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A History of South Sudan
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Book description

South Sudan is the world's youngest independent country. Established in 2011 after two wars, South Sudan has since reverted to a state of devastating civil strife. This book provides a general history of the new country, from the arrival of Turco-Egyptian explorers in Upper Nile, the turbulence of the Mahdist revolutionary period, the chaos of the 'Scramble for Africa', during which the South was prey to European and African adventurers and empire builders, to the Anglo-Egyptian colonial era. Special attention is paid to the period since Sudanese independence in 1956, when Southern disaffection grew into outright war, from the 1960s to 1972, and from 1983 until the Comprehensive Peace of 2005, and to the transition to South Sudan's independence. The book concludes with coverage of events since then, which since December 2013 have assumed the character of civil war, and with insights into what the future might hold.

Reviews

‘This badly-needed book is essential to understanding Africa's newest state – and one of its most troubled.'

Christopher Clapham - University of Cambridge

'South Sudan holds in the global imagination a reputation as a violent place, a state that began to break down practically from the moment of its independence in 2011. A History of South Sudan: From Slavery to Independence is the first book to offer a comprehensive overview of South Sudan's contemporary predicament and its relationship to a history of oppressive authoritarian rule. The product of a fruitful collaboration between the dean of historical studies of the Sudan region and a specialist in its histories of violence and its current affairs, this incisive volume explains how South Sudan came into being. The authors provide a grounded understanding of how the new country's leaders replicate the historical patterns of oppression that independence was meant to end. … This provocative and compelling book is sure to stir debate. It also is essential reading for anyone who wants to understand how this and other states break down and the challenges of negotiating peace in very difficult contexts.'

William Reno - Northwestern University, Illinois

'This is an important book because it provides a new look at how South Sudan emerged as political and administrative entity and why it separated from Sudan. It will be of interest to students of history at universities and may be one of the important history reference books of the new country.'

Luka Kuol - Director, Centre for Peace and Development Studies, University of Juba, South Sudan

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Contents

Bibliographical essay
Hill, R. L., A Bibliography of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan from the Earliest Time to 1937 (Oxford, 1939)
Nasri, Abdel Rahman el, A Bibliography of the Sudan, 1938–1958 (London, 1962)
Tvedt, Terje et al., An Annotated Bibliography on the Southern Sudan, 1850–2000 (Bergen, 2000)
Barbour, K. M., The Republic of the Sudan: A Regional Geography (London, 1961)
Tothill, J. D. (ed.), Agriculture in the Sudan (London, 1949)
A Biographical Dictionary of the Sudan, edn (London, 1967)
Holt, P. M. and Daly, M. W., A History of the Sudan, edn (London, 2010)
Santandrea, S., A Tribal History of the Western Bahr El Ghazal (Bologna, 1962)
The Luo of the Bahr El Ghazal Sudan (Verona, 1968)
Ethno-Geography of the Bahr El Ghazal Sudan (Bologna, 1981)
A Popular History of Wau (Rome, 1977)
Baxter, P. T. W. and Butt, A., The Azande and Related Peoples of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan and Belgian Congo (London, 1953)
Butt, A., The Nilotes of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan and Uganda (London, 1952)
Buxton, J. C., Chiefs and Strangers: A Study of Political Assimilation among the Mandari (Oxford, 1963)
James, Wendy, Kwanim Pa: The Making of the Uduk People (Oxford, 1979)
Burton, John W., A Nilotic World: The Atuot Speaking Peoples of the Southern Sudan (New York, 1987)
Johnson, Douglas H., Nuer Prophets: A History of Prophecy from the Upper Nile in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries (Oxford, 1994)
Lewis, B. A., The Murle: Red Chiefs and Black Commoners (Oxford, 1972)
Divinity and Experience: The Religion of the Dinka (Oxford, 1961)
Beidelman, E. E. and Evans-Pritchard, T. O., A Bibliography of the Writings of E. E. Evans-Pritchard (London, 1974)
Leonardi, Cherry, Dealing with Government in South Sudan: Histories of Chiefship, Community and State (Martlesham, 2013)
Simonse, Simon, Kings of Disaster: Dualism, Centralism and the Scapegoat-King in Southeastern Sudan (Leiden, 1992)
Hill, Richard's Egypt in the Sudan 1820–1881 (London, 1959)
Gray, Richard, A History of the Southern Sudan 1839–1889 (London, 1961)
Sabry, M., Le Soudan Egyptien (1821–1898), (Cairo, 1947)
Moore-Harell, Alice, Egypt's African Empire (Brighton, 2014)
O'Fahey, R. S., “Slavery and the Slave Trade in Dar Fur,” Journal of African History, xiv (1973), 29–43
Cordell, Dennis D., Dar al-Kuti and the Last Years of the Trans-Saharan Slave Trade (Madison, 1985)
Ali, Ibrahim Muhammad Abbas, The British, the Slave Trade, and Slavery in the Sudan 1820–1881 (Khartoum, 1972)
Johnson, D. H., “Sudanese Military Slavery from the Eighteenth to the Twentieth Century,” in Archer, L. (ed.), Slavery and Other Forms of Unfree Labour (London, 1988)
Savage, E. (ed.), The Human Commodity: Perspectives on the Trans-Saharan Slave Trade (London, 1992)
Douin, G., Histoire du regne du Khedive Ismail, l'Empire African, 3 vols. (Cairo, 1936–41)
Hill, G. Birkbeck (ed.), Colonel Gordon in Central Africa, 1874–1879 (London, 1881)
Shukry, M. F. (ed.), Equatoria under Egyptian Rule (Cairo, 1953)
Jackson, H. C., Black Ivory (Oxford, 1913)
Holt, P. M., The Mahdist State in the Sudan, 1881–1898, edn (Oxford, 1970)
Collins, R. O., The Southern Sudan, 1883–1898, A Struggle for Control (New Haven, 1962)
Beltrame, G., Fiume bianco nell'Africa Centrale (Verona, 1864)
Schweinfurth, G., The Heart of Africa, 2 vols. (London, 1874)
Werne, Ferdinand, Expedition to Discover the Sources of the White Nile in the Years 1840–1841, 2 vols. (London, 1849)
Petherick, John, Egypt, the Soudan, and Central Africa (Edinburgh and London, 1861)
Petherick, J. and Petherick, J. H., Travels in Central Africa and Explorations of the Western Nile Tributaries, 2 vols. (London, 1869)
Baker, Samuel W., Ismailia (London, 1874)
The Nile Tributaries of Abyssinia (London, 1874)
The Albert N'yanza (London, 1877)
Gessi, Romolo (Felix Gessi ed.), Seven Years in the Soudan (London, 1892)
