It is of the uttermost interest to understand the mechanical performance and deformation mechanisms contributing to small-scale plasticity of materials in micro/nanoelectromechanical systems at their service temperatures, which are usually above room temperature. In recent years, high-temperature nanoindentation experiments have emerged as a reliable approach to characterize the deformation behavior of materials at the nano and submicron scale. In this review, we highlight the role of the temperature in nanoindentation response of a wide variety of materials, with a particular focus on the thermally-activated deformation mechanisms in crystalline and non-crystalline materials under the indenter, e.g., dislocation processes, shear transformation zone, and phase transformations. A brief survey of the temperature-dependent nanoindentation elastic modulus, hardness, and creep behavior of materials is also provided. We also discuss experimental methods for correctly measuring the mechanical properties of materials at high temperatures.