy cattle in East Africa. Frontiers in Genetics 5, 443.
Kocho, T, Abebe, G, Tegegne, G and Gebremedhin, B 2011. Marketing value-chain of smallholder sheep and goats in crop-livestock mixed farming system of Alaba, Southern Ethiopia. Small Ruminant Research 96, 101105.
Lapar, MLA, Luan, NN, Jabbar, M, Figuié, M, Quang, HV, Moustier, P, Binh, VT and Steve, S 2010. Estimating willingness to pay for quality and safety attributes of pork: some empirical evidence from northern Vietnam. In Demand for livestock products in developing countries with a focus on quality and safety attributes: evidence from Asia and Africa. Research Report No 24. (ed. MA Jabbar, D Baker and ML Fadiga), pp. 138159. ILRI, Nairobi, Kenya.
Lemke, U, Kaufmann, B, Thuy, LT, Emrich, K and Valle Zárate, A 2007. Evaluation of biological and economic efficiency of smallholder pig production systems in North Vietnam. Tropical Animal Health and Production 39, 237254.
Leroy, G, Kayang, BB, Youssao, IAK, Yapi-Gnaore, CV, Osie-Amponsah, RO, Loukou, NE, Fotsa, JC, Benabdeljelil, K, Bed’hom, B, Tixier-Boichard, M and Rognon, X 2012. Gene diversity, agroecological structure and introgression patterns among village chicken populations across North, West and Central Africa. BMC Genetics 13, 34.
Madalena, FE, Agyemang, K, Cardellino, RC and Jain, GL 2002. Genetic improvement in medium- to low-input systems of animal production, experience to date. Proceedings of the 7th World Congress on Genetics Applied to Livestock Production, Montpellier, France, August 19–23, 25 (08).
Madalena, FE, Peixoto, MGCD and Gibson, J 2012. Dairy cattle genetics and its applications in Brazil. Livestock Research for Rural Development 24, 97.
Makoni, N, Mwai, R, Redda, R, van der Zijpp, A and van der Lee, J 2013. White gold – opportunities for Dairy Sector Development Collaboration in East Africa. Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen, The Netherland.
Marshall, K, Quiros-Campos, C, Van der Werf, JHJ and Kinghorn, B 2011. Marker-based selection within smallholder production systems in developing countries. Livestock Science 136, 4554.
Mbole-Kariuki, MN, Sonstegard, T, Orth, A, Thumbi, SM, Bronsvoort, BMC, Kiara, H, Toye, P, Conradie, I, Jennings, A, Coetzer, K, Woolhouse, MEJ, Hanotte, O and Tapio, M 2014. Genome-wide analysis reveals the ancient and recent admixture history of East African Shorthorn Zebu from Western Kenya. Heredity 113, 297305.
Mekonnen, H, Dehninet, G and Kelay, B 2010. Dairy technology adoption in smallholder farms in Dejen district, Ethiopia. Tropical Animal Health and Production 42, 209216.
Miazi, OF, Hossain, E and Hassan, MM 2007. Productive and reproductive performance of crossbred and indigenous dairy cows under rural conditions in Comilla, Bangladesh. University Journal of Zoology, Rajshahi University 26, 6770.
Minister of State for Planning (MSP) 2009. 2009 population & housing census results. Kenya census 2009. Minister of State for Planning, Nairobi, Kenya.
Muriuki, HG and Thorpe, W 2002. Smallholder dairy production and marketing in eastern and southern Africa: regional synthesis. In smallholder dairy production and marketing – opportunities and constraints. Proceedings of a South–South workshop held at NDDB, Anand, India, March 13–16, 2001, pp. 185–200.
Murray, GGR, Woolhouse, MEJ, Tapio, M, Mbole-Kariuki, MN, Sonstegard, TS, Thumbi, SA, Jennings, AE, van Wyk, IC, Chase-Topping, M, Kiara, H, Toye, P, Coetzer, K, Bronsvort, BMC and Hanotte, O 2013. Genetic susceptibility to infectious disease in East African Shorthorn Zebu: a genome-wide analysis of the effect of heterozygosity and exotic introgression. BMC Evolutionary Biology 13, 246.
Nath, BG, Pathak, PK, Ngachan, SV, Tripathi, AK and Mohanty, AK 2013. Characterization of smallholder pig production system: productive and reproductive performances of local and crossbred pigs in Sikkim Himalayan region. Tropical Animal Health and Production 45, 15131518.
Otieno, DJ 2013. Market and non-market factors influencing farmers’ adoption of improved beef cattle in arid and semi-arid areas of Kenya. Journal of Agricultural Science 5, 3243.
Pattison, J, Drucker, AG and Anderson, S 2007. The cost of conserving livestock diversity? Incentive measures and conservation options for maintaining indigenous Pelón pigs in Yucatan, Mexico. Tropical Animal Health and Production 39, 339353.
Peacock, C, Ahuya, CO, Ojango, JMK and Okeyo, AM 2011. Practical crossbreeding for improved livelihoods in developing countries: the FARM Africa goat project. Livestock Science 136, 3844.
Pilling, D and Hoffmann, I 2011. Climate change and animal genetic resources for food and agriculture: state of knowledge, risks and opportunities. Background Study Paper 53. FAO, Rome, Italy, 45pp.
Quddus, MA 2012. Adoption of dairy farming technologies by small farm holders: practices and constraints. Bangladesh Journal of Animal Science 41, 124135.
Rege, JEO, Marshall, K, Notenbaert, A, Ojango, JMK and Okeyo, AM 2011. Pro-poor animal improvement and breeding – what can science do? Livestock Science 136, 1528.
Roschinsky, R, Kluszczynska, M, Sölkner, J, Puskur, R and Wurzinger, M 2015. Smallholder experiences with dairy cattle crossbreeding in the tropics: from introduction to impact. Animal 9, 150157.
Steglich, M and Peters, KJ 2003. Participatory methods to assess traditional breeding systems: the case of cattle breeding in the Gambia. In Conservation and sustainable use of agricultural biodiversity: a sourcebook (ed. D Campilan, J Rivaca-Caminade, H de Ckhavez, P Eyzaguirre, J Gonsalves, W Pelegrina, R Vernooym and A Von Lossau), pp. 123132. CIP-Upward, Manila.
Widi, TSM 2015. Mapping the impact of crossbreeding in smallholder cattle systems in Indonesia. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, Wageningen, 136pp.

Keywords

Type Description Title
WORD
Supplementary materials

Leroy supplementary material
Leroy supplementary material 1

 Word (19 KB)
19 KB
WORD
Supplementary materials

Leroy supplementary material
Table S1

 Word (18 KB)
18 KB

Review: Sustainability of crossbreeding in developing countries; definitely not like crossing a meadow…

  • G. Leroy (a1), R. Baumung (a1), P. Boettcher (a1), B. Scherf (a1) and I. Hoffmann (a1)...

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed