Skip to main content
Awareness and Control in Sociolinguistic Research
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 1
  • Cited by
    This book has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Jaeger, T. Florian and Weatherholtz, Kodi 2017. What the Heck Is Salience? How Predictive Language Processing Contributes to Sociolinguistic Perception. Frontiers in Psychology, Vol. 7,

  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Recommend this book

    Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

    Awareness and Control in Sociolinguistic Research
    • Online ISBN: 9781139680448
    • Book DOI:
    Please enter your name
    Please enter a valid email address
    Who would you like to send this to? *
  • Buy the print book

Book description

The topic of awareness and control is an elephant in the room in sociolinguistic research. To what extent are speakers aware of sociolinguistic variables? Are there different types or levels of awareness? Is 'control' of these variables a conscious or unconscious process, or is it some combination of the two? Are the variables we are aware of necessarily those we control, and vice versa? The extent to which speakers are aware of sociolinguistic information and use it strategically may drastically affect our understanding of the role that sociolinguistic cues play in the development of structural categories. This volume constitutes the first concerted effort to understand the nature of awareness and control using all the methodological and theoretical tools at our disposal. The contributors employ a variety of perspectives to address the relationship between awareness and control in sociolinguistic research.


‘In this important volume Anna Babel brings together scholars drawing on diverse methodologies (ethnographic, experimental, elicitation/interview) to demonstrate how themes of awareness and control that have been a central concern in the history of sociolinguistics have wide-reaching implications for integrating sociolinguistic research with sub-fields of theoretical and applied linguistics, and for interdisciplinary engagement with cognitive science, social psychology, and anthropology.’

Dr Mark A. Sicoli - Georgetown University, Washington DC

    • Aa
    • Aa
Refine List
Actions for selected content:
Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive
  • Send content to

    To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to .

    To send content to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

    Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

    Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

    Please be advised that item(s) you selected are not available.
    You are about to send:

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

Anna Babel . 2009. Dizque, evidentiality, and stance in Valley Spanish. Language in Society 38(4):487511.

Anna Babel . 2011. Why don’t all contact features act alike? Contact features as enregistered features. Journal of Language Contact 4:5691.

Anna Babel . 2014. Stereotypes over experience: Pues variation as an index of regional identity in the Santa Cruz valleys of Bolivia. Journal of Sociolinguistics 18:604–33.

John R Rickford . 1987. The haves and have-nots: Sociolinguistic surveys and the assessment of speaker competence. Language in Society 16(2):149–77.

Kirsten Abbot-Smith and Michael Tomasello 2006. Exemplar-learning and schematization in a usage-based account of syntactic acquisition. Linguistic Review 23:275–90.

David. W Addington . 1968. The relationship of selected vocal characteristics to personality perception. Speech Monographs 35:492503.

Charles D. Aronovitch 1976. The voice of personality: Stereotyped judgments and their relation to voice quality and sex of speaker. Journal of Social Psychology 99(2):207–20.

Molly Babel 2010. Dialect divergence and convergence in New Zealand English. Language in Society 39(4):437–56.

Allan Bell 1984. Language style as audience design. Language in Society 13(2):145204.

Rick W. Busselle 2003. Television exposure, parents’ precautionary warnings, and young adults’ perceptions of crime. Communication Research 30(5):530–56.

Joan Bybee 2001. Phonology and Language Use. Cambridge University Press.

Joan Bybee 2002. Word frequency and context of use in the lexical diffusion of phonetically conditioned sound change. Language Variation and Change 14:261–90.

Joan Bybee and Rena Torres Cacoullos 2008. Phonological and grammatical variation in exemplar models. Studies in Hispanic and Lusophone Linguistics 1(2):399413.

Nikolas Coupland 1980. Style-shifting in a Cardiff work-setting. Language in Society 9(1):112.

Fergus I. M. Craik and Kim Kirsner 1974. The effect of speaker’s voice on word recognition. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 26(2):274–84.

Katie Drager 2010. Sensitivity to grammatical and sociophonetic variability in perception. Laboratory Phonology 1(1):93120.

Katie Drager 2011a. Sociophonetic variation and the lemma. Journal of Phonetics 39(4):694707.

Katie Drager and Jennifer Hay 2012. Exploiting random intercepts: Two case studies in Sociophonetics. Language Variation and Change 24(1):5978.

Alice H. Eagly , Antonio Mladinic , and Stacey Otto 1994. Cognitive and affective bases of attitudes toward social groups and social policies. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 30:113–37.

Daniel Erker and Gregory R. Guy 2012. The role of lexical frequency in syntactic variability: Variable subject personal pronoun expression in Spanish. Language 88(3):526–57.

Russell H Fazio . 1990. Multiple processes by which attitudes guide behavior: The MODE model as an integrative framework, in M. P. Zanna (ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, Vol. 23, pp. 75109. New York: Academic Press.

Valerie Fridland , Kathryn Bartlett , and Roger Kreuz 2004. Do you hear what I hear? Experimental measurement of the perceptual salience of acoustically manipulated vowel variants by Southern speakers in Memphis, TN. Language Variation and Change 16:116.

Christer Gobl and Ailbhe Ní Chasaide 2003. The role of voice quality in communicating emotion, mood and attitude. Speech Communication 40(1):189212.

Anthony G. Greenwald and Mahzarin R. Banaji 1995. Implicit social cognition: Attitudes, self-esteem, and stereotypes. Psychological Review 102(1):427.

Geoffrey Haddock , Mark P. Zanna , and Victoria M. Esses 1993. Assessing the structure of prejudicial attitudes: The case of attitudes toward homosexuals. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 65:1105–18.

L. Stanley Harms 1961. Listener judgments of status cues in speech. Quarterly Journal of Speech 47(2):164–8.

Jennifer Hay , Katie Drager , and Brynmor Thomas 2013. Using nonsense words to investigate vowel merger. English Language and Linguistics 17(2):241–69.

Jennifer Hay , Aaron Nolan , and Katie Drager 2006a. From fush to feesh: Exemplar priming in speech perception. Linguistic Review 23(3):351–79.

Douglas L. Hintzman 1984. MINERVA 2: A simulation model of human memory. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers 16(2):96101.

Douglas L. Hintzman 1986. “Schema abstraction” in a multiple-trace memory model. Psychological Review 93:411–28.

Douglas L. Hintzman and Genevieve Ludlam 1980. Differential forgetting of prototypes and old instances: Simulation by an exemplar-based classification model. Memory & Cognition 8(4):378–82.

Patrick Honeybone and Kevin Watson 2013. Salience and the sociolinguistics of Scouse spelling. English World-Wide 34(3):305–40.

Keith Johnson 2005. Speaker normalization, in R. E. Remez and D. B. Pisoni (eds.), The Handbook of Speech Perception, pp. 363–89. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.

Barbara Johnstone 2009. Stance, style, and the linguistic individual, in A. Jaffe (ed.), Stance: Sociolinguistic Perspectives, pp. 2952. Oxford University Press.

Scott Kiesling 2009. Style as stance: Can stance be the primary explanation for patterns of sociolinguistic variation?, in A. Jaffe (ed.), Stance: Sociolinguistic Perspectives, pp. 171–94. Oxford University Press.

Victor A. F. Lamme 2003. Why visual attention and awareness are different. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 7(1):1218.

Erez Levon 2011. Teasing apart to bring together: Gender and sexuality in variationist research. American Speech 86(1):6984.

Pawel Lewicki 1986. Nonconscious Social Information Processing. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

James L. McClelland and Jeffrey L. Elman 1986. The TRACE model of speech perception. Cognitive Psychology 18(1):186.

James M. McQueen , Anne Cutler , and Dennis Norris 2006. Phonological abstraction in the mental lexicon. Cognitive Science 30(6):1113–26.

J. Bruce Morton and Sandra E. Trehub 2001. Children’s understanding of emotion in speech. Child Development 72(3):834–43.

Nancy Niedzielski 1999. The effect of social information on the perception of sociolinguistic variables. Journal of Language and Social Psychology 18(1):6285.

Kuniko Nielsen 2011. Specificity and abstractness of VOT imitation. Journal of Phonetics 39(2):132–42.

Dennis Norris , James M. McQueen , and Anne Cutler 2003. Perceptual learning in speech. Cognitive Psychology 47(2):204–38.

Robert M. Nosofsky 1986. Attention, similarity, and identification- categorization relationship. Journal of Experimental Psychology 115(1):3957.

Robert M. Nosofsky 1991. Stimulus bias, asymmetric similarity, and classification. Cognitive Psychology 23:94140.

Robert M. Nosofsky , Daniel R. Little , Christopher Donkin , and Mario Fific 2011. Short-term memory scanning viewed as exemplar-based categorization. Psychological Review 118(2):280315.

Robert M. Nosofsky , Thomas J. Palmeri , and Stephen C. McKinley 1994. Rule-plus-exception model of classification learning. Psychological Review 101(1):5379.

J. Kevin O’Regan and Alva Noё 2001. A sensorimotor account of vision and visual consciousness. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24:9391031.

Janet Pierrehumbert 2006. The next toolkit. Journal of Phonetics 34(6):516–30.

Robert Podesva 2011. Salience and the social meaning of declarative contours: Three case studies of gay professionals. Journal of English Linguistics 39(3):233–64.

Ellen F. Prince 1988. Accommodation theory and dialect shift: A case study from Yiddish. Language and Communication 8(3):307–20.

Daniel L. Schacter , James Eric Eich , and Endel Tulving 1978. Richard Semon’s theory of memory. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 17(6):721–43.

Walter Schneider and Richard M. Shiffrin 1977. Controlled and automatic human information processing: Detection, search, and attention. Psychological Review 84(1):127–90.

Michael A. Shapiro 1991. Memory and decision processes in the construction of social reality. Communication Research 18(1):324.

Lokendra Shastri and Venkat Ajjanagadde 1993. From simple associations to systematic reasoning: A connectionist representation of rules, variables and dynamic bindings using temporal synchrony. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16(3):417–51.

Eliot R. Smith and Michael A. Zárate 1992. Exemplar-based model of social judgement. Psychological Review 99(1):321.

Elizabeth Strand 1999. Uncovering the role of gender stereotypes in speech perception. Journal of Language and Social Psychology 18(1):8699.

Meghan Sumner , Seung Kyung Kim , Ed King , and Kevin McGowan 2014. The socially weighted encoding of spoken words: A dual-route approach to speech perception. Frontiers in Psychology 4:1015. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2013.01015.

Andrew B. Wedel 2006. Exemplar models, evolution and language change. Linguistic Review 23(3):247–74.

Malcah Yaeger-Dror 1993. Linguistic analysis of dialect “correction” and its interaction with cognitive salience. Language Variation and Change 5:189224.

Qing Zhang 2005. A Chinese yuppie in Beijing: Phonological variation and the construction of a new professional identity. Language in Society 34(3):431–66.

A Agha . (2003). The social life of cultural value. Language and Communication 23(3/4):231–73.

R. Baayen (2008). Analyzing Linguistic Data: A Practical Introduction to Statistics Using R. Cambridge University Press.

D. Balota , M. Yap , K. Hutchison , M. Cortese , B. Kessler , B. Loftis , J. Neely , D. Nelson , G. Simpson , and R. Treiman (2007). The English lexicon project. Behavior Research Methods 39(3):445–59.

D. J. Barr , R. Levy , C. Scheepers , and H. J Tily . (2013). Random effects structure for confirmatory hypothesis testing: Keep it maximal. Journal of Memory and Language 68(3):255–78.

