Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Access
  • Cited by 178
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Alam, Md. Fazle Laskar, Amaj Ahmed Choudhary, Hadi Hasan and Younus, Hina 2016. Human Salivary Aldehyde Dehydrogenase: Purification, Kinetic Characterization and Effect of Ethanol, Hydrogen Peroxide and Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate on the Activity of the Enzyme. Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics,


    Chiang, Chien-Ping Lai, Ching-Long Lee, Shiao-Pieng Hsu, Wan-Lin Chi, Yu-Chou Gao, Hong-Wei Yao, Chung-Tay Chau, Gar-Yang and Yin, Shih-Jiun 2016. Ethanol-metabolizing activities and isozyme protein contents of alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases in human liver. Pharmacogenetics and Genomics, Vol. 26, Issue. 4, p. 184.


    Cho, Noell E. Bang, Bo-Ram Gurung, Purnima Li, Meng Clemens, Dahn L. Underhill, T. Michael James, Laura P. Chase, Jenifer R. and Saito, Takeshi 2016. Retinoid regulation of antiviral innate immunity in hepatocytes. Hepatology, Vol. 63, Issue. 6, p. 1783.


    Dubois, Émilie L. Béliveau, Mariline and Masson, Jean-Yves 2016. Les modèles animaux de l’anémie de Fanconi. médecine/sciences, Vol. 32, Issue. 6, p. 598.


    Eberhart, Johann K. and Parnell, Scott E. 2016. The Genetics of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, Vol. 40, Issue. 6, p. 1154.


    Gitik, Miri Srivastava, Vibhuti Hodgkinson, Colin A. Shen, Pei-Hong Goldman, David and Meyerhoff, Dieter J. 2016. Association of Superoxide Dismutase 2 (SOD2) Genotype with Gray Matter Volume Shrinkage in Chronic Alcohol Users: Replication and Further Evaluation of an Addiction Gene Panel. International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology, p. pyw033.


    Hart, Amy B. Lynch, Kevin G. Farrer, Lindsay Gelernter, Joel and Kranzler, Henry R. 2016. Which alcohol use disorder criteria contribute to the association ofADH1Bwith alcohol dependence?. Addiction Biology, Vol. 21, Issue. 4, p. 924.


    Jones, A.W. 2016. Encyclopedia of Forensic and Legal Medicine.


    Joung, Hyun Chul Yang, Hyun Ju Kim, Jong Sung Kim, Sung Soo Yoon, Seok Joon and Chang, Jung Wei 2016. Predictability of Complete Blood Count Parameters for Heavy Drinking according to the Facial Flushing. Korean Journal of Health Promotion, Vol. 16, Issue. 2, p. 84.


    Kärkkäinen, Olli Häkkinen, Merja R. Auriola, Seppo Kautiainen, Hannu Tiihonen, Jari and Storvik, Markus 2016. Increased steroid hormone dehydroepiandrosterone and pregnenolone levels in post-mortem brain samples of alcoholics. Alcohol, Vol. 52, p. 63.


    Liu, Mingxin and Li, Chao-Jun 2016. Catalytic Fehling's Reaction: An Efficient Aerobic Oxidation of Aldehyde Catalyzed by Copper in Water. Angewandte Chemie,


    Liu, Mingxin and Li, Chao-Jun 2016. Catalytic Fehling's Reaction: An Efficient Aerobic Oxidation of Aldehyde Catalyzed by Copper in Water. Angewandte Chemie International Edition,


    Lomholt, Frederikke K. Nielsen, Sune F. and Nordestgaard, Børge G. 2016. High alcohol consumption causes high IgE levels but not high risk of allergic disease. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology,


    McKillop, Iain H Schrum, Laura W and Thompson, Kyle J 2016. Role of alcohol in the development and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatic Oncology, Vol. 3, Issue. 1, p. 29.


    Mochalski, Paweł and Unterkofler, Karl 2016. Quantification of selected volatile organic compounds in human urine by gas chromatography selective reagent ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (GC-SRI-TOF-MS) coupled with head-space solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME). The Analyst, Vol. 141, Issue. 15, p. 4796.


    Nagy, Laura E. Ding, Wen-Xing Cresci, Gail Saikia, Paramananda and Shah, Vijay H. 2016. Linking Pathogenic Mechanisms of Alcoholic Liver Disease With Clinical Phenotypes. Gastroenterology, Vol. 150, Issue. 8, p. 1756.


    Samanta, Sanjoy Bogdanowicz, Danielle R. Lu, Helen H. and Koberstein, Jeffrey T. 2016. Polyacetals: Water-Soluble, pH-Degradable Polymers with Extraordinary Temperature Response. Macromolecules, Vol. 49, Issue. 5, p. 1858.


    Scott-Goodwin, A.C. Puerto, M. and Moreno, I. 2016. Toxic effects of prenatal exposure to alcohol, tobacco and other drugs. Reproductive Toxicology, Vol. 61, p. 120.


    Sun, Yan Zhang, Yan Wang, Fan Sun, Yankun Shi, Jie and Lu, Lin 2016. From genetic studies to precision medicine in alcohol dependence. Behavioural Pharmacology, Vol. 27, p. 87.


    Wang, Shaogui Pacher, Pal De Lisle, Robert C. Huang, Heqing and Ding, Wen-Xing 2016. A Mechanistic Review of Cell Death in Alcohol-Induced Liver Injury. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, Vol. 40, Issue. 6, p. 1215.


    ×

Overview of the role of alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase and their variants in the genesis of alcohol-related pathology

  • David W. Crabb (a1), Michinaga Matsumoto (a1), David Chang (a1) and Min You (a1)
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1079/PNS2003327
  • Published online: 01 March 2007
Abstract

Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) are responsible for metabolizing the bulk of ethanol consumed as part of the diet and their activities contribute to the rate of ethanol elimination from the blood. They are expressed at highest levels in liver, but at lower levels in many tissues. This pathway probably evolved as a detoxification mechanism for environmental alcohols. However, with the consumption of large amounts of ethanol, the oxidation of ethanol can become a major energy source and, particularly in the liver, interferes with the metabolism of other nutrients. Polymorphic variants of the genes for these enzymes encode enzymes with altered kinetic properties. The pathophysiological effects of these variants may be mediated by accumulation of acetaldehyde; high-activity ADH variants are predicted to increase the rate of acetaldehyde generation, while the low-activity ALDH2 variant is associated with an inability to metabolize this compound. The effects of acetaldehyde may be expressed either in the cells generating it, or by delivery of acetaldehyde to various tissues by the bloodstream or even saliva. Inheritance of the high-activity ADH β2, encoded by the ADH2*2 gene, and the inactive ALDH2*2 gene product have been conclusively associated with reduced risk of alcoholism. This association is influenced by gene–environment interactions, such as religion and national origin. The variants have also been studied for association with alcoholic liver disease, cancer, fetal alcohol syndrome, CVD, gout, asthma and clearance of xenobiotics. The strongest correlations found to date have been those between the ALDH2*2 allele and cancers of the oro-pharynx and oesophagus. It will be important to replicate other interesting associations between these variants and other cancers and heart disease, and to determine the biochemical mechanisms underlying the associations.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Overview of the role of alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase and their variants in the genesis of alcohol-related pathology
      Your Kindle email address
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Overview of the role of alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase and their variants in the genesis of alcohol-related pathology
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Overview of the role of alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase and their variants in the genesis of alcohol-related pathology
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Dr David W. Crabb, fax + 1 317 274 1437, email Dcrabb@iupui.edu
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

DP Agarwal , S Harada & HW Goedde (1981) Racial differences in biological sensitivity to ethanol: the role of alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase isozymes. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 5, 1216.

EM Algar , B Cheung , J Hayes , RS Holmes & IR Beacham , (1993) Bovine corneal aldehyde dehydrogenases: evidence for multiple gene products (ALDH3 and ALDHx) Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 328, 153157.

A Allali-Hassani , SE Martinez , JJ Peralba , J Vaglenova , F Vidal , C Richart , J Farres , X Pares (1997) Alcohol dehydrogenase of human and rat blood vessels. Role in ethanol metabolism FEBS Letters 405, 2630.

HL Ang , L Deltour , M Zgombic-Knight , M Wagner & G Duester (1996b) Expression patterns of class I and class IV alcohol dehydrogenase genes in developing epithelia suggest a role for ADH in local retinoic acid synthesis Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 20, 10501064.

E Asmussen , J Hald & V Larsen , (1948) The pharmacological action of acetaldehyde on the human organism Acta Pharmacologia Toxicolologia 4, 311320.

E Borras , C Coutelle , A Rosell , F Fernandez-Muixi , M Broch , B Crosas et al. (2000) Genetic polymorphism of alcohol dehydrogenase in Europeans: the ADH2*2 allele decreases the risk for alcoholism and is associated with ADH3*1 Hepatology 31, 984989.

WF Bosron , DW Crabb , TA Housinger & TK Li (1984) Effect of fasting on the activity and turnover of rat liver alcohol dehydrogenase Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 8, 196200.

WF Bosron & T-K Li (1986) Genetic polymorphism of human liver alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases, and their relationship to alcohol metabolism and alcoholism Hepatology 6, 502510.

WF Bosron , T-K Li & BL Vallee (1980) New molecular forms of human liver alcohol dehydrogenase: isolation and characterization of ADH Indianapolis Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 77, 57845788.

CJ Brown , KA Baltz , HJ Edenberg , (1992) Expression of the human ADH2 gene: an unusual Sp1-binding site in the promoter of a gene expressed at high levels in the liver Gene 121, 313320.

AS Brown , JR Fiatarone , P Wood , MK Bennett , PJ Kelly , MD Rawlins , CP Day , OF James (1995) The effect of gastritis on human gastric alcohol dehydrogenase activity and ethanol metabolism Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics 9, 5761.

J Cabelleria , E Baraona , R Deulafeu , R Hernandez-Munoz , J Rodes , CS Lieber (1991) Effects of H2-receptor antagonists on gastric alcohol dehydrogenase activity Digestive Diseases and Sciences 36, 16731679.

J Caballeria , E Baraona & CS Lieber (1987) The contribution of the stomach to ethanol oxidation in the rat Life Sciences 41, 10211027.

GK Chambers , SJ Marshall , GM Robinson , S Maguire , J Newton-Howes & NL Chong (2002) The genetics of alcoholism in Polynesians: alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenase genotypes in young men Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 26, 949955.

HM Chao (1995) Alcohol and the mystique of flushing Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 19, 104109.

Y-C Chao , S-R Liou , Y-Y Chung , H-S Tang , C-T Hsu , T-K Li & SJ Yin (1994) Polymorphism of alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenase genes and alcoholic cirrhosis in Chinese patients Hepatology 19, 360366.

C-S Cheng & A Yoshida (1991) Enzymatic properties of the protein encoded by newly cloned human alcohol dehydrogenase ADH6 gene Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 181, 743747.

MK Chern & R Pietruszko (1995) Human aldehyde dehydrogenase E3 isozyme is a betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 213, 561568.

W-Y Chou , MJ Stewart , LG Carr , D Zheng , TR Stewart , A Williams , J Pinaire & DW Crabb (1999) An A/G polymorphism in the promoter of mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2): effects of the sequence variant on transcription factor binding and promoter strength Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 23, 963968.

C Coutelle , PJ Ward , B Fleury , P Quattrorocchi , G Chambrin , A Iron , P Couzigou & A Cassaigne (1997) Laryngeal and oropharyngeal cancer and alcohol dehydrogenase 3 and glutathione S-transferase M1 polymorphisms Human Genetics 99, 319325.

P Couzigou , B Fleury , A Groppi , A Iron , C Coutelle , A Cassaigne & J Begueret (1991) Role of alcohol dehydrogenase polymorphism in ethanol metabolism and alcohol-related diseases Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 284, 263270.

DW Crabb , WF Bosron & T-K Li (1983) Steady-state kinetic properties of purified rat liver alcohol dehydrogenase: application to predicting alcohol elimination rates in vivo Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 224, 299309.

DW Crabb , HJ Edenberg , WF Bosron & T-K Li (1989) Genotypes for aldehyde dehydrogenase deficiency and alcohol sensitivity. The inactive ALDH2 2 allele is dominant. Journal of Clinical Investigation 83, 314316.

KE Crow , TJ Braggins & MJ Hardman (1983) Human liver cytosolic malate dehydrogenase: purification, kinetic properties, and role in ethanol metabolism Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 225, 621629.

CP Day , R Bashir , OFW James , MF Bassendine , DW Crabb , HR Thomasson , TK Li & HJ Edenberg (1991) Investigation of the role of polymorphisms at the alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenase loci in genetic predisposition to alcohol-related end-organ damage Hepatology 14, 798801.

CP Day , OF James , MF Bassendine , DW Crabb & T-K Li (1993) Alcohol dehydrogenase polymorphism and predisposition to alcoholic cirrhosis (letter) Hepatology 18, 230232.

FM Dickinson , GJ Hart & TM Kitson (1981) The use of pH-gradient ion-exchange chromatography to separate sheep liver cytoplasmic aldehyde dehydrogenase from mitochondrial enzyme contamination, and observations on the interaction between the pure cytoplasmic enzyme and disulfiram Biochemical Journal 199, 573600.

KM Dipple , M Qulali , RA Ross & DW Crabb (1993) Effects of thyroxine on the expression of alcohol dehydrogenase in rat liver and kidney Hepatology 17, 701706.

K Dohmen , E Baraona , H Ishibashi , G Pozzato , M Moretti , C Matsunaga , K Fujimoto & CS Lieber (1996) Ethnic differences in gastric sigma alcohol dehydrogenase and ethanol first pass metabolism Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 20, 15691576.

YJ Dong , TK Peng , SJ Yin , (1996) Expression and activities of class IV alcohol dehydrogenase and class III aldehyde dehydrogenase in human mouth Alcohol 13, 257262.

G Duester , ML Shean MS McBride & MJ Stewart (1991) Retinoic acid response element in the human alcohol dehydrogenase gene ADH3: implications for regulation of retinoic acid synthesis Molecular and Cellular Biology 11, 16381646.

HJ Edenberg , CJ Brown & L Zhang (1993) Regulation of the human alcohol dehydrogenase genes ADH1, ADH2, and ADH3: Differences in cis-acting sequences at CTF/NF-I sites Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 328, 561570.

HJ Edenberg , RE Jerome & M Li (1999) Polymorphism of the human alcohol dehydrogenase 4 (ADH4) promoter affects gene expression Pharmacogenetics 9, 2530.

CL Ehlers , L Carr , M Betancourt & K Montane-Jaime (2003) Association of the ADH2*3 allele with greater alcohol expectancies in African-American young adults. Journal of Studies on Alcohol 64, 176181.

CL Ehlers , DA Gilder , L Harris & L Carr (2001) Association of the ADH2*3 allele with a negative family history of alcoholism in African American young adults Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 25, 17731777.

K Engeland & W Maret (1993) Extrahepatic, differential expression of four classes of human alcohol dehydrogenase Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communnications 193, 4753.

N Enomoto , K Ikejima , BU Bradford , CA Rivera , H Kono , M Goto , et al. (2000) Role of Kupffer cells and gut-derived endotoxins in alcoholic liver injury. Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 15 D20D25 Suppl.

N Enomoto , S Takase , N Takada & A Takada (1991a) Alcoholic liver disease in heterozygotes of mutant and normal dehydrogenase-2 genes Hepatology 13, 10711075.

N Enomoto , S Takase , M Yasuhara , A Takada (1991b) Acetaldehyde metabolism in different aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 genotypes Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 15, 141144.

M Estonius , O Danielsson , C Karlsson , H Person , H Jornvall & J-O Hoog (1993) Distribution of alcohol and sorbitol dehydrogenases. Assessment of mRNA species in mammalian tissues European Journal of Biochemistry 215, 497503.

M Estonius , S Svensson & JO Hoog (1996) Alcohol dehydrogenase in human tissues: localisation of transcripts coding for five classes of the enzyme FEBS Letters 397, 338342.

J Farres , A Moreno , B Crosas , JM Peralbe , A Allali-Hassani , L Hjelmqvist , H Jornvall & X Pares (1994a) Alcohol dehydrogenase of class IV (sigma ADH) from human stomach. cDNA sequence and structure/function relationships European Journal of Biochemistry 224, 549557.

JL Freudenheim , CB Ambrosone , KB Moysich , JE Vena , S Graham , JR Marshall , P Muti , R Laughlin , T Nemoto , LC Harty , GA Crits , AW Chan & PG Shields (1999) Alcohol dehydrogenase 3 genotype modification of the association of alcohol consumption with breast cancer risk Cancer Causes and Control 10, 369377.

M Frezza C DiPadova G Pozzato , KM Terpin , E Baraona & CS Lieber (1990) High blood alcohol levels in women. The role of decreased gastric alcohol dehydrogenase activity and first-pass metabolism New England Journal of Medicine 322, 9599.

FJ Gilder , S Hodgkinson & RM Murray (1993) ADH and ALDH genotype profiles in Caucasians with alcohol-related problems and controls Addiction 88, 383388.

HW Goedde , S Singh , DP Agarwal , G Fritze , K Stapel & YK Paik (1989) Genotyping of mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase in blood samples using allele-specific oligonucleotides: comparison with phenotyping in hair roots Human Genetics 81, 305307.

NJ Greenfield & R Pietruszko (1977) Two aldehyde dehydrogenases from human liver: Isolation via affinity chromatography and characterization of the isozymes Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 483, 3545.

S Harada , DP Agarwal & HW Goedde (1985) Aldehyde dehydrogenase and alcohol metabolism in alcoholics Alcoholism 2, 391392.

S Harada , DP Agarwal , HW Goedde & B Ishikawa (1983) Aldehyde dehydrogenase isozyme variation and alcoholism in Japan Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behaviour 18, 151153.

S Harada , T Okubo , T Nakamura , C Fujii , F Nomura , S Higuchi & M Tsutsumi (1999) A novel polymorphism (-357G/A) of the ALDH2 gene: a linkage disequilibrium and an association with alcoholism Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 23, 958962.

LC Harty , NE Caporaso , RB Hayes , DM Winn , E Bravo-Otero , WJ Blot et al. (1997) Alcohol dehydrogenase 3 genotype and risk of oral cavity and pharyngeal cancers. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 89, 16981705.

L He , MJ Ronis & TM Badger (2002) Ethanol induction of class I alcohol dehydrogenase expression in the rat occurs through alterations in CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins beta and gamma. Journal of Biological Chemistry 277, 4357243577.

J Hempel , R Kaiser & H Jornvall (1984) Human liver mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase: a C-terminal segment positions and defines the structure corresponding to the one reported to differ in the Oriental enzyme variant FEBS Letters 173, 367373.

S Higuchi , S Matsushita , H Imazeki , T Kinoshita , S Takagki & H Kono (1994) Aldehyde dehydrogenase genotypes in Japanese alcoholics Lancet 343, 741742.

S Higuchi , T Muramatsu , K Shigemori , M Saito , H Kono , MC Dufour & TC Harford (1992) The relationship between low Km aldehyde dehydrogenase phenotype and drinking behavior in Japanese. Journal of Studies of Alcoholism 53, 170175.

Z Hrubec & GS Omenn (1981) Evidence of genetic predisposition to alcoholic cirrhosis and psychosis: twin concordances for alcoholism and its biological endpoints by zygosity among male veterans Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 5, 207215.

LC Hsu , RE Bendel & A Yoshida (1988) Genomic structure of the human mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase gene Genomics 2, 5765.

L Hsu , W-C Chang , A Yoshida (1989) Genomic structure of the human cytosolic aldehyde dehydrogenase gene Genomics 5, 857865.

LC Hsu , W Chang , SW Lin & A Yoshida (1995) Cloning and characterization of genes encoding four additional human aldehyde dehydrogenase isozymes Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 372, 159168.

K Inoue , M Fukunaga , T Kiriyama & S Komura (1984) Accumulation of acetaldehyde in alcohol-sensitive Japanese: Relationship to ethanol and acetaldehyde oxidizing capacity Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 8, 319322.

RJK Julkunen C DiPadova & CS Lieber (1985) First pass metabolism of ethanol – a gastrointestinal barrier against the systemic toxicity of ethanol Life Sciences 37, 567573.

NY Kedishvili , WH Gough , EAG Chernoff , TD Hurley , CL Stone , KD Bowman , KM Popov , WF Bosron & TK Li (1997) cDNA sequence and catalytic properties of a chick embryo alcohol dehydrogenase that oxidizes retinol and 3β,5α-hydroxysteroids. Journal of Biological Chemistry 272, 74947500.

M Koivusalo , M Baumann & L Uotila (1989) Evidence for the identity of glutathione-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase and class III alcohol dehydrogenase FEBS Letters 257, 105109.

M Kopun & P Propping (1977) The kinetics of ethanol absorption and elimination in twins and supplementary repetitive experiments in singleton subjects European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 11, 337344.

G Kurys , PC Shah , A Kikonyogo , D Reed , W Ambrosiak & R Pietruszko (1993) Human aldehyde dehydrogenase. cDNA cloning and primary structure of the enzyme that catalyzes dehydrogenation of 4-aminobutyraldehyde European Journal of Biochemistry 218, 311320.

RT Lim , RT Gentry , D Ito , H Yokoyama , E Baraona & CS Lieber (1993) First-pass metabolism of ethanol is predominantly gastric Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 17, 13371344.

SW Lin , JC Chen , LC Hsu , CL Hsieh & A Yoshida (1996) Human gamma-aminobutyraldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH9): cDNA sequence, genomic organization, polymorphism, chromosomal localization, and tissue expression Genomics 34, 376380.

R Lindahl (1992) Aldehyde dehydrogenases and their role in carcinogenesis Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 27, 283335.

L Lumeng , WF Bosron & TK Li (1979) Quantitative correlation of ethanol elimination rates in vivo with liver alcohol dehydrogenase activities in fed, fasted and food-restricted rats Biochemical Pharmacology 28, 15471551.

L Lumeng & DW Crabb (1994) Genetic aspects and risk factors in alcoholism and alcoholic liver disease Gastroenterology 107, 572578.

L Lumeng & EJ Davis (1970) Oxidation of acetate by liver mitochondria FEBS Letters 29, 124134.

NG Martin , J Perl , JG Oakeshott , JB Gibson , GA Starmer & AV Wilks (1985) A twin study of ethanol metabolism Behavioral Genetics 15, 93109.

M Matsumoto , H Takahashi , K Maruyama , S Higuchi , S Matsushita , T Muramatsu et al. (1996) Genotypes of alcohol-metabolizing enzymes and the risk for alcoholic pancreatitis in Japanese alcoholics Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 20, 289A292A.

E Mezey , JE Oesterling & JJ Potter (1988) Influence of male hormones on rates of ethanol elimination in man Hepatology 8, 742744.

E Mezey & JJ Potter (1979) Rat liver alcohol dehydrogenase activity: effects of growth hormone and hypophysectomy Endocrinology 104, 16671673.

E Mezey , JJ Potter & AM Diehl (1986a) Depression of alcohol dehydrogenase activity in rat hepatocyte culture by dihydrotestosterone Biochemical Pharmacology 35, 335339.

Y Mizoi , I Ijiri , Y Tatsuno , T Kijima , S Fujiwara & J Adachi (1979) Relationship between facial flushing and blood acetaldehyde levels after alcohol intake Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behaviour 10, 303311.

YD Neumark , Y Friedlander , HR Thomasson & TK Li (1998) Association of the ADH2*2 allele with reduced ethanol consumption in Jewish men in Israel: a pilot study. Journal of Studies of Alcoholism 59, 133139.

S O'Connor , S Morzorati , J Christian & TK Li (1998) Clamping BrAC reduces experimental variance: application to the study of acute tolerance to alcohol and alcohol elimination rate Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 22, 202210.

MV Osier , AJ Pakstis , D Goldman , HJ Edenberg , JR Kidd & KK Kidd (2002) A proline-threonine substitution in codon 351 of ADH1C is common in Native Americans Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 26, 17591763.

J Panes , X Soler , A Pares , J Caballeria , J Farres , J Rodes & X Pares (1989) Influence of liver disease on hepatic alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases Gastroenterology 97, 708714.

X Pares , E Cederlund , A Moreno , L Hjelmqvist & H Jornvall (1994) Mammalian class IV alcohol dehydrogenase (stomach alcohol dehydrogenase): structure, origin, and correlation with enzymology Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 91, 18931897.

X Pares & BL Vallee (1981) New human liver alcohol dehydrogenase forms with unique kinetic characteristics Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 98, 122130.

JJ Potter , E Mezey , RJ Christy , DW Crabb , PM Stein & VW Yang (1991b) CCAAT/enhancer binding protein binds and activates the promoter of the rat class I alcohol dehydrogenase gene Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 285, 246251.

JJ Potter , E Mezey & VW Yang (1989) Influence of growth hormone on the synthesis of rat liver alcohol dehydrogenase in primary hepatocyte culture Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 274, 548556.

JJ Potter , L Rennie-Tankersley & E Mezey (2003) Endotoxin enhances liver alcohol dehydrogenase by action through upstream stimulatory factor but not by nuclear factor-κB. Journal of Biological Chemistry 278, 43534857.

JJ Potter , VW Yang & E Mezey (1993) Regulation of the rat class I alcohol dehydrogenase gene by growth hormone Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 191, 10401045.

RE Poupon , B Nalpas , C Coutelle , B Fleury , P Couzigou & D Higueret (1992) Polymorphism of alcohol dehydrogenase, alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenase activities: implication in alcoholic cirrhosis in white patients Hepatology 15, 10171022.

M Qulali & DW Crabb (1992) Corticosterone induces rat liver alcohol dehydrogenase mRNA but not enzyme protein or activity Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 16, 427431.

G Rachamin JA MacDonald , S Wahid , JJ Clapp , JM Khanna & Y Israel (1980) Modulation of alcohol dehydrogenase and ethanol metabolism by sex hormones in the spontaneously hypertensive rat. Effect of chronic ethanol administration Biochemical Journal 186, 489490.

R Reed , WF Page , RJ Viken & JC Christian (1996) Genetic predisposition to organ-specific endpoints of alcoholism Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 20, 15281533.

R Roine , RT Gentry , R Hernandez-Munoz , E Baraona & CS Lieber (1990) Aspirin increases blood alcohol concentrations in humans after ingestion of ethanol. Journal of the American Medical Association 264, 24062408.

MM Saleem , YY Al-Tamer , L Skursky & Z Al-Habbal (1984) Alcohol dehydrogenase activity in the human tissues Biochemical Medicine 31, 19.

SY Schwitters , RC Johnson , SB Johnson & FM Ahern (1982) Familial resemblances in flushing following alcohol use Behavior Genetics 12, 349352.

HK Seitz , G Egerer , C Oneta , S Kramer , A Sieg , F Klee & UA Simanowski (1996) Alcohol dehydrogenase in the human colon and rectum Digestion 57, 105108.

HK Seitz , G Egerer , UA Simanowski , R Waldherr , R Eckey , DP Agarwal , HW Goedde & JP von Wartburg (1993) Human gastric alcohol dehydrogenase activity: effect of age, sex, and alcoholism Gut 34, 14331437.

Y-CM Shen , J-H Fan , HJ Edenberg , T-K Li , Y-H Cui , Y-F Wang et al. (1997) Polymorphism of ADH and ALDH genes among four ethnic groups in China and effects upon the risk for alcoholism Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 21, 12721277.

DIN Sherman , RJ Ward , M Warren-Perry , R Williams & TJ Peters (1993) Association of restriction fragment length polymorphism in alcohol dehydrogenase 2 gene with alcohol-induced liver damage British Medical Journal 307, 13881390.

T Smith EG DeMaster JK Furne , J Springfield & MD Levitt (1992) First-pass gastric mucosal metabolism of ethanol is negligible in the rat. Journal of Clinical Investigation 89, 18011806.

CG Steinmetz , P Xie , H Weiner & TD Hurley (1997) Structure of mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase: the genetic component of ethanol aversion Structure 5, 701711.

MJ Stewart , KM Dipple , TR Stewart & DW Crabb (1996a) The role of nuclear factor NF-Y/CP1 in the transcriptional regulation of the human aldehyde dehydrogenase 2-encoding gene Gene 173, 155161.

MJ Stewart , JS McBride , LA Winter & G Duester (1990) Promoters for the human alcohol dehydrogenase genes ADH1, ADH2, and ADH3: interactions of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein with elements flanking the TATA box Gene 90, 271279.

JM Stoler , LM Ryan & LB Holmes (2002) Alcohol dehydrogenase 2 genotypes, maternal alcohol use, and infant outcome. Journal of Pediatrics 141, 780785.

CL Stone , HR Thomasson , WF Bosron & T-K Li (1993) Purification and partial amino acid sequence of a high activity human alcohol dehydrogenase Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 17, 911917.

T Sturmer , S Wang-Gohrke , V Arndt , H Boeing , X Kong , R Kreienberg & H Brenner (2002) Interaction between alcohol dehydrogenase II gene, alcohol consumption, and risk for breast cancer British Journal of Cancer 87, 519523.

T Takeshita , K Morimoto , XQ Mao , T Hashimoto & JI Furuyama (1994) Characterization of the three genotypes of low Km aldehyde dehydrogenase in a Japanese population Human Genetics 94, 217–23.

F Tanaka , Y Shiratori , O Yokosuka , F Imazeki , Y Tsukada & M Omata (1996) High incidence of ADH2*1/ALDH2*1 genes among Japanese alcohol dependents and patients with alcoholic liver disease Hepatology 23, 234239.

F Tanaka , Y Shiratori , O Yokosuka , F Imazeki , Y Tsukada & M Omata (1997) Polymorphism of alcohol-metabolizing genes affects drinking behavior and alcoholic liver disease in Japanese men Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 21, 596601.

HR Thomasson , J Beard & T-K Li (1995) ADH gene polymorphisms are determinants of alcohol pharmacokinetics Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 19, 14941499.

HR Thomasson , DW Crabb , HJ Edenberg , T-K Li , H-G Hwu , C-C Chen , EK Yeh & SJ Yin (1994) Low frequency of the ADH2*2 allele among Atayal natives of Taiwan with alcohol use disorders Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 18, 640643.

GC Tu & Y Israel (1995) Alcohol consumption by Orientals in North America is predicted largely by a single gene Behavior Genetics 25, 5965.

S Vakevainen , J Tillonen , DP Agarwal , N Srivastava & M Salaspuro (2000) High salivary acetaldehyde after a moderate dose of alcohol in ALDH2-deficient subjects: strong evidence for the local carcinogenic action of acetaldehyde Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 24, 873877.

S Vakevainen , J Tillonen & M Salaspuro (2001) 4-Methylpyrazole decreases salivary acetaldehyde levels in aldh2-deficient subjects but not in subjects with normal aldh2 Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 25, 829834.

DL Viljoen , LG Carr , TM Foroud , L Brooke , M Ramsay & TK Li (2001) Alcohol dehydrogenase-2*2 allele is associated with decreased prevalence of fetal alcohol syndrome in the mixed-ancestry population of the Western Cape Province, South Africa Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 25, 17191722.

JP von Wartburg , J Papenberg & H Aebi (1964) An atypical alcohol dehydrogenase Canadian Journal of Biochemistry 43, 889898.

TL Wall , LG Carr & CL Ehlers (2003) Protective association of genetic variation in alcohol dehydrogenase with alcohol dependence in Native American Mission Indians American Journal of Psychiatry 160, 4146.

LA Winter , MJ Stewart , ML Shean , Y Dong , L Poellinger , S Okret , JA Gustafsson & G Duester (1990) A hormone response element upstream from the human alcohol dehydrogenase gene ADH2 consists of three tandem glucocorticoid receptor binding sites Gene 91, 233240.

Q Xiao , H Weiner & DW Crabb (1996) The mutation in the mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) gene responsible for alcohol-induced flushing increases turnover of the enzyme tetramers in a dominant fashion. Journal of Clinical Investigation 98, 20272032.

Q Xiao , H Weiner , T Johnson & DW Crabb (1995) The aldehyde dehydrogenase ALDH2*2 allele exhibits dominance over ALDH2*1 in HeLa cells. Journal of Clinical Investigation 96, 21802186.

M Yamauchi , Y Maezawa , G Toda , H Suzuki & S Sakurai (1995) Association of a restriction fragment length polymorphism in the alcohol dehydrogenase-2 gene with Japanese alcoholic liver cirrhosis. Journal of Hepatology 23, 519523.

M Yamauchi , JJ Potter & E Mezey (1988) Characteristics of alcohol dehydrogenase in fat-storing (Ito) cells of rat liver Gastroenterology 94, 163169.

M Yamauchi , K Takeda , K Sakamoto , Y Searashi , S Uetake , H Kenichi & G Toda (2001) Association of polymorphism in the alcohol dehydrogenase 2 gene with alcohol-induced testicular atrophy Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 25 16S18S Suppl.

Y Yanagawa , JC Chen , LC Hsu & A Yoshida (1995) The transcriptional regulation of human aldehyde dehydrogenase I gene. The structure and functional analysis of the promoter. Journal of Biological Chemistry 270, 1752117527.

M Yasunami , C-S Chen & A Yoshida (1991) A human alcohol dehydrogenase gene (ADH6) encoding an additional class of isozyme Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 88, 7610–614.

SJ Yin , FJ Chou , SF Chao , SF Tsai , CS Liao , SL Wang , CW Wu & SC Lee (1993) Alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases in human esophagus: comparison with the stomach enzyme activities Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 17, 376381.

SJ Yin , CS Liao , YC Lee , CW Wu & SW Jao (1994) Genetic polymorphism and activities of human colon alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases: no gender and age differences Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 18, 12561260.

S-J Yin , C-S Liao , C-W Wu , T-T Li , L-L Chen , C-L Lai & T-Y Tsao (1997) Human stomach alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases: comparison of expression pattern and activities in alimentary tract Gastroenterology 112, 766775.

A Yokoyama , T Muramatsu , T Ohmori , H Makuuchi , S Higuchi , S Matsushita , K Yoshino , K Maruyama , M Nakano & H Ishii (1996b) Multiple primary esophageal and concurrent upper aerodigestive tract cancer and the aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 genotype of Japanese alcoholics Cancer 77, 19861990.

A Yokoyama , T Ohmori , T Muramatsu , S Higuchi , T Yokoyama , S Matsushita , M Matsumoto , K Maruyama , M Hayashida & H Ishii (1996c) Cancer screening of upper aerodigestive tract in Japanese alcoholics with reference to drinking and smoking habits and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 genotype International Journal of Cancer 68, 313316.

A Yoshida , I-Y Huang & M Ikawa (1984) Molecular abnormality of an inactive aldehyde dehydrogenase variant commonly found in Orientals Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 81, 258261.

AR Zeiner , A Paredes & DH Christiansen (1979) The role of acetaldehyde in mediating reactivity to an acute dose of ethanol among different racial groups Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 3, 1118.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
  • ISSN: 0029-6651
  • EISSN: 1475-2719
  • URL: /core/journals/proceedings-of-the-nutrition-society
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords: