Skip to main content
The Cambridge History of China
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 2
  • Cited by
    This book has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Evon, Gregory N. 2014. Tobacco, God, and Books: The Perils of Barbarism in Eighteenth-Century Korea. The Journal of Asian Studies, Vol. 73, Issue. 03, p. 641.

    Li, Jinbao Cook, Edward R. Chen, Fahu Davi, Nicole D'Arrigo, Rosanne Gou, Xiaohua Wright, Wiliam E. Fang, Keyan Jin, Liya Shi, Jiangfeng and Yang, Tao 2009. Summer monsoon moisture variability over China and Mongolia during the past four centuries. Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 36, Issue. 22,

  • Volume 9, Part 1: The Ch'ing Empire to 1800
  • Edited by Willard J. Peterson, Princeton University, New Jersey

  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Recommend this book

    Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

    The Cambridge History of China
    • Online ISBN: 9781139053532
    • Book DOI:
    Please enter your name
    Please enter a valid email address
    Who would you like to send this to? *
  • Buy the print book

Book description

This volume of the Cambridge History of China considers the political, military, social, and economic developments of the Ch'ing empire to 1800. The period begins with the end of the resurgent Ming dynasty, covered in volumes 7 and 8, and ends with the beginning of the collapse of the imperial system in the nineteenth century, described in volume 10. Taken together, the ten chapters elucidate the complexities of the dynamic interactions between emperors and their servitors, between Manchus and non-Manchu populations, between various elite groups, between competing regional interests, between merchant networks and agricultural producers, between rural and urban interests, and, at work among all these tensions, between the old and new. This volume presents the changes underway in this period prior to the advent of Western imperialist military power.


‘… this volume is and will be extremely useful for historians in general … at the same time, it will also be unofficial for historians of china who have the ambition to add an increasingly complex and sophisticated perspective to their own academic work. Last but not least, great parts of this volume can turn out to be inspiring for one’s own research … it should … be pointed out that the CHC, volume 9, part 1, for the first time perhaps, recognizes, in a sinological context outside of the narrow field of Manchurists and specialists of Ch'ing warfare, the crucial importance of Manchu sources for our understanding of both Manchu and Ch'ing history.’

Source: Etudes Chinoises

' … The Ch'ing dynasty to 1800 has all it takes to become a standard reference work on early and mid-Qing history.'

Source: School of Oriental & African Studies

    • Aa
    • Aa
Refine List
Actions for selected content:
Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive
  • Send content to

    To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to .

    To send content to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

    Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

    Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

    Please be advised that item(s) you selected are not available.
    You are about to send:

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.
  • 1 - State Building before 1644
    pp 9-72
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    The military success in 1644 and the subsequent expansion of the Ch'ing empire were rooted in two centuries of Jurchen multilateral relationships with Koreans, Mongols, and Chinese in the Northeast. During the Ming dynasty, Chinese distinguished three groups of Jurchens: the Wild Jurchens, the Hai-hsi Jurchens, and the Chien-chou Jurchens. By 1500, sable was a main item of trade between the Jurchens and China and Korea, and its volume continued to increase. Hung Taiji tried to establish Chinese equality with Manchus. International trade continued as a monopoly of the eight banners. Banner missions went to northern Manchuria in search of sable and to Ming borders to buy Chinese goods. The organizational and conceptual foundations laid during Nurhaci and Hung Taiji's reigns allowed the Manchus to make the successful transition and take advantage of events in north China.
  • 2 - The Shun-chih Reign
    pp 73-119
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    The Shun-chih reign is poorly documented and understood period. This chapter describes the process of political and military consolidation and the integration of the Han Chinese scholar-official elite into it. The death of Hung Taiji on September 9, 1643, presented the young Ch'ing state with its first major political crisis. In a manifesto that circulated with the Ch'ing pacification commissioners in the lower Yangtze region, Ch'ing praised Dodo's troops for their discipline and appealed to the literati to remember the myriad souls of the people. The momentum of conquest seems to have kept the Manchus together, as it had under Hung Taiji, but the factional rifts grew deeper as Dorgon acted more and more like the emperor his brothers Ajige and Dodo had wanted him to be. Dorgon got tired of the campaign to prevent corruption and factional division within the Chinese bureaucracy. The anticorruption edict had specifically attacked the Ministry of Revenue for ignoring inequities in tax collection.
  • 3 - The K'ang-hsi Reign
    pp 120-182
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    This chapter introduces the political history of the K'ang-hsi reign under six broad topical headings. They are: the accession to power of the young emperor; his reunification of the realm; his consolidation of imperial borders; the factional politics of his reign; the major administrative and economic policies; and some reflections on the cultural life. In 1678, the K'ang-hsi Emperor began to try and rally the Han Chinese literati more firmly behind the Ch'ing dynasty. The boy Hsüan-yeh, third son of the Shun-chih Emperor, was named heir apparent to the imperial throne when he was seven years old. Much of the credit for unification must go to the K'ang-hsi Emperor, giving him, if not the aura of a Ch'in Shih-huang-ti or a Sui Wenti, at least that of a Han Kao-tsu or Sung T'ai-tsu. Domestic consolidation and frontier stability were intimately linked as aspects of politics in the K'ang-hsi Emperor's thinking.
  • 4 - The Yung-cheng Reign
    pp 183-229
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    Nien Keng-yao, a member of the Han-chün bordered yellow banner and a 1700 chin-shih, had already established himself as both an administrator and a military leader before the Yung-cheng reign. Tseng Ch'ing's impeachment, taken together with the writings of Lü Liuliang, posed a grave challenge to the Ch'ing mandate to rule and to the Yung-cheng emperor's legitimacy as sovereign. Secret palace memorials were the chief means by which the emperor developed bonds of trust between himself and certain officials. Yung-cheng saw being emperor as a duty entrusted to him by Heaven and he felt uniquely equipped for the job not simply because Heaven had singled him out as possessing virtue. Of all the policies pursued during the Yung-cheng reign, military actions initiated in the mid-1720s would have the most enduring impact on the future of the Ch'ing empire. Under the Yung-cheng emperor, a series of measures were taken which hastened the colonization of Taiwan and the displacement of native populations.
  • 5 - The Ch'ien-lung Reign
    pp 230-309
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    Ch'ien-lung was, first of all, the emperor who finally ended independent nomad power in central Asia, with his defeat of the Dzungars in the 1750s. The instability of the Ch'ien-lung court, as it appeared to shrewd Chinese officials by looking back after the emperor Ch'ien-lung's death, had to do with the ethnic elements in the monarchy's double identity. This chapter describes Ch'ien-lung's five wars in Sinkiang and Tibet, and the postwar political and social orders in those regions. Chu Yün, the Anhwei educational commissioner representative of the scholars' hopes for the construction of an imperial treasury of Confucian learning. In 1779, the Ch'ien-lung emperor used censorship not merely to repress dissent but to shape politics in slightly more benign ways. Political theorists of the Ch'ien-lung reign and its aftermath were concerned by the breakdown of communications between rulers and ruled in the empire.
  • 6 - The Conquest Elite of the Ch'ing Empire
    pp 310-359
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    The conquest elite of the earlier Ch'ing underwent marked changes as expansion transformed the geographical contours, cultural content, and political dynamics of the empire. Distributions of affiliation and status in the early decades of the Ch'ing conquest were based on the previous decades of state and imperial formation. The three khans of Khalkha, who had established close ties with the Ch'ingin the Hung Taiji reign, were willing in the early decades after the conquest of north China to have their territories incorporated into the empire. As with other groups who had been incorporated into the Ch'ing conquest elite and understood the opportunities, the leading lineages of the Three Feudatories, the Wu, Keng, and Shang families, attempted to exploit Ch'ing dependence. Many educated members of the conquest elite became in effect historians, translating the deeds of their predecessors and in many cases of themselves into chapters in the imperial narrative.
  • 7 - The Social Roles of Literati in Early to Mid-Ch'ing
    pp 360-427
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    This chapter presents an institutional and social analysis of the transformation of literati roles from 1650 to 1800, the early and mid-Ch'ing period. It describes the interactions between the examination marketplace and elite cultural practice. The chapter explores the rise of Han Learning and interest in natural studies, which shows importance of literati intellectual life in and outside the precincts of the Ch'ing state. Ch'ing examinations include policy questions dealing with the statecraft issues of fiscal policy, military organization, or political institutions of the day. Under the provincial education commissioners, three categories of Ming-Ch'ing local education officials were placed incharge of the schools. When the Ming dynasty came to power in 1368, the Han-lin Academy was a fully developed government institution. One factor that distinguished Ch'ing scholars from their Ming predecessors was the prominence of academies in forming a relatively autonomous intellectual community committed to evidential research.
  • 8 - Women, Families, and Gender Relations
    pp 428-472
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    This chapter traces the rising visibility of commoner households and the growth of extrafamilial networks of homosociability in early Ch'ing to 1800. It examines the impact of the Ch'ing conquest on women and gender relations, and stresses the ruptures that separate the late Ming and early Ch'ing periods. The chapter emphasizes overarching continuities especially those based on economic development that span the late Ming and early Ch'ing periods to shape gender relations. The science of women's medicine, begun in Sung times, had become a well-funded enterprise by the late Ming period. Both men and women in late Ming and Ch'ing China were being drawn into family relations and sojourning networks structured by economic relations, territorial expansion, and patterns of mobility that drew males and females apart. The chapter focuses on women's oppression that masked the importance of same-sex relations, of sojourning patterns, and of other historical changes.
  • 9 - Social Stability and Social Change
    pp 473-562
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    The early and mid-Ch'ing era was one of extraordinary social dynamism and, indeed, transformation. The single dominating fact of early and mid-Ch'ing social history is population growth. This chapter explores division of geographic mobility into two varieties: permanent migration for resettlement, and relocation conceived by the party as a temporary sojourn. Hunan's early Ch'ing commercial boom led to far more pronounced social stratification, but tremendous payoffs for the most fortunate, reflected in a greatly increased incidence of examination success. An area reflecting social change was family and kinship. One of the vital arenas of social change in this era was in the empire's thousands of cities and towns. Early Ch'ing commercial prosperity in Kiangnan led to the rapid spread of largely urban plague-god cults, such as that of Marshall Wen, which had existed for centuries in Wenchou, Chekiang. The society that emerged from the mid-Ch'ing period was irreversibly different from what had entered the period.
  • 10 - Economic Developments, 1644–1800
    pp 563-646
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    This chapter describes significant economic developments before 1800 and explains why they occurred. According to Chinese historians, embryonic capitalism appeared several centuries later in China than in Europe, but they were weak, and had atrophied by the 1800s. The chapter elucidates how state and private economic organizations, operating under new institutions or rules, reduced the economy's transformation and transaction costs. Recognizing that excessively taxing China's depressed and fragmented economy, the Ch'ing government tried to coordinate tax collection under central government control and disburse funds to lower administrations without imposing higher taxes. The Ch'ing government was committed to building an ideal Confucian society based on the rural way of life, in which peace, social harmony, and minimal prosperity would reign. The Chinese people responded to the Ch'ing reforms and the incentives and positive externalities that followed by organizing their households, lineages, and communities in ways that promoted growth.

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

EvelynS. Rawski The last emperors: A social history of Qing imperial institutions. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998.

John. Herman Empire in the southwest: Early Qing reforms to the native chieftain system.” Journal of Asian Studies, 56, No. 1 (February 1997), pp. 47–74.

Mark. Elvin Female virtue and the state in China.Past and Present, 104 (August 1984), pp. 111–52.

Timothy. Brook Funerary ritual and the building of lineages in late imperial China.” Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, 49, No. 2 (December 1989), pp. 465–99.

Kai-wing. Chow Writing for success: Printing, examinations, and intellectual change in late Ming China.” Late Imperial China, 17, No. I (June 1996), pp. 120–57.

Thomas. Buoye Manslaughter, markets, and moral economy: violent disputes over property rights during the Qianlong reign. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000.

Mio. Kishimoto-Nakayama The Kangxi depression and early Qing local markets.” Modern China, 10, No. 2 (April 1984), pp. 227–56.

Steven. Averill The shed people and the opening of the Yangzi highlands.” Modern China, 9, No. I (January 1983).

Limin. Bai Mathematical study and intellectual transition in the early and mid-Qing.” Late Imperial China, 16, No. 2 (December 1995), pp. 23–61.

JamesA. Benn Where text meets flesh: Burning the body as an apocryphal practice in Chinese Buddhism.” History of Religions, 37, No. 4 (May 1998).

Cynthia Brokaw , “Commercial publishing in late imperial China: The Zou and Ma family businesses of Sibao, Fujian,” Late imperial China, 17, No. 1 (June 1996).

Cynthia Brokaw , The ledgers of merit and demerit: Social change and moral order in late imperial China (Princeton, 1991).

Thomas. Buoye From patrimony to commodity: Changing concepts of land and social conflict in Guangdong province during the Qianlong reign (1736–1795).” Late Imperial China, 14, No. 2 (December 1993).

Katherine. Carlitz Shrines, governing-class identity, and the cult of widow fidelity in mid-Ming Jiangnan.” Journal of Asian Studies, 56, No. 3 (1997).

John. Chaffee Chu Hsi and the revival of the White Deer Grotto Academy, 1179–81.” T'oung Pao, 71 (1985), pp. 40–62.

Te-ch'ang. Chang The economic role of the imperial household (Nei-wu-fu) in the Ch'ing dynasty.” Journal of Asian Studies, 31, No. 2 (February 1972), pp. 243–73.

PamelaKyle. Crossley An introduction to the Qing foundation myth.” Late Imperial China, 6, No. I (December 1985).

PamelaKyle. Crossley Manzhou yuanliu kao and the formalization of the Manchu heritage.” Journal of Asian Studies, 46, No. 4 (November 1987), pp. 761–90.

PamelaKyle. Crossley The Qianlong retrospect on the Chinese-martial (hanjun) Banners.Late Imperial China, 10, No. 1 (June 1989), pp. 63–107.

PamelaKyle. Crossley Thinking about ethnicity in early modern China.Late Imperial China, 11, No. 1 (June 1990).

Christopher Cullen and Anne Farrer . “On the term hsüan chi and the flanged trilobate discs.Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 46, No. 1 (1983), pp. 52–76.

MarkC. Elliott Bannerman and townsman: Ethnic tension in nineteenth-century Jiangnan.Late Imperial China, 11, No. 1 (June 1990), pp. 36–74.

BenjaminA. Elman Imperial politics and Confucian societies in late imperial China: The Hanlin and Donglin academies.Modern China, 15, No. 4 (1989), pp. 379–418.

BenjaminA. Elman Where is King Ch'eng? Civil examinations and Confucian ideology during the early Ming, 1368–1415.T'oung Pao, 79 (1993), pp. 23–68.

JohnK. Fairbank and Teng Ssu-yü . “On the Ch'ing tributary system.Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, 6 (1941), pp. 107–218.

Chao-ying. Fang A technique for estimating the numerical strength of the early Manchu military forces.Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, 13 (1950), pp. 192–215.

DavidM. Farquhar Emperor as bodhisattva in the governance of the Ch'ing empire.Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, 38, No. 1 (June 1978), pp. 5–34.

