A combined melt-spinning and spark-plasma-sintering (SPS) procedure has proven to be effective in preparing high-performance (Bi,Sb)2Te3 thermoelectric (TE) nanocomposites via creating and optimizing their resulting multiscale microstructures. (Bi,Sb)2Te3 possesses a highly anisotropic crystal structure; therefore, it is important to investigate any potential correlation between the SPS conditions, the as-formed microstructures, and the resulting TE properties. In this work, we investigate the correlation between the SPS pressure, the microstructure texture, and the anisotropy of the total thermal conductivity in these melt-spun spark-plasma-sintered (Bi,Sb)2Te3 compounds. The thermal conductivity has been measured in directions that are both perpendicular and parallel to the pressing (or force) direction by rearranging the sample geometry as described in the text. The results show that the anisotropy of thermal conductivity is ∼0, 2–3, 6–7, and 13–15% for the samples sintered at pressures of 20, 30, 45, and 60 MPa, respectively. These results are consistent with an increasing degree of orientation observed by x-ray diffraction and electron microscopy.