Skip to main content

Climate Forcing Due to the 8200 Cal yr BP Event Observed at Early Neolithic Sites in the Eastern Mediterranean

  • Bernhard Weninger (a1), Eva Alram-Stern (a2), Eva Bauer (a3), Lee Clare (a1), Uwe Danzeglocke (a1), Olaf Jöris (a4), Claudia Kubatzki (a5), Gary Rollefson (a6), Henrieta Todorova (a7) and Tjeerd van Andel (a8)...

We explore the hypothesis that the abrupt drainage of Laurentide lakes and associated rapid switch of the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation 8200 yr ago had a catastrophic influence on Neolithic civilisation in large parts of southeastern Europe, Anatolia, Cyprus, and the Near East. The event at 8200 cal yr BP is observed in a large number of high-resolution climate proxies in the Northern Hemisphere, and in many cases corresponds to markedly cold and arid conditions. We identify the relevant archaeological levels of major Neolithic settlements in Central Anatolia, Cyprus, Greece and Bulgaria, and examine published stratigraphic, architectural, cultural and geoarchaeological studies for these sites. The specific archaeological events and processes we observe at a number of these sites during the study interval 8400–8000 cal yr BP lead us to refine some previously established Neolithisation models. The introduction of farming to South-East Europe occurs in all study regions (Thrace, Macedonia, Thessaly, Bulgaria) near 8200 cal yr BP. We observe major disruptions of Neolithic cultures in the Levant, North Syria, South-East Anatolia, Central Anatolia and Cyprus, at the same time. We conclude that the 8200 cal yr BP aridity event triggered the spread of early farmers, by different routes, out of West Asia and the Near East into Greece and Bulgaria.

Corresponding author
*Corresponding author. E-mail address: (B. Weninger).
Hide All
Akkermans P.M., Cappers R., Cavallo C., Nieuwenhuyse O., Nilhamn B., and Otte I.N. Investigating the early pottery neolithic of northern Syria: new evidence from tell Sabi Abyad. American Journal of Archaeology 110, 1 (2006). 123156.
Alley R.B., Mayewski P.A., Sowers T., Stuiver M., Taylor K.C., and Clark P.U. Holocene climate instability: a prominent, widespread event 8200 yr ago. Geology 25, 6 (1997). 483486.
Alram-Stern E., (1996). Die Ägäische Frühzeit, 2. Serie. Forschungsbericht 1975–1993. 1. Das Neolithikum in Griechenland mit Ausnahme von Kreta und Zypern, Wien.
Alram-Stern E. The Early Neolithic settlement in Central and Southern Greece. The actual state of research. Lichter C. How did farming reach Europe? Anatolian-European relations from the second half of the seventh through the first half of the sixth millenium cal BC. International Workshop, Istanbul, May 20th–22nd 2004. (2004). 183194.
Ammerman A.J., and Cavalli-Sforza L.L. The Neolithic transition and the genetics of population in Europe. (1984). Princeton Univ. Press, Princeton, NJ.
Ariztegui D., Asioli A., Lowe J.J., Trincardi F., Vigliotti L., Tamburini F., Chondrogianni C., Accorsi C.A., Bandini Mazzanti M., Mercuri A.M., Van der Kaars S., McKenzie J.A., and Oldfield F. Palaeoclimate and the formation of sapropel S 1: inferences from Late Quaternary lacustrine and marine sequences in the central Mediterranean region. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 158, (2000). 215240.
Arz H.W., Lamy F., Pätzold P., Müller P.J., and Prins M. Mediterranean moisture source for early-Holocene humid period in the Red Sea. Science 300, (2003). 118121.
Barber D.C., Dyke A., Hillaire-Marcel C., Jennings A.E., Andrews J.T., Kerwin M.W., Bilodeau G., McNeely R., Southon J., Morehead M.D., and Gagnon J.-M. Forcing of the cold event of 8,200 years ago by catastrophic drainage of Laurentide lakes. Nature 400, (1999). 344348.
Bar-Matthews M., Ayalon A., Gilmour M., Matthews A., and Hawkesworth C.J. Sea–land oxygen isotopic relationships from planktonic foraminifera and speleothems in the Eastern Mediterranean region and their implication for paleorainfall during interglacial intervals. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 67, 17 (2003). 31813199.
Barker H., and Makkey C. British Museum natural radiocarbon measurements II. Radiocarbon 2, (1960). 2630.
Barker H., and Makkey C. British Museum natural radiocarbon measurements II. Radiocarbon 5, (1963). 104108.
Bauer E., Ganopolski A., and Montoya A. Simulation of the cold climate event 8200 years ago by meltwater outburst from Lake Agassiz. Paleoceanography (2004). 19/3, PA3014, doi:
Bienert H.-D., (2000). Kult und Religion in prähistorischer Zeit. Eine Studie anhand von Fundmaterial epipaläolithischer und frühneolithischer Gesellschaften/Kulturen Südwestasiens (12.-6. Jt. v.u.Z.). Unveröff. Dissertation Universität Berlin.
Bintliff J. The plain of western macedonia and the neolithic site of nea nikomedeia. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 42, (1976). 241262.
Böhner U., (2006). Near East Radiocarbon Database. (
Budja M. The transition to farming in Southeast Europe: perspectives from pottery. Documenta Praehistorica 28, (2001). 2747.
Caneva I. Early farmers on the Cilician coast: Yumuktepe in the seventh millennium BC. Özdoğan M., and Başgelen N. Neolithic in Turkey, the cradle of civilization. (1999). New discoveries, Istanbul. 105114.
Coleman J., (1992). Greece, the Aegean and Cyprus. In: Ehrich R. (Ed.). Chronologies in Old World Archaeology: Chicago.: University of Chicago Press, . Vol. I, 247288.; Vol. II, 203229.
Cressford C. A new dating sequence for Çatalhöyük. Antiquity 75, (2001). 717725.
Demoule J.-P., and Lichardus-Itten M. Fouilles franco-bulgares du site Neolithique ancien Kovacevo (Bulgarie du sud-ouest): raport préliminaire Campagnes 1986–1993), avec la collaboration de I. Kulov et M. Grebska-Kulova. Bulletin de Correspondance Hellénique 118, 2 (1994). 561618.
Demoule J.-P., Lichardus-Itten M., (1998). Kovacevo. Fouilles néolithiques franco-bulgares dans la valée du Strymon. Rapport annuel mimeographies, Universite de Paris I., vol. 13, .
Dikaios P. Khirokitia. Final Report on the Excavation of a Neolithic Settlement in Cyprus on Behalf of the Department of Antiquities. 1936–1946. (1953). Oxford Univ. Press, 444
Düring B. Social dimensions in the architecture of Neolithic Çatalhöyük. Anatolian Studies 51, (2001). 118.
Düring B. Cultural dynamics of the Central Anatolian Neolithic: the Early Ceramc Neolithic–Late Ceramic Neolithic transition. Gérard Frédéric, and Thissen Laurens The Neolithic of Central Anatolia Proceedings of the International CANew Table Ronde Istanbul, 23–24 November 2001. British Institute of Archaeology at Ankara and Malcolm and Carolyn Wiener Laboratory for Aegean and Near Eastern Dendrochronology at Cornell University (2002). 219236.
Facorellis G., Kyparissi-Apostolika N., and Maniatis Y. The cave of Theopetra, Kalambaka: radiocarbon evidence for 50,000 years of human presence. Radiocarbon 43, 2B (2001). 10291048.
Garstang J. Prehistoric Mersin. (1953). Oxford,
Gasse F. Hydrological changes in the African tropics since the last glacial maximum. Quarternary Science Reviews 19, (2000). 189212.
Gérard F. CANeW archaeological sites databases Central Anatolia 9th-6th millennia cal BC. (2001).
Gimbutas M., Winn S., and Shimabuku D. (1989). Achilleion: A Neolithic Settlement in Central Greece, 6400–5600 B.C. University of California Los Angeles, Monumenta Archaeologica 14 (Los Angeles).
Godwin H., and Willis E. Cambridge University natural radiocarbon measurements V. Radiocarbon 4, (1962). 5770.
Göktürk E., Hillegonds D., Lipschutz M., and Hodder I. Accelerator mass spectrometry dating at Çatalhöyük. Radiochimica Acta 90, (2002). 407410.
Görsdorf J., and Bojadžiev J. Zur absoluten Chronologie der bulgarischen Urgeschichte. Eurasia Antiqua 2, (1996). 105173.
Grootes P.M., Stuiver M., White J.W.C., Johnsen S., and Jouzel J. Comparison of oxygen isotope records from the GISP2 and GRIP Greenland ice core. Nature 366, (1993). 552554.
Hughen K.A., Southon J.R., Lehman S.J., and Overpeck J.T. Synchronous radiocarbon and climate shift during the last deglaciation. Science 290, 5498 (2000). 19511954.
Johnsen S.J., Dahl-Jensen D., Gundestrup N., Steffensen J.P., Clausen H.B., Miller H., Masson-Dulmeotte V., Sveinbjørndottir A.E., and White J. Oxygen isotope and palaeotemperature records from six Greenland ice-core stations: Camp Century, Dye-3, GRIP GISP2, Renland and NorthGRIP. Journal Quaternary Science 16/4, (2001). 299307.
Karul N., (2000). Gebäude aus Flechtwerk: die archäologischen Befunde aus den neolithisch–chalkolithischen Siedlungsschichten von Hoca Çeşme, Aşag˘ı Pınar und Toptepe. Dissertation Freie Universität Berlin, (Berlin).
Klitgaard-Kristensen D., Sejrup H.P., Haflidason H., Johnsen S., and Spurk M. A regional 8200 cal. yr BP cooling event in northwest Europe, induced by final stages of the Laurentide ice-sheet deglaciation?. Journal Quaternary Science 13, 2 (1998). 165169.
Kuzucuog˘lu C. The environmental frame in Central Anatolia from the 9th to the 6th millenia cal BC. The Neolithic of Central Anatolia. Gérard Frédéric, and Thissen Laurens Proceedings of the International CANew Table Ronde Istanbul, 23–24 November 2001. British Institute of Archaeology at Ankara and Malcolm and Carolyn Wiener Laboratory for Aegean and Near Eastern Dendrochronology at Cornell University (2002). 3358.
Lawn B. University of Pennsylvania radiocarbon dates XV. Radiocarbon 15, (1973). 367381.
Lawn B. University of Pennsylvania radiocarbon dates XVIII. Radiocarbon 17, (1975). 115196.
Le Brun A. La stratigraphie de Khirokitia et les nouvelles dates 14C. Report Department Antiquities (1998). 2528.
Le Brun A. At the other end of the sequence: The Cypriot Aceramic Neolithic as seen from Khirokitia. Swiny S. The earliest Prehistory of Cyprus. From Colonization to Exploitation. Cyprus American Archaeological Research Institute Monograph Ser. 2 (Boston). (2001). 109118.
Leuenberger M., Lang C., and Schwander J. Delta 15N measurements as a calibration tool for the paleothermometer and gas-ice age differences: a case study for the 8200 B.P event on GRIP ice. Journal Geophysical Research 104, 22 (1999). 163170.
Linick T. La Jolla natural radiocarbon measurements VII. Radiocarbon 19, (1977). 1948.
McDermott F., Mattey D.P., and Hawkesworth C. Centennial-Scale Holocene Climate Variability Revealed by a High-Resolution Speleothem δ 18O Record from SW Ireland. Science 294, (2001). 13281331.
Mellaart J. Catal Hüyük West. Anatolian Studies 15, (1965). 135156.
Mellaart J. Excavations at Hacılar (Edinburgh). (1970).
Mellaart J. The Neolithic of the Near East (London). (1975).
Milojčić V., (1962). Die Deutschen Ausgrabungen auf der Argissa-Magula in Thessalien I I. Das Präkeramische Neolithikum sowie die Tier- und Pflanzenreste, . Bonn. 119pp.
Milojčić V. Review of F. Schachermeyr, Das ägäische Neolithikum (Lund 1964) and E.J. Holmberg, the neolithic pottery of mainland Greece (Göteborg 1964). Germania 43, (1965). 417421.
Milojčić V., (1973). Zur Frage eines präkeramischen Neolithikums in Mitteleuropa. Actes du VIIIe Congrès de l'Union internationale des sciences préhistoriques et protohistoriques. (Belgrade 1971) 248251.
