For this study we consulted the Bone Marrow Donors' Registry of Lombardy (Italy) and analyzed 43937 HLA-A,B phenotypes and 13922 HLA-A,B,DR phenotypes. We estimated the HLA-A,B and HLA-A,B,DR haplotype frequencies via the maximum-likelihood method. We analyzed the genetic structure of the 11 provinces of Lombardy by means of Principal Component Analysis and Correspondence Analysis, and estimated the variety of the different haplotypes at provincial level and the percentage of unique phenotypes at village level. We found 11189 different HLA-A,B phenotypes, 661 different HLA-A,B haplotypes and more than 4000 different HLA-A,B,DR haplotypes. We identified 20 villages, in Western Lombardy, very rich in unique/rare phenotypes. Here we report a formula which allows the identification of a putative donor matched for two haplotypes with a recipient. This result may be of great importance for the genetic study of the population of Lombardy and, even more, for bone marrow transplantation programs.