Hostname: page-component-5d59c44645-zlj4b Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-02-26T03:46:33.589Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Pulmonic ingressive phonation: Diachronic and synchronic characteristics, distribution and function in animal and human sound production and in human speech

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  24 December 2008

Robert Eklund*
Affiliation:
Karolinska Institute/Stockholm Brain Institute, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Stockholm, Sweden & International Computer Science Institute (ICSI) Berkeley, CAemail@ingressivespeech.info

Abstract

This paper looks at the phenomenon of ingressive speech, i.e. speech produced on a pulmonic ingressive airstream, set in the context of human and animal ingressive phonation. The literature on ingressive speech and phonation spanning several centuries is reviewed, as well as contemporary reports of their incidence and characteristics from both functional and acoustic perspectives. Ingressive phonation has been used as a deliberate means of speech or sound production for hundreds of years in order to achieve specific effects, and it is still used for the same purposes, by e.g. shamans and ventriloquists. In normal spoken conversation – contrary to what is often claimed – present-day ingressive speech is not limited to Scandinavia or Nordic languages, but is found on all continents, in genetically unrelated languages. Where ingressive speech occurs, it serves more or less the same paralinguistic functions, such as a feedback marker in a dialog. Since pulmonic ingressive phonation is also common in the calls of monkeys and apes, thus exhibiting a biological basis, it is suggested that ingressive speech might constitute a neglected universal phenomenon, rather than being highly marked, which is how it is commonly described in the literature.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © Journal of the International Phonetic Association 2008

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Abercrombie, David. 1967. Elements of general phonetics. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.Google Scholar
Abley, Mark. 2003. Spoken here: Travels among threatened languages. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.Google Scholar
Abondolo, Daniel (ed.). 1998. The Uralic languages. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
Acosta-Reyes, Luis H. 2004. Prosodic features that cue back-channel responses in Northern Mexican Spanish. M.A. dissertation, University of Texas at El Paso.Google Scholar
Alexandre, Pierre & Binet, Jacques. 1958. Le groupe dit Pahouin (Fang – Boulou – Beti). Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.Google Scholar
Allsopp, Richard (ed.). 1996. Dictionary of Caribbean English usage. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Allwood, Jens. 1981. Finns det svenska kommunikationsmönster? In Vad är svensk kultur? (Papers in Anthropological Linguistics 9), 650. Göteborg: Göteborg University.Google Scholar
Allwood, Jens. 1985. Tvärkulturell kommunikation. In Allwood, Jens (ed.), Tvärkulturell kommunikation (Papers in Anthropological Linguistics 12), 961. Göteborg: Göteborg University.Google Scholar
Allwood, Jens. 1988. Om det svenska systemet för språklig återkoppling. In Linell, Per, Adelswärd, Viveka, Nilsson, Torbjörn & Pettersson, Per A. (eds.), Svenskans Beskrivning 16(1), 89106. University of Linköping.Google Scholar
Allwood, Jens. 2000. The structure of dialog. In Taylor, Martin M., Néel, Françoise & Bouwhuis, Don G. (eds.), Structure of multimodal dialog II, 324. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Google Scholar
Allwood, Jens (ed.). 2001. Dialog coding – function and grammar: Göteborg Coding Schemas (Gothenburg Papers in Theoretical Linguistics 85). Göteborg: Göteborg University.Google Scholar
Allwood, Jens, Ahlsén, Elisabeth, Björnberg, Maria & Nivre, Joakim. 2001a. Communicative acts: Coding manual. In Allwood, (ed.), 85, 9–16.Google Scholar
Allwood, Jens & Björnberg, Maria. 1999. Coding schemas within the SDS project – a comparison: A platform for multimodal spoken language corpora (Project report for Swedish Dialogue Systems (SDS), HSFR/NUTEK). Göteborg: Göteborg University.Google Scholar
Allwood, Jens, Björnberg, Maria, Grönqvist, Leif, Ahlsén, Elisabeth & Ottesjö, Cajsa. 2000. The Spoken Language Corpus at the Department of Linguistics, Göteborg University, Sweden. Forum Qualitative Social Research 1 (3).Google Scholar
Allwood, Jens, Grönqvist, Leif, Ahlsén, Elisabeth & Gunnarsson, Magnus. 2001b. Annotations and tools for an activity based spoken language corpus. In Kuppevelt, Jan van & Smith, Ronnie (eds.), 2nd SIGdial Workshop on Discourse and Dialogue, 110. Aalborg.Google Scholar
Allwood, Jens & Strömqvist, Sven. 1988. Tvärkulturell kommunikation med särskild hänsyn till talspråklig interaktion. In Strömqvist, Sven & Strömqvist, Göran (eds.), Kulturmöten, kommunikation, skola, 7894. Stockholm: Norstedts.Google Scholar
Amery, Rob. 2006. Directions for linguistic research: Forging partnerships in language development and expansion of the domains of use of Australia's indigenous languages. In Cunningham, Denis, Ingram, D. E. & Sumbuk, Kenneth (eds.), Language diversity in the Pacific: Endangerment and survival, 162179. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
Amman, Johann Conrad. 1694. THE Talking Deaf Man: OR, A Method Proposed, Whereby he who is Born DEAF, May Learn to SPEAK The talking deaf man (Surdus loquens). London: Tho. Hawkins. [Latin original Surdus loquens, 1692, Amsterdam: G. L. Meinsma; English translation by Daniel Foot.]Google Scholar
Amman, Johann Conrad. 1873. A dissertation on speech. London: Sampson Low, Marston, Low, and Searle. [Latin original Dissertatio de loquela, 1700, Amsterdam: John Wolters; facsimile edition of the English 1873 translation: Rieber, R. W. (ed.), 1965, Amsterdam: North-Holland.]Google Scholar
Anderson, Earl R. 1998. A grammar of iconism. Cranbury, NJ: Associated University Press.Google Scholar
Anspach, Lewis Amadeus. 1819. A history of the island of Newfoundland, containing a description of the island, the bank, the fisheries and trade of Newfoundland and the coast of Labrador. London: Allman & Richardson.Google Scholar
Arcadi, Adam Clark. 1996. Phrase structure of wild chimpanzee hoots: Patterns of production and interpopulation variability. American Journal of Primatology 39, 159178.Google Scholar
Armstrong, Robert G. 1976. Talking instruments in West Africa. In Sebeok, & Umiker-Sebeok, (eds.), 865–877.Google Scholar
Arnott, Neil. 1831. Elements of physics or natural philosophy. . ., vol. 1. Philadelphia, PA: Carey and Lea.Google Scholar
Atkinson, J. Maxwell & Heritage, John (eds.). 1984. Structures of social action: Studies in conversation analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Bagemihl, Bruce. 1988. The morphology and phonology of katajjait (Inuit throat games). Canadian Journal of Linguistics 33 (1), 158.Google Scholar
Ball, Martin J. 1991a. Recent developments in the transcription of non-normal speech. Journal of Communication Disorders 24, 5978.Google Scholar
Ball, Martin J. 1991b. Computer coding of the IPA: Extensions to the IPA. Journal of the International Phonetic Association 21 (1), 3641.Google Scholar
Ball, Martin J., Code, Chris, Rahilly, Joan & Hazlett, Diane. 1994. Non-segmental aspects of disordered speech: Developments in transcription. Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics 8 (1), 6783.Google Scholar
Ball, Martin J., Esling, John H. & Dickson, Craig. 1995. The VoQS system for the transcription of voice quality. Journal of the International Phonetic Association 25 (2), 7180.Google Scholar
Ball, Martin J. & Lowry, Orla. 2001. Methods in clinical phonetics. London: Whurr Publishers.Google Scholar
Ball, Martin J. & Müller, Nicole. 2005. Phonetics for communication disorders. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
Ball, Martin J. & Müller, Nicole. 2007. Non-pulmonic-egressive speech in clinical data: A brief review. Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics 21 (11–12), 869874.Google Scholar
Ball, Martin J. & Rahilly, Joan. 1999. Phonetics: The science of speech. London: Arnold.Google Scholar
Ball, Martin J., Rahilly, Joan & Tench, Paul. 1996. The phonetic transcription of disordered speech. San Diego, CA: Singular Publishing Group.Google Scholar
Battisti, Carlo. 1938. Fonetica generale. Milano: Editore Ulrico Hoepli.Google Scholar
Beach, D. M. 1938. The phonetics of the Hottentot language. Cambridge: W. Heffer & Sons Ltd.Google Scholar
Beard, Jonathan. 2005. Whistle spoken here. Scientific American Mind 16 (2), 6.Google Scholar
Beaudry, Nicole. 1978. Toward transcription and analysis of Inuit throat-Games: Macro-structure. Ethnomusicology XXII (2), 261273.Google Scholar
Behnke, Emil. 1882?. The mechanism of the human voice, 11th edn. London: J. Curwen & Sons.Google Scholar
Bell, Alexander Melville. 1867. Visible speech: The science of universal alphabetics. London: Simpkin, Marshall & Co.Google Scholar
Bell, Linda, Boye, Johan, Gustafson, Joakim, Heldner, Mattias, Lindström, Anders & Wirén, Mats. 2005. The Swedish NICE Corpus – Spoken dialogues between children and embodied characters in a computer game scenario. 9th European Conference on Speech Communication and Technology, Interspeech 2005, Lisbon, 2765–2768.Google Scholar
Bernhardt, Barbara & Ball, Martin J.. 1993. Characteristics of atypical speech currently not included in the extensions to the IPA. Journal of the International Phonetic Association 23 (1), 3538.Google Scholar
Berntson, Gary G., Boysen, Sarah T., Bauer, Harold R. & Torello, Michael S.. 1989. Conspecific screams and laughter: Cardiac and behavioral reactions of infant chimpanzees. Developmental Psychobiology 22 (8), 771787.Google Scholar
Bhaskararao, Peri. 1972. Practical phonetics. Pune: University of Poona at Deccan College.Google Scholar
Bleile, Ken Mitchell. 2003. Manual of articulation and phonological disorders: Infancy through adulthood, 2nd edn. (Thomson Delmar Learning's Clinical Competence Series). Clifton Park, NY: Delmar Learning.Google Scholar
Blevins, Juliette. 2004. Evolutionary phonology: The emergence of sounds patterns. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Bloch, Bernard & Trager, George L.. 1942. Outline of linguistic analysis (Special Publications of the Linguistic Society of America). Baltimore, MD: Waverly Press.Google Scholar
Bloomer, Aileen, Griffiths, Patrick & Merrison, Andrew John. 2005. Introducing language in use. Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
Borg, Albert & Azzopardi-Alexander, Marie. 1997. Maltese. Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
Bosma, James F. 1964. Respiratory motion patterns in the newborn infant cry. In Jacob, L. Kay (ed.), Physical diagnosis of the newly born: Report of the Forty-sixth ROSS CONFERENCE on Pediatric Research, 103111. Columbus, OH: Ross Laboratories.Google Scholar
Bosma, James F., Truby, H. M. & Lind, John. 1965. Cry motions of the newborn infant. In Lind, John (ed.), Newborn infant cry, 6192. Uppsala: Almqvist & Wiksells.Google Scholar
Boves, Lou & Oostdijk, Nelleke. 2003. Spontaneous speech in the Spoken Dutch Corpus. The ISCA and IEEE Workshop on Spontaneous Speech Processing and Recognition (SSPR), Tokyo. [Page numbers not available.]Google Scholar
Bradshaw, John & Cameron-Beaumont, Charlotte. 2000. The signalling repertoire of the domestic cat and its undomestic relatives. In Turner, Dennis C. & Bateson, Patrick (eds.), The domestic cat: The biology of its behaviour, 2nd edn., 6794. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. [1st edn. in 1998.]Google Scholar
Branco, Anete, Behlau, Mara & Rehder, Maria Inês. 2005. The neonate cry after cesarean section and vaginal delivery during the first minutes of life. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology 69, 681689.Google Scholar
Branco, Anete, Fekete, Saskia M. W., Rugolo, Ligia M. S. S. & Rehder, Maria Inês. 2007. The newborn pain cry: Descriptive acoustic spectrographic analysis. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology 71 (4), 539–46.Google Scholar
Brinton, Laurel J. 2000. The structure of modern English. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Google Scholar
Broch, Olaf & Selmer, Ernst W.. 1938. Håndbok i elementær fonetik. Oslo: H. Aschehoug & Co.Google Scholar
Bromley, H. Myron. 1961. The phonology of Lower Grand Valley Dani: A comparative structural study of skewed phonemic patterns (Verhandelingen van het Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde, deel 34). 's–Gravenhage: Martinus Nijhoff.Google Scholar
Browne, Lennox & Behnke, Emil. 1884. Voice, song, and speech, 2nd edn. London: Sampson Low.Google Scholar
Busnel, René-Guy. 1976a. Information in the human whistled language and sea mammal whistling. In Sebeok, & Umiker-Sebeok, (eds.), 914–938.Google Scholar
Busnel, René-Guy. 1976b. Historical briefing of the whistling language of Kusköy. In Sebeok, & Umiker-Sebeok, (eds.), 1029–1030.Google Scholar
Busnel, René-Guy. 1976c. Recherches expérimentales sur la langue sifflée de Kusköy. In Sebeok, & Umiker-Sebeok, (eds.), 1057–1089.Google Scholar
Busnel, René-Guy & Classe, André. 1976. Whistled languages (Communication and Cybernetics 13). Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
Busnel, René-Guy, Moles, A. & Vallancien, B.. 1976. Sur l'aspect phonétique d'une langue sifflée des Pyrénées françaises. In Sebeok, & Umiker-Sebeok, (eds.), 900–913.Google Scholar
Busnel, René-Guy, Moles, A. & Gilbert, M.. 1976. Un cas de langue sifflée utilisée dans les Pyrénées françaises. In Sebeok, & Umiker-Sebeok, (eds.), 881–899.Google Scholar
Bussman, Hadumod. 1996. Routledge dictionary of language and linguistics. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
Button, Graham & Casey, Neil. 1984. Generating topic: The use of topic initial elicitors. In Atkinson, & Heritage, (eds.), 167–190.Google Scholar
Cameron, E. E. & Cogger, H. G.. 1992. The herpetofauna of the Weipa Region, Cape York Peninsula (Technical Reports of the Australian Museum 7).Google Scholar
Carreiras, Manuel, Lopez, Jorge, Rivero, Francisco & Carina, David. 2005. Neural processing of a whistled language. Nature 433, 3132.Google Scholar
Catford, J. C. 1977. Fundamental problems in phonetics. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.Google Scholar
Catford, J. C. 1988. A practical introduction to phonetics. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
Caughley, Ross. C. 1976. Chepang whistle talk. In Sebeok, & Umiker-Sebeok, (eds.), 997–1022.Google Scholar
Caughley, Ross. C. 1969. Chepang phonemic summary: Tibeto-Burman phonemic summaries – IV. Kirtipur: Summer Institute of Linguistics, Tribhuvan University.Google Scholar
Cavanagh, Beverly. 1976. Some throat-games of Netsilik Eskimo women. Canadian Folk Music Journal 4, 4347.Google Scholar
Chafe, Wallace. 2003. Laughing while talking. In Tannen, Deborah & Alatis, James E. (eds.), Linguistics, language, and the real world: Discourse and beyond (Georgetown University Round Table on Languages and Linguistics 2001), 3649. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press.Google Scholar
Charron, Claude. 1978. Toward transcription and analysis of Inuit throat-games: Micro-structure. Ethnomusicology XXII, 245259.Google Scholar
Chiaramonte, Louis J. 1969. Mumming in ‘Deep Harbour’: Aspects of social organization in mumming and drinking. In Halpert, & Story, (eds.), 77–103.Google Scholar
Childs, G. Tucker. 1995. A grammar of Kisi. Berlin & New York: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar
Chin, Steven B.. 2003. Children's consonant inventories after extended cochlear implant use. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research 46 (4), 849862.Google Scholar
Chung, Chul-Hwa & Chung, Kyung-Ja. 1993. Back ground [sic] study. Ms., Summer Institute of Linguistics, Papua New Guinea.Google Scholar
Clark, John, Yallop, Colin & Fletcher, Janet. 1995. An introduction to phonetics and phonology, 2nd edn. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
Clarke, Sandra & Melchers, Gunnel. 2005. Ingressive particles across borders: Gender and discourse parallels across the North Atlantic. In Filppula, Markku, Klemola, Juhani, Palander, Marjatta & Penttilä, Esa (eds.), Dialects across borders: 11th International Conference on Methods in Dialectology (Methods XI), Joensuu, August 2002 (Current Issues in Linguistic Theory 273), 5172. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Google Scholar
Classe, André. 1957. The whistled language of La Gomera. Scientific American 196, 111120.Google Scholar
Classe, André. 1976a. The phonetics of the Silbo Gomero. In Sebeok, & Umiker-Sebeok, (eds.), 966–982.Google Scholar
Classe, André. 1976b. Les langues sifflées, squelettes informatifs du langage. In Sebeok, & Umiker-Sebeok, (eds.), 983–992.Google Scholar
Cline, Ruth H. 1958. Belsnickles and Shanghais. Journal of American Folklore, 71 (280), 164165.Google Scholar
Coates, Jennifer. 1989. Gossip revisited: Language in all-female groups. In Coates, Jennifer & Tannen, Deborah (eds.), Women in their speech communities, 94121. London: Longman.Google Scholar
Coates, Jennifer. 1986. Women, men and language: A sociolinguistic account of gender differences in language. London: Longman.Google Scholar
Collaer, Paul. 1956. Sixteen Ainu songs. Colloques de Wégiment, vol. 1, 195205. Bruxelles: Elsevier.Google Scholar
Collins, Beverly & Mees, Inger M.. 1981. The phonetics of English and Dutch. Leiden: Brill. [5th edn. in 2003.]Google Scholar
Collins, Beverly & Mees, Inger M.. 2003. Practical phonetics and phonology: A resource book for students. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
Colton, Raymond H., Casper, Janina K. & Leonard, Rebecca. 2006. Understanding voice problems: A physiological perspective for diagnosis and treatment. Baltimore, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.Google Scholar
Conklin, Harold C. 1949. Preliminary report on field work on the islands of Mindoro and Palawan, Philippines. American Anthropologist 51, 268273.Google Scholar
Conklin, Harold C. 1959. Linguistic play in its cultural context. Language 35 (4), 631636.Google Scholar
Connor, Steven. 2000. Dumbstruck: A cultural history of ventriloquism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Coombes, Kay. 1987. Speech therapy. In Yule, William & Rutter, Michael (eds.), Language development and disorders, 350366. Oxford: Mac Keith Press & Blackwell.Google Scholar
Corwin, Michael J. & Golub, Howard L.. 1985. Medical applications of infant cry analysis. In Milunsky, Aubrey, Friedman, Emanuel A. & Gluck, Louis (eds.), Advances in perinatal medicine, vol. 4, 163188. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
Cowan, George M. 1948. Mazateco whistle speech. Language 24 (3), 280286.Google Scholar
Cowan, George M. 1972. Segmental features of Tepehua whistle speech. In Rigault, André & Charbonneau, René (eds.), 7th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences (ICPhS), Montreal (Janua Linguarum, series maior 57), 695698. The Hague: Mouton.Google Scholar
Cowan, George M. 1976a. Whistled Tepehua. In Sebeok, & Umiker-Sebeok, (eds.), 1400–1409.Google Scholar
Cowan, George M. 1976b. Mazateco whistle speech. In Sebeok, & Umiker-Sebeok, (eds.), 1383–1393.Google Scholar
Cranz, David. 1765. Historie von Grönland, enthaltend . . . Barby: Heinrich Detlef Ebers & Leipzig: Weidmanns Erben und Reich. [Swedish translation Historia om Grönland, Deruti . . ., 1769, Stockholm: Johan Georg Lange; English translation The history of Greenland, including . . ., 1820, London: Printed for Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, and Brown.]Google Scholar
Critchley, MacDonald. 1939. Spastic dysphonia (“Inspiratory Speech”). Journal of Neurology 62, 96103.Google Scholar
Croft, William. 2003. Typology and universals, 2nd edn. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Cross, Douglas E. & Luper, Harold L.. 1979. Voice reaction time of stuttering and nonstuttering children and adults. Journal of Fluency Disorders 4, 5977.Google Scholar
Cross, Douglas E., Shadden, Barbara B. & Luper, Harold L.. 1979. Effects of stimulus ear presentation on the voice reaction time of adult stutterers and nonstutterers. Journal of Fluency Disorders 4, 4558.Google Scholar
Cross, Douglas E. & Luper, Harold L.. 1983. Relation between finger reaction time and voice reaction time in stuttering and nonstuttering children and adults. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research 26, 356361.Google Scholar
Cruttenden, Alan. 1986. Intonation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Cruttenden, Alan (ed.). 2001. Gimson's Pronunciation of English, 6th edn. London: Arnold.Google Scholar
Crystal, David. 1987. The Cambridge encyclopedia of language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. [2nd edn. in 1997.]Google Scholar
Crystal, David. 1997. A dictionary of linguistics and phonetics, 4th edn. Oxford: Blackwell. [6th edn. in 2008.]Google Scholar
Curry, Robert. 1940. The mechanism of the human voice. London: J. & A. Churchill.Google Scholar
Darwin, Charles. 1872. The expression of the emotions in man and animals. London: John Murray.Google Scholar
Davenport, Mike & Hannahs, S. J.. 1998. Introducing phonetics & phonology. London: Arnold.Google Scholar
Davila Ross, Marina & Geissmann, Thomas. 2007. Call diversity of wild male orangutans: A phylogenetic approach. American Journal of Primatology 69, 305324.Google Scholar
Deacon, Terrence. 1997. The symbolic species: The co-evolution of language and the human brain. London: Allen Lane & The Penguin Press.Google Scholar
Dedouch, K., Horáček, J., Vampola, T., Švec, J. G., Kršek, P. & Havlik, R.. 2002. Acoustic modal analysis of male vocal tract for Czech vowels. In Zolotarev, I. (ed.), Interaction and Feedbacks 2002, 1319. Prague: Institute of Thermodynamic AS CR.Google Scholar
Dictionaire des sciences médicales, par une societé de médecins et de chirurgiens. 1815. Paris: C. L. F. Pancoucke.Google Scholar
Dieth, Eugen. 1950. Vademecum der Phonetik. Bern: A. Francke AG. Verlag.Google Scholar
Dinnan, James A., McGuiness, Eugene & Perrin, Lawrence. 1970. Auditory feedback: Stutterers versus nonstutterers. Journal of Learning Disabilities 3, 209213.Google Scholar
Dixon, R. M. W. 1980. The languages of Australia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Dixson, Alan F. 1998. Primate sexuality: Comparative studies of the promisians, monkeys, apes, and human beings. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Drachmann, Gaberell. 1980. Are all universals of child-language truly universals of language? In Brettschneider, Gunter & Lehmann, Christian (eds.), Wege zur Universalien Forschung: Sprachwissenschaftliche Beiträge zum 60. Geburtstag von Hansjakob Seiler, 131138. Tübingen: Gunter Narr Verlag.Google Scholar
Drew, Paul. 1984. Speakers' reportings in invitation sequences. In Atkinson, & Heritage, (eds.), 129–151.Google Scholar
Duckworth, Martin, Allen, George, Hardcastle, William J. & Ball, Martin J.. 1990. Extensions to the International Phonetic Alphabet for the transcription of atypical speech. Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics 4 (4), 273280.Google Scholar
Dunn, Alexandra & Ohala, John J.. 2000. F0 declination: Its causes and its infrequency in unscripted speech. Presented at Patterns of Speech Sounds in Unscripted Communication Workshop, Akademie Sankelmark.Google Scholar
Eboué, F. 1935. La clef musicale des langages tambourines et sifflés. Bulletin du Comité d'Ètudes Historiques et Scientifiques de l'Afrique Occidentale Française 18 (2–3), 353360.Google Scholar
Edwards, Harold T. 2002. Applied phonetics: The sounds of American English. Clifton Park, NY: Delmar Learning.Google Scholar
Edwards, Jane A. 2001 The transcription of discourse. In Schiffrin, Deborah, Tannen, Deborah & Hamilton, Heidi E. (eds.), The handbook of discourse analysis, 321348. Malden, MA: Blackwell.Google Scholar
Eijkman, L. P. H. 1937/1955. Phonetiek van het Nederlands, 1st/2nd edn. Haarlem: De Erven F. Bohn.Google Scholar
Eklund, Robert. 2002. Ingressive speech as an indication that humans are talking to humans (and not to machines). International Conference on Spoken Language Processing (ICSLP) 2002, Denver, vol. 2, 837840.Google Scholar
Eklund, Robert. 2004. Disfluency in Swedish human–human and human–machine travel booking dialogues. Ph.D. dissertation, Linköping University.Google Scholar
Eklund, Robert. 2007. Pulmonic ingressive speech: A neglected universal? Fonetik 2007, Stockholm, TMH-QPSR, KTH, vol. 46, 2124.Google Scholar
Elert, Claes-Christian. 1989. Allmän och svensk fonetik, 6th edn. Stockholm: Norstedts. [1st edn. in 1966.]Google Scholar
Ellis, Alexander J. c.1878. Speech in song. London: Novello and Company.Google Scholar
Ertmer, David J., Young, Nancy M. & Nathani, Suneeti. 2007. Profiles of vocal development in young cochlear implant recipients. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research 50, 393407.Google Scholar
Esling, John H. & Harris, Jimmy G.. 2005. States of the glottis: An articulatory phonetic model based on laryngoscopic observations. In Hardcastle, William J. & Beck, Janet Mackenzie (eds.), A figure of speech: A Festschrift for John Laver, 347383. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
Evans, Nicholas. 2007. Warramurrungunji undone: Australian languages in the 51st [sic] Millennium. In Brenzinger, Matthias (ed.), Language diversity endangered, 342373. The Hague: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar
Evans, Nick [Nicholas]. 1995. Current issues in the phonology of Australian languages. In Goldsmith, John A. (ed.), The handbook of phonological theory, 723761. Malden, MA: Blackwell.Google Scholar
Falk, Dean. 2000. Hominid brain evolution and the origins of music. In Wallin, et al. (eds.), 197–216.Google Scholar
Faris, James C. 1969. Mumming in an outport fishing settlement: A description and suggestions on the cognitive complex. In Halpert, & Story, (eds.), 129–144.Google Scholar
Figueoroa, Esther. 2005. Rude sounds: Kiss Teeth and negotiation of the public sphere. In Mühleisen, Susanne & Migge, Bettina (eds.), Politeness and face in Caribbean creoles, 7399. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Google Scholar
Figueoroa, Esther & Patrick, Peter L.. To appear. The meaning of Kiss-Teeth. In Spears, Arthur K. & DeJongh, James (eds.), Black language in the U.S. and Caribbean: Education, history, structure, and use.Google Scholar
Findley, Michael Shaw. 1998. Language and communication: A cross-cultural encyclopedia. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO.Google Scholar
Finger, Leila Susana & Cielo, Carla Aparecida. 2007. Reverse phonation – physiologic and clinical aspects of this speech voice therapy modality. Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology 73 (2), 271277.Google Scholar
Fink, B. Raymond, Basek, Milos & Epanchin, V.. 1956. The mechanism of opening of the human larynx. Laryngoscope 66, 410425.Google Scholar
Firestone, Melvin M. 1969. Mummers and strangers in Northern Newfoundland. In Halpert, & Story, (eds.), 63–75.Google Scholar
Fischer-Jørgensen, Eli. 1962. Almen Fonetik, 3rd edn. Copenhagen: Rosenkilde og Bagger.Google Scholar
Fisher, Len. 2005. Why and how do cats purr? BBC Focus 152, 41.Google Scholar
Fitch, William Tecumseh Sherman III. 1994. Vocal tract length perception and the evolution of language. Ph.D. dissertation, Brown University.Google Scholar
Flatau, Theodor S. & Gutzmann, Hermann. 1894. Die Bauchrednerkunst: Geschichte und experimentelle Untersuchungen. Leipzig: Verlag von Ambr. Abel (Arthur Meiner).Google Scholar
Flórez, Luis. 1957. Habla y cultura popular en antioquia. Bogota: Publicationes del Instituto Caro y Cuervo.Google Scholar
Forchhammer, Jörgen. 1924. Die Grundlage der Phonetiek. Heidelberg: Carl Winter's Universitätsbuchhandlung.Google Scholar
Forsblom-Nyberg, Ylva. 1995. Samtal som transkription. Folkmålsstudier 36, 5374.Google Scholar
Fries, Charles Carpenter. 1952. The structure of English: An introduction to the construction of English sentences. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Company.Google Scholar
Frint, T. & Kelemen, A.. 1969. Inspiratorische Stimmbildung psychogenen Ursprunges. Folia Phoniatrica 21 (2), 105111.Google Scholar
Froeschels, Emil. 1950. A technique for stutterers – ‘ventriloquism’. The Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders 15 (4), 336337.Google Scholar
Fuchs, Susanne & Perrier, Pascal. 2005. On the complex nature of speech kinematics. ZAS Papers in Linguistics 42, 137165.Google Scholar
Fuller, Michael. 1990. Pulmonic ingressive fricatives in Tsou. Journal of the International Phonetic Association 20 (2), 914.Google Scholar
Gaunt, Abbot S. & Gaunt, Sandra L. L.. 1977. Mechanics of the syrinx in Gallus gallus, part II: Electromyographic studies of ad libitum vocalizations. Journal of Morphology 152 (1), 120.Google Scholar
Gavriely, Noam, Palti, Yoram, Alroy, Gideon & Grotberg, James B.. 1984. Measurement and theory of wheezing breath sounds. Journal of Applied Physiology 57 (2), 481492.Google Scholar
Geis, Michael L. 1995. Speech acts and conversational interaction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Geissmann, Thomas. 1984. Inheritance of song parameters in the gibbon song, analysed in 2 hybrid gibbons (Hylobates pileatus × H. lar). Folia Primatologica 42, 216235.Google Scholar