Newton M., and Kuniholm P. Wiggles Worth Watching—Making Radiocarbon Work. The Case of Catal Höyük. Betancourt Philip P., Karageorghis Vassos, Laffineur Robert, and Niemeier Wolf-Dietrich Meletemata. Studies in Aegean Archaeology Presented To Malcom H. Wiener As He Enters His 65th Year (Aegaeum 20). (1999).
North Greenland Ice Core Project members High-resolution record of Northern Hemisphere climate extending into the last interglacial period. Nature 431, (2004). 147151.
Özdog˘an M. Vinča and Anatolia: a new look at a very old problem. Anatolica XIX, (1993). (173 ff.)
Özdog˘an M. The beginning of Neolithic economies in Southeastern Europe. Journal European Archaeology 5/2, (1997). 133.
Özdog˘an M. Hoca Çeşme: An Early Neolithic Anatolian Colony in the Balkans?. Enreiter P. et al. Man and the Animal World in Memoriam Sándor. (1998). BökönyiArchaeolingua, Budapest. 435451.
Özdog˘an M. Northwestern Turkey: Neolithic Cultures in Between the Balkans and Anatolia. In: Neolithic in Turkey. The Cradle of Civilization. (1999). Arkeoloji ve Sanat Xayınları, Istanbul.
Özdog˘an M. Defining the Neolithic of Central Anatolia. Gérard Frédéric, and Thissen Laurens The Neolithic of Central Anatolia Proceedings of the International CANew Table Ronde Istanbul, 23–24 November 2001. British Institute of Archaeology at Ankara and Malcolm and Carolyn Wiener Laboratory for Aegean and Near Eastern Dendrochronology at Cornell University (2002). 219236.
Parzinger H., and Özdog˘an M. Die Ausgrabungen in Kırklreli und ihre Bedeutung für die Kulturbeziehungen zwischen Anatolien und dem Balkan vom Neolithikum bis zur Frühbronzezeit. Bericht der Römisch-Germanischen Kommission 76, (1996). 529.
Perlès C. The Early Neolithic in Greece. The First Farming Communities in Europe. (2001). Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge.
Pyke G., and Yiouni P. Nea Nikomedeia I: the Excavation of an Early Neolithic Village in Northern Greece 1961–1964. (1996). The Excavation and the Ceramic Assemblage, London.
Rahmstorf S. Thermohaline circulation: the current climate. Nature 421, (2003). 699
Ralph R., and Stuckenrath E. University of Pennsylvania radiocarbon dates V. Radiocarbon 4, (1962). 144159.
Reimer P.J., Baillie M.G.L., Bard E., Bayliss A., Beck J.W., Bertrand C.J.H., Blackwell P.G., Buck E.E., Burr G.S., Cutler K.B., Damon P.E., Edwards R.L., Fairbanks R.G., Friedrich M., Guilderson T.P., Hogg A.G., Hughen K.A., Kromer B., McCormac F.G., Manning S.W., Ramsey C.B., Reimer R.W., Remmele S., Southon J.R., Stuiver M., Talamo S., Taylor F.W., van der Plicht J., and Weyhenmeyer C.E. IntCal04 Terrestrial radiocarbon age calibration, 26–0 ka BP. Radiocarbon 46, (2004). 10291058.
Reingruber A., (2002). Die Argissa Magula in Thessalien. Das frühe und das beginnende mittlere Neolithikum im Lichte transägäischer Beziehungen.. Unpublished PhD Dissertation, University of Heidelberg, .
Reingruber A. Die Argissa Magula in Thessalien: Das frühe und das beginnende mittlere Neolithikum im Lichte transägäischer Beziehungen. Archäologisches Nachrichtenblatt 9, (2004). 209214.
Reingruber A., Thissen L., (2004). CANeW 14C databases and 18C charts. Aegean Catchment (E Greece, S Balkans and W Turkey), 10,000–5500 calBC (
Renssen H., Goosse H., Fichefet T., and Camin J.-M. The 8.2 kyr BP event simulated by a global atmosphere–sea–ice–ocean model. Geophysical Research Letters 28, (2001). 15671570.
Renssen H., Goosse H., Fichefet T., and Camin J. Modeling the effect of freshwater pulses on the early Holocene climate: the influence of high-frequency climate variability. Palaeoceanography 17/2, (2002). 16.