R. Fox Scientific enterprise and the patronage of research in France, 1800–1870.” Minerva, 11 (1973), pp. 442–73.

Walter. Fuchs Der Tod der Kaiserin Abahai i. J. 1626. Ein Beitrag zur Frage des Opfertodes bei den Mandju.” Monumenta Serica, 1, Fasc. 1 (1935), pp. 71–80.

Robyn. Hamilton The pursuit of fame: Luo Qilan (1775–1813?) and the debates about women and talent in eighteenth-century Jiangnan.” Late Imperial China, 18, No. 1 (June 1997), pp. 39–71.

Patrick. Hanan The invention of Li Yü. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1988.

John. Henderson Ch'ing scholars’ views of Western astronomy.” Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, 46, No. 1 (1986), pp. 121–48.

John. Henderson Scripture, canon, and commentary: A comparison of Confucian and Western exegesis. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1991.

Ping-ti Ho , “In defense of sinicization: A rebuttal of Evelyn Rawski's ‘Reenvisioning the Qing.’” Journal of Asian Studies, 57, No. I (February 1998), pp. 123–55.

Ping-ti Ho , “The introduction of American food plants to China.” American Anthropologist, 57, No. 2 (1955), pp. 191–201.

Ping-ti Ho , “The salt merchants of Yang-chou: A study of commercial capitalism in eighteenth-century China,” Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, 17 (1954) 68.

Ping-ti Ho , “The significance of the Ch'ing period in Chinese history.” Journal of Asian Studies, 26, No. 2 (February 1967), pp. 189–95.

Ping-ti Ho , Studies on the population of China, 1368–1953. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1959.

Wann-sheng. Horng Chinese mathematics at the turn of the 19th century.” In Philosophy and conceptual history of science in Taiwan, ed. Lin Cheng-hung and Fu Daiwie. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic, 1993, pp. 167–208.

AngelaN. S. Hsi Wu San-kuei in 1644: A reappraisal.” Journal of Asian Studies, 34, No. 2 (February 1975), pp. 443–53.

Chin-shing. Huang Philosophy, philology, and politics in eighteenth-century China. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995.

Theodore. Huters From writting to literature: The development of late Qing theories of prose.” Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, 47, No. I (June 1987), pp. 51–96.

HaroldL. Kahn Monarchy in the emperor's eyes: Image and reality in the Ch'ien-lung reign. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1971.

DavidE. Kelley Temples and tribute fleets: The Luo sect and boatmen's associations in the eighteenth century.” Modern China, 8, No. 3 (July 1982). pp. 361–91.

LawrenceD. Kessler Ethnic composition of provincial leadership during the Ch'ing dynasty.” Journal of Asian Studies, 28 (1969), pp. 489–511.

NormanA. Kutcher The fifth relationship: Dangerous friendships in the Confucian context.” American Historical Review, 105, No. 5 (December 2000), pp. 1615–29.

NormanA. Kutcher Mourning in late imperial culture: Filial piety and the state. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999.

TruongBuu Lam , “Intervention versus tribute in Sino-Vietnamese relations, 1788–1790,” in JohnKing Fairbank , ed., The Chinese world order: Traditional China's foreign relations (Cambridge, Mass., 1968) 79.

William Lavely , and R.Bin Wong . “Revising the Malthusian narrative: The comparative study of population dynamics in late imperial China.” Journal of Asian Studies, 57, No. 3 (August 1998), pp. 714–48.

Edmund. Leach The frontiers of ‘Burma.’Comparative Studies in Society and History, 3 (1960), pp. 49–67.

James Lee (See also Li Chung-ch'ing ). “Food supply and population growth in south-west China, 1250–1850.” Journal of Asian Studies, 41, No. 4 (August 1982), pp. 711–46.

James Lee and Cameron Campbell , Fate and fortune in rural China: Social organization and population behavior in Liaoning, 1774–1873 (Cambridge, 1997), ch. 3.

