Behavioural approaches to instructional consultation, problem-solving and teaching children have their base in operant psychology. In their modern forms they appear variously under labels such as Applied Behaviour Analysis (Sulzer-Azaroff & Mayer, 1986), Direct Instruction (Englemann & Carnine, 1982) and Precision Teaching (Haring, Lovitt, Eaton & Hansen, 1978). They involve the systematic application of scientifically-based processes and procedures which produce learning to a sequence of chosen facts and concepts (‘knowing about’) and behaviours and skills (‘knowing how’). Three illustrative intervention studies which highlight some key characteristics of behavioural approaches to working with children are presented. These permit useful comparisons between a behavioural approach and some current ‘developmental’ and ‘educational’ orientations.