Rodden R.J. Excavations at the early neolithic site at nea nikomedeia, Greek Macedonia (1961 season). Proceedings Prehistoric Society 28, (1962). 267268.
Rodden R.J., Wardle K.A., (Eds.), (1996). Nea Nikomedeia: The Excavation of an Early Neolithic Village in Northern Greece 1961–1963: The Excavation and the Ceramic Assemblage. Athens: British School at Athens, . Ekdotike Athenon S.A.
Rollefson G. Local and regional relations in the levantine PPN period: 'Ain Ghazal as a regional center. Studies in the History and Archaeology of Jordan 3, (1987). 2932.
Rubin M., and Alexander C. U.S. Geological survey radiocarbon dates V. Radiocarbon 2, (1960). 129185.
Schubert H. Die bemalte Keramik des Frühneolithikums in Südosteuropa, Italien und Westanatolien. Internationale Archäologie 47, (1999). 250 (Rahden/Westfalen)
Schmidt B., and Gruhle W. Niederschlagsschwankungen in Westeuropa während der letzten 8000 Jahre. Versuch einer Rekonstruktion mit Hilfe eines neuen dendrochronologischen Verfahrens (Grad der Wuchshomogenität). Archäologisches Korrespondenzblatt 33, (2003). 281300.
Shackleton N. Stable isotope study of the palaeoenvironment of the neolithic site of nea nikomedeia, Greece. Nature (London) 227, (1970). 943944.
Siani G., Paterne M., Michel E., Sulpizio R., Sbrana A., Arnold M., and Haddad G. Mediterranean sea surface radiocarbon reservoir age changes since the last glacial maximum. Science 294, (2001). 19171920.
Spittler G., (1989a). Dürren, Krieg und Hungerkrisen bei den Kel Ewey (1900–1985). Studien zur Kulturkunde 89, Veröffentlichungen des Frobenius-Instituts an der Johannn Wolfgang Goethe-Universität zu Frankfurt/Main, Eike Haberland (Hrsg.), Franz Steiner Verlag Wiesbaden GmbH (Stuttgart), .
Spittler G. Handeln in einer Hungerkrise. Tuaregnomaden und die groβe Dürre von 1984 (Opladen). (1989).
Spooner I., Douglas M.S.V., and Terrusi L. Multiproxy evidence of an early Holocene (8.2 kyr) climate oscillation in central Nova Scotia, Canada. Journal Quaternary Science 17, 7 (2002). 639645.
Staubwasser M., Sirocko F., Grootes P.M., and Segl M. Climate Change at the 4.2 ka BP termination of the Indus Valley civilization and Holocene south Asian monsoon variability. Geophysical Research Letters 30, 8 (2003). 7.17.4.
Stuckenrath R. University of Pennsylvania radiocarbon dates X. Radiocarbon 9, (1967). 333345.
Stuckenrath R., and Lawn B. University of Pennsylvania radiocarbon dates XI. Radiocarbon 11, (1969). 150162.
Stuckenrath R., and Ralph E. University of Pennsylvania radiocarbon dates VIII. Radiocarbon 7, (1965). 187199.
Teller J.T., Leverington D.W., and Mann J.D. Freshwater outbursts to the oceans from glacial Lake Agassiz and their role in climate change during the last deglaciation. Quaternary Science Reviews 21, (2002). 879887.
Thissen L., Cessford C., Newton M., (2004). CANew 14C-databases and 14C-charts Central Anatolia and Cilicia. (
Tinner W., and Lotter A.F. Central European vegetation response to abrupt climate change at 8.2 ka. Geology 29, 6 (2001). 551554.
Todorova H., (1989). Das Frühneolithikum Nordostbulgariens in Kontext des Ostbalkanischen Neolithikums. In: Heger N., St. Hiller (Hrsg.), Tell Karanovo und das Balkan-Neolithikum.-In Gesammelte Beiträge zum internationalen Kolloquium in Salzburg. 20–22 Oktober 1988, Salzburg., 925.
Todorova H. Der Balkano-Anatolische Kulturbereich vom Neolithikum bis zur Frühbronzezeit (Stand der Forschung). Stefanovich Mark James Harvey Gaul In Memoriam. Sofia (1998). 2754.
Todorova H., (2003). Neue Angaben zur Neolithisierung der Balkanhalbinsel. In: Jerem E., Raczki P. (Hrsg.), Morgenrot der Kulturen. Frühe Etappen der Menschheitsgeschichte in Mittel- und Südosteurop. Festschrift für Nandor Kalizc zum 75, . Geburtstag, Budapest., 8388.
Todd I.A. Radiocarbon dates for kalavasos-tenta and kalavasos-ayious. Report of the Department of Antiquities (1982). 811.
Todd I.A. Excavations at kalavasos-tenta. Studies in Mediterranean Archaeology LXXXI, 6 (1987). 205
Uerpmann H.-P. The origin and relations of neolithic sheep and goats in the western mediterranean. Guilaine J., Courtin J., Roudil J.-L., and Vernet J.-L. Premières communautés paysannes en mediterranée occidentale (Paris). (1987). 176179.
Van Andel T.H. Coastal migrants in a changing world?—An essay on the mesolithic in the eastern mediterranean. Journal of The Israel Prehistoric Society 35, (2005). 381396.
van Andel T.H., and Runnels C.N. The earliest farmers in Europe. Antiquity 69, (1995). 481500.
Vinther B.M., Clausen H.B., Johnsen S.J., Rasmussen S.O., Andersen K.K., Buchardt S.L., Dahl-Jensen D., Seierstad I.K., Siggaard-Andersen M.-L., Steffensen J.P., Svensson A.M., Olsen J., and Heinemeier J. A synchronized dating of three greenland ice cores throughout the holocene. Journal Geophysical Research (2006). doi:
Vitelli K.D. Franchthi neolithic pottery 1. Classification and ceramic phases 1 and 2. excavations at Franchthi cave, Greece. Fasc 8, (1993). (Bloomington, Indianapolis)
Vogel J., Waterbolk H. Radiocarbon 5, (1963). 182
Vogel J., Waterbolk H. Radiocarbon 14, (1972). 6110.
Von Grafenstein U., Erlenkeuser H., Brauer A., Jouzel J., and Johnsen S.J. A mid-european decadal isotope-climate record from 15,500 to 5000 years B.P.. Science 284, 5420 (1999). 16541657.
Weiss H., Courty M.-A., Wetterstrom W., Guichard G., Senior L., Meadow R., and Curnow A. The genesis and collapse of third millenium north mesopotamian civilitation. Science 261, (1993). 9951003.
Weninger B., (1986). High-precision calibration of archaeological radiocarbon dates. Acta Interdisciplinaria Archaeolica IV, 1153. Nitra. (
Weninger B. Statistische Auswertung der Radiokohlenstoffdaten des Oberlausitzer Eisenprojektes. Oexle Hrsg.Judith, and Heimann Robert H. Arbeits-und Forschungsberichte zur Sächsischen Bodendenkmalpflege. Band 42, (2000). 215233.
Weninger B., Alram-Stern E., Bauer E., Clare L., Danzeglocke U., Jöris O., Kubatzki C., Rollefson G., and Todorova H. Die Neolithisierung von Südosteuropa als Folge des abrupten Klimawandels um 8200 calBP. Gronenborn (Hrsg.) Detlef Klimaveränderung und Kulturwandel in neolithischen Gesellschaften Mitteleuropas 6700–22 v. Chr. RGZM-Tagungen Band vol. 1, (2006). 75117.
Wijnen M.H.J.M.N. The Early Neolithic I Settlement at Sesklo. An Early Farming Community in Thessaly, Greece. Analecta Praehistorica Leidensia 14 (Leiden). (1981).
Yu Z., and Eicher U. Abrupt climate oscillations during the last deglaciation in central North Americain. Science 282, (1998). 22352238.
Zilhão J. The Neolithic Transition in Portugal and the Role of Demic Diffusion in the Spread of Agriculture across West Mediterranean Europe. Ammermann Albert J., and Biagi Paolo The Widening Harvest. Colloquia and Conference Papers 6, (1998). Archaeological Institute of America, Boston. 207223.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Quaternary Research
  • ISSN: 0033-5894
  • EISSN: 1096-0287
  • URL: /core/journals/quaternary-research
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 1 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 153 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 20th January 2017 - 18th December 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.