This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.
1.WP James (2008) The epidemiology of obesity: the size of the problem. J Intern Med 263, 336–352.
2.CL Ogden , MD Carrol , LR Curtin (2006) Prevalence of overweight and obesity in the United States, 1999–2004. JAMA 295, 1549–1555.
4.FP Cappuccio , DG Cook , RW Atkinson (1997) Prevalence, detection, and management of cardiovascular risk factors in different ethnic groups in south London. Heart 78, 555–563.
5.RA Zoratti (1998) Review on ethnic differences in plasma triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol: is the lipid pattern the key factor for the low coronary heart disease rate in people of African origin? Eur J Epidemiol 14, 9–21.
6.N Chaturvedi , PM McKeigue & MG Marmot (1993) Resting and ambulatory blood pressure differences in Afro-Caribbeans and Europeans. Hypertension 22, 90–96.
8.M Parikh , H Lo , C Chang (2006) Comparison of outcomes after laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding in African-Americans and whites. Surg Obes Relat Dis 2, 607–610.
10.CK Buffington & RT Marema (2006) Ethnic differences in obesity and surgical weight loss between African-American and Caucasian females. Obes Surg 16, 159–165.
11.K Hong , Z Li , H-J Wang (2005) Analysis of weight loss outcomes using VLCD in black and white overweight and obese women with and without metabolic syndrome. Int J Obes (Lond) 29, 436–442.
12.RR Wing & K Anglin (1996) Effectiveness of a behavioural weight control program for blacks and whites with NIDDM. Diabetes Care 19, 409–413.
13.FG McMahon , K Fujioka , BN Singh (2000) Efficacy and safety of sibutramine in obese white and African American patients with hypertension. Arch Intern Med 160, 2185–2191.
14.R Cooper , JF Kennelly , R Durazo-Arvizu (2001) Relationship between premature mortality and socioeconomic factors in black and white populations of US metropolitan areas. Public Health Rep 116, 464–473.
16.SK Kumanyika (2008) Environmental influences on childhood obesity: ethnic and cultural influences in context. Physiol Behav 94, 61–70.
17.D Moher , DJ Cook , S Eastwoods (1999) Improving the quality of reports of meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials: the QUOROM Statement. Lancet 354, 896–900.
18.T Agurs-Collins , SK Kumanyika , TR Have (1997) A randomized controlled trial of weight reduction and exercise for diabetes management in older African American subjects. Diabetes Care 20, 1503–1510.
19.W Anderson-Loftin , S Barnett , P Bunn (2005) Soul food light: culturally competent diabetes education. Diabetes Educ 31, 555–563.
20.DM Becker , LR Yanek , WR Johnson Jr (2005) Impact of a community-based multiple risk factor intervention on cardiovascular risk in black families with a history of premature coronary disease. Circulation 111, 1298–1304.
21.SB Racette , EP Weiss , KA Obert (2001) Modest lifestyle intervention and glucose tolerance in obese African Americans. Obes Res 9, 348–355.
22.K Resnicow , R Taylor , M Baskin (2005) Results of Go Girls: a weight control program for overweight African-American adolescent females. Obes Res 13, 1739–1748.
23.CD Samuel-Hodge , TC Keyserling , S Park (2009) A randomized trial of a church-based diabetes self-management program for African Americans with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Educ 35, 439–454.
24.LR Yanek , DM Becker , TF Moy (2001) Project Joy: faith based cardiovascular health promotion for African American women. Public Health Rep 116, 68–81.
25.MB Zemel , J Richards , A Milstead (2005) Effects of calcium and dairy on body composition and weight loss in African American adults. Obes Res 13, 1218–1225.
26.DS West , V Dilillo , Z Bursac (2007) Motivational interviewing improves weight loss in women with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 30, 1081–1087.
28.FF Samaha , N Iqbal , P Seshadri (2003) A low-carbohydrate as compared with a low-fat diet in severe obesity. N Engl J Med 348, 2074–2081.
30.E Mayer-Davis , AM D'Antonio , SM Smith (2004) Pounds off with empowerment (POWER): a clinical trial of weight management strategies for black and white adults with diabetes who live in medically underserved rural communities. Am J Public Health 94, 1736–1742.
31.DC Ziemer , KJ Berkowitz , RM Panayioto (2003) A simple meal plan emphasizing healthy food choices is as effective as an exchange-based meal plan for urban African Americans with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 26, 1719–1724.
32.PJ Elmer , E Obarzanek , WM Vollme (2006) Effects of comprehensive lifestyle modification on diet, weight, physical fitness, and blood pressure control: 18-month results of a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med 144, 485–495.
33.ND Barnard , J Cohen , DJA Jenkins (2006) A low-fat vegan diet improves glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors in a randomized clinical trial in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 29, 1777–1783.
34.Look AHEAD Research Group (2007) Reduction in weight and cardiovascular disease risk factors in individuals with type 2 diabetes: one-year results of the Look AHEAD trial. Diabetes Care 30, 1374–1383.
35.W McNabb , M Quinn , J Kerver (1997) The PATHWAYS church-based weight loss program for urban African-American women at risk for diabetes. Diabetes Care 20, 1518–1523.
36.KC Chiu , MA Province & MA Permutt (1992) Glucokinase gene is genetic marker for NIIDM in American blacks. Diabetes 41, 834–849.
39.CO Airhihenbuwa , SK Kumanyika , TD Argurs (1996) Cultural aspects of African-American eating patterns. Ethn Health 1, 245–260.
41.SK Kumanyika & CK Ewart (1990) Theoretical and baseline considerations for diet and weight control of diabetes among blacks and whites. Diabetes Care 13, Suppl. 4, 1154–1162.
42.NA Maillet , GD Melkus & G Spollett (1996) Using focus groups to characterize the health beliefs and practices of black women with non-insulin-dependent diabetes. Diabetes Educ 22, 39–46.
44.D-C Seo & J Sa (2008) A meta-analysis of psycho-behavioural obesity Interventions among US multiethnic and minority adults. Prev Med 47, 573–582.
45.G Osei-Assibey , I Kyrou , Y Adi (2010) Dietary and lifestyle interventions for weight management in adults from minority/non-white groups: a systematic review. Obes Rev 11, 769–776.
47.JE Neter , BE Stam , FJ Kok (2003) Influence of weight reduction on blood pressure. A meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Hypertension 42, 878–884.
49.JW Anderson & EC Konz (2001) Obesity and disease management: effects of weight loss on comorbid conditions. Obes Res 9, Suppl. 4, 326S–334S.
50.Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) Research Group (2002) Reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes with lifestyle intervention or metformin. N Engl J Med 346, 393–403.
51.DS West , T Prewitt , Z Bursac (2008) Weight loss of black, white, and hispanic men and women in the Diabetes Prevention Program. Obesity (Silver Spring) 16, 1413–1420.
52.American Dietetic Association (1997) Position of the American Dietetic Association: weight management. J Am Diet Assoc 97, 71–74.
53.R Padwal , SK Li & DCW Lau (2003) Long-term pharmacotherapy for overweight and obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 27, 1437–1446.
54.SK Kumanyika (2008) Ethnic minorities and weight control research priorities: where are we now and where do we need to be? Prev Med 47, 583–586.