P. Beddor , K. McGowan , J. Boland , A. Coetzee , and A. Brasher (2013). The time course of perception of coarticulation. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 133(4):2350–66.

P. S. Beddor , J. Harnsberger , and S Lindemann . (2002). Language-specific patterns of vowel-to-vowel coarticulation: acoustic structures and their perceptual correlates. Journal of Phonetics 30(4):591627.

A. Bradlow and J. Alexander (2007). Semantic-contextual and acoustic-phonetic enhancements for English sentence-in-noise recognition by native and non-native listeners. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 121(4):2339–49.

S. Creel and M. Bregman (2011). How talker identity relates to language processing. Language and Linguistics Compass 5(5):190204.

D. Dahan , S. J. Drucker , and R. A Scarborough . (2008). Talker adaptation in speech perception: adjusting the signal or the representations? Cognition 108:710–18.

G. J. Docherty and P. Foulkes (2014). An evaluation of usage-based approaches to the modelling of sociophonetic variability. Lingua 142:4256.

K. Drager (2010). Sociophonetic variation in speech perception. Language and Linguistics Compass 4(7):473–80.

P. Foulkes and G Docherty . (2006). The social life of phonetics and phonology. Journal of Phonetics 34:409–38.

B. Gick and D Derrick . (2009). Aero-tactile integration in speech perception. Nature 462:502–4.

J. Hay , P. Warren , and K. Drager (2006). Factors influencing speech perception in the context of a merger-in-progress. Journal of Phonetics 34:458–84.

J. Irvine (1989). When talk isn’t cheap: language and political economy. American Ethnologist 16(2):248–67.

D. K. Iwamoto and W. M Liu . (2010). The impact of racial identity, ethnic identity, Asian values, and race-related stress on Asian Americans and Asian international 60college students psychological well-being. Journal of Counseling Psychology 57(1):79.

K. Johnson (2006). Resonance in an exemplar-based lexicon: The emergence of social identity and phonology. Journal of Phonetics 34:485–99.

B. Johnstone and S. F. Kiesling (2008). Indexicality and experience: Exploring the meanings of/aw/-monophthongization in pittsburgh1. Journal of Sociolinguistics 12(1):533.

A. M. Liberman , K. S. Harris , and B. C Griffith . (1957). The discrimination of speech sounds within and across phoneme boundaries. Journal of Experimental Psychology 54:358–68.

S. Lindemann (2003). Koreans, Chinese or Indians? Attitudes and ideologies about non-native English speakers in the United States. Journal of Sociolinguistics 7(3):348–64.

S. Lindemann (2005). Who speaks “broken English”? US undergraduates’ perceptions of non-native English. International Journal of Applied Linguistics 15(2):187212.

S. Mack and B. Munson (2012). The influence of /s/ quality on ratings of men’s sexual orientation: Explicit and implicit measures of the “gay lisp” stereotype. Journal of Phonetics 40(1):198212.

V. A. Mann and B. H Repp . (1981). Influence of preceding fricative on stop consonant perception. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 69:548–58.

K. B. McGowan (2015). Social expectation improves speech perception in noise. Language and Speech. 58(4):502–21.

H. McGurk and J. MacDonald (1976). Hearing lips and seeing voices. Nature 264:746–8.

H. X. Qiong (2004). Why China English should stand alongside British, American, and the other. English Today 20(02):2633.

D. L. Rubin (1992). Non-language factors affecting undergraduates’ judgments of non-native English-speaking teaching assistants. Research in Higher Education 33(4):511–31.

M. Sumner and R. Kataoka (2013). Effects of phonetically-cued talker variation on semantic encoding. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 134(6):EL485–91.

M. Sumner and A. G. Samuel (2009). The role of experience in the processing of cross-dialectal variation. Journal of Memory and Language 60:487501.

C. C. Tang Tang and V. J. van Heuven (2009). Mutual intelligibility of Chinese dialects experimentally tested. Lingua 119(5):709–32.

K. J. Van Engen , M. Baese-Berk , R. E. Baker , A. Choi , M. Kim , and A. R Bradlow . (2010). The wildcat corpus of native- and foreign-accented English: Communicative efficiency across conversational dyads with varying language alignment profiles. Language and Speech 53(4):510–40.

P. Wong , C. F. Lai , R. Nagasawa , and T Lin . (1998). Asian Americans as a model minority: Self-perceptions and perceptions by other racial groups. Sociological Perspectives 41(1):95118.

M Baranowski . 2013. On the role of social factors in the loss of phonemic distinctions. English Language and Linguistics 17(Special Issue 02):271–95.

D. F. Coye 2009. Dialect boundaries in New Jersey. American Speech 84(4):414–52.

V. Delvaux and A Soquet . 2007. The influence of ambient speech on adult speech productions through unintentional imitation. Phonetica 64:145–73.

M Joos . 1942. A phonological dilemma in Canadian English. Language 18:141–4.

W Labov . 1972b. Some principles of linguistic methodology. Language in Society 1(1):97120.

M. J. Munro , T. M. Derwing , and J. E. Flege 1999. Canadians in Alabama: A perceptual study of dialect acquisition in adults. Journal of Phonetics 27:385403.

R. E. Nisbett , and T. D Wilson . 1977. Telling more than we can know: Verbal reports on mental processes. Psychological Review 84(3):231–59.

J Nycz . 2013a. Changing words or changing rules? Second dialect acquisition and phonological representation. Journal of Pragmatics 52:4962.

J Nycz . 2013b. New contrast acquisition: Methodological issues and theoretical implications. English Language and Linguistics 17(2):325–57.

D Preston . 1996. Whaddayaknow?: The modes of folk linguistic awareness. Language Awareness 5(1):4074.

J. Siegel 2010. Second Dialect Acquisition. Cambridge University Press.

L. Batterink and H. J. Neville 2013. The human brain processes syntax in the absence of conscious awareness. Journal of Neuroscience 33(19):8528–33.

J. A. Bowey (1986). Syntactic awareness in relation to reading skill and ongoing comprehension monitoring. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 41:282–99.

J. Bresnan and M. Ford 2010. Predicting syntax: Processing dative constructions in American and Australian varieties of English. Language 86(1):168213.

K. Campbell-Kibler 2010. Sociolinguistics and perception. Language and Linguistics Compass 4:377–89.

G. J. Docherty , C. Langstrof , and P Foulkes . 2013. Listener evaluation of sociophonetic variability: Probing constraints and capabilities. Linguistics 51(2):355–80.

M. P. Kaschak 2006. What this construction needs is generalized. Memory & Cognition 34(2):368–79.

K. Nation and M. J. Snowling 2000. Factors influencing syntactic awareness skills in normal and poor comprehenders. Applied Psycholinguistics 21:229–41.

N. J. Pearlmutter , S. M. Garnsey , and K. Bock 1999. Agreement processes in sentence comprehension. Journal of Memory and Language 41:427–56.

R. W. Schmidt 1990. The role of consciousness in second language learning. Applied Linguistics 11:129–58.

L. Squires 2013. Limited bidirectionality in sociolinguistic perception. Journal of Sociolinguistics 17(2):200–37.

L. Squires 2014a. Knowledge, processing, evaluation: Testing the perception of English subject-verb agreement variation. Journal of English Linguistics 42(2):144–72.

L. Squires 2014b. Talker specificity and the perception of grammatical variation. Language, Cognition and Neuroscience 29(7):856–76.

S. A. Wagoner 1983. Comprehension monitoring: What it is and what we know about it. Reading Research Quarterly 18(3):328–46.

W. Wolfram 1982. Language knowledge and other dialects. American Speech 57(1):318.

J. Butler , C. Floccia , J. Goslin , and R. Panneton (2011). Infants’ discrimination of familiar and unfamiliar accents in speech. Infancy 16(4):392417.

C. Clopper and D. B. Pisoni (2004). Homebodies and army brats: Some effects of early linguistic experience and residential history on dialect categorization. Language Variation and Change 16:3148.

C. Clopper and D. B. Pisoni (2007). Free classification of regional dialects of American English. Journal of Phonetics 35:421–38.

C. Clopper , K. Rohrbeck , and L. Wagner (2012). Perception of dialect variation by young adults with High-Functioning Autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 42:740–54.

A. Cristia , A. Seidl , C. Vaughn , R. Schmale , A. Bradlow , and C. Floccia (2012). Linguistic processing of accented speech across the lifespan. Frontiers in Psychology 3:479.

C. Floccia , J. Butler , F. Girard , and J. Goslin (2009). Categorization of regional and foreign accent in 5- to 7-year old British children. International Journal of Behavioral Development 33(4):366–75.

F. Girard , C. Floccia , and J. Goslin (2008). Perception and awareness of accents in young children. British Journal of Developmental Psychology 26:409–33.

S. Millar (2003). Children and linguistic normativity, in D. Britain and J. Cheshire (eds.), Social Dialectology: In Honor of Peter Trudgill, pp. 287–97. Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins.

T. Nazzi , P. Jusczyk , and E. K. Johnson (2000). Language discrimination by English-learning 5-month-olds: Effect of rhythm and familiarity. Journal of Memory and Language 43:119.

J. Pierrehumbert (2003). Phonetic diversity, statistical learning, acquisition of phonology. Language and Speech 46:115–54.

D. Preston (1986). Five visions of America. Language in Society 15(2):221–40.

J. Roberts (2005). Acquisition of sociolinguistic variation, in M. J. Ball (ed.), Clinical Sociolinguistics, Vol. 36, pp. 151–64. Malden, MA: Blackwell.

E. Schneider (2008). Varieties of English 2: The Americas and the Carribean. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.

David M. Amodio and Patricia G. Devine. 2006. Stereotyping and evaluation in implicit race bias: Evidence for independent constructs and unique effects on behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 91(4):652–61.

Solomon E. Asch 1946. Forming impressions of personality. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 41:258–90.

Moshe Bar . 2007. The proactive brain: Using analogies and associations to generate predictions. TRENDS in Cognitive Sciences 11(7):280–9.

John A. Bargh 2006. What have we been priming all these years? On the development, mechanisms, and ecology of nonconscious social behavior. European Journal of Social Psychology 36:147–68.

John A. Bargh , Michelle Green , and Gráinne Fitzsimons . 2008. The selfish goal: Unintended consequences of intended goal pursuits. Social Cognition 26(5):534–54.

Roy F. Baumeister and Todd F. Heatherton . 1996. Self-regulation failure: An overview. Psychological Inquiry 7(1):115.

Roy F. Baumeister , E. J. Masicampo , and Kathleen D. Vohs 2011. Do conscious thoughts cause behavior? Annual Review of Psychology 62:331–61.

Mary E. Beckman and Jan Edwards . 2000. The ontogeny of phonological categories and the primacy of lexical learning in linguistic development. Child Development 71(1):240–9.

Kathryn J. Bock 1986. Syntactic persistence in language production. Cognitive Psychology 18:355–87.

Rick D. Brown and John N. Bassili . 2002. Spontaneous trait associations and the case of the superstitious banana. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 38:8792.

Inès Brulard and Philip Carr . 2013. Variability, unconscious accent adaptation and sense of identity: The case of RP influences on speakers of Standard Scottish English. Language Sciences 39:151–5.

Salvatore Campanella and Pascal Belin . 2007. Integrating face and voice in person perception. TRENDS in Cognitive Sciences 11(12):535–43.

Kathryn Campbell-Kibler . 2007. Accent, (ING), and the social logic of listener perceptions. American Speech 82(1):3264.

Kathryn Campbell-Kibler . 2008. I’ll be the judge of that: Diversity in social perceptions of (ING). Language in Society 37(5):637–59.

Kathryn Campbell-Kibler . 2010. The effect of speaker information on attitudes toward (ING). Journal of Language and Social Psychology 29(2):214–23.

Aaron Castelan Cargile . 1997. Attitudes towards Chinese-accented speech: An investigation in two contexts. Journal of Language and Social Psychology 16:434–43.

Aaron Castelan Cargile and Howard Giles . 1998. Language attitudes toward varieties of English: An American-Japanese context. Journal of Applied Communication Research 26:338–56.

Donal E. Carlston and Lynda Mae . 2007. Posing with the flag: Trait-specific effects of symbols on person perception. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 43:241–8.

Tanya L. Chartrand and John A. Bargh 1996. Automatic activation of impression formation and memorization goals: Nonconscious goal priming reproduces effects of explicit task instructions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 71(3):464–78.

Nikolas Coupland . 2007. Style: Language Variation and Identity. Cambridge University Press.

T. W. Deacon 2003. Universal grammar and semiotic constraints, in M. H. Christiansen and S. Kirby (eds), Language Evolution, pp. 111–39. Oxford University Press.

Beatrice de Gelder , Gilles Pourtois , and Lawrence Weiskrantz . 2002. Fear recognition in the voice is modulated by unconsciously recognized facial expressions but not by unconsciously recognized affective pictures. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 99(6):4121–6.

Beatrice de Gelder and Jean Vroomen . 2000. The perception of emotions by ear and by eye. Cognition and Emotion 14(3):289311.

Patricia G. Devine , Constantine Sedikides , and Robert W. Fuhrman 1989. Goals in social information processing: The case of anticipated interaction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 56(5):680–90.

Adele Diamond . 2013. Executive functions. Annual Review of Psychology 64:135–68.

Penelope Eckert . 2012. Three waves of variation study: The emergence of meaning in the study of variation. Annual Review of Anthropology 41:87100.

Jonathan St. B. T. Evans 2008. Dual-processing accounts of reasoning, judgment, and social cognition. Annual Review of Psychology 59:255–78.

Melissa J. Ferguson 2008. On becoming ready to pursue a goal you don’t know you have: Effects of nonconscious goals on evaluative readiness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 95(6):1268–94.

Joseph P. Forgas and Gordon H. Bower 1987. Mood effects on person-perception judgments. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 53(1):5360.

Jonathan B. Freeman and Nalini Ambady . 2011. A dynamic interactive theory of person construal. Psychological Review 118(2):247–79.

Adam D. Galinsky and Gordon B. Moskowitz 2007. Further ironies of suppression: Stereotype and counterstereotype accessibility. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 43:833–41.

Bertram Gawronski and Galen V. Bodenhausen 2011. The Associative–Propositional Evaluation model: Theory, evidence, and open questions. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology 44:59127.

Stephen D. Goldinger 1998. Echoes of echoes? An episodic theory of lexical access. Psychological Review 105(2):251–79.

Olesya Govorun and B. Keith Payne 2006. Ego-depletion and prejudice: Separating automatic and controlled components. Social Cognition 24(2):111–36.

Gregory R. Guy 1991. Explanation in variable phonology: An exponential model of morphological constraints. Language Variation and Change 3:122.

Gregory R. Guy and Cecelia Cutler . 2011. Speech style and authenticity: Quantitative evidence for the performance of identity. Language Variation and Change 23:139–62.

Jennifer Hay and Katie Drager . 2010. Stuffed toys and speech perception. Linguistics 48(4):865–92.

Tiffany A. Ito and Bruce D. Bartholow 2009. The neural correlates of race. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 13(12):524–31.

T. Florian Jaeger and Neal Snider . 2013. Alignment as a consequence of expectation adaptation: Syntactic priming is affected by the prime’s prediction error given both prior and recent experience. Cognition 127(1):5783.

Lee Jussim , Christopher J. Fleming , Lerita Coleman , and Cortney Kohberger . 1996. The nature of stereotypes: II. a multiple-process model of evaluations. Journal of Applied Social Psychology 26(4):283312.

William M. Klein and Ziva Kunda . 1992. Motivated person perception: Constructing justifications for desired beliefs. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 28:145–68.

Tanya Kraljic , Arthur G. Samuel , and Susan E. Brennan 2008. First impressions and last resorts: How listeners adjust to speaker variability. Psychological Science 19(4):332–8.

William Labov . 1963. The social motivation of a sound change. Word 19:273309.

William Labov , Sharon Ash , Maya Ravindranath , Tracey Weldon , Maciej Baranowski , and Naomi Nagy . 2011. Properties of the sociolinguistic monitor. Journal of Sociolinguistics 15(4):431–63.

Willem B. Levelt 1983. Monitoring and self-repair in speech. Cognition 14:41104.

C. Neil Macrae and Douglas Martin . 2007. A boy primed Sue: Feature-based processing and person construal. European Journal of Social Psychology 37:793805.

Norma 149Mendoza-Denton . 2008. Homegirls: Language and Cultural Practice among Latina Youth Gangs. Malden, MA: Blackwell.

Brenda Milner , Suzanne Coricin , and H.-L. Teuber 1968. Further analysis of the hippocampal amnesic syndrome: 14-year follow-up study of H.M. Neuropsychologia 6:215–34.

Sieb G. Nooteboom 2005. Lexical bias revisited: Detecting, rejecting and repairing speech errors in inner speech. Speech Communication 47:4358.

Sang Hee Park , Jack Glaser , and Eric D. Knowles 2008. Implicit motivation to control prejudice moderates the effect of cognitive depletion on unintended discrimination. Social Cognition 26(4):401–19.

B. Keith Payne . 2001. Prejudice and perception: The role of automatic and controlled processes in misperceiving a weapon. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 81:181–92.

B. Keith Payne . 2005. Conceptualizing control in social cognition: How executive functioning modulates the expression of automatic stereotyping. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 89(4):488503.

Nicolai Pharao , Marie Maegaard , Janus S. Møller , and Tore Kristiansen . 2014. Indexical meanings of [s+] among Copenhagen youth: Social perception of a phonetic variant in different prosodic contexts. Language in Society 43(1): 131.

Martin J. Pickering and Simon Garrod . 2004. Toward a mechanistic psychology of dialogue. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27(2):169–89.

Martin J. Pickering and Simon Garrod . 2013. An integrated theory of language production and comprehension. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 36(4):329–92.

Martin J. Pickering and Simon Garrod . 2014. Self-, other-, and joint monitoring using forward models. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8(132).

Janet 150Pierrehumbert . 2001. Exemplar dynamics: Word frequency, lenition and contrast, in Joan Bybee and Paul Hopper (eds.), Frequency and the Emergence of Linguistic Structure, pp. 137–57. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Robert J. Podesva 2011. The California vowel shift and gay identity. American Speech 86(1):3251.

Peter Ráckz . 2013. Salience in Sociolinguistics: A Quantitative Approach. Berlin: De Gruyter.

John R. Rickford 1986. The need for new approaches to social class analysis in sociolinguistics. Language and Communication 6(3):215–21.

Emanuel A. Schegloff , Gail Jefferson , and Harvey Sacks . 1977. The preference for self-correction in the organization of repair in conversation. Language 53(2):361–82.

Carolin Showers and Nancy Cantor . 1985. Social cognition: A look at motivated strategies. Annual Review of Psychology 36:275305.

Michael Silverstein . 2003. Indexical order and the dialectics of sociolinguistic life. Language and Communication 23:193229.

Eliot R. Smith and Jamie DeCoster . 2000. Dual-process models in social and cognitive psychology: Conceptual integration and links to underlying memory systems. Personality and Social Psychology Review 4(2):108–31.

Larry R. Squire 2004. Memory systems of the brain: A brief history and current perspective. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory 82:171–7.

Sarah V. Stevenage , Andrew R. Hugill , and Hugh G. Lewis 2012. Integrating voice recognition into models of person perception. Journal of Cognitive Psychology 24(4):409–19.

James S. Uleman , Alex Hon , Robert J. Roman , and Gordon B. Moskowitz 1996. On-line evidence for spontaneous trait inferences at encoding. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 22(4):377–94.

Jay J. Van Bavel , Yi Jenny Xiao , and William A. Cunningham 2012. Evaluation is a dynamic process: Moving beyond dual system models. Social and Personality Psychology Compass 6(6):438–54.

Jos J. A. Van Berkum , Danielle van den Brink , Cathelijne M. J. Y. Tesink , Miriam Kos , and Peter Hagoort . 2008. The neural integration of speaker and message. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 20(4):580–91.

William von Hippel and Karen Gonsalkorale . 2005. “That is bloody revolting!”: Inhibitory control of thoughts better left unsaid. Psychological Science 16(7):497500.

Kodi Weatherholtz , Kathryn Campbell-Kibler , and T. Florian Jaeger 2014. Syntactic alignment and social perception. Language Variation and Change 26(3):387420.

Moshe Anisfeld , Norman Bogo , and Wallace E. Lambert 1962. Evaluational reactions to accented English speech. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 65(4):223–31.

Kara Becker . 2009. /r/ and the construction of place identity on New York City’s Lower East Side. Journal of Sociolinguistics 13(5):634–58.

Thomas P. Bonfiglio 2002. Race and the Rise of Standard American. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Mary Bucholtz and Kira Hall . 2005. Identity and interaction: A sociocultural linguistic approach. Discourse Studies 7(4–5):584614.

Mary Bucholtz and Kira Hall . 2008. All of the above: New coalitions in sociocultural linguistics. Journal of Sociolinguistics 12(4):131.

Mary Bucholtz , Nancy Bermudez , Victor Fung , Lisa Edwards , and Rosalva Vargas . 2007. Hella Nor Cal or totally So Cal?: The perceptual dialectology of California. Journal of English Linguistics 35(4):325–52.

Victor J. Callan , Cynthia Gallois , and Paula A. Forbes 1983. Evaluative reactions to accented English: Ethnicity, sex role, and context. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 14:407–26.

Kathryn Campbell-Kibler . 2009. The nature of sociolinguistic perception. Language Variation and Change 21:135–56.

Kathryn Campbell-Kibler . 2012. Contestation and enregisterment in Ohio’s imagined dialects. Journal of English Linguistics 40(3):281305.

Katie Carmichael . 2013. The performance of Cajun English in Boudreaux and Thibodeaux jokes. American Speech 88(4):377412.

Cynthia G. Clopper and David B. Pisoni 2006a. The Nationwide Speech Project: A new corpus of American English dialects. Speech Communication 48:633–44.

Cynthia G. Clopper and David B. Pisoni 2006b. Effects of region of origin and geographic mobility on perceptual dialect categorization. Language Variation and Change 18:193221.

John Edwards . 1999. Refining our understanding of language attitudes. Journal of Language and Social Psychology 18:101–10.

Carmen Fought . 2002. California students’ perceptions of, you know, regions and dialects? in Daniel Long (ed.), Handbook of Perceptual Dialectology, Vol. 2, pp. 113–34. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Howard Giles , Joustine Coupland , and Nicholas Coupland . 1991. Accommodation theory: Communication, context, and consequence, in Howard Giles , Joustine Coupland , and Nicholas Coupland (eds.), Contexts of Accommodation. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Gabriele Iannàccaro and Vittorio Dell’Aquila . 2001. Mapping languages from inside: Notes on perceptual dialectology. Social and Cultural Geography 2(3):265–80.

Barbara Johnstone . 1999. Uses of Southern-sounding speech by contemporary Texas women. Journal of Sociolinguistics 3:505–22.

Barbara Johnstone , Jennifer Andrus , and Andrew E. Danielson 2006. Mobility, indexicality, and the enregisterment of “Pittsburghese.” Journal of English Linguistics 34(2):77104.

Barbara Johnstone , Neeta Bhasin , and Denise Wittkofski . 2002. “Dahntahn” Pittsburgh: Monophthongal /aw/ and representations of localness in Southwestern Pennsylvania. American Speech 77(2):148–66.

William Labov . 2006[1966]. The Social Stratification of English in New York City. Washington, DC: Center for Applied Linguistics; 2nd edn. Cambridge University Press.

W. E. Lambert , R. C. Hodgson , R. C. Gardner , and S. Fillenbaum 1960. Evaluational reactions to spoken languages. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 60(1):4451.

Reid Luhman . 1990. Appalachian English stereotypes: Language attitudes in Kentucky. Language in Society 19(3):331–48.

Leslie Milroy and Dennis R. Preston 1999. Introduction to special issue on language attitudes. Journal of Language and Social Psychology 18:49.

Dennis Preston 1989. Perceptual Dialectology: Nonlinguists’ Views of Areal Linguistics. Providence, RI: Foris Publications.

Christopher J. Zahn and Robert Hopper . 1985. Measuring language attitudes: The speech evaluation instrument. Journal of Language and Social Psychology 4(2):113–23.

Kathryn Campbell-Kibler . 2012. The Implicit Association Test and sociolinguistic meaning. Lingua 122(7):5363.

Patricia G. Devine 1989. Stereotypes and prejudice: Their automatic and controlled components. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 56:518.

J. F. Dovidio , K. Kawakami , C. Johnson , B. Johnson , and A. Howard 1997. The nature of prejudice: Automatic and controlled processes. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 33:510–40.

Penelope Eckert . 2008. Variation and the indexical field. Journal of Sociolinguistics 12(4):453–76.

R. H. Fazio , J. R. Jackson , B. C. Dunton , and C. J. Williams 1995. Variability in automatic activation as an unobtrusive measure of racial attitudes: A bonafide pipeline? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 69:1013–27.

David Graff , William Labov , and Wendell A. Harris 1986. Testing listeners’ reactions to phonological markers of ethnic identity: A new method for sociolinguistic research, in David Sankoff (ed.), Diversity and Diachrony, Current Issues in Linguistic Theory 53, pp. 4558. Amsterdam and Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins.

Tore Kristiansen . 2009. The macro-level social meanings of late-modern Danish accents. Acta Linguistica Hafniensia 41:167–92.

Nancy Niedzielski and Dennis R. Preston 2000. Folk Linguistics. Berlin and New York: Mouton de Gruyter.

Andrew J. Pantos and Andrew W. Perkins 2013. Measuring implicit and explicit attitudes toward foreign accented speech, Journal of Language and Social Psychology 32(1):320.

Dennis R. Preston 1993. The uses of folk linguistics. International Journal of Applied Linguistics 3(2):181259.

Dennis R. Preston 1994. Content-oriented discourse analysis & folk linguistics. Language Sciences 16(2):285330.

Dennis R. Preston 1996b. Where the worst English is spoken, in Edgar Schneider (ed.), Focus on the USA, pp. 297360. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Dennis R. Preston (ed.) 1999b. Perceptual Dialectology, Vol. I. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Keith Basso . 1970. “To give up on words”: Silence in Western Apache culture. Southwestern Journal of Anthropology 26:213–30.

Penny Eckert and Etienne Wegner . 2005. What is the role of power in sociolinguistic variation? Journal of Sociolinguistics 9:582–9.

Michal Ephratt . 2011. Linguistic, paralinguistic and extralinguistic speech and silence. Journal of Pragmatics 43:2286–307.

Anna María Escobar . 2012. Spanish in contact with Amerindian languages, in J. I. Hualde , A. Olarrea , and E. O’Rourke (eds.), The Handbook of Hispanic Linguistics, pp. 6588. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.

Robyn Fivush . 2010. Speaking silence: The social construction of silence in autobiographical and cultural narratives. Memory 18:8898.

Susan Gal . 1989. Between speech and silence: The problematics of research on language and gender. IPrA Papers in Pragmatics 3:138.

Adam Jaworski (ed.) 1997. Silence: Interdisciplinary Perspectives. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Dennis Kurzon . 2007a. Peters Edition v. Batt: The intertextuality of silence. International Journal for the Semiotics of Law – Revue internationale de Sémiotique juridique 20:285303.

Dennis Kurzon . 2007b. Towards a typology of silence. Journal of Pragmatics 39:1673–88.

Dennis Kurzon . 2011. On Silence. Journal of Pragmatics 43:2275–7.

Lesley Milroy and James Milroy . 1992. Social network and social class: Toward an integrated sociolinguistic model. Language in Society 21:126.

Michal Pagis . 2010. Producing intersubjectivity in silence: An ethnographic study of meditation practice. Ethnography 11:309–28.

John R. Rickford 1985. Standard and non-standard language attitudes in a creole continuum, in Nessa Wolfson and Joan Manes (eds.), Language of Inequality, Vol. 36, pp. 145–60. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.

Natalie Schilling-Estes . 1998. Investigating “self-conscious” speech: The performance register in Ocracoke English. Language in Society 27:5383.

Gregory D. S. Anderson 2007. The Munda Verb: Typological Perspectives. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

P. Auer , B. Barden , and B. Grosskopf , 1998. Subjective and objective parameters determining “salience” in long-term dialect accommodation. Journal of Sociolinguistics 2:163–87.