Geissmann, Thomas. 1991. Sympatry between white-handed gibbons (Hylobates lar) and pileated gibbons (H. pileatus) in Southeastern Thailand. Primates 32 (3), 357363.Google Scholar
Geissmann, Thomas. 2000. Gibbon song and human music from an evolutionary perspective. In Wallin, et al. (eds.), 103–123.Google Scholar
Geissmann, Thomas & Dallmann, R.. 2002. Die Gesäng der Gibbons und die Evolution der Musik. Praxis der Naturwissenschaften 51 (1), 2129.Google Scholar
Geissmann, Thomas & Nijman, Vincent. 2006. Calling in wild silvery gibbons (Hylobates moloch) in Java (Indonesia): Behavior, phylogeny, and conservation. American Journal of Primatology 68, 119.Google Scholar
Gierke, Henning von. 1947. Über die mit dem Mund hervorgebrachten Pfeiftöne. Pflügers Archiv 249, 307312.Google Scholar
Gierut, Judith A. & Champion, Annette Hust. 2000. Ingressive substitutions: Typical or atypical phonological pattern? Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics 14 (8), 603617.Google Scholar
Gil, David. 2005. Paralinguistic usages of clicks. In Haspelmath, Martin, Dryer, Matthew, Gil, David & Comrie, Bernard (eds.), The world atlas of language structures, 570573. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Gillis, Steven, Schauwers, Karen & Govaerts, Paul J.. 2002. Babbling milestones and beyond: Early speech development in CI children. In Schauwers, Karen, Govaerts, Paul J. & Gillis, Steven (eds.), Language acquisition in very young children with a cochlear implant (Antwerp Papers in Linguistics 102), 2339. Antwerp: University of Antwerp.Google Scholar
Gimson, A. C. 1994. An introduction to the pronunciation of English, 5th edn. London: Edward Arnold. [1st edn. in 1962.]Google Scholar
Goffman, Erving. 1978. Response cries. Language 54, 787815.Google Scholar
Goller, Franz. 1998. Vocal gymnastics and the bird brain. Nature 395, 1112.Google Scholar
Goller, Franz & Daley, Monica A.. 2001. Novel motor gestures for phonation during inspiration enhance the acoustic complexity of birdsong. The Royal Society. Biology 268, 23012305.Google Scholar
Golub, Howard L. & Corwin, Michael J.. 1982. Infant cry: A clue to diagnosos. Pediatrics 69 (2), 197201.Google Scholar
Goodall, Jane. 1986. The chimpanzees of Gombe: Patterns of behavior. Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press of Harvard University.Google Scholar
Gould, Wilbur J. & Okamura, Hiroshi. 1974. Interrelationships between voice and laryngeal mucosal reflexes. In Wyke, (ed.), 347–369.Google Scholar
Grammont, Maurice. 1933. Traité de phonétique. Paris: Librairie Delagrave.Google Scholar
Grau, Susan M.,Robb, Michael P. & Cacace, Anthony T.. 1995. Acoustic correlates of inspiratory phonation during infant cry. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research 38, 373381.Google Scholar
Grønnum, Nina. 1998. Fonetik og Fonologi: Almen og Dansk. Copenhagen: Akademisk Forlag.Google Scholar
Grosjean, François & Collins, Maryann. 1979. Breathing, pausing and reading. Phonetica 36, 98114.Google Scholar
Gunnell, Terry. 1995. The origins of drama in Scandinavia. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer.Google Scholar
Gunnell, Terry. 2001. Grýla, grýlur, “grøleks” and skeklers: Medieval disguise traditions in the North Atlantic? Arv: Nordic Yearbook of Folklore 2001 57, 3354.Google Scholar
Gutzmann, Hermann. 1909. Physiologie der Stimme und Sprache. Braunschweig: Druck und Verlag von Friedrich Vieweg und Sohn.Google Scholar
Hakulinen, Auli. 1993. Inandningen som kulturellt interaktionsfenomen. In Ivars, A.-M. et al. (eds.), Språk och social kontext, 4967. Helsinki: Helsinki University.Google Scholar
Hale, Kenneth. 1973. Deep-surface canonical disparities in relation to analysis and change: An Australian example. In Sebeok, Thomas A. (ed.), Diachronic, areal, and typological linguistics (Current Trends in Linguistics 11), 401458. The Hague: Mouton.Google Scholar
Hale, Kenneth. 1998. On endangered languages and the importance of linguistic diversity. In Grenoble, Lenore A. & Whaley, Lindsay J. (eds.), Endangered languages, 192216. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Hall, Christopher. 2003. Modern German pronunciation: An introduction for speakers of English. Manchester: Manchester University Press.Google Scholar
Haller, Albrecht von. 1761. Elementa physiologiœ corporis humani. Tomus tertius. Respiratio. Vox. Lausanne: Sumptibus Sigismundi D'Arnay.Google Scholar
Halpert, Herbert. 1969. A typology of mumming. In Halpert, & Story, (eds.), 35–61.Google Scholar
Halpert, Herbert & Story, George Morley (eds.). 1969. Christmas mumming in Newfoundland: Essays in anthropology, folklore, and history. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar
Handelman, Don. 1998. Models and mirrors: Towards an anthropology of public events. New York & Oxford: Berghahn Books. [First published in 1990, Cambridge University Press.]Google Scholar
Harrison, Gordon A., Pamela J. Davis, Richard A. Troughear & Alison L. Winkworth. 1992. Inspiratory speech as a management option for spastic dysphonia. The Annals of Otology, Rhinology & Laryngology 101, 375382.Google Scholar
Hartlieb, K., Luchsinger, R. & Pfister, K.. 1960. Ein Vergleich der exspiratorischen mit der inspiratorischen Stimmgebung mit Verwendung der differenzierten Klanganalyse. Folia Phoniatrica 12 (4), 241260.Google Scholar
Havet, Louis. 1875. Observations phonétiques d'un professeur aveugle. Mémoirs de la Société de Linguistique de Paris 2, 218221.Google Scholar
Helgason, Pétur. 2002. Preaspiration in the Nordic languages: Synchronic and diachronic aspects. Ph.D. dissertation, Stockholm University.Google Scholar
Helmont, Franciscus Mercurius B. van. 1657. Alphabeti vere Naturalis Hebraici. . . Sulzbaci: Typis Abrahami Lichtenthaleri.Google Scholar
Hewlett, Nigel & Beck, Janet. 2006. An introduction to the science of phonetics. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
Hill, Jane H. & Zepeda, Ofelia. 1999. Language, gender, and biology: Pulmonic ingressive airstream in women's speech in Tohono O'odham. In Jonz, Jon G. (ed.), Southwest Journal of Linguistics 18 (1), 1540.Google Scholar
Hixon, Thomas J. & collaborators, . 1987. Respiratory function in speech and song. London: Taylor & Francis.Google Scholar
Hixon, Thomas J. & Weismer, Gary. 1995. Perspectives on the Edinburgh study of speech breathing. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research 38, 4260.Google Scholar
Hockett, Charles F. 1955. A manual of phonology. Baltimore, MD: Waverly Press.Google Scholar
Hodge, Megan M. & Rochet, Anne Putnam. 1989. Characteristics of speech breathing in young women. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research 32, 466480.Google Scholar
Hoit, Jeannette D. & Hixon, Thomas J.. 1987. Age and speech breathing. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research 30, 351366.Google Scholar
Hoit, Jeannette D., Hixon, Thomas J., Ellen Altman, Mary & Morgan, Wayne J.. 1989. Speech breathing in women. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research 32, 353365.Google Scholar
Holmes, Janet. 1984. Hedging your bets and sitting on the fence: Some evidence for hedges as support structures. Te Reo 27, 4762.Google Scholar
Hoole, Philip. 1999. Einsatz der elektromagnetischen Artikulographie bei der Analyse lingualer Sprechbewegungen. In Hahn, V., Schneider, C. & Hahn, H. (eds.), Schauplatz Mund: Das orofaziale System als Sensomotorische Einheit, 101114. Munich: Verlag Arbeitskreis für myofunktionelle Therapie.Google Scholar
Hoole, Philip, Munhall, Kevin & Mooshammer, Christine. 1998. Do airstream mechanisms influence tongue movement paths? Phonetica 55, 131146.Google Scholar
Hornaday, William T. 1922. The minds and manners of wild animals. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons.Google Scholar
HunterMalcolm L, Jr. Malcolm L, Jr. 1980. Vocalization during inhalation in a nightjar. Condor 82, 101103.Google Scholar
Hurley, William M. 1976. The Kickapoo whistle system: A speech surrogate. In Sebeok, & Umiker-Sebeok, (eds.), 1426–1433.Google Scholar
Hussel, Lothar. 1949. Beitrag zur Physiologie des Schnurrens der Hauskatze. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Leipzig.Google Scholar
Hymes, Dell. 1993. Fivefold fanfare for coyote. In Bright, William (ed.), A coyote reader, 5055. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
Ingram, David & Terselic, Barbara. 1983. Final ingression: A case of deviant child phonology. Topics in Language Disorders 3 (2), 4550.Google Scholar
Ingram, David & Ingram, Kelly D.. 2001. A whole-word approach to phonological analysis and intervention. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools 32, 271283.Google Scholar
IPA (International Phonetic Association). 1999. Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Itani, Junichiro. 1963. Vocal communication of the wild Japanese monkey. Primates 4 (2), 1166.Google Scholar
Jackson, Howard. 1980. Analyzing English: An introduction to descriptive linguistics. Oxford: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
Jefferson, Gail. 1984a. Transcript notation. In Atkinson, & Heritage, (eds.), ix–xvi. [NB: Jefferson is not indicated as the author of the chapter, but it is mentioned that she has developed the conventions described therein.]Google Scholar
Jefferson, Gail. 1984b. On stepwise transition from talk about a trouble to inappropriately next-positioned matters. In Atkinson, & Heritage, (eds.), 191–222.Google Scholar
Jefferson, Gail. 1984c. On the organization of laughter in talk about troubles. In Atkinson, & Heritage, (eds.), 346–369.Google Scholar
Jespersen, Otto. 1922. Language: Its nature development and origin. London: George Allen & Unwin.Google Scholar
Jespersen, Otto. 1926. Lehrbuch der Phonetik. Leipzig: Verlag von B. G. Teubner.Google Scholar
Jespersen, Otto. 1966. Modersmålets fonetik, 3rd edn.. Copenhagen: Gyldendal. [1st edn. in 1906.]Google Scholar
Johnson, L. G. 1962. Laurence Williamson. Scottish Studies 6, 4959.Google Scholar
Johnson, Pam. 1994. Twisted whiskers: Solving your cat's behavior problems. Berkeley, CA: The Crossing Press.Google Scholar
Johnson, Sally. 1998. Exploring the German language. London: Arnold.Google Scholar
Johnson, Steven. 2007. Laughter. Discover [magazine] – The Brain: An owner's manual Spring 2007, 58–61.Google Scholar
Kappmeier, Kathy Lee & Ambrosini, Diane M.. 2006. Instructing Hatha Yoga. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics Publishers.Google Scholar
Kelkar, Ashok R. 1991/1992. Prosodies and their functions in Marathi. Bulletin of the Deccan College Post Graduate & Research Institute 51–52, 289–302.Google Scholar
Kelly, Cheri Lee & Fischer, Kimberly V.. 1999. Stroboscopic and acoustic measures of inspiratory phonation. Journal of Voice 13 (3), 389402.Google Scholar
Kempelen, Wolfgang von. 1791. Mechanismus der menschlichen Sprache nebst der Beschreibung seiner sprechenden Maschine. Wien: J. B. Degen. [Facsimile edition in 1970, Stuttgart-Bad Cannstatt: Friedrich Frommann Verlag (Günther Holzboog).]Google Scholar
Key, Mary Ritchie. 1975a. Paralanguage and kinesics. Metuchen, NJ: The Scarecrow Press.Google Scholar
Key, Mary Ritchie. 1975b. Male/female language. Metuchen, NJ: The Scarecrow Press.Google Scholar
Kirwin, William J. 1971. Ingressive speech reported in Newfoundland ‘mummer talk’. Regional Language Studies Newfoundland 3, 24.Google Scholar
Kitchen, J. M. W. 1885. The diaphragm and its functions, considered specially in its relations to respiration and the production of voice. New York: Edgar S. Werner.Google Scholar
Klinghardt, H. 1914. Artikulations- und Hörübungen. Cöthen: Verlag von Otto Schulze.Google Scholar
Kobayashi, Nazuki. 2001. Ingressivt “Ja”: Ja på innpust – ikke tegn på overraskelse eller dårlig hjerte. M.A. dissertation, Bergen University.Google Scholar
Kodman, F. Jr. 1955. Ventriloquism – An area for research. Laryngoscope 11, 10651070.Google Scholar
Kohler, Klaus. 1998. The development of sound systems in human language. In Hurford, James R., Studdert-Kennedy, Michael & Night, Chris (eds.), Approaches to the evolution of language, 265278. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Kollár, A. 1973. Inspiratorische Phonation bei der Behandlung von Stimmstörungen. Folia Phoniatrica 25, 221224.Google Scholar
Koopmans-van Beinum, Florien J., Clement, Chris J. & van den Dikkenberg-Pot, Ineke. 2001. AMSTIVOC (Amsterdam System for Transcription of Infant VOCalisations) applied to utterances of deaf and normally hearing infants. Eurospeech, Aalborg, 1471–1474.Google Scholar
Kratzenstein, Christian Gottlieb [Christiani Theophili]. 1781. Tentamen resolvendi problema ab. . . St. Petersburg: Typis Academiae Scientiarum.Google Scholar
Kratzenstein, Christian Gottlieb [Christiani Theophili]. 1782. Sur la naissance & la formation des voyelles. Journal de Physique 21, 358380.Google Scholar
Kreidler, Charles W. 2004. The pronunciation of English: A course book, 2nd edn. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
Kurath, Hans, Hanley, Miles L., Bloch, Bernard, Lowman, Guy S. Jr. & Hansen, Marcus L.. 1943. Linguistic atlas of New England (LANE), vol. III, part I, maps 492602. Providence, RI: Brown University.Google Scholar
Ladefoged, Peter. 1971. Preliminaries to linguistic phonetics. Chicago, IL & London: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Ladefoged, Peter & Loeb, Gerald. 2001. Preliminary studies on respiratory function in speech. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 110 (5), part 2, 2737.Google Scholar
Ladefoged, Peter & Maddieson, Ian. 1996. The sounds of the world's languages. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
Ladefoged, Peter & Traill, Anthony. 1984. Linguistic phonetic descriptions of clicks. Language 60 (1), 120.Google Scholar
Ladefoged, Peter & Zeitoun, Elizabeth. 1993. Pulmonic ingressive phones do not occur in Tsou. Journal of the International Phonetic Association 23 (1), 1315.Google Scholar
Lajard, M. 1976. Le langage sifflée des Canaries. In Sebeok, & Umiker-Sebeok, (eds.), 954–965.Google Scholar
Lamb, William. 2003. Scottish Gaelic, 2nd edn. Munich: Lincom Europa.Google Scholar
Landqvist, Håkan. 1999. “Ja på inandning” i GIC-samtalens rådgivningssekvenser. Presented at OFTI 17 (Områdes-gruppen för forskning om tal och interaktion), Stockholm.Google Scholar
Landqvist, Håkan. 2001. Råd och ruelse: Moral och samtalsstrategier i Giftinformationscentralens telefonrådgivning. Ph.D. dissertation, Uppsala University.Google Scholar
Laughren, Mary. 1984. Warlpiri baby talk. Australian Journal of Linguistics 4, 7388.Google Scholar
Laver, John. 1994. Principles of phonetics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Laver, John. 2000. Linguistic phonetics. In Aronoff, Mark & Rees-Miller, Janie (eds.), The handbook of linguistics, 150179. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
Leadbeater, Ellouise, Goller, Franz & Riebel, Katharina. 2005. Unusual phonation, covarying song characteristics and song preferences in female zebra finches. Animal Behavior 70, 909919.Google Scholar
Lederman, Dror. 2002. Automatic classification of infants' cry. M.A. dissertation, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev.Google Scholar
Lehmann, Quentin H. 1965. Reverse phonation: A new maneuver for examining the larynx. Radiology 84, 215222.Google Scholar
Lenneberg, E. H. 1976. An acoustic analysis of the Turkish whistling language of Kusköy. In Sebeok, & Umiker-Sebeok, (eds.), 1042–1056.Google Scholar
Léon, Pierre R. 1993. Phonétisme et prononciations du français. Paris: Nathan Université.Google Scholar
Leonard, Laurence B. 1997. Phonological impairment. In Fletcher, Paul & MacWhinney, Brian (eds.), The handbook of child language, 573602. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Leonard, Laurence B. 2000. Children with specific language impairment. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
Leroy, C. 1976a. Étude de phonétique comparative de la langue Turque sifflée et parlée. In Sebeok, & Umiker-Sebeok, (eds.), 1128–1173.Google Scholar
Leroy, C. 1976b. An ecological study. In Sebeok, & Umiker-Sebeok, (eds.), 1031–1042.Google Scholar
Lindahl, Ingrid. 2001. Språklig återkoppling i spontana dialoger. Term paper, Lund University.Google Scholar
Lindström, Eva. 2002. Topics in the grammar of Kuot, a non-Austronesian language of New Ireland, Papua New Guinea. Ph.D. dissertation, Stockholm University.Google Scholar
Lipton, Edgar L. 1983. On ventriloquism. The Psychoanalytic Study of the Child 38, 601616.Google Scholar
Liskovius, Karl Friedrich Salomon. 1846. Physiologie der menchlichen Stimme. Leipzig: Joh. Amb. Barth.Google Scholar
Liston, Jerry L. 1971. On defining the interjection in contemporary Russian. The Slavic and East European Journal 15 (4), 479489.Google Scholar
Local, John & Walker, Gareth. 2005. ‘Mind the gap’: Further resources in the production of multi-unit, multi-action turns. In Hicks, Glyn & Walker, Gareth (eds.), York Papers in Linguistics, series 2, issue 3, 133143. The University of York.Google Scholar
Local, John & Walker, Gareth. To appear. Stance and affect in conversation: On the interplay of sequential and phonetic resources. Text & Talk.Google Scholar
Luchsinger, R. 1948. Über die Bauchrednerstimme. Folia Phoniatrica 1 (3/4), 117123.Google Scholar
Macklin, Charles C. 1925. X-ray studies on bronchial movements. The American Journal of Anatomy 35 (2), 303329.Google Scholar
MacMahon, Michael K. C. 2006. English phonetics. In Aarts, Bas & McMahon, April (eds.), The handbook of English linguistics, 359381. Malden, MA: Blackwell.Google Scholar
Magendie, F. 1838. [See Revere 1855 entry below.]Google Scholar
Malmberg, Bertil. 1968. Manual of phonetics. Amsterdam: North-Holland.Google Scholar
Marler, Peter. 1969. Vocalizations of wild chimpanzees. 2nd International Congress on Primatology, Atlanta, vol. 1, 94100.Google Scholar
Marler, Peter. 2000. Origins of music and speech: Insights from animals. In Wallin, et al. (eds.), 31–48.Google Scholar
Marshall, Andrew J., Wrangham, Richard W. & Arcadi, Adam Clark. 1999. Does learning affect the structure of vocalizations in chimpanzees? Animal Behaviour 59, 825830.Google Scholar
Marwick, Ernest W. 1975. The folklore of Orkney and Shetland. London: B. T. Batsford.Google Scholar
Maryn, Youri, De Bodt, Marc S. & Van Cauwenberge, Paul. 2003. Ventricular dysphonia: Clinical aspects and therapeutic Options. The Laryngoscope 113, 859866.Google Scholar
Masataka, Nobuo. 2007. Music, evolution and language. Developmental Science 10 (1), 3539.Google Scholar
Maynard, Senko K. 1986. On back-channel behavior in Japanese and English casual communication. Linguistics 24, 10791108.Google Scholar
Maynard, Senko K. 1990. An introduction to Japanese grammar and communication strategies. Tokyo: The Japan Times.Google Scholar
McFarland, David H. 2001. Respiratory markers of conversational interaction. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research 44, 128143.Google Scholar
McMahon, April. 2002. An introduction to English phonology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Merkel, Carl. Ludwig. 1857. Anatomie und Physiologie des menschlichen Stimm- und Sprach-organs (Anthropophonik). Leipzig: Verlag von Ambrosius Abel.Google Scholar
Merkel, Carl. Ludwig. 1866. Physiologie der menschlichen Sprache (physiologische Laletik). Leipzig: Otto Wigand.Google Scholar
Mey, Jacob L. 1993. Pragmatics: An introduction. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
Meyer, Georg Hermann von. 1884. The organs of speech and their application in the formation of articulate sounds. New York: D. Appleton and Company.Google Scholar
Meyer, Julien. 2004. Bioacoustics of human whistled languages: An alternative approach to the cognitive processes of language. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências 76 (2), 405412.Google Scholar
Meyer, Julien. 2005. Description typologique et intelligibilité des langues siffleés, approche linguistique et bioacoustique. Ph.D. dissertation, Institut des Sciences de l'Homme.Google Scholar
Meyer, Julien. 2008. Typology and acoustic strategies of whistled languages: Phonetic comparison and perceptual cues of whistled vowels. Journal of the International Phonetic Assocation 38 (1), 6994.Google Scholar
Miller, Donald G., Sulter, Arend M., Schutte, Harm K. & Wolf, Rienhart F.. 1997. Comparison of vocal tract formants in singing and nonperiodic phonation. Journal of Voice 11 (1), 111.Google Scholar
Milne-Edwards, Henri. 1876–1877. Leçons sur la physiologie et l'anatomie comparée de l'homme et des animaux, vol. 12. Paris: G. Masson.Google Scholar
Mitchell, A. G. 1957. Spoken English. London: MacMillan & Co.Google Scholar
Mitchinson, A. G. & Yoffey, J. M.. 1947. Respiratory displacement of larynx, hyoid bone and tongue. Journal of Anatomy 81 (1), 118121.Google Scholar
Moelk, Mildred. 1944. Vocalizing in the house-cat: A phonetic and functional study. The American Journal of Psychology 57 (2), 184205.Google Scholar
Moles, A. 1976. Étude socio-linguistique de la langue sifflée de Kusköy. In Sebeok, & Umiker-Sebeok, (eds.), 1090–1127.Google Scholar
Moore, Paul & Von Leden, Hans. 1958. Dynamic variations of the vibratory pattern in the normal larynx. Folia Phoniatrica 10, 205238.Google Scholar
Morris Jones, Bob. 1999. The Welsh answering system (Trends in Linguistics, Studies and Monographs 120). The Hague: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar
Mowrer, Donald E., LaPointe, Leonard L & Case, James. 1987. Analysis of five acoustic correlates of laughter. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior 11 (3), 191199.Google Scholar
Müller, J. 1843. Elements of physiology. Philadelphia, PA: Lea and Blanchard.Google Scholar
Napoli, Donna Jo. 1996. Linguistics: Theory and problems. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Nardi, Ricardo L. J. 1958. Habla popular. Renca: Folklore puntano, 153155. Buenos Aires: Instituto Nacional de Filología y Folklore, anexo a la Academia Argentina de Letras.Google Scholar
Nardi, Ricardo L. J. 1960. El habla en inspiración. Cuadernos del Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Folklóricas 1, 217228.Google Scholar
Nathani, Suneet, Ertmer, David J. & Stark, Rachel E.. 2006. Assessing vocal development in infants and toddlers. Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics 20 (5), 351369.Google Scholar
Nattiez, Jean-Jacques. 1982. Comparisons within a culture: The example of the katajjaq of the Inuit. In Falck, Robert & Rice, Timothy (eds.), Cross-cultural perspectives on music, 134140. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar
Nattiez, Jean-Jacques. 1983a. The rekkukara of the Ainu (Japan) and the katajjaq of the Inuit (Canada): A comparison. The world of music: Information bulletin of the Conseil international de la musique 25, 3344. Wilhelmshaven Noetzel: Heinrichshofen Books.Google Scholar
Nattiez, Jean-Jacques 1983b. Some aspects of Inuit vocal games. Ethnomusicology 27, 457475.Google Scholar
Natural Philosophy. 1850. Chamber's Educational Course, fourth treatise. Edinburgh: William and Robert Chambers.Google Scholar
Navarro Tomás, Tomás. 1945. Cuestionario lingüistico hispoamericano. I. Fonética, morfología, sintaxis, 2nd edn. Buenos Aires: Facultad de Filosofía y Letras de la Universidad de Buenos Aires.Google Scholar
Negus, Victor Ewings. 1929. The mechanism of the larynx. London: WM. Heinemann (Medical Books).Google Scholar
Nicodem, Monique Vitório, Seara, Rui & Pacheco, Fernando Santana. 2005. Reducing the natural click effect within database for high quality corpus-based speech synthesis. 8th International Symposium on Signal Processing and its Applications (ISSPA 2005), Sydney, 607610. New York: IEEE.Google Scholar
Nivre, Joakim, Allwood, Jens & Ahlsén, Elisabeth. 1999. Interactive Communication Management: Coding manual V1.0. In A platform for multimodal spoken language corpora (Project report for Swedish Dialogue Systems (SDS), HSFR/NUTEK). Göteborg: Göteborg University.Google Scholar
No[l]let, abbé [Jean Antoine]. 1754–1765. Leçons de physique experimentale, vol. 3. Amsterdam & Leipzig: Chez Arkstée & Merkus.Google Scholar
Norrick, Neal R. 2005. Contextualizing and recontextualizing interlaced stories in conversation. In Joanna Thornborrow & Jennifes Coates (eds.), The sociolinguistics of narrative (Studies in Narrative 6). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Google Scholar
Notman, Hugh & Randall, Drew. 2005. Contextual variation in chimpanzee pant hoots and its implications for referential communication. Animal Behaviour 70, 177190.Google Scholar
Nwokah, Eva E., Hsu, Hui-Chin, Davies, Patricia & Fogel, Alan. 1999. The integration of laughter and speech in vocal communication: A Dynamic Systems perspective. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research 42, 880894.Google Scholar
Nyrop, K. R. 1924. Manuel phonétique du français parlé, 4th edn. Copenhague & Kristiania: Gyldendalske Boghandel, Nordisk Forlag.Google Scholar
Ohala, John J. 1983. The origin of sound patterns in vocal tract constraints. In MacNeilage, Peter (ed.), The production of speech, 189216. New York: Springer. [Also in Kreidler, Charles W. (ed.), Phonology: Critical concepts, vol. IV: From rules to constraints, 5–31. London: Routledge.]Google Scholar
Ohala, John J. 1990. Respiratory activity in speech. In Hardcastle, William J. & Marchal, Alain (eds.), Speech production and speech modelling, 2353. Dordrecht: Kluwer.Google Scholar
Ohala, John J., Dunn, Alexandra & Sprouse, Ronald. 2004. Prosody and phonology. Speech Prosody 2004, Nara, 161–163. http://www.isca-speech.org/archive/.Google Scholar
Oller, D. Kimbrough & Eilers, Rebecca E.. 1992. Development of vocal signaling in human infants: Toward a methodology for cross-species vocalization comparisons. In Papousek, Hanuš, Jürgens, Uwe & Papoušek, Mechtild (eds.), Nonverbal vocal communication, 174191. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
O'Regan, Mary E. & Brown, J. Keith. 2001. The neurology of speech and language disorders in children, part II: Disorders of speech. In Cockerill, Helen & Carroll-Few, Lesley (eds.), Communicating without speech: Practical augmentative & alternative communication, 3364. London: Mac Keith Press.Google Scholar
Orlikoff, Robert F., Baken, R. J. & Kraus, Dennis H.. 1997. Acoustic and physiologic characteristics of inspiratory phonation. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 102 (3), 18381845.Google Scholar
Otis, Arthur B. 1988. Two functions of breathing: Respiration and sound production. In Mathew, Oommen P. & Sant'Ambrogio, Giuseppe (eds.), Respiratory function of the upper airway, 519534. New York: Marcel Dekker.Google Scholar
Packer, Craig & West, Peyton. n.d. http://www.lionresearch.org/faq.html.Google Scholar
Paddock, Harold. 1981. A dialect survey of Carbonear, Newfoundland (Publication of the American Dialect Society/PADS 68/1982). University of Alabama Press. [Revised version of 1966 M.A. thesis, Memorial University of Newfoundland.]Google Scholar
Palmatier, Robert A. 2000. Food: A dictionary of literal and nonliteral terms. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.Google Scholar
Panconcelli-Calzia, G. 1914. Einführung in die angewandte Phonetik. Berlin: Fischer's Medicinische Buchhandlung.Google Scholar
Panconcelli-Calzia, G. 1921. Experimentelle Phonetik. Berlin & Leipzig: Vereinigung wissenshaftlicher Verleger Walter de Gruyter & Co.Google Scholar
Panconcelli-Calzia, G. 1924. Die experimentelle Phonetik in ihrer Anwendung auf die Sprachwissenschaft. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter & Co.Google Scholar
Papoušek, Hanuš, Papoušek, Mechtild & Koester, Lynne Sanford. 1986. Sharing emotionality and sharing knowledge: A microanalytic approach to parent–infant communication. In Izard, Carroll E. & Read, Peter B. (eds.), Measuring emotions in infants and children, vol. 2, 93–123. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Partin Vinson, Betsy. 2000. Essentials for speech–language pathologists. San Diego, CA: Singular Publishing Group.Google Scholar
Passy, Paul. 1895. Les sons du français. Paris: Libraire Firmin Didot.Google Scholar
Passy, Paul. 1912. Petite phonétique comparée. Leipzig and Berlin: B. G. Teubner Libraire-Éditeur.Google Scholar
Patrick, Peter L. & Figueroa, Esther. 2002. Kiss-teeth. American Speech 77 (4), 383397.Google Scholar
Patterson, Bruce D. 2004. The lions of Tsavo: Exploring the legacy of Africa's notorious man-eaters. New York: McGraw-Hill Companies.Google Scholar
Pätzold, Matthias & Simpson, Adrian. 1995. An acoustic analysis of hesitation particles in German. 13th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences (ICPhS), Stockholm, vol. 3, 512515.Google Scholar
Peirce, Benjamin. 1836. An elementary treatise on sound. Boston, MA: James Munroe and Company.Google Scholar
Peters, Francis Joseph. 1981. The paralinguistic sympathetic ingressive affirmative in English and the Scandinavian languages. Ph.D. dissertation, New York University.Google Scholar
Peterson, Gordon E. & Harary, Frank. 1980. Foundations in Phonemic Theory. In Jakobson, Roman (ed.), Structure of language and its mathematical aspects: Symposia in Applied Mathematics, vol. XII, 139165. Providence, RI: American Mathematical Society, 139165. [First published in 1961; symposium held 14–15 April 1960 in New York City.]Google Scholar
Pike, Eunice V. 1963. Dictation exercises in phonetics. Summer Institute of Linguistics, Santa Ana, CA.Google Scholar
Pike, Kenneth L. 1943. Phonetics. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.Google Scholar
Pike, Kenneth L. 1947. Phonemics: A technique for reducing language to writing. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.Google Scholar
Pitschmann, Louis A. 1987. The linguistic use of the ingressive air-stream in German and the Scandinavian languages. General Linguistics 27 (3), 153161.Google Scholar
Powers, W. E., Holtz, S. & Ogura, J.. 1964. Contrast examination of the larynx and pharynx. American Journal of Roentgenology, Radium Therapy and Nuclear Medicine 92 (1), 4042.Google Scholar
Poyatos, Fernando. 2002. Nonverbal communication across disciplines, vol. III: Narrative literature, theater, cinema, translation. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Google Scholar
Pratt, T. K. 1988. Dictionary of Prince Edward Island English. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar
PRDS (Phonetic Representation of Disordered Speech). 1980. Progress report. British Journal of Disorders of Communication 15, 215220.Google Scholar
PRDS (Phonetic Representation of Disordered Speech). 1983. The phonetic representation of disordered speech (Final Report of the PRDS Working Party; King's Fund Project Paper 38). London: The King's Fund.Google Scholar
Pressman, Joel J. & Kelemen, George. 1955. Physiology of the larynx. Physiological Reviews 35, 506554.Google Scholar
Protopapas, Athanassios. 1993. An assessment of the perceptual role of individual acoustic features of infant cries. M.A. dissertation, Brown University.Google Scholar
Pullum, Geoffrey K. & Ladusaw, William A.. 1996. Phonetic symbol guide, 2nd edn. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Quedenfeldt, H. M. 1976. Pfeifsprache auf der Insel Gomera. In Sebeok, & Umiker-Sebeok, (eds.), 937–953. [Reprinted from Zeitschrift für Ethnologie 19 (1887), 731–741.]Google Scholar
Rammage, Linda, Morrison, Murray & Nichol, Hamish. 2000. Management of the voice and its disorders, 2nd edn. San Diego, CA: Singular Publishing Group.Google Scholar
Reeves, Byron & Nass, Clifford. 1996. The media equation: How people treat computers, television, and new media like real people and places. Stanford, CA: CSLI Publications.Google Scholar
Reich, Alan & Till, James. 1983. Phonatory and manual reaction times of women with idiopathic spasmodic dysphonia. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research 26, 1018.Google Scholar
Reich, Alan, Till, James & Goldsmith, Howard. 1981. Laryngeal and manual reaction times of stuttering and nonstuttering adults. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research 24, 192196.Google Scholar
Remmers, J. E. & Gautier, H.. 1972. Neural and mechanical mechanisms of feline purring. Respiration Physiology 16, 351361.Google Scholar
Réthi, A. 1965. Über die Heilung des Stotterns und der Dysphonia spastica mittels inspiratorisch-exspiratorischer Stimmbildung. Monatsschrift für Ohrenheilkunde und Laryngo-Rhinologie 99, 240246.Google Scholar
Revere, John. 1855. An elementary treatise on human physiology, 5th edn. New York: Harper & Brothers. [An enlarged translation of F. Magendie's Précis elémentaire de physiologie, 1838.]Google Scholar
Richerand, M. Le Baron [Anthelme Balthasar]. 1837. Nouveaux éléments de physiologie. Bruxelles: H. Dumont.Google Scholar
Richman, Bruce. 1976. Some vocal distinctive features used by gelada monkeys. Journal of the Acoustic Society of America 60 (3), 718724.Google Scholar
Richman, Bruce. 1978. The synchronization of voices by gelada monkeys. Primates 19 (3), 569581.Google Scholar
Richman, Bruce. 1993. On the evolution of speech: Singing as the middle term. Current Anthropology 34 (5), 721722.Google Scholar
Rickford, John R. & Rickford, Angela E.. 1976. Cut-eye and suck-teeth: African words and gestures in New World guise. The Journal of American Folklore 89 (353), 294309.Google Scholar
Rietveld, A. C. M. & van Heuven, V. J.. 1997. Algemene fonetiek. Bussum: Dick Coutinho.Google Scholar
Rip[p]man, Walter. 1910/1918. Elements of phonetics: English, French & German, 7th edn. London: J. M. Dent & Sons. [Translation of Viëtor 1884; 1st edn. in 1899, 7th edn. in 1910.]Google Scholar
Ripman, Walter. 1933?. English phonetics and specimens of English. London: J. M. Dent & Sons Ltd.Google Scholar
Ripman, Walter. 1947?. English phonetics, 2nd edn. London: J. M. Dent & Sons Ltd. [Revised version of The sounds of spoken English; 1st edn. in 1931.]Google Scholar
Ritzenthaler, R. E. & Peterson, F. A.. 1976. Courtship whistling of the Mexican Kickapoo indians. In Sebeok, & Umiker-Sebeok, (eds.), 1410–1411.Google Scholar
Roach, Peter. 1992. Introducing phonetics. London: Penguin.Google Scholar
Roach, Peter. 2000. Techniques for the phonetic description of emotional speech. ISCA Workshop on Speech and Emotion, Newcastle, 53–59.Google Scholar
Roach, Peter. 2002. A little encyclopedia of phonetics. http://www.rdg.ac.uk/~llsroach/encyc.pdf.Google Scholar
Robb, Michael P., Chen, Yang, Gilbert, Harvey R. & Lerman, Jay W.. 2001. Acoustic comparison of vowel articulation in normal and reverse phonation. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research 44, 118127.Google Scholar
Robb, Michael P. & Goberman, Alexander M.. 1997. Application of an acoustic cry template to evaluate at-risk newborns: Preliminary findings. Biology of the Neonate 71 (2), 131136.Google Scholar
Robb, Michael P., Goberman, Alexander M. & Cacace, Anthony T.. 1997. An acoustic template of newborn infant crying. Folia Phoniatrica et Logopaedica 49 (1), 3541.Google Scholar
Roeser, Ross J., Pearson, Donise W. & Tobey, Emily A.. 1998. Speech–language pathology desk reference. New York: Thieme.Google Scholar
Rogers, Henry. 2000. The sounds of language: An introduction to phonetics. Harlow: Pearson.Google Scholar
Rosner, B. S. & Pickering, J. B.. 1994. Vowel perception and production. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Rousselot, abbé P.-J. 1924. Principes de phonétique expérimentale. Paris: H. Didier.Google Scholar
Sacleux, Le P. Ch. 1905. Essai de phonétique avec son application a l'étude des idioms africains. Paris: H. Welter.Google Scholar
Salö, Linus Jonatan. 2007. .jo – en studie i användning av ett ingressivt talfenomen. Ms., term paper, Umeå University.Google Scholar
Sampson, Rodney. 1999. Nasal vowel reduction in Romance. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Scheiner, Elisabeth, Hammerschmidt, Kurt, Jürgens, Uwe & Zwirner, Petra. 2002. Acoustic analyses of developmental changes and emotional expression in the preverbal vocalizations of infants. Journal of Voice 16 (4), 509529.Google Scholar
Schneider, Hans. 1988. Peripheral and central mechanisms of vocalization. In Frisch, B., Ryan, M. J., Wilczynski, W., Hetherington, T. E. & Walkowiak, W. (eds.), The evolution of the amphibian auditory system, 537558. New York: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
Schulman, Susan. 1993. Symptom modification for abductor spasmodic dysphonia. In Stemple, Joseph C. (ed.), Voice therapy: Clinical studies, 128131. St. Louis, MO: Mosby.Google Scholar
Sebeok, Thomas A. & Umiker-Sebeok, Donna Jean (eds.). 1976. Speech surrogates: Drums and whistle systems. The Hague & Paris: Mouton.Google Scholar
Segond, Dr [Charles Robin]. 1848. Mémoire sur la voix inspiratoire (Extrait des Archives générales de medicine, sér. 2, t. XVII). Paris: Rignoux.Google Scholar
Shadle, Christine H. 1983. Experiments on the acoustics of whistling. The Physics Teacher 21 (3), 148154.Google Scholar
Shadle, Christine H. 1991. The effect of geometry on source mechanisms of fricative consonants. Journal of Phonetics 19, 409424.Google Scholar
Shadle, Christine H. 1997. The aerodynamics of speech. In Hardcastle, William J. & Laver, John (eds.), The handbook of phonetic sciences, 3364. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
Shadle, Christine H. & Scully, Celia. 1995. An articulatory-acoustic-aerodynamic analysis of [s] in VCV sequences. Journal of Phonetics 23, 5366.Google Scholar
Shell, Marc. 2004. Animals that talk; or, stutter. Differences: A Journal of Feminist Cultural Studies 15 (1), 84107.Google Scholar
Shell, Marc. 2005. Stutter. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Shiba, Keisuke, Isono, Shiroh & Nakazawa, Ken. 2007. Paradoxical vocal cord motion: A review focused on multiple system atrophy. Auris Nasus Larynx 34, 443452.Google Scholar
Shorrocks, Graham. 2003. Pulmonic ingressive speech in Newfoundland English: A case of Irish-English influence? In Tristram, Hildegard L. C. (ed.), The Celtic Englishes III, 374478. Heidelberg: Universitätsverlag C. Winter.Google Scholar
Shosted, Ryan. 2006. Whistled fricatives [ ] in Bantu: Acoustic origins. Presented at the Linguistic Society of America Meeting, Albuquerque, NM; 7 January 2006.Google Scholar
Sider, Gerald M. 1976. Christmas mumming and the New Year in outport Newfoundland. Past and Present 71, 102125.Google Scholar
Sider, Gerald M. 2003. Between history and tomorrow: Making and breaking everyday life in rural Newfoundland. Peterborough, Ontario: Broadview Press.Google Scholar
Sievers, Eduard. 1885. Grundzüge der Phonetik, 3rd edn. Leipzig: Breitkopf & Härtel.Google Scholar
Silliman, Benjamin. 1861. Principles of physics, 2nd edn. Philadelphia, PA: H. C. Peck & Theo. Bliss.Google Scholar
Sipma, Pieter. 1913/1966. Phonology & grammar of modern West Frisian with phonetic texts and glossary. Ljouwert: Fryske Akademie. [Reprinted in 1966, Oxford: Oxford University Press.]Google Scholar
Sipma, Pieter. 1949. Ta it frysk. Ljouwert: R. Van Der Velde.Google Scholar
Smalley, William A. 1963. Manual of articulatory phonetics, revised edn. New York: Tarrytown.Google Scholar
Solé, Maria-Josep. 2002. Aerodynamic characteristics of trills and phonological patterning. Journal of Phonetics 30, 655688.Google Scholar
Spencer, Andrew. 1996. Phonology. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
Stark, Rachel E. 1986. Prespeech segmental feature development. In Fletcher, Paul & Garman, Michael (eds.), Language acquisition: Studies in first language development, 2nd edn, 149173. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Stathopoulos, Elaine T., Hoit, Jeannette D., Hixon, Thomas J., Watson, Peter J. & Solomon, Nancy Pearl 1991. Respiratory and laryngeal function during whispering. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research 34, 761767.Google Scholar
Steinbergs, Rita. 1993. The use of the paralinguistic sympathetic ingressive affirmative in speakers of English in the St. John's, Newfoundland area. M.A. dissertation, Memorial University.Google Scholar
Stern, Theodore. 1955. Drum and whistle ‘languages’: An analysis of speech surrogates. American Anthropologist 59 (3), 487506.Google Scholar
Stevens, Kenneth N. 1998. Acoustic phonetics. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
Stewart, R. B. 1968. By Ear Alone. American Annals of the Deaf 113, 147155.Google Scholar
Stølen, Marianne. 1994. Gender-related use of the ingressive Ja in informal conversation among native speakers of Danish. In Bucholtz, Mary, Liang, A. C., Sutton, Laurel A. & Hines, Caitlin (eds.), Cultural performances: The Third Berkeley Women and Language Conference, University of California, Berkeley, 668677. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla PressGoogle Scholar
Stølen, Marianne. 1995. Multi-functional ja: An analysis of the Danish affirmative ingressive ja as conversation structuring device in informal conversations. Nordlyd: Tromsø University Working Papers on Language and Linguistics 23, 217229.Google Scholar
Stopa, Roman. 1935. Die Schnalze, ihre Natur, Entwicklung und Ursprung. Kraków: Nakładem Polskiej Akademji Umiejetności.Google Scholar
Story, George Morley, Kirwin, W. J. & Widdowson, J. D. A.. 1982. Dictionary of Newfoundland English. Toronto, Buffalo & London: University of Toronto Press. [2nd edn. in 1990.]Google Scholar
Sunquist, Mel & Sunquist, Fiona. 2002. Wild cats of the world. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Szwed, John F. 1969. The mask of friendship: Mumming as a ritual of social relations. In Halpert, & Story, (eds.), 105–118.Google Scholar
Tchernichovski, Ofer, Mitra, Partha P., Lints, Thierry & Nottebohm, Fernando. 2001. Dynamics of the vocal imitation process: How a zebra finch learns its song. Science 291, 25642569.Google Scholar
Tenaza, Richard R. 1989. Intergroup calls of male pig-tailed langurs (Simias concolor). Primates 30 (2), 199206.Google Scholar
Thieberger, Nicholas Augustus. 2004. Topics in the grammar and documentation of South Efate, an Oceanic language of Central Vanuatu. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Melbourne.Google Scholar
Thom, Eleanor Josette. 2005. The Gaelic gasp and its North Atlantic cousins: A study of ingressive pulmonic speech in Scotland. M.A. dissertation, University College London.Google Scholar
Till, James A., Reich, Alan, Dickey, Stanley & Seiber, James. 1983. Phonatory and manual reaction times of stuttering and nonstuttering children. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research 26, 171180.Google Scholar
Toff, Nancy. 1996. The flute book: A complete guide for students and performers, 2nd edn. Oxford: Oxford University Press. [1st edn. in 1985.]Google Scholar
Trager, George L. 1958. Paralanguage: A first approximation. Studies in Linguistics 13 (1–2), 113.Google Scholar
Trager, George L. 1964. Paralanguage: A first approximation. In Dell Hymes (ed.), Language in culture and society, 274288. New York: Harper and Row.Google Scholar
Traill, Anthony. 1991. Pulmonic control, nasal venting, and aspiration in Khoisan languages. Journal of the International Phonetic Association 21 (1), 1318.Google Scholar
Trall, R. T. 1875. The human voice: Its anatomy, physiology, pathology, therapeutics, and training. New York: S. R. Wells & Company.Google Scholar
Trask, R. L. 1999. Key concepts in language and linguistics. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
Truby, H. M. & Lind, John. 1965. Cry sounds of the newborn infant. In Lind, John (ed.), Newborn Infant Cry, 759. Uppsala: Almqvist & Wiksell.Google Scholar
Turner, William. 1857. Hand-book to atlas of human anatomy and physiology. Edinburgh: W. & A. K. Johnston.Google Scholar
Ursin, Markku. 2002. Triphone clustering in Finnish continuous speech recognition. M.A. dissertation, Helsinki University of Technology.Google Scholar
van den Berg, Jw., Zantema, J. T. & Doornenbal, P.. 1957. On the air resistance and the Bernoulli effect on the human larynx. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 29 (5), 626631.Google Scholar
Van Riper, Charles. 1982. The nature of stuttering, 2nd edn. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. [1st edn. in 1971.]Google Scholar
Vendryes, J. 1950. Le Langage. Introduction linguistique à l'histoire. Paris: Éditions Albin Michel.Google Scholar
Vendryes, J. 2003. Language: A linguistic introduction to history. London: Kegan Paul. [Translation of Vendryes 1950.]Google Scholar
Venkatagiri, Horabail S. 1981. Reaction time for voiced and whispered /a/ in stutterers and nonstutterers. Journal of Fluency Disorders 6, 265271.Google Scholar
Vidal de Battini, Berta Elena. 1949. El habla rural de San Luis, parte I: Fonética, Morfología, Sintaxis. Buenos Aires: Universidad de Buenos Aires, Faculdad de Filosofía y Letras, Instituto de Filología: Seccion Románica.Google Scholar
Viëtor, Wilhelm. n.d.a Elemente der Phonetik, 6th edn. Leipzig: O. R. Reisland.Google Scholar
Viëtor, Wilhelm. n.d.b Elemente der Phonetik, 14th edn. Leipzig: O. R. Reisland.Google Scholar
Viëtor, Wilhelm. 1884. Elemente der Phonetik und Orthoepie. Heilbronn: Verlag von Gebr. Henninger.Google Scholar
Voegelin, C. F. & Voegelin, F. M.. 1959. Guide for transcribing unwritten languages in field work. Anthropological Linguistics 1 (6), 128.Google Scholar
Voltaire [François-Marie Arouet]. 1734. Lettres philosophiques. Amsterdam: Chez E. Lucas.Google Scholar
Voltaire [François-Marie Arouet]. 1856. Philosophical dictionary, vol. II. Boston, MA: J. P. Mendum.Google Scholar
Voltaire [François-Marie Arouet]. 1880. Œuvres completes de Voltaire. Paris: Garnier Frères.Google Scholar
Voorhuis, Paul H. 1976. Notes on Kickapoo whistle speech. In Sebeok, & Umiker-Sebeok, (eds.), 1434–1443.Google Scholar
Vox, Valentine. 1981. I can see your lips moving: The history and art of ventriloquism. London: Kaye & Ward.Google Scholar
Vroomen, Jean, Bertelson, Paul & de Gelder, Beatrice. 2001a. The ventriloquist effect does not depend on the direction of automatic visual attention. Perception & Psychophysics 43 (4), 651659.Google Scholar
Vroomen, Jean, Bertelson, Paul & de Gelder, Beatrice. 2001b. Directing spatial attention towards the illusory location of a ventriloquized sound. Acta Psychologica 108 (1), 2133.Google Scholar
Waller, Augustus D. 1891/1896. An introduction to human physiology, 1st/3rd edns. London: Longmans, Green, And Co.Google Scholar
Wallin, Nils L., Merker, Björn & Brown, Steven (eds.). 2000. The origins of music. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
Ward, Nigel. 2000. The challenge of non-lexical speech sounds. International Conference on Spoken Language Processing (ICSLP) 2000, Beijing, vol. 2, 571574.Google Scholar
Waugh, Alice C. 1995. Hale hopes to preserve languages. MIT Tech Talk 39 (29). [A revised version at http://web.mit.edu/newsoffice/1995/hale-0503.html]Google Scholar
Weber, Ernst. 1974. Vergleichende Untersuchungen zur Bioakustik von Discoglossus pictus, OTTH 1837 und Discoglossus sardus, TSCHUDI 1837 (Discoglossidae, Anura). Zoologische Jahrbuch für Physiologie 78, 4084.Google Scholar
Weismer, Gary. 1985. Speech breathing: Contemporary views and findings. In Daniloff, Raymond G. (ed.), Speech science: Recent advances, 4772. London: Taylor & Francis.Google Scholar
Wells, John C. & Coulson, Greta. 1971. Practical phonetics. London: Pitman.Google Scholar
Westbury, John R. & Weiss, Clarissa J.. 2003. Articulator movements in ventriloquists' speech. 15th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences (ICPhS), Barcelona, 1037–1040.Google Scholar
Whiteley, H. Ellen. 2006. Understanding and training your cat or kitten. New York: Crown Trade Paperbacks.Google Scholar
Wiik, Kalevi. 1981. Fonetiikan perustet. Porvoo–Helsinki–Juva: Werner Söderström Osakeyhtiö.Google Scholar
Wilczynski, W., McClelland, B. E. & Rand, A. S.. 1993. Acoustic, auditory, and morphological divergence in three species of neotropical frog. Journal of Comparative Physiology A, 172, 425438.Google Scholar
Wild, J. M., Goller, Franz & Suthers, R. A.. 1998. Inspiratory muscle activity during bird song. Journal of Neurobiology 36, 441453.Google Scholar
Williams, Clyde E. 1969. Janneying in ‘Coughlin Cove’. In Halpert, & Story, (eds.), 209–215.Google Scholar
Winkworth, Alison L., Davis, Pamela J., Adams, Roger D. & Ellis, Elizabeth. 1995. Breathing patterns during spontaneous speech. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research 38, 124144.Google Scholar
Winteler, J. 1876. Die Kerenzer Mundart des Kantons Glarus. Leipzig & Heidelberg: C. F. Winter'sche Verlagshandlung.Google Scholar
Woods, Howard B. 1999. The Ottawa Survey of Canadian English. Kingston, Ontario: Strathy Language Unit, Queen's University.Google Scholar
Wootton, Anthony. 1997. Speech to and from a severely retarded young Down's Syndrome child. In Beveridge, Michael, Conti-Ramsdem, Gina & Leudar, Ivan (eds.), Language and communication in people with learning disabilities, 157184. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
Wyke, Barry (ed.). 1974. Ventilatory and phonatory systems. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Zwaardemaker, H. 1909. La phonétique experimentale considérée au point de vue medical. Paris: Librarie J.-B. Baillière et fils.Google Scholar
Zwaardemaker, H. & Eijkman, L. P. H.. 1928. Leerboek der Phonetiek. Haarlem: De Erven F. Bohn N.Google Scholar