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Trends and determinants of undernutrition among young Kenyan children: Kenya Demographic and Health Survey; 1993, 1998, 2003 and 2008–2009

  • Peninah K Masibo (a1) and Donald Makoka (a1)
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1368980012002856
  • Published online: 14 June 2012
Abstract
AbstractObjective

To report on the trends and determinants of undernutrition among children <5 years old in Kenya.

Design

Data from four nationwide Kenya Demographic and Health Surveys, conducted in 1993, 1998, 2003 and 2008–2009, were analysed. The Demographic and Health Survey utilizes a multistage stratified sampling technique.

Setting

Nationwide covering rural and urban areas in Kenya.

Subjects

The analysis included 4757, 4433, 4892 and 4958 Kenyan children aged <5 years in 1993, 1998, 2003 and 2009–2009, respectively.

Results

The prevalence of stunting decreased by 4·6 percentage points from 39·9 % in 1993 to 35·3 % in 2008–2009, while underweight decreased by 2·7 percentage points from 18·7 % in 1993 to 16·0 % in 2008–2009. The effects of household wealth, maternal education and current maternal nutritional status on child nutrition outcomes have changed dynamically in more recent years in Kenya. Inadequate hygiene facilities increased the likelihood of chronic undernutrition in at least three of the surveys. Small size of the child at birth, childhood diarrhoea and male gender increased the likelihood of undernutrition in at least three of the surveys. Childhood undernutrition occurred concurrently with maternal overnutrition in some households.

Conclusions

The analysis reveals a slow decline of undernutrition among young children in Kenya over the last three decades. However, stunting and underweight still remain of public health significance. There is evidence of an emerging trend of a malnutrition double burden demonstrated by stunted and underweight children whose mothers are overweight.

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Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Email Peninahmasibo@gmail.com
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This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

1.M De Onis , M Blössner , E Borghi (2004) Methodology for estimating regional and global trends of child malnutrition. Int J Epidemiol 33, 12601270.

4.S Grantham-McGregor , YB Cheung , S Cueto (2007) Developmental potential in the first 5 years for children in developing countries. Lancet 369, 6070.

5.M Ezzati , AD Lopez , A Rodgers (2002) Selected major risk factors and global and regional burden of disease. Lancet 360, 13471360.

9.J Bryce , D Coitinho , I Darnton-Hill (2008) Maternal and child undernutrition: effective action at national level. Lancet 371, 510526.

10.J Kabubo-Mariara , GK Ndenge & DK Mwabu (2009) Determinants of children's nutritional status in Kenya: evidence from Demographic and Health Surveys. J Afr Econ 18, 363387.

16.PK Pathak & A Singh (2011) Trends in malnutrition among children in India: growing inequalities across different economic groups. Soc Sci Med 73, 576585.

25.CM Doak , LS Adair , M Bentley (2005) The dual burden household and the nutrition transition paradox. Int J Obes (Lond) 29, 129136.

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Public Health Nutrition
  • ISSN: 1368-9800
  • EISSN: 1475-2727
  • URL: /core/journals/public-health-nutrition
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