Prathama Banerjee . 1999. Historic acts? Santal rebellion and the temporality of practice. Studies in History 15(2):209–46.

Richard Bauman and Charles L. Briggs 1990. Poetics and performance as critical perspectives on language and social life. Annual Review of Anthropology 19:5988.

M. Bender 2002. From “easy phonetics” to the syllabary: An orthographic division of labor in Cherokee language education. Anthropology & Education Quarterly 33:90117.

Marc Brunelle . 2014. Vietnamese (Tieng Viet), in Paul Sidwell and Jenny Mathias (eds.), The Handbook of Austroasiatic Languages, Vol. 1, pp. 909–46. Leiden: Brill.

Marine Carrin-Bouez . 1986. De la langue au discours : Une dialectique du repli et de la modernisation dans une minorité tribale de l’Inde. Langage et Société 35(1):6791.

James Collins and Richard K. Blot 2003. Literacy and Literacies: Texts, Power, and Identity. Cambridge, UK and New York: Cambridge University Press.

Katie Drager . 2011. Speaker age and vowel perception. Language and Speech 54(1):99121.

Barbra A. Meek 2006. And the Injun goes how!: Representations of American Indian English in (white) public space. Language in Society 35(1):93128.

Barbra A. Meek 2007. Respecting the language of elders: Ideological shift and linguistic discontinuity in a Northern Athapascan community. Journal of Linguistic Anthropology 17(1):2343.

B. Mitchell and A. K. Webster , 2011. “We don’t know what we become:” Navajo ethnopoetics and an expressive feature in a poem by Rex Lee Jim. Anthropological Linguistics 53:259–86.

Bambi B. Schieffelin and Rachelle Charlier Doucet . 1994. The “real” Haitian Creole: Ideology, metalinguistics, and orthographic choice. American Ethnologist 21(1):176200.

Laura M. Ahearn 2000. Agency. Journal of Linguistic Anthropology 9(1–2):1215.

Laura M. Ahearn 2001. Language and agency. Annual Review of Anthropology 30:109–37.

Ralph C. Bralley , Glen L. Bull , Cheryl Harris Gore , and Milton T. Edgerton 1978. Evaluation of vocal pitch in male transsexuals. Journal of Communication Disorders 11(5):443–9.

Mary Bucholtz and Kira Hall . 2004. Theorizing identity in language and sexuality research. Language in Society 33(4):469516.

Edward J. Damrose 2009. Quantifying the impact of androgen therapy on the female larynx. Auris, Nasus, Larynx 36(1):110–12.

Shelagh Davies and Joshua M. Goldberg 2006. Clinical aspects of transgender speech feminization and masculinization. International Journal of Transgenderism 9(3–4):167–96.

Peter Flipsen Jr., Lawrence Shrilberg , Gary Weismer , Heather Karlsson , and Jane McSweeny . 1999. Acoustic characteristics of /s/ in adolescents. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research 42(3):663–77.

Marylou Pausewang Gelfer . 1999. Voice therapy for the male-to-female transgendered client. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology 8(3):201–8.

Marylou Pausewang Gelfer and Victoria A. Mikos 2005. The relative contributions of speaking fundamental frequency and formant frequencies to gender identification based on isolated vowels. Journal of Voice 19(4):544–54.

Marylou Pausewang Gelfer and Kevin J. Schofield 2000. Comparison of acoustic and perceptual measures of voice in male-to-female transsexuals perceived as female versus those perceived as male. Journal of Voice 14(1):2233.

Deborah Günzburger . 1995. Acoustic and perceptual implications of the transsexual voice. Archives of Sexual Behavior 24(3):399407.

Dennis McFadden , Edward G. Pasanen , and Narriman Lee Callaway . 1998. Changes in otoacoustic emissions in a transsexual male during treatment with estrogen. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 104(3):1555–8.

Michael Silverstein . 1985. Language and the culture of gender: At the intersection of structure, usage, and ideology, in Elizabeth Mertz and Richard J. Parmentier (eds.), Semiotic Mediation: Sociocultural and Psychological Perspectives, pp. 219–59. London: Academic Press.

Susan A. Speer and Ceri Parsons . 2006. Gatekeeping gender: Some features of the use of hypothetical questions in the psychiatric assessment of transsexual patients. Discourse & Society 17(6):785812.

Linda E. Spencer 1988. Speech characteristics of male-to-female transsexuals: A perceptual and acoustic study. Folia Phoniatrica et Logopaedica 40(1):3142.

Guy T’Sjoen , Mieke Moerman , John Van Borsel , Els Feyen , Robert Rubens , Stanislas Monstrey , Piet Hoebeke , Petra De Sutter , and Griet De Cuypere . 2006. Impact of voice in transsexuals. International Journal of Transgenderism 9(1):17.

David Valentine . 2007. Imagining Transgender: An Ethnography of a Category. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

Meghana B. Wadnerkar , Patricia E. Cowell , and Sandra P. Whiteside 2006. Speech across the menstrual cycle: A replication and extension study. Neuroscience Letters 408(1):21–4.

Sandra P. Whiteside , Anna Hanson , and Patricia E. Cowell 2004. Hormones and temporal components of speech: Sex differences and effect of menstrual cyclicity on speech. Neuroscience Letters 367:44–7.

Virginia I. Wolfe , David L. Ratusnik , Furman H. Smith , and Gretajo Northrop . 1990. Intonation and fundamental frequency in male-to-female transsexuals. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders 55(1):4350.

Lal Zimman . 2013. Hegemonic masculinity and the variability of gay-sounding speech: The perceived sexuality of transgender men. Journal of Language & Sexuality 2(1):543.


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 43
Total number of PDF views: 641 *
Loading metrics...

Book summary page views

Total views: 778 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 20th September 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.