Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Tinbergen's “four questions” provides a formal framework for a more complete understanding of prosocial biases in favour of attractive people

  • Ian D. Stephen (a1) (a2) (a3), Darren Burke (a4) and Danielle Sulikowski (a5)

Abstract

We adopt Tinbergen's (1963) “four questions” approach to strengthen the criticism by Maestripieri et al. of the non-evolutionary accounts of favouritism toward attractive individuals, by showing which levels of explanation are lacking in these accounts. We also use this approach to propose ways in which the evolutionary account may be extended and strengthened.

Copyright

References

Hide All
Hemelrijk, C. K., Meier, C. & Martin, R. D. (1999) “Friendship” for fitness in chimpanzees? Animal Behaviour 58:1223–29.
Hemelrijk, C. K., van Laere, G. J. & van Hooff, J. A. R. A. M. (1992) Sexual exchange relationships in captive chimpanzees? Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 30:269–75.
Kanazawa, S. (2011) Intelligence and physical attractiveness. Intelligence 39:714.
Nishida, T. (1989) Social interactions between resident and immigrant female chimpanzees. In: Understanding chimpanzees, ed. Heltne, P. G. & Marquardt, L. A.. Harvard University Press.
Perrett, D. I., Burt, M., Penton-Voak, I. S., Lee, K. J., Rowland, D. A. & Edwards, R. (1999) Symmetry and human facial attractiveness. Evolution and Human Behavior 20:295307.
Stephen, I. D. & Tan, K. W. (2015) Healthy body, healthy face? Evolutionary approaches to health perception. In: Culture and cognition: A collection of critical essays, ed. Sheppard, E. & Haque, S.. Peter Lang International.
Tinbergen, N. (1963) On aims and methods of ethology. Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie 20:410–33.
West-Eberhard, M. J. (2014) Darwin's forgotten idea: The social essence of sexual selection. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 46:501508.

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed