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The Cambridge History of South Africa

Book description

This book surveys South African history from the discovery of gold in the Witwatersrand in the late nineteenth century to the first democratic elections in 1994. Written by many of the leading historians of the country, it pulls together four decades of scholarship to present a detailed overview of South Africa during the twentieth century. It covers political, economic, social and intellectual developments and their interconnections in a clear and objective manner. This book, the second of two volumes, represents an important reassessment of all the major historical events, developments and records of South Africa and will be an important new tool for students and professors of African history worldwide, as well as the basis for further development and research.

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  • 1 - South Africa and South Africans: Nationality, Belonging, Citizenship
    pp 17-65
  • View abstract
    Over the past two decades, many South African historians have been absorbed in analysing problems associated with nationalism, race, and identity formation. Questions about the process of national imagining have transformed our understanding of nationalism and ethnic identity, especially in relation to Africans and Afrikaners. Given the stress on nation building in contemporary South Africa, and on issues of citizenship, race, belonging, and entitlement, there is a need to explore such questions historically. This chapter focuses on problems of collective identity to explain how was South Africa conceived, and imagined, how did ideas about South Africans and South African societies develop and change, and how has the South African problem been defined over time. In the post-apartheid South Africa, the citizenship became the basis of social claims on the South African state, ranging from pensions and welfare provision to housing, electricity, and clean water.
  • 3 - Class, Culture, and Consciousness in South Africa, 1880–1899
    pp 102-156
    • By Shula Marks, School of Oriental and African Studies, London
  • View abstract
    The mineral discoveries that launched its industrial revolution between the late 1860s and the end of the 1890s were crucial in the shaping of modern South Africa and the peculiarities of its social order. By the turn of the 19th century, intense social, economic and political transformations had led to the emergence of new forms of culture and consciousness, partly reflected in new notions of race, gender and class. Everywhere, colonial and colonised subjects were actively engaged in complex cultural choices, although some had more choice than others. National and cultural identities were infused by the class and racial consciousness of white labourism, in which hostility to capitalist exploitation and racism were inextricably intermingled. Proimperialists as well as imperial officials, subsumed employers, employees, trades union organisers, producers, consumers and suppliers in the blanket description South African British.
  • 4 - War and Union, 1899–1910
    pp 157-210
    • By Shula Marks, School of Oriental and African Studies, London
  • View abstract
    The conflict that broke out on 10 October 1899, with the expiry of President Kruger's ultimatum to the British government, was South Africa's 'Great War'. South African union, on the imperial agenda since the failure of confederation in the1870s, was born in its ashes. If, at one level, it was a war about colonial self-determination, at another, it was also a war for the survival of a settler society, and about the credibility and international reputation of the British Empire, raising major moral issues of global importance. One of the most striking features of the war was the bitter hostility displayed by Afrikaner women toward the British forces. As demoralised and disheartened male combatants left the front line, placing the need for farmland families before the defence of the state, many militant women came to espouse an explicitly nationalist and republican rhetoric.
  • 5 - South Africa: The Union Years, 1910–1948 – Political and Economic Foundations
    pp 211-253
  • View abstract
    The Union of South Africa came into being with the opening of Parliament in November 1910, following a lengthy period of negotiation between the four self-governing British colonies in southern Africa. This chapter considers that what ensued after 1910 was an attempt to establish a hegemonic order in South Africa. The goal was the construction of a society based on shared assumptions and mediated conflicts contained in a legal and political order that could endure. The economic development of southern Africa in the previous generation had been explosive but also extremely uneven. After 1910, there was a consistent movement toward creating a political and social order systematically based on racial segregation. During the years of the Second World War and after, the government shifted toward looking at the possibility of closer economic relations within Africa that would harmonise with the rapid industrialisation of South Africa.
  • 6 - South African Society and Culture, 1910–1948
    pp 254-318
  • View abstract
    The South African Union facilitated the prosecution of two complementary and closely related programmes, the upliftment of poor whites and the subjugation of Africans. This chapter discusses the two themes, poor whites and poor blacks, together. The year 1920 witnessed the birth of the distinctive culture of marabi in Johannesburg, and the 1920 Vrededorp riots in which poor whites attacked poor blacks. The Natives' Land Act of 1913 created the framework for segregation and hence as one of the first fruits of Union. But it fell well short of imposing a common 'native policy' for South Africa. In the years around Union, many Afrikaners began to stream into towns that had previously been seen as foreign. Most of the major and many of the lesser towns of South Africa began to spawn teeming slum communities in the years before and after Union.
  • 7 - The Apartheid Project, 1948–1970
    pp 319-368
  • View abstract
    Apartheid originated as a label for the system of institutionalised racism and racial social engineering inaugurated by the National Party after its election victory in 1948. But the term has since been appropriated as a global signifier of racialised separation, inhumanity and exploitation. This chapter focuses on the singular aspects of apartheid along with the more generically modern and/or colonial facets of the project, and identifies the historical conditions, nationally and internationally, that made apartheid possible. It also locates the mix of vision and blunder, principle and pragmatism, that marked the apartheid project during its first two phases. The chapter summarises the central imperatives that enabled and constrained the apartheid project throughout the 1950s and 1960s. It identifies key constitutive elements of the apartheid project, and reviews the impact and limits of the central exercise in social and economic engineering.
