Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa

Characterisation and expression of secretory phospholipase A2 group IB during ontogeny of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)

  • Øystein Sæle (a1), Andreas Nordgreen (a1), Pål A. Olsvik (a1) and Kristin Hamre (a1)

The pancreatic enzyme secretory phospholipase A2 group IB (sPLA2 IB) hydrolyses phospholipids at the sn-2 position, resulting in a NEFA and a lyso-phospholipid, which are then absorbed by the enterocytes. The sPLA2 IB is a member of a family of nineteen enzymes sharing the same catalytic ability, of which nine are cytosolic and ten are secretory. Presently, there are no pharmacological tools to separate between the different secretory enzymes when measuring the enzymatic activity. Thus, it is important to support activity data with more precise techniques when isolation of intestinal content is not possible for analysis, as in the case of small teleost larvae, where the whole animal is sometimes analysed. In the present study, we characterise the sPLA2 IB gene in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and describe its ontogeny at the genetic and protein level and compare this to the total sPLA2 activity level. A positive correlation was found between the expression of sPLA2 IB mRNA and protein. Both remained stable and low during the larval stage followed by an increase from day 62 posthatch, coinciding with the development of the pyloric ceaca. Meanwhile, total sPLA2 enzyme activity in cod was stable and relatively high during the early stages when larvae were fed live prey, followed by a decrease in activity when the fish were weaned to a formulated diet. Thus, the expression of sPLA2 IB mRNA and protein did not correlate with total sPLA2 activity.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Characterisation and expression of secretory phospholipase A2 group IB during ontogeny of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)
      Available formats
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Characterisation and expression of secretory phospholipase A2 group IB during ontogeny of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)
      Available formats
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Characterisation and expression of secretory phospholipase A2 group IB during ontogeny of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)
      Available formats
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Ø. Sæle, fax +47 55 90 52 99, email
Hide All
1Coutteau P, Geurden I, Camara MR, et al. (1997) Review on the dietary effects of phospholipids in fish and crustacean larviculture. Aquaculture 155, 149164.
2Radunzneto J, Corraze G, Charlon N, et al. (1994) Lipid supplementation of casein-based purified diets for carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) larvae. Aquaculture 128, 153161.
3Geurden I, Coutteau P & Sorgeloos P (1995) Dietary phospholipids for European sea bass (Dicentrarchuslahrax L.) during first ongrowing. Larvi ‘95 – Fish and Shellfish Symposium, Gent, Belgium September 3–7, EAS Special Publication, vol. 24, pp. 175178 [Lavens P and Jaspers E, et al. , editors].
4Cahu CL, Infante JLZ & Barbosa V (2003) Effect of dietary phospholipid level and phospholipid: neutral lipid value on the development of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) larvae fed a compound diet. Br J Nutr 90, 2128.
5Kanazawa A (1997) Effects of docosahexaenoic acid and phospholipids on stress tolerance of fish. Aquaculture 155, 129134.
6Cahu CL, Gisbert E, Villeneuve LAN, et al. (2009) Influence of dietary phospholipids on early ontogenesis of fish. Aquac Res 40, 989999.
7Cahu C, Infante JZ & Takeuchi T (2003) Nutritional components affecting skeletal development in fish larvae. Aquaculture 227, 245258.
8Izquierdo MS, Socorro J, Arantzamendi L, et al. (2000) Recent advances in lipid nutrition in fish larvae. Fish Physiol Biochem 22, 97107.
9Murakami M & Kudo I (2002) Phospholipase A2. J Biochem 101, 285292.
10Hendrickson HS, Hendrickson EK & Dybvig RH (1983) Chiral synthesis of a dithiolester analog of phosphatidylcholine as a substrate for the assay of phospholipase-A2. J Lipid Res 24, 15321537.
11Reynolds LJ, Hughes LL & Dennis EA (1992) Analysis of human synovial-fluid phospholipase-A2 on short chain phosphatidylcholine-mixed micelles – development of a spectrophotometric assay suitable for a microtiterplate reader. Anal Biochem 204, 190197.
12Iijima N, Fujikawa Y, Tateishi Y, et al. (2001) Cloning and expression of group IB phospholipase A(2) isoforms in the red sea bream Pagrus major. Lipids 36, 499506.
13Uematsu K, Kitano M, Morita M, et al. (1992) Presence and ontogeny of intestinal and pancreatic phospholipase A2-like proteins in the red sea bream, Pagrus major – an immunocytochemical study. Fish Physiol Biochem 9, 427438.
