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Tinbergen's “four questions” provides a formal framework for a more complete understanding of prosocial biases in favour of attractive people

  • Ian D. Stephen (a1) (a2) (a3), Darren Burke (a4) and Danielle Sulikowski (a5)


We adopt Tinbergen's (1963) “four questions” approach to strengthen the criticism by Maestripieri et al. of the non-evolutionary accounts of favouritism toward attractive individuals, by showing which levels of explanation are lacking in these accounts. We also use this approach to propose ways in which the evolutionary account may be extended and strengthened.



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