Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
The Iran–Iraq War
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 4
  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Buy the print book

Book description

The Iran-Iraq War is one of the largest, yet least documented conflicts in the history of the Middle East. Drawing from an extensive cache of captured Iraqi government records, this book is the first comprehensive military and strategic account of the war through the lens of the Iraqi regime and its senior military commanders. It explores the rationale and decision-making processes that drove the Iraqis as they grappled with challenges that, at times, threatened their existence. Beginning with the bizarre lack of planning by the Iraqis in their invasion of Iran, the authors reveal Saddam's desperate attempts to improve the competence of an officer corps that he had purged to safeguard its loyalty to his tyranny, and then to weather the storm of suicidal attacks by Iranian religious revolutionaries. This is a unique and important contribution to our understanding of the history of war and the contemporary Middle East.

Reviews

'This is a fascinating and revealing history of the Iran-Iraq War which draws on a wealth of captured Iraqi sources to provide a unique picture of Saddam Hussein’s decision-making.'

Nigel Ashton - London School of Economics and Political Science

'Murray and Woods shed new light on the war and its conduct at the highest levels mainly from the Iraqi, but also from the Iranian point of view. The book serves as a valuable contribution to our understanding of the war that has important ramifications to contemporary military thinking. The authors deserve much praise for these new insights.'

Amatzia Baram - University of Haifa, Israel

'With unique access to vital source materials, Williamson Murray and Kevin Woods plumb the depths of the ruthlessness, fanaticism, operational incapacity and incompetence that shaped the eight-year Iran-Iraq War. There are lessons here on success and failure for us all to learn.'

John Gooch - University of Leeds

'This book provides a rich seam of material for anyone studying the period or subsequent Middle Eastern history and provides valuable insights into Saddam’s attitudes; his enthusiasm for chemical weapons makes for particularly chilling reading … this is one of the most important studies to date on the strategic history and military aspects of the Iran-Iraq War … [It] will appeal not only to those interested in the conflict itself but should be essential reading for those studying its aftermath.'

E. R. Hooton Source: The British Journal of Military History

'This is an excellent book. Murray and Woods do not drown readers in the jargon of the subject, and they meticulously explain everything in their well-researched and enormously interesting work. They develop their themes rapidly and cleanly. Fully explained are the incompetence, factors of fear and coercion, useless battles, countless dead, and wholesale destruction, all driven by the leaders' egos on both sides and regardless of the treasures destroyed … a superb book, well written without biases and a breath of fresh air on a difficult subject, without the mist, fog, and haze that usually come with the literature in this field. Mandatory for graduate students. Summing up: highly recommended. Upper-division undergraduates and above.'

N. E. Bou-Nacklie Source: Choice

'Williamson Murray and Kevin M. Woods have produced an exceptionally detailed and valuable book on the military dimensions of the Iran-Iraq War. This work has many positive aspects, but its most unique feature is the extensive use of previously unavailable captured Iraq documents … In sum, this book emerges as the definitive work on the Iraqi perspective of the Iran-Iraq war, and is probably the best study on military aspects of the conflict as a whole.'

W. Andrew Terrill Source: Middle East Journal

Refine List

Actions for selected content:

Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.
×

Contents

Bibliography
Books
Abdo, Geneive and Lyons, Jonathon. Answering Only to God: Faith and Freedom in Twenty-First-Century Iran. New York, NY: Henry Holt and Company, LLC, 2003.
Abousi, Major General Alwan Hassoun Alwan. Memoir. Alexandria, Egypt: Unpublished, 2003.
Aburish, Said K.Saddam Hussein: The Politics of Revenge. New York, NY: Bloomsbury, 2000.
Alnasrawi, Abbas. The Economy of Iraq: Oil, Wars, Destruction of Development and Prospects, 1950–2010. Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood Press, 1994.
Arjomand, Said Amir. The Turban for the Crown: The Islamic Revolution in Iran. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1988.
Ashton, Nigel. King Hussein of Jordan: A Political Life. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2008.
Ayalon, Ami. “The Iraqi–Iranian War.” In Middle East Contemporary Survey, Iraq, 1976–1999, Volume IV: 1979–80, edited by Legum, Colin. New York, NY: Holmes & Meier Publishers, 1981.
Bakhash, Shaul. “The Troubled Relationship: Iran and Iraq, 1930–1980.” In Iran, Iraq, and the Legacies of War, edited by Potter, Lawrence G. and Sick, Gary G.. London: Palgrave MacMillan, 2004.
Baktiari, Bahman. Parliamentary Politics in Revolutionary Iran: The Institutionalization of Factional Politics. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida, 1996.
Bani-Sadr, Abu al-Hasan. My Turn to Speak: Iran, the Revolution and Secret Deals with the US. Washington, DC: Brassey’s Inc, 1991.
Baram, Amatzia. Culture, History and Ideology in the Formation of Ba’athist Iraq, 1968–89. London: Palgrave MacMillan, 1991.
Batatu, Hanna. The Old Social Classes and the Revolutionary Movements of Iraq: A Study of Iraq’s Old Landed and Commercial Classes and of Its Communists, Ba’athists, and Free Officers. Princeton University Press, 2004.
Be’eri, Eliezer. Army Officers in Arab Politics and Society. New York, NY: Praeger, 1970.
Behrooz, Maziar. Rebels with a Cause: The Failure of the Left in Iran. London: I. B. Tauris, 2000.
Bengio, Ofra. “Iraq.” In Middle East Contemporary Survey, Iraq, 1976–1999, Volume IV: 1979–80, edited by Legum, Colin. New York, NY: Holmes & Meier Publishers, 1980.
Bengio, Ofra “Iraq.” In Middle East Contemporary Survey, Iraq, 1976–1999, Volume IX: 1984–85, edited by Rabinovich, Itamar and Shaked, Haim. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1987.
Bengio, OfraSaddam’s Word: Political Discourse in Iraq. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1998.
Bengio, Ofra and Dann, Uriel. “Iraq.” In Middle East Contemporary Survey, Iraq, 1976–1999, Volume II: 1977–78, edited by Legum, Colin. New York, NY: Holmes & Meier Publishers, 1979.
Bengio, Ofra and Dann, Uriel “Iraq.” In Middle East Contemporary Survey, Iraq, 1976–1999, Volume III: 1978–79, edited by Legum, Colin. New York, NY: Holmes & Meier Publishers, 1980.
Bergquist, Major Ronald E.The Role of Airpower in the Iran–Iraq War. Montgomery, AL: Air University Press, 1988.
Bill, James A. “Morale vs. Technology: The Power of Iran in the Persian Gulf War.” In The Iran–Iraq War: The Politics of Aggression, edited by Rajaee, Farhang. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida, 1993.
Bishop, Barzad and Laurier, Jim. Combat Aircraft: Iranian F-4 Phantom II Units in Combat. Oxford: Osprey Publishing, 2003.
Bligh, Alexander. The Political Legacy of King Hussein. Portland, OR: Sussex Academic Press, 2007.
Bond, Brian. British Military Policy between the Two World Wars. Oxford University Press, 1980.
Bowden, Mark. Guests of the Ayatollah: The First Battle in America’s War with Militant Islam. New York, NY: Atlantic Monthly Press, 2006.
Brower, Charles Nelson and Brueschke, Jason D.. The Iran–United States Claims Tribunals. The Hague: Kluwer Law International, 1998.
Chubin, Shahram and Tripp, Charles. Iran and Iraq at War. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1988.
Churchill, Winston S.The Second World War: The Grand Alliance. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1950.
Clawson, Patrick and Rubin, Michael. Eternal Iran: Continuity and Chaos. New York, NY: Palgrave MacMillan, 2005.
Cockburn, Andrew and Cockburn, Patrick. Out of the Ashes: The Resurrection of Saddam Hussein. New York, NY: Harper Perennial, 1999.
Cooper, Tom and Davey, Chris. Combat Aircraft: Iranian F-14 Tomcat Units in Combat. Oxford: Osprey Publishing, 2004.
Cooper, Tom and Bishop, Farzad. Iran–Iraq War in the Air: 1980–1988. Atglen, PA: Schiffer Military History, 2000.
Cordesman, Anthony H.The Iran–Iraq War and Western Security, 1984–1987. London: Jane’s Information Group, 1987.
Cordesman, Anthony H.Iraq and the War of Sanctions: Conventional Threats and Weapons of Mass Destruction. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1999.
Cordesman, Anthony H. and Wagner, Abraham R.. The Lessons of Modern War, Volume II: The Iran–Iraq War. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1990.
Coughlin, Con. Saddam: His Rise and Fall. New York, NY: Harper Perennial, 2005.
Cronin, Stephanie. The Army and the Creation of the Pahlavi State in Iran, 1910–1926. London: I. B. Tauris, 1997.
Dabashi, Hamid. Theology of Discontent: The Ideological Foundation of the Islamic Revolution in Iran. New Brunswick, CT: Transaction Publishing, 2005.
Dann, Uriel. “The Iraqi–Iranian War.” In Middle East Contemporary Survey, Iraq, 1976–1999, Volume VIII: 1983–84, edited by Shaked, Haim and Dishon, Daniel. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1985.
Dann, Uriel “The Iraqi–Iranian War.” In Middle East Contemporary Survey, Iraq, 1976–1999, Volume IX: 1984–85, edited by Rabinovich, Itamar and Shaked, Haim. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1987.
Dann, Uriel and Bengio, Ofra. “Iraq.” In Middle East Contemporary Survey, Iraq, 1976–1999, Volume I: 1976–77, edited by Legum, Colin. New York, NY: Holmes & Meier Publishers, 1978.
Davis, Eric. Memories of State: Politics, History, and Collective Identity in Modern Iraq. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2005.
de Chair, Somerset Struben. The Golden Carpet. New York, NY: Harcourt, Brace and Company, 1945.