James Lee , Wang Feng , and Cameron Campbell . “Infant and child mortality among the Qing nobility: Implications for two types of positive check.” Population Studies, 48, No. 3 (November 1994), pp. 395–411.

RobertH. G. Lee The Manchurian frontier in Ch'ing history. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1970.

Angela Ki Che. Leung Organized medicine in Ming-Qing China: State and private medical institutions in the lower Yangzi region.” Late Imperial China, 8, No. 1 (1987), pp. 134–66.

Angela Ki Che. Leung To chasten society: The development of widow homes in the Qing, 1773–1911.” Late Imperial China, 14, No. 2 (December 1993), pp. 1–32.

Wen-chih. Li Lun Ch'ing-tai Ya-p'ien chan ch'ien ti-chia ho kou-mai-nien.” Chung-kuo she-hui ching-chi shih yen-chiu, 2 (1989), pp. 1–12.

LillianM. Li , and Alison Dray-Novey . “Guarding Beijing's food security in the Qing dynasty: state, market, and police.” Journal of Asian Studies, 58, No. 4 (November 1999), pp. 992–1032.

ThomasShiyu Li , and Susan Naquin . “The Baoming temple: religion and the throne in Ming and Qing China.” Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, 48, No. 1 (1988), pp. 131–88.

Ch'i-ch'ao. Liang Intellectual trends in the Ch'ing period, trans. Immanuel Hsü. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1959.

Ts'ui-jung Liu , and C. H.Fei. John An analysis of the land tax burden in China, 1650–1865.” Journal of Economic History, 37, No. 2 (June 1977), pp. 359–81.

Weijing. Lu Uxorilocal marriage among Qing literati.” Late Imperial China, 19, No. 2 (December 1998), pp. 64–110.

Adam Yuen-chung. Lui The education of the Manchus: China's ruling race (1644–1911).” Journal of Asian and African Studies, 6, No. 2 (1971), pp. 125–33.

Adam Yuen-chung. Lui Syllabus of the provincial examination (hsiang-shih) under the early Ch'ing (1644–1795).” Modern Asian Studies, 8, No. 3 (1974), pp. 391–96.

Mark. Mancall The Ch'ing tribute system. An interpretive essay.The Chinese world order: Traditional China's foreign relations, ed. JohnKing Fairbank. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1968, pp. 63–89.

Susan. Mann Grooming a daughter for marriage.Marriage and inequality in Chinese society, ed. RubieS. Watson and PatriciaB. Ebrey. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1991, pp. 204–30.

Susan. Mann Widows in the kinship, class, and community structures of Qing dynasty China.“ Journal of Asian Studies, 46, No. I (February 1987), pp. 37–56.

RobertB. Marks Rice prices, food supply, and market structure in eighteenth-century south China.” Late Imperial China, 12, No. 2 (December 1991), pp. 64–116.

RobertB. Marks Tigers, rice, silk, and silt: Environment and economy in late imperial South China. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998.

JosephP. McDermott Bondservants in the T'ai-hu basin during the late Ming: A case of mistaken identities.” Journal of Asian Studies, 40, No. 4 (August 1981), pp. 675–701.

ThomasA. Metzger Some ancient roots of modern Chinese thought: This-worldliness, epistemological optimism, doctrinality, and the emergence of reflexivity in the eastern Chou.” Early China, 11, 12 (1985, 1987), pp. 61–117.

JamesA. Millward A Uyghur Muslim in Qianlong's court: The meanings of the fragrant concubine.” Journal of Asian Studies 53, No. 2 (May 1994), pp. 147–58.

Susan. Naquin Connections between rebellions: Sect family networks in Qing China.” Modern China, 8, No. 3 (July 1982), pp. 337–60.

VivienW. Ng Ideology and sexuality: Rape laws in Qing China.” Journal of Asian Studies, 46, No. 1 (February 1987), pp. 57–70.

DouglassC. North Epilogue: Economic performance through time.” In Empirical studies in institutional change, ed. J.Alston Lee , Thrain Eggertsson , and DouglassC. North. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996, pp. 342–55.

Anne. Osborne The local politics of land reclamation in the lower Yangzi highlands.” Late Imperial China, 15, No. 1 (June 1994), pp. 1–46.

MichaelJ. E. Palmer The surface-subsoil form of divided ownership in late imperial China: Some examples from the New Territories of Hong Kong.” Modern Asian Studies, 21, No. 1 (1987), pp. 1–119.

NancyE. Park Corruption in eighteenth-century China.” Journal of Asian Studies, 56, 4 (November 1997), pp. 967–1005.

PeterC. Perdue Insiders and outsiders: The Xiangtan riot of 1819 and collective action in Hunan.Modern China, 12, No. 2 (April 1986), pp. 166–201.

PeterC. Perdue Military mobilization in seventeenth and eighteenth-century China, Russia, and Mongolia.Modern Asian Studies, 30, No. 4 (October 1996), pp. 757–93.

PeterC. Perdue , “Official goals and local interests.Journal of Asian Studies, 41, No. 4 (August 1982), pp. 747–65.

WillardJ. Peterson The life of Ku Yen-wu (1613–1682).” Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, 28 (1968), Part I, pp. 114–56.

MaryBackus. Rankin Managed by the people: Officials, gentry, and the Foshan charitable granary, 1795–1845.Late Imperial China, 15, No. 2 (December 1994), pp. 1–52.

EvelynS. Rawski Agricultural change and the peasant economy of south China. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1972.

EvelynS. Rawski Ch'ing imperial marriage and problems of rulership.” In Marriage and inequality in Chinese society, ed. Rubie S. Watson and Patricia Buckley Ebrey. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1991, pp. 170–203.

EvelynS. Rawski Presidential address: Reenvisioning the Qing: The significance of the Qing period in Chinese history.Journal of Asian Studies, 55, No. 4 (November 1996), pp. 829–50.

BradlyW. Reed Money and justice: Clerks, runners, and the magistrate's court in late imperial Sichuan.Modern China, 21, No. 3 (July 1995), pp. 345–82.

PaulS. Ropp The seeds of change: Reflections on the condition of women in the early and mid Ch'ing.” Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 2, No. 1 (1976), pp. 5–23.

WilliamT. Rowe Ancestral rites and political authority in late imperial China.” Modern China, 24, No. 4 (October 1998), pp. 378–407.

P.Steven. Sangren Traditional Chinese corporations: Beyond kinship.” Journal of Asian Studies, 43, No. 3 (May 1984), pp. 391–415.

G.William. Skinner Marketing and social structure in rural China.” Part Two. Journal of Asian Studies, 24, No. 2 (1965), pp. 195–228.

G.William. Skinner Mobility strategies in late imperial China: A regional systems analysis.” In Economic systems. Vol. I of Regional analysis, ed. A.Smith. Carol . 2 Vols. New York: Academic Press, 1976, pp. 327–64.

G.William. Skinner Presidential address: The structure of Chinese history.” Journal of Asian Studies, 44, No. 2 (February 1985), pp. 278–81.

G.William. Skinner Sichuan's population in the nineteenth century: Lessons from disaggregated data.” Late Imperial China, 7, No. 2 (December 1986), pp. 1–79.

JoannaHandlin. Smith Benevolent societies: The reshaping of charity during the late Ming and early Ch'ing.” Journal of Asian Studies, 46, No. 2 (May 1987), pp. 309–37.

MatthewH. Sommer The uses of chastity: Sex, law, and the property of widows in Qing China.” Late Imperial China, 17, No. 2 (1996), pp. 77–130.

E-tuZen. Sun Ch'ing government and the mineral industries before 1800.” Journal of Asian Studies, 27, No. 4 (1968), pp. 835–45.

Michael. Szonyi The cult of Hu Tianbao and the eighteenth-century discourse of homosexuality.” Late Imperial China, 19, No. I (June 1998), pp. 1–25.