Casati, Gaetano, Ten Years in Equatoria (London, 1891)
Schweinfurth, G., Ratzel, F., Felkin, R. W., and Harlaub, G. (eds.), Emin Pasha in Central Africa (London, 1888)
Schweitzer, Georg, Emin Pasha, His Life and Work (Westminster, 1898)
Smith, Iain R. has studied The Emin Pasha Relief Expedition 1886–1890 (Oxford, 1972)
Moore-Harell, Alice, Gordon and the Sudan: Prologue to the Mahdiyya 1877–1880 (London, 2001)
Egypt's Africa Empire: Samuel Baker, Charles Gordon and the Creation of Equatoria (Eastbourne, 2010)
On the Frontiers of Islam: The Sudan under Turco-Egyptian Rule 1822–1845 (Oxford, 1970)
A Black Corps d'elite: An Egyptian Sudanese Conscript Battalion with the French Army in Mexico, 1863–1867, and Its Survivors in Subsequent African History (East Lansing, 1995)
Santi, Paul), The Europeans in the Sudan 1834–1878 (Oxford, 1980)
Toniolo, Elias), The Opening of the Nile Basin: Writings by Members of the Catholic Mission to Central Africa on the Geography and Ethnography of the Sudan 1842–1881 (London, 1974)
Sanderson, G. N., England, Europe and the Upper Nile 1882–1899 (Edinburgh, 1965)
Louis, Roger (eds.), France and Britain in Africa (New Haven, 1971)
Pakenham, Thomas, The Scramble for Africa (London, 1992)
Collins, R. O., King Leopold, England, and the Upper Nile, 1899–1909 (New Haven, 1968)
Stigand, Chauncey, Equatoria: The Lado Enclave (London, 1923)
Nalder, L. F., Equatoria Province Handbook, vol. 1 (Khartoum, 1936)
A Tribal Survey of Mongalla Province (London, 1937)
Willis, C.A. (compiler), The Upper Nile Province Handbook: A Report on Peoples and Government in the Southern Sudan, 1931 (Oxford, 1995)
Governing the Nuer: Documents by Percy Coriat on Nuer History and Ethnography, 1922–1931 (Oxford, 1993)
Tucker, A. N., “The Tribal Confusion around Wau,” Sudan Notes and Records, XIV, 1 (1931)
Comyn, D. C. E., Service and Sport in the Sudan (London, 1911)
Symes, Stewart, Tour of Duty (London, 1946)
MacMichael, Harold, The Anglo-Egyptian Sudan (London, 1934)
The Sudan (London, 1954)
Robertson, James, Transition in Africa (London, 1974)
Abdel-Rahim, Muddathir, The Development of British Policy in the Southern Sudan, 1899–1947 (Khartoum, 1968)
British Documents on the End of Empire (London, 1998)
Collins, Robert O.'s Land beyond the Rivers: The Southern Sudan, 1898–1918 (New Haven, 1971)
Shadows in the Grass: Britain in the Southern Sudan, 1918–1956 (New Haven, 1983)
Marlowe, John's A History of Egypt and Anglo-Egyptian Relations, 1880–1956 (London, 1965)
Daly, M. W., Empire on the Nile: The Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, 1898–1934 (Cambridge, 1986)
Imperial Sudan: The Anglo-Egyptian Condominium, 1934–1956 (Cambridge, 1991)
Sikainga, Ahmad Elawad, The Western Bahr al-Ghazal under British Rule, 1898–1956 (Athens, OH, 1991)
al-Sid, Abd al-Karim, Al-liwa al-abyad (Khartoum, 1970)
Kurita, Yoshiko, Ali Abd al-Latif wa thawra 1924 (Cairo, 1997)
Sconyers, David J., “British Policy and Mission Education in the Southern Sudan, 1928–1946” (Philadelphia, 1978)
Sanderson, L. M., “Education in the Southern Sudan, 1898–1948” (London, 1966)
Squires, H. C., The Sudan Medical Service: An Experiment in Social Medicine (London, 1958)
Cruikshank, A., The Kindling Fire: Medical Adventures in the Southern Sudan (London, 1962)
Reining, C., The Zande Scheme: An Anthropological Case Study of Economic Development in Africa (Evanston, 1966)
Tvedt, Terje's The River Nile in the Age of the British: Political Ecology and the Quest for Economic Power (London, 2004)
Sanderson, L. M. Passmore and Sanderson, G. N., Education, Religion and Politics in Southern Sudan, 1899–1964 (London, 1981)
Allison, O. C., A Pilgrim Church's Progress (London, 1966)
Dempsey, J., Mission on the Nile (London, 1955)
Maxwell, J. A., Half a Century of Grace (London, 1953)
Sudan Interior Mission's Root from Dry Ground: The Story of the Sudan Interior Mission (London, 1966)
Garretson, Peter P., “The Southern Sudan Welfare Committee and the 1947 Strike in the Southern Sudan,” Northeast African Studies, 8 (1986), 181–91
Mann, Anthony, Where God Laughed: The Sudan Today (London, 1954)
Deng Kuol, Luka B., “Political Violence and the Emergence of the Dispute over Abyei, Sudan, 1950–1983,” Journal of Eastern African Studies, 8 (2014), 1–17
El-Battahani, Atta, Nationalism and Peasant Politics in the Nuba Mountains Region of Sudan, 1924–1966 (Khartoum, 2009)
Report of the Commission of Enquiry into the Disturbances in the Southern Sudan during August, 1955 (Khartoum, 1956)
Johnson, Douglas H. usefully surveys Federalism in the History of South Sudanese Political Thought (London, 2014)
Wawa, Yosa H., The Southern Sudanese Pursuits [sic] of Self-Determination: Documents in Political History (Kampala, 2005)
Rolandsen, H., “A False Start: Between War and Peace in the Southern Sudan, 1956–62,” Journal of African History, 52, 1 (2011), 105–23
Rolandsen, H. and Leonardi, Cherry, “Discourses of Violence in the Transition from Colonialism to Independence in Southern Sudan, 1955–1960,” Journal of Eastern African Studies, 8, 4 (2014), 1–17
Hasan, Yusuf Fadl and Gray, Richard (eds.), Religion and Conflict in Sudan (Nairobi, 2002)
Memorandum on Reasons that Led to the Expulsion of Foreign Missionaries and Priests from the Southern Provinces of the Sudan (Khartoum, 1964)
The Black Book of the Sudan on the Expulsion of the Missionaries from Southern Sudan: An Answer (Milan, 1964)
Rolandsen, H., “The Making of the Anya-Nya Insurgency in the Southern Sudan, 1961–64,” Journal of Eastern African Studies, 5, 2 (2011), 211–32
Wai, Dunstan (ed.), The Southern Sudan: The Problem of National Integration (London 1973)
Wai, , The African–Arab Conflict in the Sudan (New York, 1981)
Elias Nyamlell Wakoson explains “The Origin and Development of the Anya-Nya Movement 1955–1972,” in Beshir, M. O. (ed.), Southern Sudan: Regionalism and Religion (London, 1984), pp. 127–204
The Southern Sudan: Background to Conflict (London, 1968)
The Southern Sudan: From Conflict to Peace (London, 1975)
Eprile, Cecil, War and Peace in the Sudan, 1955–1972 (Newton Abbot, 1974)
O'Balance, Edgar, The Secret War in the Sudan, 1955–1972 (London, 1977)
Arou, K. N. and Yongo-Bure, B. (eds.), Part of the Proceedings of the Conference on North–South Relations in the Sudan Since the Addis Ababa Agreement (Khartoum, 1988)
Oduho, Joseph H. and Deng, William, The Problem of the Southern Sudan (London, 1963)
Albino, Oliver, The Sudan: A Southern Viewpoint (London, 1970)
Yangu, Alexis Mbali, The Nile Turns Red: Azanians Chose Freedom against Arab Bondage (New York, 1966)
Alier, Abel, Southern Sudan: Too Many Agreements Dishonoured (Exeter, 2003)
Lagu, Joseph, Sudan: Odyssey through a State: From Ruin to Hope (Omdurman, 2006)
Akol, Jacob J., I Will Go the Distance: The Story of a “Lost” Sudanese Boy of the Sixties (Nairobi, 2005)
Shaping a Free Southern Sudan: Memoirs of Our Struggle, 1934–1985 (Limuru, 2002)
Johnson, D. H.'s The Root Causes of Sudan's Civil Wars: Peace or Truce, revised edn (Oxford, 2012)
Daly, M. W. and Sikainga, Ahmad Alawad (eds.), Civil War in the Sudan (London, 1993)
Sudan's Painful Road to Peace: A Full Story of the Founding and Development of SPLM/SPLA (Charleston, 2006)
Hutchinson, Sharon E., Nuer Dilemmas: Coping with Money, War, and the State (Berkeley, 1996)
War and Slavery in Sudan (Philadelphia, 2001)
Rolandsen, H.'s Guerrilla Government: Political Changes in the Southern Sudan during the 1990s (Uppsala, 2005)
Patey, Luke's The New Kings of Crude: China, India, and the Global Struggle for Oil in Sudan and South Sudan (London, 2014)
Sudan, Oil, and Human Rights (New York, 2003)
Wël, PaanLuel, Return in Peace (R.I.P): Dr. John Garang de Mabioor [sic] (n.p., 2014)
The Genius of Dr. John Garang, 2 vols. (n.p., 2013)
Nyaba, Peter Adwok, Politics of Liberation in South Sudan: An Insider's View (Kampala, 1997)
Akol, Lam, SPLM/SPLA: Inside an African Revolution (Khartoum, 2001)
Akol, , SPLM SPLA: The Nasir Declaration (New York, 2003)
Emma's War: Love, Betrayal and Death in the Sudan (London, 2004)
Kok, Peter Nyot, Governance and Conflict in the Sudan, 1985–1995: Analysis, Evaluation and Documentation (Hamburg, 1996)
Sørbø, Gunnar M. and Ahmed, Abdel Ghaffar M. (eds.), Management of the Crisis in the Sudan (Bergen, 1989)
Battle for Peace in Sudan: An Analysis of the Abuja Conferences, 1992–1993 (Lanham, 1999)
Rolandsen, H., “A Quick Fix? A Retrospective Analysis of the Sudan Comprehensive Peace Agreement,” Review of African Political Economy, 38, 130 (2011), 551–64
Johnson, Douglas H., “New Sudan or South Sudan? The Multiple Meanings of Self-determination in Sudan's Comprehensive Peace Agreement,” Civil Wars, 15, 2 (2013), 141–56
Johnson, Hilde F., Waging Peace in Sudan: The Inside Story of the Negotiations that Ended Africa's Longest Civil War (Brighton, 2011)
Waihenya, Waithaka, The Mediator: Gen. Lazaro Sumbeiywo and the Southern Sudan Peace Process (Nairobi, 2006)
Deng, Francis Mading (ed.), New Sudan in the Making? Essays on a Nation in Painful Search of Itself (New Jersey, 2009)
Komey, Guma Kunda, Land, Governance, Conflict and the Nuba of Sudan (Martlesham, 2010)
James, Wendy, War and Survival in Sudan's Frontierlands: Voices from the Blue Nile (Oxford, 2007)
Johnson, Douglas H., When Boundaries Become Borders: The Impact of Boundary-Making in Southern Sudan's Frontier Zones (London, 2010)
Johnson, , “Why Abyei Matters: The Breaking Point of Sudan's Comprehensive Peace Agreement?,” African Affairs, 107, 426, (2008), 1–19
Thomas, Edward, The Kafia Kingi Enclave: People, Politics and History in the North–South Boundary Zone of Western Sudan (London, 2010)
Poggo, Scopas S., The First Sudanese Civil War: Africans, Arabs and Israelis in the Southern Sudan, 1955–1972 (New York, 2009)
Cole, David C. and Huntington, Richard, Between a Swamp and a Hard Place: Developmental Challenges in Remote Rural Africa (Cambridge, MA, 1997)
Harir, Sharif and Tvedt, Terje (eds.), Short-Cut to Decay: The Case of the Sudan (Uppsala, 1994), pp. 69–104
Keen, David, The Benefits of Famine: A Political Economy of Famine and Relief in Southwestern Sudan, 1983–1989 (Princeton, 1994)
Burr, J. Millard and Collins, Robert O., Requiem for the Sudan: War, Drought, and Disaster Relief on the Nile (Boulder, 1995)
Leonardi, Cherry, “‘Liberation’ or Capture: Youth in between ‘hakuma,’ and ‘home’ during civil war and its aftermath in Southern Sudan,” African Affairs, 106, 424 (2007), 391–412
Violence, Sacrifice and Chiefship in Central Equatoria, Southern Sudan,” Africa, 77, 4 (2007), 535–58
Paying ‘Buckets of Blood’ for the Land: Moral Debates Over Economy, War and State in Southern Sudan,” Journal of Modern African Studies, 49, 2 (2011), 215–40
Pinaud, Clemence, “South Sudan: Civil War, Predation and the Making of a Military Aristocracy,” African Affairs, 113, 451, (2014), 192–211
Vaughan, Christopher, Schomerus, Mareike, and Vries, Lotje de (eds.), The Borderlands of South Sudan: Authority and Identity in Contemporary and Historical Perspectives (Basingstoke, 2013)
Gender, Home and Identity: Nuer Repatriation to Southern Sudan (Martlesham, 2014)
Badiey, Naseem, The State of Post-Conflict Reconstruction: Land, Urban Development and State-Building in Juba, Southern Sudan (Woodbridge, 2014)
Jumbert, M. G. and Ø. Rolandsen, H., After the Split: Post-Secession Negotiations Between South Sudan and Sudan (Oslo, 2013)
Copnall, James, A Poisonous Thorn in Our Hearts: Sudan and South Sudan's Bitter and Incomplete Divorce (London, 2014)
Nyaba, Peter Adwok's South Sudan: The Crisis of Infancy (Cape Town, 2014)
Waal, Alex de, “When Kleptocracy Becomes Insolvent: Brute Causes of the Civil War in South Sudan,” African Affairs, 113, 452 (2014), 347–69
Johnson, D. H., “Briefing: The Crisis in South Sudan,” African Affairs, 113, 451 (2014), 300–9
Rolandsen, H., “Another Civil War in South Sudan: The Failure of Guerrilla Government?,” Journal of Eastern African Studies, 9, 1 (2015), 163–74

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