14Finn RN, Ronnestad I, van der Meeren T, et al. (2002) Fuel and metabolic scaling during the early life stages of Atlantic cod Gadus morhua. Marine Ecology-Progress Series 243, 217234.
15Folkvord A (2005) Comparison of size-at-age of larval Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) from different populations based on size- and temperature-dependent growth models. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 62, 10371052.
16Mueller O, Hahnenberger K, Dittmann M, et al. (2000) A microfluidic system for high-speed reproducible DNA sizing and quantitation. Electrophoresis 21, 128134.
17Imbeaud S, Graudens E, Boulanger V, et al. (2005) Towards standardization of RNA quality assessment using user-independent classifiers of microcapillary electrophoresis traces. Nucleic Acids Res 33, e56.
18Vandesompele J, De Preter K, Pattyn F, et al. (2002) Accurate normalization of real-time quantitative RT-PCR data by geometric averaging of multiple internal control genes. Genome Biol 3, 0034·00310034·0011.
19Olsvik PA, Softeland L & Lie KK (2008) Selection of reference genes for qRT-PCR studies of wild populations of Atlantic cod Gadus morhua. BMC Res Notes 16, 147.
20Saele O, Nordgreen A, Hamre K, et al. (2009) Evaluation of candidate reference genes in Q-PCR studies of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) ontogeny, with emphasis on the gastrointestinal tract. Comp Biochem Physiol Biochem Mol Biol 152, 94101.
21Otterlei E, Nyhammer G, Folkvord A, et al. (1999) Temperature- and size-dependent growth of larval and early juvenile Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua): a comparative study of Norwegian coastal cod and northeast Arctic cod. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 56, 20992111.
22Busch KET, Falk-Petersen IB, Peruzzi S, et al. (2009) Natural zooplankton as larval feed in intensive rearing systems for juvenile production of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.). Aquac Res (epublication ahead of print version 28 December 2009).
23MacQueen Leifson R, Homme JM, Lie O, et al. (2003) Three different lipid sources in formulated start-feeds for turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.) larvae – effect on growth and mitochondrial alteration in enterocytes. Aquac Nutr 9, 3342.
24Callan C, Jordaan A & Kling LJ (2003) Reducing Artemia use in the culture of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Aquaculture 219, 858–595.
25Sevier CS & Kaiser CA (2002) Formation and transfer of disulphide bonds in living cells. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 3, 836847.
26Triggiani M, Granata F, Giannattasio G, et al. (2005) Secretory phospholipases A(2) in inflammatory and allergic diseases: not just enzymes. J Allergy Clin Immunol 116, 10001006.
27Iijima N, Uchiyama S, Fujikawa Y, et al. (2000) Purification, characterization, and molecular cloning of group I phospholipases A(2) from the gills of the red sea bream, Pagrus major. Lipids 35, 13591370.
28Tojo H, Ono T, Kuramitsu S, et al. (1988) A phospholipase-A2 in the supernatant fraction of rat spleen – its similarity to rat pancreatic phospholipase-A2. J Biol Chem 263, 57245731.
29Schaloske RH & Dennis EA (2006) The phospholipase A(2) superfamily and its group numbering system. Biochim Biophys Acta 1761, 12461259.
30Ozkizilcik S, Chu FLE & Place AR (1996) Ontogenetic changes of lipolytic enzymes in striped bass (Morone saxatilis). Comp Biochem Physiol Biochem Mol Biol 113, 631637.
31Nguyen VT, Satoh S, Haga Y, et al. (2008) Effect of zinc and manganese supplementation in Artemia on growth and vertebral deformity in red sea bream (Pagrus major) larvae. Aquaculture 285, 184192.
32Infante JLZ & Cahu CL (1999) High dietary lipid levels enhance digestive tract maturation and improve Dicentrarchus labrax larval development. J Nutr 129, 11951200.
33Hamre K, Mollan TA, Saele O, et al. (2008) Rotifers enriched with iodine and selenium increase survival in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) larvae. Aquaculture 284, 190195.
34Hoehne-Reitan K, Kjorsvik E & Reitan KI (2003) Lipolytic activities in developing turbot larvae as influenced by diet. Aquac Int 11, 477489.
35Tocher DR, Bendiksen EA, Campbell PJ, et al. (2008) The role of phospholipids in nutrition and metabolism of teleost fish. Aquaculture 280, 2134.
36Carten JD & Farber SA (2009) A new model system swims into focus: using the zebrafish to visualize intestinal lipid metabolism in vivo. Clin Lipidol 4, 501515.
37Farber SA, Pack M, Ho SY, et al. (2001) Genetic analysis of digestive physiology using fluorescent phospholipid reporters. Science 292, 13851388.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

British Journal of Nutrition
  • ISSN: 0007-1145
  • EISSN: 1475-2662
  • URL: /core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 7
Total number of PDF views: 28 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 80 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 21st October 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.