Chih-chün T'ang and BenjaminA. Elman . “The 1898 reforms revisited.” Late Imperial China, 8, No. I (June 1987), pp. 205–13.

TedA. Telford Covariates of men's age at first marriage: The historical demography of Chinese lineages.” Population Studies, 46 (1992), pp. 19–35.

HansUlrich. Vogel Chinese central monetary policy, 1644–1800.” Late Imperial China, 8, No. 2 (December 1987), pp. 1–52.

Sophie. Volpp Silent operas.” Positions: East Asia Cultures Critique, 2, No. 1 (Spring 1994), pp. 113–32.

Richard. von Glahn The enchantment of wealth: The god Wutong in the social history of Jiangnan.” Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, 51, No. 2 (1991), pp. 651–714.

Frederic Wakeman Jr.China and the seventeenth-century crisis.” Late Imperial China, 7, No. 1 (June 1986), pp. 1–26.

Joanna. Waley-Cohen Commemorating war in eighteenth-century China.” Modern Asian Studies, 30, No. 4 (October 1996), pp. 869–99.

Joanna Waley-Cohen , “Religion, war, and empire-building in eighteenth-century China,” The International History Review, 20, No. 2 (June 1998) 52.

Ann. Waltner On not becoming a heroine: Lin Dai-yu and Cui Ying-ying.” Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 15, No. 1 (Autumn 1989), pp. 61–78.

Mingming. Wang Place, administration, and territorial cults in late imperial China: A case study from south Fujian.” Late Imperial China, 16, No. 1 (June 1995), pp. 33–78.

Yeh-chien. Wang Food supply in eighteenth-century Fukien.” Late Imperial China, 7, No. 2 (December 1986), pp. 80–117.

Yeh-chien. Wang Land taxation in imperial China, 1750–1911. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1973.

JamesL. Watson Hereditary tenancy and corporate landlordism in traditional China: A case study.” Modern Asian Studies, 11, No. 2 (1977), pp. 161–82.

RubieS. Watson The creation of a Chinese lineage: The Teng of Ha Tsuen, 1669–1751.” Modern Asian Studies, 16, No. 1 (1982), pp. 69–100.

RubieS. Watson , and PatricialBuckley Ebrey , eds. Marriage and inequality in Chinese society. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1991.

Ellen. Widmer The Huanduzhai of Hangzhou and Suzhou: A study in seventeenth-century publishing.” Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, 56, No. 1 (1996), pp. 77–122.

MiChu. Wiens Lord and peasant: The sixteenth to the eighteenth century.” Modern China, 6, No. 1 (January 1980), pp. 3–39.

Hellmut. Wilhelm The Po-hsüeh hung-ju examination of 1679.” Journal of the American Oriental Society, 71 (1951), pp. 60–76.

Pierre-Étienne. Will Développement quantitatif et développement qualitatif en Chine à la fin de l'epoque imperial.” Annales: Histoire, sciences sociales 49, No. 4 (1994), pp. 863–902.

R.Bin. Wong Food riots in the Qing dynasty.” Journal of Asian Studies, 41, No. 4 (August 1982), pp. 767–88.

R.Bin. Wong , and PeterC. Perdue . “Famine's foes in Ch'ing China.” Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, 43, No. I (1983), pp. 291–332.

Alexander. Woodside Some mid-Qing theorists of popular schools.Modern China, 9, No. I (January 1983), pp. 3–35.

Silas. Wu Communication and imperial control in China: Evolution of the palace memorial system, 1693–1735. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1970.

Silas. Wu Passage to power: K'ang-hsi and his heir apparent, 1661–1722. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1979.

Madeleine Zelin . “Capital accumulation and investment strategies in early modern China: The case of the Furong salt yard.” Late Imperial China, 9, No. 1 (1988), pp. 79–122.


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 2541 *
Loading metrics...

Book summary page views

Total views: 671 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 25th May 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.