Dershowitz, Alan M.Preemption: A Knife That Cuts Both Ways. New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Company, 2006.
Dodge, Toby. Inventing Iraq: The Faillure of Nation Building and a History Denied. New York, NY: Columbia University Press, 2003.
Dodge, Toby “International Obligation, Domestic Pressure, and Colonial Nationalism: The Birth of the Iraqi State under the Mandate System.” In The British and French Mandates in Comparative Perspectives, edited by Meouchy, Nadine and Sluglett, Peter. Leiden: Brill Publishing, 2004.
Elliot, Matthew. “Independent Iraq” The Monarchy and British Influence, 1941–1958. London: I. B. Tauris, 1996.
Farhi, Rarideh. “The Antinomies of Iran’s War Generation.” In Iran, Iraq, and the Legacies of War, edited by Potter, Lawrence G. and Sick, Gary G.. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004.
Farouk-Sluglett, Marion and Sluglett, Peter. Iraq since 1958: From Revolution to Dictatorship. New York, NY: I. B. Tauris, 2001.
Fisk, Robert. The Great War for Civilization: The Conquest of the Middle East. New York, NY: Alfred A. Knopf, 2005.
Fuller, Graham E. and Francke, Rend Rahim. The Arab Shi’a: The Forgotten Muslims. New York, NY: Palgrave, 2001.
Francona, Frank. Ally to Adversary: An Eyewitness Account of Iraq’s Fall from Grace. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1999.
Friedman, Thomas L.From Beirut to Jerusalem. New York, NY: Farrar Staus Girous, 1989.
Fromkin, David. A Peace to End All Peace: The Fall of the Ottoman Empire and the Creation of the Modern Middle East. New York, NY: Henry Holt and Company, 1989.
Furtig, Henner. Iran’s Rivalry with Saudi Arabia between the Gulf Wars. Reading, NY: Ithaca Press, 2006.
Gaddis, John Lewis. The Landscape of History: How Historians Map the Past. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2004.
Ganji, Babak. Politics of Confrontation: The Foreign Policy of the USA and Revolutionary Iran. London: Tauris Academic Studies, 2006.
Gera, Gideon. “The Iraqi–Iranian War.” In Middle East Contemporary Survey, Iraq, 1976–1999, Volume XI: 1987, edited Rabinovich, Itamar and Shaked, Haim. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1988.
Gershovich, Moshe. “The Red Sea Mining Affair.” In Middle East Contemporary Survey, Iraq, 1976–1999, Volume VIII: 1983-84, edited by Shaked, Haim and Dishon, Daniel. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1985.
Gibson, Bryan R.Covert Relationship: American Foreign Policy, Intelligence, and the Iran–Iraq War, 1980–1988. Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger, 2010.
Gieling, Saskia. Religion and War in Revolutionary Iran. London: I. B. Tauris, 1999.
Giles, Gregory F. “The Islamic Republic of Iran and Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Weapons.” In Planning the Unthinkable: How New Powers Will Use Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Weapons, edited by Lavoy, Peter R., Sagan, Scott D., and Wirtz, James J.. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2000.
Goldstein, Lyle. Preventive Attack and Weapons of Mass Destruction: A Comparative Historical Analysis. Stanford University Press, 2005.
Gooch, John. “Building Buffers and Filling Vacuums: Great Britain and the Middle East, 1914–1922.” In The Making of Peace: Rulers, States, and the Aftermath of War, edited by Murray, Williamson and Lacey, James. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2009.
Goodarzi, Jubin M.Syria and Iran: Diplomatic Alliance and Power Politics in the Middle East. London: Tauris Academic Studies, 2006.
Green, Jerrold D. “Arab Politics and the Iran-Contra Affair.” In The Middle East from the Iran–Contra Affair to the Intifada, edited by Freedman, Robert O.. Syracuse University Press, 1991.
Haldane, Lieutenant General Sir Aylmer L.The Insurrection in Mesopotamia, 1920. London: W. Blackwood and Sons, 1922.
al-Hamdani, Lieutenant General Ra’ad Majid. Memoir: From the Golan to the Collapse of Baghdad: Six Wars in Thirty Years. Baghdad: Unpublished, 2003.
Hashim, Ahmed S. “Civil–Military Relations in the Islamic Republic of Iran.” In Iran, Iraq, and the Arab Gulf States, edited by Kechichian, Joseph A.. New York, NY: Palgrave, 2001.
Hastings, Max and Jenkins, Simon. The Battle for the Falklands. New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Company, 1983.
Helms, Christine Moss. Iraq: Eastern Flank of the Arab World. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 1991.
Herodotus, . The Histories. Translated by Macaulay, G. C. (1890), revised by Lateiner, Donald. New York, NY: Barnes and Noble Classics, 2004.
Hiltermann, Joost R.A Poisonous Affair: America, Iraq, and the Gassing of Halabja. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2007.
Hiro, Dilip. Iran Under the Ayatollahs. London: Routledge, 1987.
Hiro, DilipThe Longest War: The Iran–Iraq Military Conflict. London: Grafton, 1989.
Hiro, DilipThe Iranian Labyrinth: Journeys through Theocratic Iran and Its Furies. New York, NY: Nation Books, 2005.
Hoyt, Timothy D.Military Industry and Regional Defense Policy – India, Iraq, and Israel. New York, NY: Routledge, 2007.
Hume, Cameron R.The United Nations, Iran, and Iraq: How Peacemaking Changes. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1994.
Ismael, Tareq Y. and Brynen, Rex. “Western Europe and the Middle East.” In International Relations of the Contemporary Middle East: A Study in World Politics, edited by Ismael, Tareq Y.. Syracuse University Press, 1986.
Karsh, Efraim. The Iran–Iraq War, 1980–1988. New York, NY: Osprey Publishing, 2009.
Karsh, Efraim and Rautsi, Inari. Saddam Hussein: A Political Biography. New York, NY: Grove Press, 1991.
Kashani-Sabet, Firoozeh. Frontier Fictions: Shaping the Iranian Nation, 1804–1946. London: I. B. Tauris, 1999.
Kechichian, Joseph A.“The Gulf Cooperation Council and the Gulf War.” In The Persian Gulf War: Lessons for Strategy, Law, and Diplomacy, edited by Joyner, Christopher C.. New York, NY: Greenwood Press, 1990.
Khadduri, Majid. Arab Contemporaries: The Role of Personalities in Politics. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1973.
Khomeini, Ruhollah. Principes De L’ayatollah Khomeiny: Poltiques, Philosophiques, Sociaux & Reglieux. Paris: Libres-Hallier, 1979.
Kienle, Eberhard. Ba’th v. Ba’th: The Conflict between Syria and Iraq, 1968–1989. New York, NY: I. B. Taurus & Company, 1990.
Knox, MacGregor. Mussolini Unleashed, Facist Italy’s Last War. Cambridge University Press, 1983.
Kramer, Martin. “The Routine of Muslim Solidarity.” In Middle East Contemporary Survey: Iraq 1976–1999, Volume IX: 1984–85, edited by Rabinovich, Itamar and Shaked, Haim. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1987.
Kramer, MartinArab Awakening and Islamic Revival: The Politics of Ideas in the Middle East. New Brunswick, CT: Transaction Publishers, 2008.
Kurzman, Charles. The Unthinkable Revolution in Iran. Boston, MA: Harvard University Press, 2004.
Levinson, Jeffrey L. and Edwards, Randy L.. Missiles Inbound: The Attack on the Stark in the Persian Gulf. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1997.
Long, Jerry M.Saddam’s War of Words: Politics, Religion, and the Iraqi Invasion of Kuwait. Austen, TX: University of Texas Press, 2004.
Lyman, Robert. Iraq 1941: The Battles for Basra, Habbaniya, Fallujah, and Baghdad. Oxford: Osprey Publishing, 2006.
Mackey, Sandra. The Reckoning, Iraq, and the Legacy of Saddam Hussein. New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Company, 2002.
Majd, Hooman. The Ayatollah Begs to Differ: The Paradox of Modern Iran. New York, NY: Doubleday Publishing, 2008.
Makiya, Kanan. Republic of Fear: The Politics of Modern Iraq. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1989.
Makiya, KananThe Monument: Art, Vulgarity, and Responsibility in Iraq. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1991.
Makiya, KananCruelty and Silence: War, Tyranny, Uprising, and the Arab World. New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Co, 1994.
Malone, David M.The International Struggle over Iraq: Politics in the UN Security Council, 1980–2005. Oxford University Press, 2006.
al-Marashi, Ibrahim and Salama, Sammy. Iraq’s Armed Forces: An Analytic History. New York, NY: Routledge, 2008.
Marr, Phebe. “Iraqi Foreign Policy.” In Diplomacy in the Middle East: The International Relations of Regional and Outside Powers (Library of International Relations Series), edited by Brown, L. Carl. London: I. B. Tauris, 2004.
Marr, PhebeThe Modern History of Iraq. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 2004.
Marschall, Christin. Iran’s Persian Gulf Policy: From Khomeini to Khatami. New York, NY: Routledge Curzon, 2003.
Matar, Fuad. “The Young President: An Interview with Saddam Hussein in 1980.” In The Saddam Hussein Reader: Selections from Leading Writers on Iraq, edited by Munthe, Turi. New York, NY: Thunder’s Mouth Press, 2002.
McCarthy, Timothy V. and Tucker, Jonathon B.. “Saddam’s Toxic Arsenal: Chemical and Biological Weapons in the Gulf Wars.” In Planning the Unthinkable: How New Powers Will Use Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Weapons, edited by Lavoy, Peter R., Sagan, Scott D., and Wirtz, James J.. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2000.
McDowall, David. A Modern History of the Kurds. London: I. B. Tauris, 2004.
McLachlan, Keith. “Analysis of the Risk of War: Iran–Iraq Discord, 1979–1980.” In The Iran–Iraq War: The Politics of Aggression, edited by Rajaee, Farhang. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida, 1993.
Meho, Lokman I. and Nehme, Michel G.. “The Legacy of U.S. Support to Kurds: Two Major Episodes.” In The Kurdish Question in U.S. Foreign Policy, edited by Meho, Lokman I.. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 2004.
Melman, Yossi and Javedanfar, Meir. The Nuclear Sphinx of Tehran: Mahmoud Ahmadinejad and the State of Iran. New York, NY: Carroll & Graff Publishers, 2007.
Menashri, David. “Iran (Jumhuriyye Islamiyye Iran).” In Middle East Contemporary Survey, Iraq, 1976–1999, Volume XI: 1987, edited by Ayalon, Ami and Shaked, Haim. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1988.
Mesbahi, Mohiaddin. “The USSR and the Iran–Iraq War: From Brezhnev to Gorbachev.” In The Iran–Iraq War: The Politics of Aggression, edited by Rajee, Farhang. Gainesville, FL: University of Florida Press, 1993.
Milani, Mohsen M.The Making of Iran’s Islamic Revolution: From Monarchy to Islamic Republic. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1988.
Milani, Mohsen M. “Iran’s Persian Gulf Policy in the Post-Saddam Era.” In Contemporary Iran: Economy, Society, Politics, edited by Gheissari, Ali. Oxford University Press, 2009.
Millett, Allan R. and Murray, Williamson, eds. Military Effectiveness, Volumes 1–3. Cambridge University Press, 2010.
Montefiore, Simon Sebag. Stalin: The Court of the Red Tsar. New York, NY: Alfred A. Knopf, 2004.
Moore, John, ed. Jane’s Fighting Ships: 1980–81. London: Jane’s Publishing Company, 1980.
Mufti, Malik. Sovereign Creations: Pan-Arabism and Political Order in Syria and Iraq. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1996.
Murray, Williamson. The Change in the European Balance of Power, 1938–39: The Path to Ruin. Princeton University Press, 1984.
Nasr, Vali. The Shi’a Revival: How Conflicts within Islam will Shape the Future. New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Company, 2006.
Navias, Martin S. and Hooton, E. R.. Tanker Wars: The Assault on Merchant Shipping During the Iran–Iraq Conflict, 1980–1988. London: I. B. Tauris Publishers, 1996.
Nicolle, David and Cooper, Tom. Arab Mig-19 and Mig-21 Units in Combat. Osprey Combat Aircraft. Oxford: Osprey Publishing Limited, 2004.
Nonneman, Gerd. “The Gulf States and the Iran–Iraq War: Pattern Shifts and Continuities.” In Iran, Iraq, and the Legacies of War, edited by Potter, Lawrence G. and Sick, Gary G.. New York, NY: Palgrave MacMillan, 2004.
Nordeen, Lon O.Air Warfare in the Missile Age. 2nd edn. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institute Press, 2002.
O’Ballance, Edgar. The Gulf War: Nineteen Eighty to Nineteen Eighty-Seven. London: Brassey’s Defense Publishers, 1988.
Obeidi, Mahdi and Pitzer, Kurt. The Bomb in My Garden: The Secret of Saddam’s Nuclear Mastermind. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 2004.
Oren, Michael B.Six Days of War: June 1967 and the Making of the Modern Middle East. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2002.
Philip, Philip G. “The Islamic Revolution in Iran: Its Impact on Foreign Policy.” In Renegade States: The Evolution of Revolutionary Foreign Policy, edited by Chan, Stephen and Williams, Andrew J.. Manchester University Press, 1994.
Pipes, Daniel. The Hidden Hand: Middle East Fear of Conspiracy. New York, NY: St. Martin’s Griffin, 1996.
Pollack, Kenneth M.Arabs at War: Military Effectiveness, 1948–1991. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 2002.
Pollack, Kenneth M.The Persian Puzzle: The Conflict between Iran and America. New York, NY: Random House 2005.
Post, Jerrold M., ed. The Psychological Assessment of Political Leaders: With Profiles of Saddam Hussein and Bill Clinton. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 2003.
Rabinovich, Abraham. The Yom Kippur War: The Epic Encounter That Transformed the Middle East. New York, NY: Schocken Books, 2004.
Roux, Georges. Ancient Iraq. New York, NY: Penguin Books, 1992.
Rubin, Barry. “The United States and Iraq: From Appeasement to War.” In Iraq’s Road to War, edited by Baram, Amatzia and Rubin, Barry. New York, NY: St Martin’s Press, 1993.
Schenker, David. Dancing with Saddam: The Strategic Tango of Jordan–Iraq Relations. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2003.
Schofield, Richard. “Position, Function, and Symbol: The Shatt al-Arab Dispute in Perspective.” In Iran, Iraq, and the Legacies of War, edited by Potter, Lawrence G. and Sick, Gary G.. London: Palgrave MacMillan, 2004.
Schultz, George P.Turmoil and Triumph: My Years as Secretary of State. New York, NY: Charles Schribner’s Sons, 1993.
Seale, Patrick. Asad: The Struggle for the Middle East. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1988.
Shaked, Haim. “The Nuclearization of the Middle East: The Israeli Raid of Osirak.” In Middle East Contemporary Survey, Iraq, 1976–1999, Volume V: 1980–81, edited by Legum, Colin. New York, NY: Holmes & Meir Publishers, Inc., 1982.
Shawcross, William. Allies: Why the West Had to Remove Saddam. New York, NY: Public Affairs, 2004.
Shemirani, S. Taheri. “The War of the Cities.” In The Iran–Iraq War: The Politics of Aggression, edited by Rajaee, Farhang. Gainesville, FL: University of Florida Press, 1993.
Sick, Gary G.All Fall Down: America’s Fateful Encounter with Iran. London: I. B. Tauris, 1985.
Sifry, Micah L. and Cerf, Christopher, eds., The Iraq War Reader: History, Documents, Opinions. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 2003.
Silverfarb, Daniel and Khadduri, Majid. Britain’s Informal Empire in the Middle East: A Case Study of Iraq 1929–1941. Oxford University Press, 1986.
Simon, Reeva Spector. Iraq Between the Two World Wars: The Creation and Implementation of a National Ideology. New York, NY: Columbia University Press, 1986.
Slim, the Viscount Slim, Field Marshal William Joseph. Unofficial History. New York, NY: David McKay, 1962.
Sluglett, Peter. Britain in Iraq: Contriving King and Country. New York, NY: Columbia University Press, 2007.
Smolansky, Oles M.The USSR and Iraq: The Soviet Quest for Influence. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1991.
Steavenson, Wendell. The Weight of a Mustard Seed: The Intimate Story of an Iraqi General and His Family During Thirty Years of Tyranny. New York, NY: Harper Collins, 2009.
Styan, David. France and Iraq: Oil, Arms, and French Policy-Making in the Middle East. New York, NY: I. B. Tauris & Co., 2006.
Tarbush, Mohammad A.The Role of the Military in Politics: A Case Study of Iraq to 1941. London: Keegan Paul International, 1982.
Tehrani, Ibrahim Anvari. “Iraqi Attitudes and Interpretation of the 1975 Agreement.” In The Iran–Iraq War: The Politics of Aggression, edited by Rajaee, Farhang. Gainesville, FL: University of Florida Press, 1993.
Thesiger, Wilfred. The Marsh Arabs. New York, NY: Penguin Classics, 2007.
Thucydides, . The History of the Peloponnesian War. Translated by Warner, Rex. London: Penguin Books, 1954.
Thucydides, The Landmark Thucydides: A Comprehensive Guide to the Peloponnesian War, edited by Strassler, Robert B.. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 1996.
Tower, John, Muskie, Edmund, and Scowcroft, Brent. The Tower Commission Report: Full Text of the President’s Special Review Board. New York, NY: Bantam Books, 1987.
Treverton, Gregory. “Covert Action: Forward to the Past?” In Covert Action: Behind the Veils of Secret Foreign Policy, edited by Johnson, Loch K.. Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger Publishers, 2006.
Tripp, Charles. A History of Iraq. Cambridge University Press, 2000.
Tucker, Jonathan. War of Nerves: Chemical Warfare from World War I to al-Qaeda. New York, NY: Pantheon Books, 2006.
Tyler, Patrick E.A World of Trouble: The White House and the Middle East – From the Cold War to the War on Terror. New York, NY: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2009.
Upton(United States Army), Major General Emory. The Armies of Europe & Asia: Embracing Official Reports on the Armies of Japan, China, India, Persia, Italy, Russia, Austria, Germany, France, and England. London: Simpkin, Marshall & Co, 1878.
Varzi, Roxanne. Warring Souls: Youth, Media, and Martyrdom in Post-Revolution Iran. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2006.
von Clausewitz, Carl. On War. Translated by Howard, Michael and Paret, Peter. Princeton University Press, 1976.
Wagner, J. S. “Iraq.” In Fighting Armies: Antagonists in the Middle East: A Combat Assessment, edited by Gabriel, Richard A.. Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood Press, 1983.
Ward, Steven R.Immortal: A Military History of Iran and Its Armed Forces. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, 2009.
Wise, Harold Lee. Inside the Danger Zone: The US Military in the Persian Gulf, 1987–1988. Annapolis, MD: US Naval Institute Press, 2007.
Woods, Kevin M.The Mother of All Battles: Saddam Hussein’s Strategic Plan for the Persian Gulf War. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 2008.
Woods, Kevin M., Palkki, David D., and Stout, Mark E.. The Saddam Tapes: The Inner Workings of a Tyrant’s Regime, 1978–2001. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2011.
Woods, Kevin M., Pease, Michael, Stout, Mark E., Murray, Williamson, and Lacey, James G.. The Iraqi Perspectives Report: Saddam’s Senior Leadership on Operation Iraqi Freedom. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 2006.
Wright, Robin. In the Name of God: The Khomeini Decade. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 1989.
Yavari, Neguin. “National, Ethnic, and Sectarian Issues in the War.” In The Iran–Iraq War: The Politics of Aggression, edited by Rajaee, Farhang. Gainesville, FL: University of Florida Press, 1997.
Zabecki, David T.The German 1918 Offensives: A Case Study in the Operational Level of War. New York, NY: Taylor & Francis, 2006.
Zabih, Sepehr. The Iranian Military in Revolution and War. New York, NY: Routledge, 1988.
Articles
“Commentary on New Lethal Weapon, 12 Apr (FBIS-MEA-83-071).” Foreign Broadcast Information Service Daily Reports, 1983.
“Documents and Source Material: Arab Documents on Palestine and the Arab–Israeli Conflict.” Journal of Palestinian Studies 8, no. 2 (Winter 1979).
“Full Text: Saddam Hussein’s Speech (Part 2).” The Guardian, 17 January 2003.
“Genocide in Iraq: The Anfal Campaign against the Kurds.” A Middle East Watch Report. New York, NY: Human Rights Watch, 1993. .
“Gulf War: Iraq’s Confidence Trick.” Economist 294, no. 7378 (1985).
“Iran: General Views Unit’s Battle Record; Interview with General Karimi, Commander of the 77th Victorious Samen al-A’emeh Battalion During Sacred Defense Week (FTS-20000201000513).” Open Source Center, 1999.
“Iran: IRGC Commander Attributes Iran’s Success in Iran–Iraq War to Young People (IAP-20040922000113).” Open Source Center, 2004.
“Iraq Ascribes a Key Defeat in ’86 to Misinformation from the US.” New York Times, 19 January 1987.
“Let’s Keep Squeezing Them Harder.” Economist 384, no. 8547 (2007).
“Resalat Interview with Former IRGC Commander: MG Mohsen Reza’i (FTS-19971023000598).” Open Source Center, 1997.
“RFE/RL Iran Report.” Radio Free Europe 9, No. 38 (17 October 2006).
“Shahbazi Details Military’s Activities in ETTELA’AT Interview; MG Ali Shahbazi, Head of the Joint Chiefs of Staff of the Military of the Islamic Republic of Iran (FTS-19980708000479).” Open Source Center, 1998.
“The Middle East and North Africa.” IISS: The Military Balance 80, no. 1 (1980).
“The Middle East and North Africa.” IISS: The Military Balance 81, no. 1 (1981).
“The Middle East and North Africa.” IISS: The Military Balance 84, no. 1 (1984).
“The Middle East and North Africa.” IISS: The Military Balance 88, no. 1 (1988).
Adib-Moghaddam, Arshin. “Inventions of the Iran–Iraq War.” Critique: Critical Middle Eastern Studies 16, no. 1 (Spring 2007).
Ali, Javed. “Chemical Weapons and the Iran–Iraq War: A Case Study in Noncompliance.” The Nonproliferation Review 8, no. 1 (Spring 2001).
Atkeson(USA retired), Major General Edward B. “Iran’s Arsenal: Tool of Ambition.” Army, March 1991.
Atkine, Norvell B.. “Why Arabs Lose Wars.” Middle East Quarterly VI, no. 4 (December 1999).
Aziz, T. M.The Role of Muhammad Baqir al-Sadr in Shii Activism in Iraq from 1958–1980.” International Journal of Middle East Studies 25, no. 2 (May 1993).
Baram, Amatzia. “From Militant Secularism to Islamism: The Iraqi Ba’ath Regime, 1968–2003.” Occasional paper. Washington, DC: Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, 2011.
al-Bazzaz, Saad. “Saad al-Bazzaz: An Insider’s View of Iraq.” The Middle East Quarterly II, no. 4 (December 1995).
Brands, Hal. “Inside the Iraqi State Records: Saddam Hussein, ‘Irangate’, and the United States.” The Journal of Strategic Studies 34, no. 1 (February 2011).
Brelis, Dean and Gart, Murray J.. “An Interview with Saddam Hussein.” Time Magazine, 19 July 1982.
Chubin, Shahram. “The Last Phase of the Iran–Iraq War: From Stalemate to Ceasefire.” Third World Quarterly 11, no. 2 (1989).
Cigar, Norman. “Iraq’s Strategic Mindset and the Gulf War: Blueprint for Defeat.” Journal of Strategic Studies 15, no. 1 (March 1992).
Cioffi-Revilla, Claudio. “Origins and Evolutions of War Politics.” International Studies Quarterly 40, no. 1 (March 1996).
Cobban, Helena. “Feisty Saddam Sure Iraq Will Win Gulf War.” Christian Science Monitor, 13 November 1980.
Cronin, Stephanie. “An Experimentation in Military Modernization: Constitutionalism, Political Reform, and the Iranian Gendarmerie, 1910–21.” Middle Eastern Studies 32, no. 3 (1996).
Dawisha, Karen. “Soviet Decision-Making in the Middle East: The 1973 October War and the 1980 Gulf War.” International Affairs 57, no. 1 (Winter 1980/81).
Deeb, Marius. “Shi’a Movements in Lebanon: Their Formation, Ideology, Social Basis, and Links with Iran and Syria.” Third World Quarterly 10, no. 2 (1988).
Devlin, John F.The Ba’ath Party: Rise and Metamorphosis.” The American Historical Review 96, no. 5 (1991).
Dingeman, James and Jupa, Richard. “Iranian Elite: The Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps.” Marine Corps Gazette 72, no. 3 (March 1988).
Dobbs, Michael. “US Had Key Role in Iraq Buildup Trade in Chemical Arms; Allowed Despite Their Use on Iranians, Kurds.” Washington Post, 29 December 2003.
Drozdiak, William, Stuart, William, and Davidson, Spencer. “War in the Persian Gulf.” Time Magazine, 6 October 1980.
Entessar, Dader. “The Kurds in Post-Revolutionary Iran and Iraq.” Third World Quarterly 6, no. 4 (October 1984).
Eshraghi, F.Anglo-Soviet Occupation of Iran in August 1941.” Middle Eastern Studies 20, no. 1 (January 1984).
Eshraghi, F.Aftermath of Anglo-Soviet Occupation of Iran in August 1941.” Middle Eastern Studies 20, no. 3 (July 1984).
Fainberg, Anthony. “Osirak and International Security.” Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 37, no. 8 (1981).
Farzaneh, Mateo Mohammad. “Shi’i Ideology, Iranian Secular Nationalism, and the Iran–Iraq War (1980–1988).” Studies in Ethnicity and Nationalism 7, no. 1 (18 March 2008).
Friedrich, Otto and Wilde, James. “The Gulf: He Gives Us a Ray of Hope.” Time Magazine, 27 August 1990.
Gasiorowski, Mark J.The Nuzhih Plot and Iranian Politics.” International Journal of Middle East Studies 34, no. 4 (2002).
Gray, Matthew. “Revisiting Saddam Hussein’s Political Language: The Sources and Roles of Conspiracy Theories.” Arab Studies Quarterly 32, no. 1 (2010), 28–46.
Halliday, Fred. “Year Three of the Iranian Revolution.” MERIP Reports, no. 104 (1982), 3–5.
Hashemi-Rafsanjani, Hojjat ol-Eslam val-Moslemin. “Hashemi-Rafsanjani 26 November Sermon (FBIS-SAS-82-230).” Foreign Broadcast Information Service Daily Reports, 1982.
Heller, Mark. “Politics and the Military in Iraq and Jordan, 1920–1958.” Armed Forces and Society 4, no. 1 (November 1977).
Hillenbrand, Barry, Smith, William E., and Samghabadi, Raji. “The Gulf: Clouds of Desperation.” Time, 19 March 1984.
Hunter, Shireen T. “After the Ayatollah.” Foreign Policy, no. 66 (1987), 77–97.
Hussein, Saddam. “Saddam Husayn Address to National Assembly 4 Nov (FBIS-MEA-80-216).” Foreign Broadcast Information Service Daily Reports, 1980.
Hussein, Saddam. “Saddam Husayn: Troops to Withdraw from Iran (FBIS-MEA-82-120).” Foreign Broadcast Information Service Daily Reports, 1980.
Hussein, Saddam. “Text of President Husayn’s 10 Nov Press Conference (FBIS-MEA-80-220).” Foreign Broadcast Information Service Daily Reports, 1980.
Hussein, Saddam. “Text of President Speech to National Assembly, 17 Sep (FBIS-MEA-80-183).” Foreign Broadcast Information Service Daily Reports, 1980.
Hussein, Saddam. “Saddam Hussein Addresses Arab Youth Seminar, 29 Nov (FBIS-NES-90-231).” Foreign Broadcast Information Service Daily Reports, 1990.
Ismael, J. S. and Ismael, T. Y.. “Social Change in Islamic Society: The Political Thought of Ayatollah Khomeini.” Social Problems 27, no. 5 (June 1980).
Johnson, Marguerite, Wynn, Wilton, and Stuart, William. “Persian Gulf: Choosing up Sides.” Time Magazine, 20 October 1980.
Karsh, Efraim. “The Strategic Backdrop.” The Adelphi Papers 27, no. 220 (1987).
Katzman, Kenneth. “The Pasdaran: Institutionalization of Revolutionary Armed Force.” Iranian Studies 26, no. 3/4 (1993).
Kelidar, Abbas. “The Shii Imami Community and Politics in the Arab East.” Middle Eastern Studies 19, no. 1 (January 1983).
Khomeini, Ayatollah. “We Shall Confront the World with Our Ideology (20 March 1980).” MERIP Reports, no. 88 (1980).
McNaugher, Thomas L.Ballistic Missiles and Chemical Weapons: The Legacy of the Iran–Iraq WarInternational Security 15, no. 2 (1990).
Megalli, Nabila. “Who’s Shooting What? Gulf Tanker Targets Laden with Confusion.” The Associated Press, 1988.
Milani, Mohsen M.Harvest of Shame: Tudeh and the Barzargan Government.” Middle Eastern Studies 29, no. 2 (April 1993).
Mofid, Kamran. “Economic Reconstruction of Iraq: Financing the Peace.” Third World Quarterly 12, no. 1 (1990).
Mohr, Charles. “New Iranian Drive Seen as Diversion.” New York Times, 13 February 1986.
Parasiliti, Andrew and Antoon, Sinan. “Friends in Need, Foes to Heed: The Iraqi Military in Politics.” Middle East Policy 7, no. 4 (October 2000).
Power, Paul F.The Baghdad Raid: Retrospect and Prospect.” Third World Quarterly 8, no. 3 (1986).
Qotbzadeh, Foreign Minister Sadeq. “Text of Foreign Minister Qotbzadeh’s Message to Gromyko, 14 Aug (FBIS-SAS-80-160).” Foreign Broadcast Information Service Daily Reports, 1980.
Ramazani, R. K.Iran’s Revolution: Patterns, Problems, and Prospects.” International Affairs 56, no. 3 (Summer 1980).
Reed, Jack. “Iranian Missile Attack on Baghdad School Kills 32.” United Press International, 1987.
Renfrew, Nita M. “Who Started the War?” Foreign Policy, 1987.
RobinsonJr., Clarence A. “Iraq, Iran Acquiring Chinese-Built Fighters.” Aviation Week & Space Technology (11 April 1983).
Rose, Gregory F.The Post-Revolutionary Purge of Iran’s Armed Forces: A Revisionist Assessment.” Iranian Studies 17, no. 2/3 (1984).
Rubinstein, Alvin Z.The Soviet Union and Iran Under Khomeini.” International Affairs 57, no. 4 (1981).
Shanahan, Rodger. “Shi’a Political Development in Iraq: The Case of the Islamic Da’wa Party.” Third World Quarterly 25, no. 5 (2004).
Sick, Gary G.Iran’s Quest for Superpower Status.” Foreign Affairs 65, no. 4 (Spring 1987).
Sick, Gary G.Confronting Contradictions: The Revolution in Its Teens.” Iranian Studies 26, no. 3/4 (1993).
Sirriyeh, Hussein. “Development of the Iraqi–Iranian Dispute, 1847–1975.” Journal of Contemporary History 20, no. 3 (July 1985).
Spechler, Dina Rome. “The USSR and Third World Conflicts: Domestic Debate and Soviet Policy in the Middle East, 1967–1973.” World Politics 38, no. 3 (1986).
Stafford, R. S.Iraq and the Problem of the Assyrians.” International Affairs 13, no. 2 (March–April 1934).
Swearingen, Will D.Geopolitical Origins of the Iran–Iraq War.” Geographical Review 78 (October 1988).
Takeyh, Ray. “The Iran–Iraq War: A Reassessment.” The Middle East Journal 64, no. 3 (Summer 2010).
Taremi, Kamran. “Beyond the Axis of Evil: Ballistic Missiles in Iran’s Military Thinking.” Security Dialogue 36, no. 1 (March 2005).
Telhami, Shibley. “Arab Public Opinion and the Gulf War.” Political Science Quarterly 108, no. 3 (Autumn 1993).
Tyler, Patrick E. “Officers Say US Aided Iraq in War Despite Use of Gas.” New York Times, 18 August 2002.
Tyrrell, Roland. “Iran Again Rejects Iraqi Peace Terms.” United Press International, 19 November 1980.
Ward, Steven. “Iran’s Challenging Victory Narrative.” Historically Speaking 10, no. 3 (June 2009).
Weiner, Tim. “Iraq Uses Techniques in Spying against Its Former Tutor, the US.” Philadelphia Inquirer, 5 February 1991.
Wright, Claudia. “Religion and Strategy in the Iran–Iraq War.” Third World Quarterly 7, no. 4 (October, 1985).
Zabih, Sepehr. “Aspects of Terrorism in Iran.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 463 (1982).
Zaloga, Steven. “Ballistic Missiles in the Third World: Scud and Beyond.” Jane’s International Defense Review 21, no. 11 (November 1988).
Zonis, Marvin. “The Rule of the Clerics in the Islamic Republic of Iran.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 482 (November 1985).
Reports
Brzoska, Michael and Ohlson, Thomas. “Arms Trade II: The Iran–Iraq War and the Arms Trade.” Fact Sheets and Policy Briefs. Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, 1984.
CWIHP Critical Oral History Conference: The Origins, Conduct, and Impact of the Iran–Iraq War, 1980–1988: Document Reader, edited by Malcolm Byrne and Christian Ostermann. Washington, DC: Cold War International History Project, Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars and the National Security Archives, 2004.
CWIHP Critical Oral History Conference: The Carter Administration and the “Arc of Crisis”: 1977–1981: Document Reader, edited by Malcolm Byrne. Washington, DC: Cold War International History Project, Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars and the National Security Archives, 2005.
Fukuyama, Francis. “The Soviet Union and Iraq since 1968.” A RAND Note [N-1524-AF]. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation, 1980.
Katzman, Kenneth. US Department of State Report: The People’s Mojahedin Organization of Iran. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, 1992.
Lambeth, Benjamin S.Desert Storm and Its Meaning: The View from Moscow. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation, 1992.
Murray, Williamson. Military Adaption in War. Alexandria, VA: Institute for Defense Analyses, 2009.
Nejad, Parviz Mosalla. The Hub of Resistance Literature and History: Khorramshahr. Bostan, Iran: International Affairs Committee of Foundation for Preservation of Monuments and Dissemination of Value of the Holy Defense, 2006.
Pelletiere, Dr. Stephen C. and Johnson, Douglas V. (USA). Lessons Learned: The Iran–Iraq War. Carlisle Barracks, PA: US Army War College, Strategic Studies Institute, 1991.
Roberts, Mark. Khomeini’s Incorporation of the Iranian Military. McNair Paper 48. Washington, DC: National Defense University Press, 1996.
Schahgaldian, Nikola B. and Barkhordarian, Gina. The Iranian Military Under the Islamic Republic. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation, 1987.
Schmidt, Rachel. “Global Arms Exports to Iraq, 1960–1990.” A RAND Note. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation, 1991.
SIPRI. Fact Sheet: Chemical Warfare in the Iran–Iraq War. Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, 1984.
United Nations. Human Rights Report: UN Assistance Mission for Iraq. 2009.
Wehrey, Frederic, Green, Jorrold D., Nichiporuk, Brian, Nader, Alireza, Hansell, Lydia, Nafisi, Rasool, and Bohandy, S. R.. The Rise of the Pasdaran: Assessing the Domestic Roles of Iran’s Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation, 2009.
Woods, Kevin M., Murray, Williamson, and Holaday, Thomas. Saddam’s War: An Iraqi Military Perspective of the Iran–Iraq War. McNair Paper 70. Washington, DC: National Defense University Press, 2009.
Woods, Kevin M., Murray, Williamson, Nathan, Elizabeth A., Sabara, Laila, and Venegas, Ana M.. Project 1946: Phase II. Alexandria, VA: Institute for Defense Analyses, 2010.
Zanders, Jean Pascal. Iranian Use of Chemical Weapons: A Critical Analysis of Past Allegations. Center for Nonproliferation Studies, 2001, cns.miis.edu/archive/cns/programs/dc/briefs/030701.htm.
Government documents
FD-302 of Ali Hasan al-Majid al-Tikriti on 31 January 2004 in Baghdad, IQ. No. 315E-HQ-1448534-59. Washington, DC: US Federal Bureau of Investigation, 2004.
“Memorandum from RADM Grant Shart (USN) to Commander in Chief CENTCOM, RE: Formal Investigation into the Circumstances Surrounding the Attack on the USS Stark (FFG 31) on 17 May 1987.”
NSDD 139: Measures to Improve US Posture and Readiness to Developments in the Iran–Iraq War (Declassified). No. 139. Washington, DC: The White House, 1984.
“Subject: Task Force v Lessons Learned: The Iran–Iraq War, Appendix B–Chemicals,” US Office of the Secretary of Defense.
Treaties and International Agreements Registered or Filed and Recorded with the Secretariat of the United Nations. New York, NY: United Nations, 1976.
UNSCR 514. United Nations Security Council, 2383rd Meeting, 12 July 1982.
Director of Central Intelligence. Special National Intelligence Estimate: Soviet Interests, Policies, and Prospects with Respect to the Iran–Iraq War. Langley, VA: Central Intelligence Agency, 1980.
Director of Central Intelligence. Interagency Intelligence Assessment: Implications of Israeli Attack on Iraq. Langley, VA: Central Intelligence Agency, 1981.
Farr, Warner D. “The Third Temple’s Holy of Holies: Israel’s Nuclear Weapons.” In The Counterproliferation Papers. Maxwell Air Force Base: USAF Counterproliferation Center, 1999.
Hoffpauir, Major Michael E. (USA) Tactical Evolution in the Iraqi Army: The Abadan Island and Fish Lake Campaigns of the Iran–Iraq War. Army Command and General Staff College, 1991.
Jones, Ronald D.Israeli Air Superiority in the 1967 Arab–Israeli War: An Analysis of Operational Art. Newport, RI: Naval War College, 1996.
Murray, Williamson. “Part 1: Operations Report.” In Operations and Effects and Effectiveness. Gulf War Air Power Survey. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1993.
Playfair, Major General Ian Stanley. The Germans Come to the Help of Their Ally, 1941. London: Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, 1956.
Scott, The Right Honorable Sir Richard, The Vice-Chancellor. Report of the Inquiry into the Export of Defense Equipment and Dual-Use Goods to Iraq and Related Prosecutions (HC 115). London: The House of Commons, Quadripartite Committee, 1996.
US Congress, House Select Committee to Investigate Covert Arms Transactions with Iran; US Congress, Senate Select Committee on Secret Military Assistance to Iran and the Nicaraguan Opposition. Report of the Congressional Committee Investigating the Iran–Contra Affair: With Supplemental, Minority, and Additional Views. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1987.
US Department of Defense. “Investigative Report: Formal Investigation into the Circumstances Surrounding the Downing of Iran Air Flight 655 on 3 July 1988.” 1988.
Watts, Barry D. “Part 2: Effectiveness Report.” In Operations and Effects and Effectiveness. Gulf War Air Power Survey. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1993.
Ziemke, Earl F. and Bauer, Magna E.. Moscow to Stalingrad: Decision in the East. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1987.
Websites
Aziz, Tariq. “On Arab–Iranian Relations: To Avoid Confusing the Issues Keeping the Facts Secret and Letting the Conspiracy Pass Unnoticed.” Ministry of Culture and Information, .
Ministry of Foreign Affairs, The State of Israel. “Statements by the Government of Israel on the Bombing of the Iraqi Nuclear Facility near Baghdad: 8 June 1981.” .
Sazegara, Mohsen. “What Was Once a Revolutionary Guard is Now Just a Mafia.” .