  • 8 - Popular Responses to Apartheid: 1948–c. 1975
    pp 369-408
  • View abstract
    This chapter maps the contours of the social history of the first two decades of life under apartheid. It addresses the issues of how did the people most affected by apartheid respond to the implementation of government measures between 1949 and the early 1970s, and what informed people's opposition, silences and acquiescence at different moments across the country. The chapter begins by mapping out a decade of mass protest against the first wave of apartheid laws. Then, it explains the quiescence that followed the banning of African nationalist organisations such as the African National Congress in 1960, and the burden of coping with the intensified apartheid controls that followed. Thereafter, the chapter identifies some of the ambivalence in responses to the various stages of Bantustan (homeland self-government) creation in the 1960s and charts the emergence of the Black Consciousness Movement in the early 1970s.
  • 9 - Resistance and Reform, 1973–1994
    pp 409-491
  • View abstract
    Between 1973 and 1994, a succession of protests and rebellions transfigured South African political life. This chapter discusses the strike of the Coronation Brick and Tile Works labourers in January 1973. It also deals with the school children's movement of June 1976 which went on to become one of the most South Africa's massive insurrectionary movements. The African National Congress's success in reconstructing its political following inside South Africa was to be a consequence of the effectiveness of its 'armed propaganda'. The United Democratic Front's explosive energy was partly attributable to structural developments, embodied by the combined forces of inflation and unemployment. After the release of Nelson Mandela in February 1990, South Africans negotiated a political settlement that would establish a constitutional liberal democracy. A schematic explanation of the success of the democratic transition is also presented.
  • 10 - The Evolution of the South African Population in the Twentieth Century
    pp 492-517
  • View abstract
    Censuses covering South Africa and population were taken in 1911, 1936, 1951, 1960, 1970 and 1996. This chapter analyses some of the data resulting from the population survey in terms of immigration, marital status, educational attainment, labour-market status, and inequality rate. The growth of White immigration between 1936 and 1985 was 24 percent, whereas the Asian immigration was limited after 1913. The singulate mean age at marriage (SMAM) for whites was highest in 1911 and lowest in 1960. Whites born in 1885 achieved eight years of schooling, whereas others achieved less than two years of schooling. Female participation among the labour force was greatest among coloureds in 1921; Asian women's participation increased sharply after 1970. The average income per head of the white population in 1941-1942 was about GBP125 per annum; that of coloureds, GBP25 per annum; and that of Africans, GBP10.
  • 11 - The Economy and Poverty in the Twentieth Century
    pp 518-572
  • View abstract
    South Africa adopted many policies and built institutions similar to those in Australia and elsewhere in the industrialising world: extensive intervention of modern state in the economy, and labour-market institutions protecting the incomes of deserving citizens. Many of the institutional and structural features that shaped the economic growth path under apartheid continued after apartheid, explaining the persistence of inequality and poverty into the twenty-first century. This chapter analyses three periods of South African economic history in the twentieth century. The first period, from Union in 1910 until 1932, was characterised both by economic stagnation and by an extraordinary building of state institutions to intervene in the economy. The second period, from 1933 to about 1945, saw rapid growth and structural change. Strong growth continued into the third, 'apartheid' period, at least until the1970s. Growth faltered in the 1970s and stagnated in the 1980s.
  • 12 - Modernity, Culture, and Nation
    pp 573-599
  • View abstract
    Many of the works of South African artists were either ignored, consciously marginalised or proscribed at different times under apartheid. Until the late twentieth century, the major divide in the arts was racial: black creative arts were not produced under the same conditions and experienced audiences and reception responses that were generally different from colonial writing, painting, and performance activities. Selecting a finite set of themes such as performing arts, visual arts, apartheid theatre, alternative theatre, and postcolonial writing, this chapter explores the links among modernity, culture and nation in the broad field of cultural production in South Africa over the long twentieth century. The racy journalism of Drum's Sophiatown writers and the sophisticated lives they led in the city were the antithesis of the uniform bleakness of African life as represented in Cry the Beloved Country.
  • 13 - Environment, Heritage, Resistance, and Health: Newer Historiographical Directions
    pp 600-624
  • View abstract
    The rethinking of approaches to the understanding of both pre-1994 and post-1994 South African society continues, and in this initial post-apartheid phase, scholars have been inserting new explanatory perspectives or empirical information into a complex story. This chapter considers four significant thematic areas with which South Africa's historians have been engaging particularly since the 1990s. These are the issues of the environment, of heritage and history, of later anti-apartheid resistance, or what has also come to be known as struggle history, and the history of health. As a distinct trajectory of South African history, environmental history represents a recent development. The end of apartheid has helped to redirect the attention of some radical social historians toward fresher pastures, in a sense prompting a shift in orientation from red to green. Research has generally reflected the role of the environment in shaping the country's social, political and economic history.
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Wilson, FrancisRamphele, MamphelaUprooting poverty: the South African challengeCape TownDavid Philip 1989
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Witz, L.Apartheid's festival: contesting South Africa's national pastsCape TownDavid Philip 2003
Witz, L.‘Eventless history at the end of apartheid: the making of the Dias Festival’Kronos 32 2006 162
Witz, L.‘From Langa Market Hall and Rhodes Estate to the Grand Parade and the Foreshore: contesting Van Riebeeck's Cape Town’Kronos 25 1999 187
Wolpe, Anne MarieThe long way homeLondonVirago 1994
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Unpublished papers
Alexander, Peter 2006
Comaroff, J. 2003
Guy, Jeff 1997
Odendaal, André 2002
Schneider, Ben Ross 2008
Simkins, Charles
South African Communist Party 1986
Suttner, Raymond 1986
Interviews and websites
Battersby, John 1988