Skip to main content
The Metabolic Ghetto
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 5
  • Cited by
    This book has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Wells, Jonathan C. K. and Marphatia, Akanksha A. 2018. The Palgrave Handbook of Biology and Society. p. 561.

    Haisma, Hinke Yousefzadeh, Sepideh and Boele Van Hensbroek, Pieter 2017. Towards a capability approach to child growth: A theoretical framework. Maternal & Child Nutrition, p. e12534.

    Wells, Jonathan C.K. 2017. Worldwide variability in growth and its association with health: Incorporating body composition, developmental plasticity, and intergenerational effects. American Journal of Human Biology, Vol. 29, Issue. 2, p. e22954.

    Wells, Jonathan C. K. 2017. The New “Obstetrical Dilemma”: Stunting, Obesity and the Risk of Obstructed Labour. The Anatomical Record, Vol. 300, Issue. 4, p. 716.

    Wells, Jonathan C. K. Pomeroy, Emma Walimbe, Subhash R. Popkin, Barry M. and Yajnik, Chittaranjan S. 2016. The Elevated Susceptibility to Diabetes in India: An Evolutionary Perspective. Frontiers in Public Health, Vol. 4,

  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Recommend this book

    Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

    The Metabolic Ghetto
    • Online ISBN: 9780511972959
    • Book DOI:
    Please enter your name
    Please enter a valid email address
    Who would you like to send this to? *
  • Buy the print book

Book description

Chronic diseases have rapidly become the leading global cause of morbidity and mortality, yet there is poor understanding of this transition, or why particular social and ethnic groups are especially susceptible. In this book, Wells adopts a multidisciplinary approach to human nutrition, emphasising how power relations shape the physiological pathways to obesity, diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Part I reviews the physiological basis of chronic diseases, presenting a 'capacity-load' model that integrates the nutritional contributions of developmental experience and adult lifestyle. Part II presents an evolutionary perspective on the sensitivity of human metabolism to ecological stresses, highlighting how social hierarchy impacts metabolism on an intergenerational timescale. Part III reviews how nutrition has changed over time, as societies evolved and coalesced towards a single global economic system. Part IV integrates these physiological, evolutionary and politico-economic perspectives in a unifying framework, to deepen our understanding of the societal basis of metabolic ill-health.


'Is it really possible to bring together philosophy, economics, history, evolutionary biology, epidemiology, nutrition and metabolism to understand obesity and chronic disease? Jonathan Wells has done it in an immensely readable and insightful way. A wonderful book.'

Michael Marmot - University College London

'No other book before has provided such a sophisticated and eloquent argument integrating knowledge about foetal and childhood environment and nutrition, with impacts of social, economic and historical factors. Jonathan Wells persuasively argues that a broad scope and an evolutionary framework are necessary to build our understanding of chronic and globally important diseases. Consequently, [he] succeeds in achieving a true consilience of very disparate perspectives on our health.'

Grazyna Jasienska - Jagiellonian University, Poland

Refine List
Actions for selected content:
Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive
  • Send content to

    To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to .

    To send content to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

    Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

    Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

    Please be advised that item(s) you selected are not available.
    You are about to send:

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.

Page 1 of 2

Page 1 of 2

Abdeen Z, Greenough PG, Chandran A and Qasrawi R 2007. Assessment of the nutritional status of preschool-age children during the second Intifada in Palestine. Food Nutr Bull 28(3):274–82.
Abegunde DO, Mathers CD, Adam T, Ortegon M and Strong K 2007. The burden and costs of chronic diseases in low-income and middle-income countries. Lancet 370(9603):1929–38.
Abraham J, Rao PS, Inbaraj SG, Shetty G and Jose CJ 1970. An epidemiological study of hemiplegia due to stroke in South India. Stroke 1(6):477–81.
Abrams ET and Meshnick SR 2009. Malaria during pregnancy in endemic areas: a lens for examining maternal-fetal conflict. Am J Hum Biol 21(5):643–50.
Accardi G, Caruso C, Colonna-Romano G, Camarda C, Monastero R and Candore G 2012. Can Alzheimer disease be a form of type 3 diabetes? Rejuv Res 15(2):217–21.
Acevedo-Garcia D 2000. Residential segregation and the epidemiology of infectious diseases. Soc Sci Med 51(8):1143–61.
Achebe C 1994. The Art of Fiction. The Paris Review No. 133, Winter 1994.
Action Against Hunger 2001. The Geopolitics of Hunger, 2000–2001: Hunger and Power. Boulder, Colorado: Lynne Rienner Publishers.
Adaikalakoteswari A, Balasubramanyam M and Mohan V 2005. Telomere shortening occurs in Asian Indian Type 2 diabetic patients. Diabet Med 22(9):1151–6.
Adaikalakoteswari A, Balasubramanyam M, Ravikumar R, Deepa R and Mohan V 2007. Association of telomere shortening with impaired glucose tolerance and diabetic macroangiopathy. Atherosclerosis 195(1):83–9.
Adair LS and Cole TJ 2003. Rapid child growth raises blood pressure in adolescent boys who were thin at birth. Hypertension 41(3):451–6.
Adali T and Koc I 2011. Menarcheal age in Turkey: secular trend and socio-demographic correlates. Ann Hum Biol 38(3):345–53.
Adams J 2010. Power Play: The Literature and Politics of Chess in the Late Middle Ages. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Aggarwal J, Swami G and Kumar M 2013. Probiotics and their effects on metabolic diseases: an update. J Clin Diagnost Res 7(1):173–7.
Ahima RS 2006. Adipose tissue as an endocrine organ. Obes 14 Suppl 5:242S249S.
Ahrens RA 1974. Sucrose, hypertension, and heart disease: an historical perspective. Am J Clin Nutr 27:403–22.
Aiello LC and Wheeler P 1995. The expensive-tissue hypothesis – the brain and the digestive-system in human and primate evolution. Curr Anthropol 36(2):199221.
Akachi Y and Canning D 2007. The height of women in Sub-Saharan Africa: the role of health, nutrition, and income in childhood. Ann Hum Biol 34(4):397410.
Akari S, Mateti UV and Kunduru BR 2013. Health-care cost of diabetes in South India: A cost of illness study. J Res Pharm Pract 2(3):114–17.
Akkad A, Hastings R, Konje JC, Bell SC, Thurston H and Williams B 2006. Telomere length in small-for-gestational-age babies. Br J Obstet Gynecol 113(3):318–23.
Aktipis CA, Cronk L and de Aguiar R 2011. Risk-pooling and herd survival: an agent-based model of a Maasai gift-giving system. Hum Ecol 39:131–40.
Alam DS, Van Raaij JM, Hautvast JG, Yunus M and Fuchs GJ 2003. Energy stress during pregnancy and lactation: consequences for maternal nutrition in rural Bangladesh. Eur J Clin Nutr 57(1):151–6.
Alberman E 1991. Are our babies becoming bigger? J Roy Soc Med 84:257–60.
Alberti KG, Zimmet P, Shaw J and Group IDFETFC 2005. The metabolic syndrome–a new worldwide definition. Lancet 366(9491):1059–62.
Albritton R 2009. Let Them Eat Junk: How Capitalism Creates Hunger. London: Pluto Press.
Alchon SA 2003. A Pest in the Land: New World Epidemics in a Global Perspective. Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico Press.
Alderman H, Hoddinott J and Kinsey BH 2006. Long term consequences of early childhood malnutrition. Oxford Economic Papers 58(3):450–74.
Alderman H, Hoogeven H and Rossi M 2008. Preschool nutrition and subsequent schooling attainment: longitudinal evidence from Tanzania. Econ Dev Cult Change 57(2):239–60.
Alexander GR, Kogan M, Martin J and Papiernik E 1998. What are the fetal growth patterns of singletons, twins, and triplets in the United States? Clin Obstet Gynecol 41(1):114–25.
Ali MM and Shah IH 2000. Sanctions and childhood mortality in Iraq. Lancet 355(9218):1851–7.
Allam AH, Thompson RC, Wann LS, Miyamoto MI and Thomas GS 2009. Computed tomographic assessment of atherosclerosis in ancient Egyptian mummies. JAMA 302(19):2091–4.
Allen FM 1913. Studies Concerning Glycosuria and Diabetes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Allen JA 1877. The influence of physical conditions on the genesis of species. Radical Rev 1:108–40.
Alquati AB, Rubolini D, Romano M, Boncoraglio G, Fasola M and Saino N 2007. Effects of egg albumen removal on yellow-legged gull chick phenotype. Funct Ecol 21:310–16.
Alsan M, Bloom DE and Canning D 2006. The effect of population health on foreign direct investment inflows to low- and middle-income countries. World Dev 34(4):613–30.
Altizer S, Dobson A, Hosseini P, Hudson P, Pascual M and Rohani P 2006. Seasonality and the dynamics of infectious diseases. Ecol Lett 9(4):467–84.
Alvarez D, Metcalfe NB 2007. The tradeoff between catch-up growth and escape speed: variation between habitats in the cost of compensation. Oikos 116:1144–51.
Alwasel SH, Abotalib Z, Aljarallah JS, Osmond C, Alkharaz SM, Alhazza IM, Badr G and Barker DJ 2010. Changes in placental size during Ramadan. Placenta 31(7):607–10.
Alwasel SH, Abotalib Z, Aljarallah JS, Osmond C, Alkharaz SM, Alhazza IM, Harrath A, Thornburg K and Barker DJ 2011. Sex differences in birth size and intergenerational effects of intrauterine exposure to Ramadan in Saudi Arabia. Am J Hum Biol 23(5):651–4.
Alwasel SH, Harrath A, Aljarallah JS, Abotalib Z, Osmond C, Al Omar SY, Khaled I and Barker DJ 2013. Intergenerational effects of in utero exposure to Ramadan in Tunisia. Am J Hum Biol 25(3):341–3.
Ames KH 1994. The Northwest coast: complex hunter-gatheres, ecology, and social evolution. Ann Rev Anthropol 23:209–29.
Ames KH 2008. Slavery, household production and demography on the southern northwest coast: cables, tacking and ropewalks. In Cameron C, editor. Invisible Citizens: Captives and Their Consequences. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press. 138–58.
Ames KH 2010. On the evolution of the human capacity for inequality and/or egalitarianism In Feinman GM and Price TD, editors. Pathways to Power: New Perspectives on the Emergence of Social Inequality. New York: Springer. 1544.
Amigo H, Vasquez S, Bustos P, Ortiz G and Lara M 2012. Socioeconomic status and age at menarche in indigenous and non-indigenous Chilean adolescents. Cad Saude Publica 28(5):977–83.
Amsellem V, Gary-Bobo G, Marcos E, Maitre B, Chaar V, Validire P et al. 2011. Telomere dysfunction causes sustained inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 184(12):1358–66.
Anand K, Shah B, Yadav K, Singh R, Mathur P, Paul E and Kapoor SK 2007. Are the urban poor vulnerable to non-communicable diseases? A survey of risk factors for non-communicable diseases in urban slums of Faridabad. Natl Med J India 20(3):115–20.
Ananth CV and Wen SW 2002. Trends in fetal growth among singleton gestations in the United States and Canada, 1985 through 1998. Semin Perinatol 26:260–7.
Andersen GS, Girma T, Wells JC, Kaestel P, Michaelsen KF and Friis H 2011. Fat and fat-free mass at birth: air displacement plethysmography measurements on 350 Ethiopian newborns. Pediatr Res 70(5):501–6.
Andersen KK, Azuma N, Barnola JM, Bigler M, Biscaye P, Caillon N et al. 2004. High-resolution record of Northern Hemisphere climate extending into the last interglacial period. Nature 431(7005):147–51.
Andersen LB, Harro M, Sardinha LB, Froberg K, Ekelund U, Brage S and Anderssen SA 2006. Physical activity and clustered cardiovascular risk in children: a cross-sectional study (The European Youth Heart Study). Lancet 368(9532):299304.
Anderson P 1974. Passages from Antiquity to Feudalism. London: New Left Books.
Anderson RM and May RM 1991. Infectious Disease of Humans: Dynamics and Control. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Andersson S, Uller T, Lohmus M and Sundstrom F 2004. Effects of egg yolk testosterone on growth and immunity in a precocial bird. J Evol Biol 17(3):501–5.
Andreo V, Provensal C, Levis S, Pini N, Enria D and Polop J 2012. Summer-autumn distribution and abundance of the hantavirus host, Oligoryzomys longicaudatus, in northwestern Chubut, Argentina. J Mammal 93:1559–68.
Anekwe TD and Kumar S 2012. The effect of a vaccination program on child anthropometry: evidence from India’s Universal Immunization Program. J Public Health 34(4):489–97.
Angel JL 1975. Paleoecology, paleodemography and health. In Polgar S, editor. Population, Ecology, and Social Evolution. The Hague: Moulton Publishers. 167–90.
Angel JL 1984. Health as a Crucial Factor in the Changes from Hunting to Developed Farming in the Eastern Mediterranean. In Cohen MN, Armelagos GJ, editors. Paleopathology at the Origins of Agriculture. Orlando: Academic Press. 5171.
Angell A 1993. Chile since 1958. In Bethell L, editor. Chile Since Independence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 129202.
Angell N 1910. The Great Illusion: A Study of the Relation of Military Power in Nations to their Economic and Social Advantage London: Heinemann.
Anjana M, Sandeep S, Deepa R, Vimaleswaran KS, Farooq S and Mohan V 2004. Visceral and central abdominal fat and anthropometry in relation to diabetes in Asian Indians. Diabetes Care 27(12):2948–53.
Annas GJ 1995. Hunger strikes. BMJ 311(7013):1114–15.
Anson G 1748. A Voyage Round the World in the Years 1740 to 1744. London: John and Paul Knapton.
Antonov AN 1947. Children born during the siege of Leningrad in 1942. J Pediatr 30(3):250–9.
Antonovsky A 1967. Social class, life expectancy and overall mortality. Milbank Mem Fund Q 45(2):3173.
Antonovsky A 1968. Social class and the major cardiovascular diseases. J Chronic Dis 21(2):65106.
Appadurai A 1986. Introduction: commodities and the politics of value. In Appadurai A, editor. The Social Life of Things: Commodities in Cultural Perspective. Cambridge: University Press. 363.
Araghi FA 1995. Global depeasantization, 1945–1990. Sociol Q 36(2):337–68.
Arbuckle TE and Sherman GJ 1989. An analysis of birth weight by gestational age in Canada. CMAJ 140(2):157–60, 165.
Ardia DR, Schat KA and Winkler DW 2003. Reproductive effort reduces longterm immune function in breeding tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor). Proc R Soc Lond B 270:1679–83.
Arim RG, Shapka JD, Dahinten VS and Willms JD 2007. Patterns and correlates of pubertal development in Canadian youth: effects of family context. Can J Public Health 98(2):91–6.
Armelagos GJ, Goodman AH and Jacobs KH 1991. The origins of agriculture: population growth during a period of declining health. Pop Env 13(1):922.
Aryeetey R, Ashinyo A and Adjuik M 2011. Age of menarche among basic level school girls in Medina, Accra. Afr J Reprod Health 15(3):103–10.
Asao K, Kao WH, Baptiste-Roberts K, Bandeen-Roche K, Erlinger TP and Brancati FL 2006. Short stature and the risk of adiposity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes in middle age: the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988–1994. Diabetes Care 29(7):1632–7.
Asghar M, Hasselquist D, Hansson B, Zehtindjiev P, Westerdahl H and Bensch S 2015. Chronic infection. Hidden costs of infection: chronic malaria accelerates telomere degradation and senescence in wild birds. Science 347(6220):436–8.
Asgharnia M, Faraji R, Sharami H, Yadak M and Oudi M 2009. A study of menarcheal age in northern Iran (rasht). Oman Med J 24(2):95–8.
Ashok K, Guan Z and Yamagata T 2001. Impact of the Indian Ocean Dipole on the relationship between the Indian Monsoon rainfall and ENSO. Geo Res Lett 28:44994502.
Astrup A 2006. The trans fatty acid story in Denmark. Atheroscler Suppl 7(2):43–6.
Atkins PJ 2005. Fattening children or fattening farmers? School milk in Britain, 1921–1941. Econ Hist Rev 58(1):5778.
Auer SK, Arendt JD, Chandramouli R and Reznick DN 2010. Juvenile compensatory growth has negative consequences for reproduction in Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata). Ecol Lett 13(8):9981007.
Auerbach BM 2011. Reaching great heights: changes in indigenous stature, body size and body shape with agricultural intensification in North America. In Pinhasi R and Stock JT, editors. Human Bioarchaeology of the Transition to Agriculture. Chichester, UK: John Wiley and Sons Ltd. 203–33.
Austad SN 1993. Retarded senescence in an insular population of Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana). J Zool 229(4):695708.
Avena NM, Rada P and Hoebel BG 2008. Evidence for sugar addiction: behavioral and neurochemical effects of intermittent, excessive sugar intake. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 32(1):2039.
Bach PB, Pham HH, Schrag D, Tate RC and Hargraves JL 2004. Primary care physicians who treat blacks and whites. N Engl J Med 351(6):575–84.
Baig U, Belsare P, Watve M and Jog M 2011. Can thrifty gene(s) or predictive fetal programming for thriftiness lead to obesity? J Obes 2011:861049.
Bailey KV 1965. Quantity and composition of breastmilk in some New Guinean populations. J Trop Pediatr Afr Child Health 11(2):3549.
Baird D 1949. Social factors in obstetrics. Lancet i:1079–83.
Baird S, Friedman J and Schady N 2011. Aggregate income shocks and infant mortality in the developing world. Rev Econ Stat 93(3):847–56.
Bairey Merz CN, Dwyer J, Nordstrom CK, Walton KG, Salerno JW and Schneider RH 2002. Psychosocial stress and cardiovascular disease: pathophysiological links. Behav Med 27(4):141–7.
Bajekal M 2005. Healthy life expectancy by area deprivation: magnitude and trends in England, 1994–1999. Health Stat Q(25):1827.
Bakan J 2015. The invisible hand of law: private regulation and the rule of law. Cornell Int Law J 48:279300.
Baker EA, Schootman M, Barnidge E and Kelly C 2006. The role of race and poverty in access to foods that enable individuals to adhere to dietary guidelines. Prev Chronic Dis 3(3):A76.
Baker SJ 1940. Fighting for Life. London: Robert Hale.
Bakewell MA, Shi P and Zhang J 2007. More genes underwent positive selection in chimpanzee evolution than in human evolution. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104(18):7489–94.
Balasubramanyam M, Adaikalakoteswari A, Monickaraj SF and Mohan V 2007. Telomere shortening & metabolic/vascular diseases. Indian J Med Res 125(3):441–50.
Balikci A 1970. The Netsilik Eskimo. Garden City, NY: Natural History Press.
Balter M 2010. Archaeology: of two minds about Toba’s impact. Science 327(5970):1187–8.
Bambra C 2007. Going beyond the three worlds of welfare capitalism: regime theory and public health research. J Epidemiol Community Health 61(12):1098–102.
Bar-Yosef O and Belfer-Cohen A 1992. From foarging to farming in the Mediterranean Levant. In Gebauer AB and Price TD, editors. Transitions to Agriculture in Prehistory: Monographs in World Prehistory 4. Madison, WI: Prehistory Press. 2148.
Barbier EB 2014. Economics: account for depreciation of natural capital. Nature 515:32–3.
Barbosa L, Butte NF, Villalpando S, Wong WW and Smith EO 1997. Maternal energy balance and lactation performance of Mesoamerindians as a function of body mass index. Am J Clin Nutr 66(3):575–83.
Barbujani G, Magagni A, Minch E and Cavalli-Sforza LL 1997. An apportionment of human DNA diversity. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 94(9):4516–9.
Barclay AW, Petocz P, McMillan-Price J, Flood VM, Prvan T, Mitchell P and Brand-Miller JC 2008. Glycemic index, glycemic load, and chronic disease risk–a meta-analysis of observational studies. Am J Clin Nutr 87(3):627–37.
Barker DJ 1981. Geographical variations in disease in Britain. BMJ 283(6288):398400.
Barker DJ 1992. Fetal and Infant Origins of Adult Disease. London: British Medical Journal.
Barker DJ 1998. Mothers, Babies and Health in Later Life. Edinburgh: Churchill.
Barker DJ, Bull AR, Osmond C and Simmonds SJ 1990. Fetal and placental size and risk of hypertension in adult life. BMJ 301(6746):259–62.
Barker DJ, Forsen T, Eriksson JG and Osmond C 2002. Growth and living conditions in childhood and hypertension in adult life: a longitudinal study. J Hypertens 20(10):1951–6.
Barker DJ, Godfrey KM, Osmond C and Bull A 1992. The relation of fetal length, ponderal index and head circumference to blood pressure and the risk of hypertension in adult life. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 6(1):3544.
Barker DJ, Hales CN, Fall CH, Osmond C, Phipps K and Clark PM 1993a. Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus, hypertension and hyperlipidaemia (syndrome X): relation to reduced fetal growth. Diabetologia 36(1):62–7.
Barker DJ, Martyn CN, Osmond C, Hales CN and Fall CH 1993b. Growth in utero and serum cholesterol concentrations in adult life. BMJ 307(6918):1524–7.
Barker DJ and Osmond C 1986a. Childhood respiratory infection and adult chronic bronchitis in England and Wales. BMJ 293(6557):1271–5.
Barker DJ and Osmond C 1986b. Diet and coronary heart disease in England and Wales during and after the second world war. J Epidemiol Community Health 40(1):3744.
Barker DJ and Osmond C 1986c. Infant mortality, childhood nutrition, and ischaemic heart disease in England and Wales. Lancet i(8489):1077–81.
Barker DJ and Osmond C 1987. Death rates from stroke in England and Wales predicted from past maternal mortality. BMJ 295(6590):83–6.
Barker DJ, Osmond C, Forsen TJ, Kajantie E and Eriksson JG 2005. Trajectories of growth among children who have coronary events as adults. N Engl J Med 353(17):1802–9.
Barker DJ, Osmond C, Simmonds SJ and Wield GA 1993c. The relation of small head circumference and thinness at birth to death from cardiovascular disease in adult life. BMJ 306(6875):422–6.
Barker DJ, Winter PD, Osmond C, Margetts B and Simmonds SJ 1989. Weight in infancy and death from ischaemic heart disease. Lancet 2(8663):577–80.
Barnard CJ and Sibly RM 1981. Producers and scroungers: a general model and its application to captive flocks of house sparrows. Anim Behav 29:543–50.
Barone-Adesi F, Gasparrini A, Vizzini L, Merletti F and Richiardi L 2011. Effects of Italian smoking regulation on rates of hospital admission for acute coronary events: a country-wide study. PLoS One 6(3):e17419.
Barr DP, Russ EM and Eder HA 1951. Protein-lipid relationships in human plasma. II. In atherosclerosis and related conditions. Am J Med 11(4):480–93.
Barreiro LB and Quintana-Murci L 2010. From evolutionary genetics to human immunology: how selection shapes host defence genes. Nat Rev Genet 11(1):1730.
Barros AJ, Victora CG, Horta BL, Goncalves HD, Lima RC and Lynch J 2006. Effects of socioeconomic change from birth to early adulthood on height and overweight. Int J Epidemiol 35(5):1233–8.
Barta Z and Giraldeau L-A 1998. The effect of dominance hierarchy on the use of alternative foraging tactics: a phenotype-limited producing-scrounging game. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 42:217–23.
Barta Z and Giraldeau L-A 2000. Daily patterns of optimal producer and scrounger use under predation hazard: a state-dependent dynamic game analysis. Am Nat 155(4):570–82.
Bartley M 1985. Coronary heart disease and the public health 1850–1983. Sociol Health Illness 7:289312.
Bartness TJ, Demas GE and Song CK 2002. Seasonal changes in adiposity: the roles of the photoperiod, melatonin and other hormones, and sympathetic nervous system. Exp Biol Med 227(6):363–76.
Bartz S, Mody A, Hornik C, Bain J, Muehlbauer M, Kiyimba T, Kiboneka E, Stevens R, Bartlett J, St Peter JV et al. 2014. Severe acute malnutrition in childhood: hormonal and metabolic status at presentation, response to treatment, and predictors of mortality. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 99(6):2128–37.
Baruzzi R and Franco L 1981. Amerindians of Brazil. In Trowell HC and Burkitt DP, editors. Western Diseases: Their Emergence and Prevention. London: Edward Arnold. 138–53.
Basciano H, Federico L and Adeli K 2005. Fructose, insulin resistance, and metabolic dyslipidemia. Nutr Metab 2(1):5.
Basham AL 1959. The Wonder That Was India. Volume 1. London: Sidgwick and Jackson.
Basu S, McKee M, Galea G and Stuckler D 2013a. Relationship of soft drink consumption to global overweight, obesity, and diabetes: a cross-national analysis of 75 countries. Am J Public Health 103(11):2071–7.
Basu S, Stuckler D, McKee M and Galea G 2013b. Nutritional determinants of worldwide diabetes: an econometric study of food markets and diabetes prevalence in 173 countries. Public Health Nutr 16(1):179–86.
Basu S, Yoffe P, Hills N and Lustig RH 2013c. The relationship of sugar to population-level diabetes prevalence: an econometric analysis of repeated cross-sectional data. PLoS One 8(2):e57873.
Baten J and Blum M 2012a. Growing tall but unequal: New findings and new background evidence on anthropometric welfare in 156 countries, 1810–1989. Econ Hist Dev Regions 27 Suppl 1:S66S85.
Baten J and MB 2012b. An anthropometric history of the world, 1810–1980: did migration and globalization influence country trends? J Anthropol Sci 90:14.
Bateson P 1994. The dynamics of parent-offspring relationships in mammals. Trends Ecol Evol 9(10):399403.
Bateson P 2001. Fetal experience and good adult design. Int J Epidemiol 30(5):928–34.
Bateson P, Barker D, Clutton-Brock T, Deb D, D’Udine B, Foley RA, Gluckman P, Godfrey K, Kirkwood T, Lahr MM et al. 2004. Developmental plasticity and human health. Nature 430(6998):419–21.
Bateson P and Gluckman P 2011. Plasticity, Robustness, Development and Evolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Bateson P and Martin PC 1999. Design for a Life: How Behaviour Develops. London: Cape.
Bathula R, Hughes AD, Panerai RB, Potter JF, Mc GTSA, Tillin T, Shore AC, Hale R, Chambers J, Kooner J et al. 2011. South Asians have adverse cerebrovascular haemodynamics, despite equivalent blood pressure, compared with Europeans. This is due to their greater hyperglycaemia. Int J Epidemiol 40(6):1490–8.
Batniji R, Rabaia Y, Nguyen-Gillham V, Giacaman R, Sarraj E, Punamaki RL, Saab H and Boyce W 2009. Health as human security in the occupied Palestinian territory. Lancet 373(9669):1133–43.
Baudrillard J 1970/1998. The Consumer Society: Myths and Structures. London: Sage Publications Ltd. 69.
Baumeister RF and Heatherton TF 1996. Self-regulation failure: an overview. Psychol Inquiry 7:115.
Bavdekar A, Yajnik CS, Fall CHD, Bapat S, Pandit AN, Deshpande V, Bhave S, Kellingray SD and Joglekar C 1999. Insulin resistance syndrome in 8-year-old Indian children – small at birth, big at 8 years, or both? Diabetes 48(12):2422–9.
Beaton GH 1989. Small but healthy? Are we asking the right question? Eur J Clin Nutr 43(12):863–75.
Beauchamp C 2006. Phenotypic correlates of scrounging behavior in zebra finches: role of foraging efficiency and dominance. Ethol 112:873–8.
Beaumont HJ, Gallie J, Kost C, Ferguson GC and Rainey PB 2009. Experimental evolution of bet hedging. Nature 462(7269):90–3.
Beaumont J 2011. Population: Social Trends 41. Cardiff: Office for National Statistics.
Becker J 1996. Hungry Ghosts: China’s Secret Famine. London: John Murray.
Becquet C and Przeworski M 2007. A new approach to estimate parameters of speciation models with application to apes. Genom Res 17(10):1505–19.
Behrensmeyer AK 2006. Atmosphere. Climate change and human evolution. Science 311(5760):476–8.
Behrensmeyer AK, Damuth JD, Dimichele WA, Potts R, Sues H-D and Wing SL 1992. Terrestrial Ecosystems Through Time: Evolutionary Paleoecology of Terrestrial Plants and Animals. Chicago, IL: Chicago University Press.
Bellwood P 2005. First Farmers: The Origins of Agricultural Societies. Oxford: Blackwell.
Belsare PV, Watve MG, Ghaskadbi SS, Bhat DS, Yajnik CS and Jog M 2010. Metabolic syndrome: aggression control mechanisms gone out of control. Med Hyp 74(3):578–89.
Belsky J, Steinberg LD, Houts RM, Friedman SL, DeHart G, Cauffman E, Roisman GI, Halpern-Felsher BL and Susman E 2007. Family rearing antecedents of pubertal timing. Child Dev 78(4):1302–21.
Ben-Shlomo Y and Smith GD 1991. Deprivation in infancy or in adult life: which is more important for mortality risk? Lancet 337(8740):530–4.
Bendix R 1964. Nation-building and Citizenship: Studies of Our Changing Social Order. New York: Wiley.
Benedict R 1935. Patterns of Culture. London: Routledge.
Benetos A, Okuda K, Lajemi M, Kimura M, Thomas F, Skurnick J, Labat C, Bean K and Aviv A 2001. Telomere length as an indicator of biological aging: the gender effect and relation with pulse pressure and pulse wave velocity. Hypertension 37(2 Part 2):381–5.
Benhariz M, Goulet O, Salas J, Colomb V and Ricour C 1997. Energy cost of fever in children on total parenteral nutrition. Clin Nutr 16(5):251–5.
Bennett A, Epstein LD, Gilman RH, Cama V, Bern C, Cabrera L, Lescano AG, Patz J, Carcamo C, Sterling CR et al. 2012. Effects of the 1997–1998 El Nino episode on community rates of diarrhea. Am J Public Health 102(7):e6369.
Bennett J 1987. The Hunger Machine: The Politics of Food. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Benoit SC, Clegg DJ, Seeley RJ and Woods SC 2004. Insulin and leptin as adiposity signals. Recent Prog Horm Res 59:267–85.
Bentham J 1791/1995. The Panopticon Writings. London: Verso.
Bentley A, Das S, Alcock G, Shah More N, Pantvaidya S and Osrin D 2015. Malnutrition and infant and young child feeding in informal settlements in Mumbai, India: findings from a census. Food Sci Nutr 3(3):257–71.
Bentley GR, Goldberg T and Jasienska G 1993. The fertility of agricultural and non-agricultural traditional societies. Popul Stud 47(2):269–81.
Benyshek DC, Johnston CS and Martin JF 2004. Post-natal diet determines insulin resistance in fetally malnourished, low birthweight rats (F1) but diet does not modify the insulin resistance of their offspring (F2). Life Sci 74(24):3033–41.
Benyshek DC and Watson JT 2006. Exploring the thrifty genotype’s food-shortage assumptions: a cross-cultural comparison of ethnographic accounts of food security among foraging and agricultural societies. Am J Phys Anthropol 131(1):120–6.
Berbesque JC, Marlowe FW, Shaw P and Thompson P 2014. Hunter-gatherers have less famine than agriculturalists. Biol Lett 10(1):20130853.
Berg C, Rosengren A, Aires N, Lappas G, Toren K, Thelle D and Lissner L 2005. Trends in overweight and obesity from 1985 to 2002 in Goteborg, West Sweden. Int J Obes 29(8):916–24.
Berger J 1979. Pig Earth. London: Bloomsbury.
Berger P and Negus N 1992. Offspring growth and development responses to maternal transfer of 6-MBOA information in Microtus montanus. Can J Zool 70:518–22.
Berger PL and Luckmann T 1967. The Social Construction of Reality: A Treatise in the Sociology of Knowledge. London: Allen Lane.
Bergman BC, Cornier MA, Horton TJ and Bessesen DH 2007. Effects of fasting on insulin action and glucose kinetics in lean and obese men and women. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 293(4):E11031111.
Bergman RN, Ader M, Huecking K and Van CG 2002. Accurate assessment of beta-cell function: the hyperbolic correction. Diabetes 51 Suppl 1:S212S220.
Bergmann C 1847. Über die Verhältnisse der wärmeökonomie der Thiere zu ihrer Grösse. Göttinger Studien 3:595708.
Bergvall N, Iliadou A, Johansson S, de Faire U, Kramer MS, Pawitan Y, Pedersen NL, Lichtenstein P and Cnattingius S 2007. Genetic and shared environmental factors do not confound the association between birth weight and hypertension: a study among Swedish twins. Circulation 115(23):2931–8.
Berkey CS, Colditz GA, Rockett HR, Frazier AL and Willett WC 2009. Dairy consumption and female height growth: prospective cohort study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 18(6):1881–7.
Bernard C 1974. Lectures on the Phenomena Common to Animals and Plants. Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas.
Bernays E 1928. Propaganda. New York: H. Liverwright.
Bernheimer CS 1905/1971. The Russian Jew in the United States: Studies of Social Conditions in New York, Philadelphia, and Chicago, with a Description of Rural Settlements. New York: A. M. Kelley.
Bernstein H 2006. Once were/still are peasants? Farming in a globalising ‘South’. New Polit Econ 11(3):399406.
Bernstein W 2008. A splendid exchange: how trade shaped the world. London: Atlantic Books.
Berson SA and Yalow RS 1965. Some current controversies in diabetes research. Diabetes 14(9):549–72.
Bertram BC 1975. Social factors influencing reproduction in wild lions. J Zool 177:463–82.
Bettenhausen K and Murnighan JK 1985. The emergence of norms in competitive decision-making groups. Admin Sci Quart 30:350–72.
Beuret CJ, Zirulnik F, Giménez MS 2005. Effect of the herbicide glyphosate on liver lipoperoxidation in pregnant rats and their fetuses. Reprod Toxicol 19(4):501–4.
Bhalotra S 2010. Fatal fluctuations? Cyclicality in infant mortality in India. J Dev Econ 93(1):719.
Bhandari N, Bahl R, Taneja S, de Onis M, Bhan MK 2002. Growth performance of affluent Indian children is similar to that in developed countries. Bull World Health Organ 80(3):189–95.
Bhardwaj S, Misra A, Misra R, Goel K, Bhatt SP, Rastogi K, Vikram NK and Gulati S 2011. High prevalence of abdominal, intra-abdominal and subcutaneous adiposity and clustering of risk factors among urban Asian Indians in North India. PLoS One 6(9):e24362.
Bhargava SK, Sachdev HS, Fall CH, Osmond C, Lakshmy R, Barker DJ, Biswas SK, Ramji S, Prabhakaran D and Reddy KS 2004. Relation of serial changes in childhood body-mass index to impaired glucose tolerance in young adulthood. N Engl J Med 350(9):865–75.
Bhatia LS, Curzen NP, Calder PC and Byrne CD 2012. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a new and important cardiovascular risk factor? Eur Heart J 33(10):1190–200.
Bhattacharya N, Khadse A 2013. Indian farmers rise up against the corporate hijack of the world. La Via Campesina’s Open Book.
Bhopal R, Rahemtulla T and Sheikh A 2005. Persistent high stroke mortality in Bangladeshi populations. BMJ 331(7525):1096–97.
Bhuiyan AR, Srinivasan SR, Chen W, Azevedo MJ and Berenson GS 2011. Influence of low birth weight on C-reactive protein in asymptomatic younger adults: the bogalusa heart study. BMC Res Notes 4:71.
Bhutta ZA, Bawany FA, Feroze A, Rizvi A, Thapa SJ and Patel M 2009. Effects of the crises on child nutrition and health in East Asia and the Pacific. Global Social Policy 9:119–43.
Bianchini F, Kaaks R and Vainio H 2002. Overweight, obesity, and cancer risk. Lancet Oncol 3(9):565–74.
Bicca-Marques JC and Garber PA 2005. Use of social and ecological information in tamarin foraging decisions. Int J Primatol 26:1321–44.
Bielicki T, Szczotka H and Charzewski J 1981. The influence of three socio-economic factors on body height in Polish military conscripts. Hum Biol 53(4):543–55.
Bielicki T, Waliszko A, Hulanicka B and Kotlarz K 1986. Social-class gradients in menarcheal age in Poland. Ann Hum Biol 13(1):111.
Bindon JR and Baker PT 1985. Modernization, migration and obesity among Samoan adults. Ann Hum Biol 12(1):6776.
Bingham B, McFadden K, Zhang X, Bhatnagar S, Beck S and Valentino R 2011. Early adolescence as a critical window during which social stress distinctly alters behavior and brain norepinephrine activity. Neuropsychopharmacol 36(4):896909.
Bingham Powell G 2000. Elections as Instruments of Democracy: Majoritarian and Proportionate Visions. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Biondi F, Gershunov A and Cayan DR 2001. North Pacific Decadal Climate Variability Since 1661. J Climate 14:510.
Biron-Shental T, Sukenik Halevy R, Goldberg-Bittman L, Kidron D, Fejgin MD and Amiel A 2010a. Telomeres are shorter in placental trophoblasts of pregnancies complicated with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Early Hum Dev 86(7):451–6.
Biron-Shental T, Sukenik-Halevy R, Sharon Y, Goldberg-Bittman L, Kidron D, Fejgin MD and Amiel A 2010b. Short telomeres may play a role in placental dysfunction in preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction. Am J Obstet Gynecol 202(4):e381–7.
Bischoff LL, Tschirren B and Richner H 2009. Long-term effects of early parasite exposure on song duration and singing strategy in great tits. Behav Ecol 20:265–70.
Bjorntorp P and Rosmond R 2000. The metabolic syndrome–a neuroendocrine disorder? Br J Nutr 83 Suppl 1:S4957.
Black PH and Garbutt LD 2002. Stress, inflammation and cardiovascular disease. J Psychosomat Res 52(1):123.
Black RE, Victora CG, Walker SP, Bhutta ZA, Christian P, de Onis M, Ezzati M, Grantham-McGregor S, Katz J, Martorell R et al. 2013. Maternal and child undernutrition and overweight in low-income and middle-income countries. Lancet 382(9890):427–51.
Blaser MJ and Falkow S 2009. What are the consequences of the disappearing human microbiota? Nature Rev Microbiol 7(12):887–94.
Block F and Somers M 2003. In the shadow of Speenhamland: social policy and the old poor law. Polit Soc 31:283321.
Block JP, Scribner RA and DeSalvo KB 2004. Fast food, race/ethnicity, and income: a geographic analysis. Am J Prev Med 27(3):211–17.
Bloom DE, Canning D, Hu L, Liu Y, Mahal A and Yip W 2010. The contribution of population health and demographic change to economic growth in China and India. J Comp Econ 38(1):1733.
Bloom DE, Canning D and Sevilla J 2004. The effect of health on economic growth: a production function approach. World Dev 32(1):113.
Bloom KJ 1993. Mississippi Valley’s Great Yellow Fever Epidemic of 1878. Baton Rouge: Louisana State University Press.
Blum K, Thanos PK and Gold MS 2014. Dopamine and glucose, obesity, and reward deficiency syndrome. Frontiers Psychol 5:919.
Blum W 1994. Killing Hope: U.S. Military and CIA Interventions Since World War II. Monroe, Maine: Common Courage Press.
Blundell S 1995. Women in Ancient Greece. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
BMJ 1903/1904. Physical degeneration. BMJ 1903: 1338–41; 1430–1; 1471–4. 1904: 1986–8; 1140–2.
Boehm C 1993. Egalitarian behavior and reverse dominance hierarchy. Curr Anthropol 34:227254.
Boehm C 1999. Hierarchy in the Forest: The Evolution of Egalitarian Behaviour. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Boesch C, Kohou G, Nene H and Vigilant L 2006. Male competition and paternity in wild chimpanzees of the Tai forest. Am J Phys Anthropol 130(1):103–15.
Bogin B 1999. Patterns of Human Growth (2nd edition). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Bogin B 2009. Childhood, adolescence, and longevity: a multilevel model of the evolution of reserve capacity in human life history. Am J Hum Biol 21(4):567–77.
Bogin B and Baker J 2012. Low birth weight does not predict the ontogeny of relative leg length of infants and children: an allometric analysis of the NHANES III sample. Am J Phys Anthropol 148(4):487–94.
Bogin B and Keep R 1999. Eight thousand years of economic and political history in Latin America revealed by anthropometry. Ann Hum Biol 26(4):333–51.
Bogin B, Smith P, Orden AB, Varela Silva MI and Loucky J 2002. Rapid change in height and body proportions of Maya American children. Am J Hum Biol 14(6):753–61.
Bogin B and Varela-Silva MI 2010. Leg length, body proportion, and health: a review with a note on beauty. Int J Env Res Public Health 7(3):1047–75.
Boisaubin EV 1988. Cardiology in ancient Egypt. Texas Heart Inst J 15(2):80–5.
Boivin N 2007. Anthropological, historical, archaeological and genetic perspectives on the origins of caste in South Asia. In Petraglia MD and Allchin B, editors. The Evolution and History of Human Populations in South Asia. Dordrecht: Springer. 341–61.
Boix C and Rosenbluth F 2004. Bones of contention: the political economy of height inequality. Annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.
Bolduan C and Weiner L 1933. Causes of death among Jews of N. Y. city. New Engl J Med 208:407–16.
Bonds DR, Gabbe SG, Kumar S and Taylor T 1984. Fetal weight/placental weight ratio and perinatal outcome. Am J Obstet Gynecol 149(2):195200.
Bonetti PO, Trachsel LD, Kuhn MU, Schulzki T, Erne P, Radovanovic D and Reinhart WH 2011. Incidence of acute myocardial infarction after implementation of a public smoking ban in Graubunden, Switzerland: two year follow-up. Swiss Med Wkly 141:w13206.
Boney CM, Verma A, Tucker R and Vohr BR 2005. Metabolic syndrome in childhood: association with birth weight, maternal obesity, and gestational diabetes mellitus. Pediatri 115(3):e290–6.
Bonnefille R, Potts R, Chalie F, Jolly D and Peyron O 2004. High-resolution vegetation and climate change associated with Pliocene Australopithecus afarensis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101(33):12125–9.
Bonner JT 1965. Size and Cycle. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Bonner R 1982. Guatemala Enlists Religion in Battle. New York Times, 18 July.
Borgerhoff Mulder M, Fazzio I, Irons W, McElreath RL, Bowles S, Bell AC, Hertz T and Hazzah L 2010. Pastoralism and wealth inequality: revisiting an old question. Curr Anthropol 51:3548.
Borghol N, Suderman M, McArdle W, Racine A, Hallett M, Pembrey M, Hertzman C, Power C and Szyf M 2012. Associations with early-life socio-economic position in adult DNA methylation. Int J Epidemiol 41(1):6274.
Borinskaya SA, Gureev AS, Orlova AA, Sanina ED, Kim AA, Gasemianrodsari F, Shirmanov VI, Balanovsky OP, Rebrikov DV, Koshechkin AV et al. 2013. Allele frequency distributions of −174G/C polymorphism in regulatory region of interleukin 6 gene (IL6) in Russian and worldwide populations. Russian J Genet 49:90109.
Borkin J 1979. The Crime and Punishment of I.G. Farben. London: Deutsch.
Born JM, Lemmens SG, Rutters F, Nieuwenhuizen AG, Formisano E, Goebel R and Westeterp-Plantenga MS 2010. Acute stress and food-related reward activation in the brain during food choice during eating in the absence of hunger. Int J Obes 34(1):172–81.
Borodin L 1984. The year of miracle and grief. London: Quartet Books.
Borodin L 1991. The Third Truth. London: Collins-Harvill. 131.
Bos PA, Terburg D and van Honk J 2010. Testosterone decreases trust in socially naive humans. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107(22):9991–5.
Bourne LT, Langenhoven ML, Steyn K, Jooste PL, Laubscher JA and Bourne DE 1994. Nutritional status of 3–6 year-old African children in the Cape Peninsula. East Afr Med J 71(11):695702.
Bouwens L and Rooman I 2005. Regulation of pancreatic beta-cell mass. Physiol Rev 85(4):1255–70.
Bove I, Miranda T, Campoy C, Uauy R and Napol M 2012. Stunting, overweight and child development impairment go hand in hand as key problems of early infancy: Uruguayan case. Early Hum Dev 88(9):747–51.
Bowen L, Ebrahim S, De Stavola B, Ness A, Kinra S, Bharathi AV, Prabhakaran D and Reddy KS 2011. Dietary intake and rural-urban migration in India: a cross-sectional study. PLoS One 6(6):e14822.
Bowen RS, Moodley J, Dutton MF and Theron AJ 2001. Oxidative stress in pre-eclampsia. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 80(8):719–25.
Bowles S and Gintis H 1986. Democracy and Capitalism: Property, Community, and the Contradictions of Modern Social Thought. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
Bowles S, Smith EA and Borgerhoff Mulder M 2010. The emergence and persistence of inequality in premodern societies. Curr Anthropol 51:717.
Bowling M, Burch N, Johanson M and Tammelin O 2015. Computer science. Heads-up limit hold’em poker is solved. Science 347(6218):145–9.
Boxer CR 1969. The Portuguese Seaborne Empire 1415–1825. London: Hutchinson and Co Ltd.
Bradbury J 1992. The Medieval Siege. Woodbridge: Boydell Press.
Bradley AJ, McDonald IR and Lee AK 1980. Stress and mortality in a small marsupial (Antechinus stuartii, Macleay). Gen Comp Endocrinol 40:188200.
Bradshaw PJ, Alfonso HS, Finn J, Owen J and Thompson PL 2011. A comparison of coronary heart disease event rates among urban Australian Aboriginal people and a matched non-Aboriginal population. J Epidemiol Community Health 65(4):315–19.
Brambila-Macias J, Shankar B, Capacci S, Mazzocchi M, Perez-Cueto FJ, Verbeke W and Traill WB 2011. Policy interventions to promote healthy eating: a review of what works, what does not, and what is promising. Food Nutr Bull 32(4):365–75.
Brass T 2015. Peasants, academics, populists: Forward to the past? Critique in Anthropology 35(2):187204
Braudel F 1967/1973. Capitalism and Material Life. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson.
Bray GA 1990. Obesity: historical development of scientific and cultural ideas. Int J Obes 14(11):909–26.
Bremer AA, Mietus-Snyder M and Lustig RH 2012. Toward a unifying hypothesis of metabolic syndrome. Pediatr 129(3):557–70.
Brennan L, McDonald J and Shlomowitz R 1997. Towards an anthropometric history of Indians under British rule. Res Econ Hist 17:185246.
Brennan L, McDonald J and Shlomowitz R 2004. A long run decline in final adult height in India? Man Ind 84:913.
Brezis ES 2001. Social classes, demographic transition and economic growth. Eur Econ Rev 45(6):707–17.
Brialic I, Rodin U, Vrdoljak J, Plavec D and Capkun V 2006. Secular birth weight changes in liveborn infants before, during, and after 1991–1995 homeland war in Croatia. Croat Med J 47(3):452–8.
Bribiescas RG and Anestis SF 2010. Leptin associations with age, weight, and sex among chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). J Med Primatol 39(5):347–55.
Brieger GM, Rogers MS, Rushton AW and Mongelli M 1997. Are Hong Kong babies getting bigger? Int J Gynaecol Obstet 57(3):267–71.
Brinda E, Rajkumar A, Enemark U 2015. Association between gender inequality index and child mortality rates: a cross-national study of 138 countries. BMC Public Health 15:97.
Brockmann HJ and Barnard CJ 1979. Kleptoparasitism in birds. Anim Behav 27:487514.
Brodersen NH, Steptoe A, Boniface DR and Wardle J 2007. Trends in physical activity and sedentary behaviour in adolescence: ethnic and socioeconomic differences. Br J Sport Med 41(3):140–4.
Broecker WS 1997. Thermohaline circulation, the achilles heel of our climate system: will man-made CO2 upset the current balance? Science 278(5343):1582–8.
Brosnan SF 2006. Nonhuman species’ reactions to inequity and their implications for fairness. Soc Justice Res 19(2):153–85.
Brosnan SF and De Waal FB 2003. Monkeys reject unequal pay. Nature 425(6955):297–9.
Brouilette SW, Moore JS, McMahon AD, Thompson JR, Ford I, Shepherd J, Packard CJ and Samani NJ 2007. Telomere length, risk of coronary heart disease, and statin treatment in the West of Scotland Primary Prevention Study: a nested case-control study. Lancet 369(9556):107–14.
Brown DE 1991. Human Universals. New York: McGraw-Hill Inc.
Brown EA 2012. Genetic explorations of recent human metabolic adaptations: hypotheses and evidence. Biol Rev 87(4):838–55.
Brown IJ, Stamler J, Van Horn L, Robertson CE, Chan Q, Dyer AR, Huang CC, Rodriguez BL, Zhao L, Daviglus ML et al. 2011. Sugar-sweetened beverage, sugar intake of individuals, and their blood pressure: international study of macro/micronutrients and blood pressure. Hypertension 57(4):695701.
Brown JE, Jacobson HN, Askue LH and Peick MG 1981. Influence of pregnancy weight gain on the size of infants born to underweight women. Obstet Gynecol 57(1):1317.
Brown KH, Wuehler SE and Peerson JM 2001. The importance of zinc in human nutrition and estimation of the global prevalence of zinc deficiency. Food Nutr Bull 22(2):113–25.
Brown P, Sutikna T, Morwood MJ, Soejono RP, Jatmiko , Saptomo EW and Due RA 2004. A new small-bodied hominin from the Late Pleistocene of Flores, Indonesia. Nature 431(7012):1055–61.
Brown PJ 1987. Microparasites and macroparasites. Cult Anthropol 2(1):155–71.
Brown PJ and Konner M 1987. An anthropological perspective on obesity. Ann NY Acad Sci 499:2946.
Brown WM, Cronk L, Grochow K, Jacobson A, Liu CK, Popovic Z and Trivers R 2005. Dance reveals symmetry especially in young men. Nature 438(7071):1148–50.
Brownell KD and Frieden TR 2009. Ounces of prevention–the public policy case for taxes on sugared beverages. N Engl J Med 360(18):1805–8.
Brownell KD and Warner KE 2009. The perils of ignoring history: Big Tobacco played dirty and millions died. How similar is Big Food? Milbank Q 87(1):259–94.
Brudevoll JE, Liestol K and Walloe L 1979. Menarcheal age in Oslo during the last 140 years. Ann Hum Biol 6(5):407–16.
Bruford MW, Bradley DG and Luikart G 2003. DNA markers reveal the complexity of livestock domestication. Nat Rev Genet 4(11):900–10.
Brundtland GH, Liestol K and Walloe L 1980. Height, weight and menarcheal age of Oslo schoolchildren during the last 60 years. Ann Hum Biol 7(4):307–22.
Brunner EJ, Hemingway H, Walker BR, Page M, Clarke P, Juneja M, Shipley MJ, Kumari M, Andrew R, Seckl JR et al. 2002. Adrenocortical, autonomic, and inflammatory causes of the metabolic syndrome: nested case-control study. Circulation 106(21):2659–65.
Bruss MB, Morris JR, Dannison LL, Orbe MP, Quitugua JA and Palacios RT 2005. Food, culture, and family: exploring the coordinated management of meaning regarding childhood obesity. Health Commun 18(2):155–75.
Buchan J 1997. Frozen Desire: An Inquiry into the Meaning of Money. London: Picador.
Buchanan KL, Leitner S, Spencer KA, Goldsmith AR and Catchpole CK 2004. Developmental stress selectively affects the song control nucleus HVC in the zebra finch. Proc Biol Sci 271(1555):2381–6.
Buchanan KL, Spencer KA, Goldsmith AR and Catchpole CK 2003. Song as an honest signal of past developmental stress in the European starling (Sturnus vulgaris). Proc Biol Sci 270(1520):1149–56.
Bucher HC, Hengstler P, Schindler C and Meier G 2002. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in coronary heart disease: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J Med 112(4):298304.
Buchwald H, Estok R, Fahrbach K, Banel D, Jensen MD, Pories WJ, Bantle JP and Sledge I 2009. Weight and type 2 diabetes after bariatric surgery: systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Med 122(3):248–56 e245.
Buck C and Simpson H 1982. Infant diarrhoea and subsequent mortality from heart disease and cancer. J Epidemiol Community Health 36(1):2730.
Burkart JM, Allon O, Amici F, Fichtel C, Finkenwirth C, Heschl A, Huber J, Isler K, Kosonen ZK, Martins E et al. 2014. The evolutionary origin of human hyper-cooperation. Nature Commun 5:4747.
Burman D, Mente A, Hegele RA, Islam S, Yusuf S and Anand SS 2009. Relationship of the ApoE polymorphism to plasma lipid traits among South Asians, Chinese, and Europeans living in Canada. Atherosclerosis 203(1):192200.
Bursztyn M and Raz I 1995. Blood pressure and insulin in Ethiopian immigrants: longitudinal study. J Hum Hypertens 9(4):245–8.
Bustamante CD, Fledel-Alon A, Williamson S, Nielsen R, Hubisz MT, Glanowski S, Tanenbaum DM, White TJ, Sninsky JJ, Hernandez RD et al. 2005. Natural selection on protein-coding genes in the human genome. Nature 437(7062):1153–7.
Butler C, Tull ES, Chambers EC and Taylor J 2002. Internalized racism, body fat distribution, and abnormal fasting glucose among African-Caribbean women in Dominica, West Indies. J Natl Med Assoc 94(3):143–8.
Butt HZ, Atturu G, London NJ, Sayers RD and Bown MJ 2010. Telomere length dynamics in vascular disease: a review. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 40(1):1726.
Byrne R 1995. The Thinking Ape: Evolutionary Origins of Intelligence. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Byrne R and Whiten A 1989. Machiavellian Intelligence: Social Expertise and the Evolution of Intellect in Monkeys, Apes, and Humans. Oxford: Oxford Science Publications.
Caballero AE 2003. Endothelial dysfunction in obesity and insulin resistance: a road to diabetes and heart disease. Obes Res 11(11):1278–89.
Cabanes A, Ascunce N, Vidal E, Ederra M, Barcos A, Erdozain N, Lope V and Pollan M 2009. Decline in age at menarche among Spanish women born from 1925 to 1962. BMC Public Health 9:449.
Cabral H, Fried LE, Levenson S, Amaro H and Zuckerman B 1990. Foreign-born and US-born black women: differences in health behaviors and birth outcomes. Am J Public Health 80(1):70–2.
Caesar J 1908. Commentaries on the Gallic Wars, Book VII, trans. Holmes T Rice. London: Macmillan.
Calimani R 1988. The Ghetto of Venice. Milan: Rusconi Libri.
Calvino I 1972/1974. Invisible Cities. Orlando, FL: Harcourt Brace and Co.
Cameron N 2003. Physical growth in a transitional economy: the aftermath of South African apartheid. Econ Hum Biol 1(1):2942.
Cameron N, Pettifor J, De WT and Norris S 2003. The relationship of rapid weight gain in infancy to obesity and skeletal maturity in childhood. Obes Res 11(3):457–60.
Cameron N, Wright MM, Griffiths PL, Norris SA and Pettifor JM 2005. Stunting at 2 years in relation to body composition at 9 years in African urban children. Obes Res 13(1):131–6.
Cameron WI, Moffitt PS and Williams DR 1986. Diabetes mellitus in the Australian aborigines of Bourke, New South Wales. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2(5):307–14.
Campbell DI, Elia M and Lunn PG 2003. Growth faltering in rural Gambian infants is associated with impaired small intestinal barrier function, leading to endotoxemia and systemic inflammation. J Nutr 133(5):1332–8.
Campbell DI, Lunn PG and Elia M 2002. Age-related association of small intestinal mucosal enteropathy with nutritional status in rural Gambian children. Br J Nutr 88(5):499505.
Campbell DI, McPhail G, Lunn PG, Elia M and Jeffries DJ 2004. Intestinal inflammation measured by fecal neopterin in Gambian children with enteropathy: association with growth failure, Giardia lamblia, and intestinal permeability. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 39(2):153–7.
Cani PD and Delzenne NM 2010. Involvement of the gut micorbiota in the development of low grade inflammation associated with obesity: focus on this neglected partner. Acta Gastroenterol Belg 73:267–9.
Cann RL, Stoneking M and Wilson AC 1987. Mitochondrial-DNA and human-evolution. Nature 325(6099):31–6.
Cannon WB 1929. Organization for physiological homeostasis. Physiol Rev 9(3):399431.
Capacci S and Mazzocchi M 2011. Five-a-day, a price to pay: an evaluation of the UK program impact accounting for market forces. J Health Econ 30(1):8798.
Capacci S, Mazzocchi M, Shankar B, Macias JB, Verbeke W, Perez-Cueto FJ, Koziol-Kozakowska A, Piorecka B, Niedzwiedzka B, D’Addesa D et al. 2012. Policies to promote healthy eating in Europe: a structured review of policies and their effectiveness. Nutr Rev 70(3):188200.
Capewell S, Beaglehole R, Seddon M and McMurray J 2000. Explanation for the decline in coronary heart disease mortality rates in Auckland, New Zealand, between 1982 and 1993. Circulation 102(13):1511–16.
Cardoso HF and Gomes JE 2008. Trends in adult stature of peoples who inhabited the modern Portuguese territory from the Meoslithic to the late 20th century. Int J Archaeol 2008: 115.
Carlson LA 1960. Serum lipids in men with myocardial infarction. Acta Med Scand 167:399413.
Carneiro R 1990. Chiefom-level warfare as exemplified in Fiji and the Cauca Valley. In Haas J, editor. The Anthropology of War. New York: Cambridge University Press. 190211.
Carroll JF, Chiapa AL, Rodriquez M, Phelps DR, Cardarelli KM, Vishwanatha JK, Bae S and Cardarelli R 2008. Visceral fat, waist circumference, and BMI: impact of race/ethnicity. Obesity 16(3):600–7.
Caruso C, Candore G, Colonna-Romano G, Lio D and Franceschi C 2005. Inflammation and life-span. Science 307(5707):208–9.
Castro JE 2008. Neoliberal water and sanitation policies as a failed development strategy lessons from developing countries. Prog Dev Stud 8(1):6383.
Catalano PM, Thomas A, Huston-Presley L and Amini SB 2003. Increased fetal adiposity: a very sensitive marker of abnormal in utero development. Am J Obstet Gynecol 189(6):1698–704.
Cavelaars AE, Kunst AE, Geurts JJ, Crialesi R, Grotvedt L, Helmert U, Lahelma E, Lundberg O, Mielck A, Rasmussen NK et al. 2000. Persistent variations in average height between countries and between socio-economic groups: an overview of 10 European countries. Ann Hum Biol 27(4):407–21.
Cawley R, McKeown T and Record R 1954. Parental stature and birth weight. Am J Hum Genet 6:448–56.
Cawthon RM, Smith KR, O’Brien E, Sivatchenko A and Kerber RA 2003. Association between telomere length in blood and mortality in people aged 60 years or older. Lancet 361(9355):393–5.
Ceesay SM, Prentice AM, Cole TJ, Foord F, Weaver LT, Poskitt EM and Whitehead RG 1997. Effects on birth weight and perinatal mortality of maternal dietary supplements in rural Gambia: 5 year randomised controlled trial. BMJ 315(7111):786–90.
Centre for Social Justice Working Group 2013. Maxed out: Serious personal debt in Britain. London: Centre for Social Justice.
Chadwick-Jones J 1998. Developing a Social Psychology of Monkeys and Apes. Hove, UK: Psychology Press, Taylor and Francis.
Chain PS, Carniel E, Larimer FW, Lamerdin J, Stoutland PO, Regala WM, Georgescu AM, Vergez LM, Land ML, Motin VL et al. 2004. Insights into the evolution of Yersinia pestis through whole-genome comparison with Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101(38):13826–31.
Chakravarti U 1985. Of Dasas and Karmakaras: servile labour in ancient India. In Patnaik U and Dingwaney M, editors. Chains of Servitude: Bondage and Slavery in India. Madras: Sangam Books Ltd. 3575.
Chambers EC, Tull ES, Fraser HS, Mutunhu NR, Sobers N and Niles E. 2004. The relationship of internalized racism to body fat distribution and insulin resistance among African adolescent youth. J Natl Med Assoc 96(12):1594–8.
Chandola T, Britton A, Brunner E, Hemingway H, Malik M, Kumari M, Badrick E, Kivimaki M and Marmot M 2008. Work stress and coronary heart disease: what are the mechanisms? Eur Heart J 29(5):640–8.
Chandola T, Brunner E and Marmot M 2006. Chronic stress at work and the metabolic syndrome: prospective study. BMJ 332(7540):521–5.
Chang H-J 2002. Kicking Away the Ladder: Development Strategy in Historical Perspective. London: Anthem Press.
Chang H-J 2010. 23 Things They Don’t Tell You About Capitalism. London: Allen Lane.
Chang VW 2006. Racial residential segregation and weight status among US adults. Soc Sci Med 63(5):1289–303.
Chang YL, Chang SD, Chao AS, Hsieh PC, Wang CN and Tseng LH 2008. The individual fetal weight/estimated placental weight ratios in monochorionic twins with selective intrauterine growth restriction. Prenat Diagn 28(3):217–21.
Chapman CR 2012. ‘Oh that you were like a brother to me, one who had nursed at my mother’s breasts.’ Breast milk as a kinship-forging substance. Journal of Hebrew Scriptures 12:Article 7 DOI:10.5508/jhs.2012.v5512.a5507.
Chaput JP 2011. Do active video games increase food intake? Am J Clin Nutr 94(4):1155; author reply 1156.
Chaput JP, Drapeau V, Poirier P, Teasdale N and Tremblay A 2008. Glycemic instability and spontaneous energy intake: association with knowledge-based work. Psychosom Med 70(7):797804.
Chaput JP and Tremblay A 2007. Acute effects of knowledge-based work on feeding behavior and energy intake. Physiol Behav 90(1):6672.
Chaput JP, Visby T, Nyby S, Klingenberg L, Gregersen NT, Tremblay A, Astrup A and Sjodin A 2011. Video game playing increases food intake in adolescents: a randomized crossover study. Am J Clin Nutr 93(6):1196–203.
Charbonneau-Roberts G, Saudny-Unterberger H, Kuhnlein HV and Egeland GM 2005. Body mass index may overestimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity among the Inuit. Int J Circumpolar Health 64(2):163–9.
Charlton J 1996. Which areas are healthiest? Popul Trends (83):1724.
Charnov EL 1993. Life History Invariants: Some Explorations of Symmetry in Evolutionary Ecology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Chaturvedi N, Bathula R, Shore AC, Panerai R, Potter J, Kooner J, Chambers J and Hughes AD 2012. South Asians have elevated postexercise blood pressure and myocardial oxygen consumption compared to Europeans despite equivalent resting pressure. J Am Heart Assoc 1(5):e000281.
Chavarro J, Villamor E, Narvaez J and Hoyos A 2004. Socio-demographic predictors of age at menarche in a group of Colombian university women. Ann Hum Biol 31(2):245–57.
Chen CM 2008. Overview of obesity in Mainland China. Obes Rev 9 Suppl 1:1421.
Chen FF, Wang YF and Mi J 2014. Timing and secular trend of pubertal development in Beijing girls. World J Pediatr 10(1):74–9.
Chen L, Caballero B, Mitchell DC, Loria C, Lin PH, Champagne CM, Elmer PJ, Ard JD, Batch BC, Anderson CA et al. 2010. Reducing consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages is associated with reduced blood pressure: a prospective study among United States adults. Circulation 121(22):2398–406.
Chen LC, Chowdhury A and Huffman SL 1980. Anthropometric assessment of energy-protein malnutrition and subsequent risk of mortality among preschool aged children. Am J Clin Nutr 33(8):1836–45.
Chen R, Corona E, Sikora M, Dudley JT, Morgan AA, Moreno-Estrada A, Nilsen GB, Ruau D, Lincoln SE, Bustamante CD et al. 2012a. Type 2 diabetes risk alleles demonstrate extreme directional differentiation among human populations, compared to other diseases. PLoS Genet 8(4):e1002621.
Chen X, Zhang ZX, George LK, Wang ZS, Fan ZJ, Xu T, Zhou XL, Han SM, Wen HB and Zeng Y 2012b. Birth measurements, family history, and environmental factors associated with later-life hypertensive status. Am J Hypertens 25(4):464–71.
Chen Z, Yang G, Offer A, Zhou M, Smith M, Peto R, Ge H, Yang L and Whitlock G 2012c. Body mass index and mortality in China: a 15-year prospective study of 220 000 men. Int J Epidemiol 41(2):472–81.
Cheney DL, and Seyfarth RM 1990. How Monkeys See the World. Inside the Mind of Another Species. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Cherif H, Tarry JL, Ozanne SE and Hales CN 2003. Ageing and telomeres: a study into organ- and gender-specific telomere shortening. Nucleic Acids Research 31(5):1576–83.
Cheung BM, Ong KL, Tso AW, Leung RY, Xu A, Cherny SS, Sham PC, Lam TH and Lam KS 2012. C-reactive protein as a predictor of hypertension in the Hong Kong Cardiovascular Risk Factor Prevalence Study (CRISPS) cohort. J Hum Hypertens 26(2):108–16.
Chiappelli F, Prolo P and Cajulis OS 2005. Evidence-based research in complementary and alternative medicine I: history. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2(4):453–8.
Chike-Obi U, David RJ, Coutinho R and Wu SY 1996. Birth weight has increased over a generation. Am J Epidemiol 144(6):563–9.
Childe VG 1950. The urban revolution. Town Plan Rev 21(1):317.
Chisholm JS, Quinlivan JA, Peterson RW and Coall DA 2005. Early stress predicts age at menarche and first birth, adult attachment, and expected lifespan. Hum Nature 16(3):233–65.
Chiswick ML 1985. Intrauterine growth retardation. Br Med J 291(6499):845–8.
Chomsky N 1999. Profit over People – Neoliberalism and Global Order. New York: Seven Stories Press.
Chomsky N and Herman ES 1994. Manufacturing Consent: The Political Economy of the Mass Media. London: Vintage.
Chomtho S, Wells JC, Williams JE, Davies PS, Lucas A and Fewtrell MS 2008. Infant growth and later body composition: evidence from the 4-component model. Am J Clin Nutr 87(6):1776–84.
Christakis NA and Fowler JH 2007. The spread of obesity in a large social network over 32 years. NEngl J Med 357(4):370–9.
Christensen K, Vaupel JW, Holm NV and Yashin AI 1995. Mortality among twins after age 6: fetal origins hypothesis versus twin method. BMJ 310(6977):432–6.
Christopoulou-Aletra H and Papavramidou N 2004. Methods used by the hippocratic physicians for weight reduction. World J Surg 28(5):513–17.
Chrousos GP 1995. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and immune-mediated inflammation. N Engl J Med 332(20):1351–62.
Churchill D, Perry IJ and Beevers DG 1997. Ambulatory blood pressure in pregnancy and fetal growth. Lancet 349(9044):710.
Cinnirella F 2008. Optimists or pessimists? A reconsideration of nutritional status in Britain, 1740–1865. Eur Rev Econ Hist 12:325–54.
Cinti S, Mitchell G, Barbatelli G, Murano I, Ceresi E, Faloia E, Wang S, Fortier M, Greenberg AS and Obin MS 2005. Adipocyte death defines macrophage localization and function in adipose tissue of obese mice and humans. J Lipid Res 46(11):2347–55.
Clark BF and York R 2005. Carbon metabolism: global capitalism, climate change, and the biospheric rift. Theor Soc 34:391428.
Clark CW and Mangel M 1986. The evolutionary advantages of group foraging. Theor Popul Biol 3:4575.
Cleave TL 1956. The neglect of natural principles in current medical practice. J Roy Naval Serv 42(2):5583.
Clements EM 1953. Changes in the mean stature and weight of British children over the past seventy years. BMJ 2(4842):897902.
Cliff N 2012. The Last Crusade: The Epic Voyages of Vasco da Gama. London: Atlantic Books.
Cnattingius S, Villamor E, Lagerros YT, Wikstrom AK and Granath F 2012. High birth weight and obesity-a vicious circle across generations. Int J Obes 36(10):1320–4.
Coale A 1974. History of the human population. Sci Am 231(3):4151.
Cochran G and Harpending H 2009. The 10,000 Year Explosion: How Civilization Accelerated Human Evolution. New York: Basic Books.
Cochran S 1980. Big Business in China: Sino-foreign Rivalry in the Cigarette Industry, 1890–1930. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Cockburn A and Russell AF 2011. Cooperative breeding: a question of climate? Curr Biol 21(5):R195–7.
Cockburn TA 1971. Infectious diseases in ancient populations. Curr Anthropol 12:4562.
Coelho PR and McGuire RA 2000 Diets versus diseases: the anthropometrics of slave children. J Econ Hist 60:232–46.
Coetzee CG 1975. The biology, behaviour, and ecology of Mastomys natalensis in southern Africa. Bull World Health Organ 52(4–6):637–44.
Cohen AS, Stone JR, Beuning KR, Park LE, Reinthal PN, Dettman D, Scholz CA, Johnson TC, King JW, Talbot MR et al. 2007. Ecological consequences of early Late Pleistocene megadroughts in tropical Africa. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104(42):16422–7.
Cohen DA 2008. Obesity and the built environment: changes in environmental cues cause energy imbalances. Int J Obes 32 Suppl 7:S137–42.
Cohen DA and Babey SH 2012. Contextual influences on eating behaviours: heuristic processing and dietary choices. Obes Rev 13(9):766–79.
Cohen JC, Kiss RS, Pertsemlidis A, Marcel YL, McPherson R and Hobbs HH 2004. Multiple rare alleles contribute to low plasma levels of HDL cholesterol. Science 305(5685):869–72.
Cohen JC, Pertsemlidis A, Fahmi S, Esmail S, Vega GL, Grundy SM and Hobbs HH 2006. Multiple rare variants in NPC1L1 associated with reduced sterol absorption and plasma low-density lipoprotein levels. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103(6):1810–15.
Cohen MN 1989. Health and the Rise of Civilisation. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Cohen MN 1998. The emergence of health and social inequalities in the archaeological record. In Strickland SS and Shetty PS, editors. Human Biology and Social Inequality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 249–71.
Cohen MN and Armelagos GJ 1984. Palaeopathology and the Origins of Agriculture. Orlando, Florida: Academic Press.
Colantuoni C, Rada P, McCarthy J, Patten C, Avena NM, Chadeayne A and Hoebel BG 2002. Evidence that intermittent, excessive sugar intake causes endogenous opioid dependence. Obes Res 10(6):478–88.
Cole TJ 2000. Secular trends in growth. Proc Nutr Soc 59(2):317–24.
Cole TJ, Freeman JV and Preece MA 1995. Body mass index reference curves for the UK, 1990. Arch Dis Child 73(1):25–9.
Collingham L 2011. The Taste of War: World War Two and the Battle for Food. London: Penguin.
Collins JW Jr., David RJ, Rankin KM and Desireddi JR 2009. Transgenerational effect of neighborhood poverty on low birth weight among African Americans in Cook County, Illinois. Am J Epidemiol 169(6):712–17.
Collins JW Jr., Wu SY and David RJ 2002. Differing intergenerational birth weights among the descendants of US-born and foreign-born Whites and African Americans in Illinois. Am J Epidemiol 155(3):210–16.
Collins M, An S-I, Cai W, Ganachaud A, Guilyardi E, Jin F-F, Jochum M, Lengaigne M, Power S, Timmermann A et al. 2010. The impact of global warming on the tropical Pacific Ocean and El Niño. Nature Geosci 3:391–7.
Collins VR, Dowse GK, Plehwe WE, Imo TT, Toelupe PM, Taylor HR and Zimmet PZ 1995. High prevalence of diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy in Polynesians of Western Samoa. Diabetes Care 18(8):1140–9.
Conde-Agudelo A and Belizan JM 2000. Maternal morbidity and mortality associated with interpregnancy interval: cross sectional study. BMJ 321(7271):1255–9.
Conlisk AJ, Barnhart HX, Martorell R, Grajeda R and Stein AD 2004. Maternal and child nutritional supplementation are inversely associated with fasting plasma glucose concentration in young Guatemalan adults. J Nutr 134(4):890–7.
Conquest R 1986. The Harvest of Sorrow. New York: Oxford University Press.
Considine RV, Premkumar A, Reynolds JC, Sebring NG, Ricks M and Sumner AE 2008. Adiponectin and leptin in African Americans. Obes 16(2):428–34.
Cook J 2013. Ice Age Art: Arrival of the Modern Mind. London: British Museum Press.
Coombes R 2011. Trans fats: chasing a global ban. BMJ 343:d5567.
Cooper AL, Fitzgeorge RB, Baskerville A, Little RA and Rothwell NJ 1989. Bacterial infection (Legionella pneumophila) stimulates fever, metabolic rate and brown adipose tissue activity in the guinea pig. Life Sci 45(9):843–7.
Cooper C, Cawley M, Bhalla A, Egger P, Ring F, Morton L and Barker D 1995. Childhood growth, physical activity, and peak bone mass in women. J Bone Min Res 10(6):940–7.
Cooper N, Purcell S and Jackson R 2014. Below the Breadline: The Relentless Rise of Food Poverty in Britain. Oxford: Church Action on Poverty, The Trussell Trust and Oxfam.
Cooper R and Power C 2008. Sex differences in the associations between birthweight and lipid levels in middle-age: findings from the 1958 British birth cohort. Atherosclerosis 200(1):141–9.
Cooper WN, Khulan B, Owens S, Elks CE, Seidel V, Prentice AM, Belteki G, Ong KK, Affara NA, Constancia M et al. 2012. DNA methylation profiling at imprinted loci after periconceptional micronutrient supplementation in humans: results of a pilot randomized controlled trial. FASEB J 26(5):1782–90.
Coppoletta JM and Wolbach SB 1933. Body Length and Organ Weights of Infants and Children: A Study of the Body Length and Normal Weights of the More Important Vital Organs of the Body Between Birth and Twelve Years of Age. Am J Pathol 9(1):5570.
Corpeleijn E, Saris WH and Blaak EE 2009. Metabolic flexibility in the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes: effects of lifestyle. Obes Rev 10(2):178–93.
Corral I, Landrine H, Hao Y, Zhao L, Mellerson JL and Cooper DL 2011. Residential segregation, health behavior and overweight/obesity among a national sample of African American adults. J Health Psychol 17(3):371–8.
Costa DL 2000. Understanding the twentieth-century decline in chronic conditions among older men. Demogr 37(1):5372.
Costa DL 2004. Race and pregnancy outcomes in the twentieth century: a long-term comparison. J Econ Hist 64(4):1056–86.
Costa DL and Steckel RH 1997. Long-term trends in health, welfare, and economic growth in the United States. In Steckel RH and Floud R, editors. Health and Welfare During Industrialization. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. 4789.
Costa MJ, Monteiro DA, Oliveira-Neto AL, Rantin FT, Kalinin AL 2008. Oxidative stress biomarkers and heart function in bullfrog tadpoles exposed to Roundup Original. Ecotoxicol 17(3):153–63.
Cote HC, Soudeyns H, Thorne A, Alimenti A, Lamarre V, Maan EJ, Sattha B, Singer J, Lapointe N, Money DM et al. 2012. Leukocyte telomere length in HIV-infected and HIV-exposed uninfected children: shorter telomeres with uncontrolled HIV viremia. PLoS One 7(7):e39266.
Couper-Johnston R 2000. El Niño: The Weather Phenomenon That Changed the World. London: Hodder & Stoughton.
Cournil A, Defay R, Lacroux A, Barny S and Fontbonne A 2007. Paradoxical relationships between anthropometric variables and phenotypic expression of the metabolic syndrome in nondiabetic Polynesians of New Caledonia. Diabetes Care 30(7):1909–11.
Courtwright DT 2001. Forces of Habit – Drugs and the Making of the Modern World. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Covelli MM, Wood CE and Yarandi HN 2007. The association of low birth weight and physiological risk factors of hypertension in African American adolescents. J Cardiovasc Nurs 22(6):440–7; quiz 448–9.
Cowie CC, Rust KF, Ford ES, Eberhardt MS, Byrd-Holt DD, Li C, Williams DE, Gregg EW, Bainbridge KE, Saydah SH et al. 2009. Full accounting of diabetes and pre-diabetes in the U.S. population in 1988–1994 and 2005–2006. Diabetes Care 32(2):287–94.
Cowlishaw G and Dunbar RIM 1991. Dominance rank and mating success in male primates. Anim Behav 41(6):1045–56.
Craig P, Halavatau V, Comino E and Caterson I 2001. Differences in body composition between Tongans and Australians: time to rethink the healthy weight ranges? Int J Obes 25(12):1806–14.
Craig WY, Palomaki GE and Haddow JE 1989. Cigarette smoking and serum lipid and lipoprotein concentrations: an analysis of published data. BMJ 298(6676):784–8.
Crary J. 2013. 24/7: Late Capitalism and the Ends of Sleep. London: Verso.
Crews F, He J and Hodge C 2007. Adolescent cortical development: a critical period of vulnerability for addiction. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 86(2):189–99.
Crider KS, Bailey LB and Berry RJ 2011. Folic acid food fortification-its history, effect, concerns, and future directions. Nutrients 3(3):370–84.
Crimmins EM and Finch CE 2004. Inflammatory exposure and historical changes in human life-spans. Science 305(5691):1736–9.
Crimmins EM and Finch CE 2006. Infection, inflammation, height, and longevity. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103(2):498503.
Crimmins EM and Saito Y 2001. Trends in healthy life expectancy in the United States, 1970–1990: gender, racial, and educational differences. Soc Sci Med 52(11):1629–41.
Critchley J, Liu J, Zhao D, Wei W and Capewell S 2004. Explaining the increase in coronary heart disease mortality in Beijing between 1984 and 1999. Circulation 110(10):1236–44.
Crognier E 1981. Climate and anthropometric variations in Europe and the Mediterranean area. Ann Hum Biol 8:99107.
Cropley JE, Suter CM, Beckman KB and Martin DI 2006. Germ-line epigenetic modification of the murine A vy allele by nutritional supplementation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103(46):17308–12.
Cross JH, Eminson J and Wharton BA 1990. Ramadan and birth weight at full term in Asian Moslem pregnant women in Birmingham. Arch Dis Child 65(10 Spec No):1053–6.
Crowley RH 1908. The provision of meals for school children. Public Health 20:325–35.
Cruickshank JK, Mzayek F, Liu L, Kieltyka L, Sherwin R, Webber LS, Srinavasan SR and Berenson GS 2005. Origins of the ‘black/white’ difference in blood pressure: roles of birth weight, postnatal growth, early blood pressure, and adolescent body size: the Bogalusa heart study. Circulation 111(15):1932–7.
Cuco G, Arija V, Iranzo R, Vila J, Prieto MT and Fernandez-Ballart J 2006. Association of maternal protein intake before conception and throughout pregnancy with birth weight. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 85(4):413–21.
Cummings V 2013. The Anthropology of Hunter-Gatherers: Key Themes for Archaeologists. London: Bloomsbury.
Cunha MC, Zanetti ML and Hass VJ 2008. Sleep quality in type 2 diabetics. Rev Lat Am Enfermagem 16(5):850–5.
Cunningham MJ, Clifton DK and Steiner RA 1999. Leptin’s actions on the reproductive axis: perspectives and mechanisms. Biol Reprod 60(2):216–22.
Cutler DM, Knaul F, Lozano R, Méndez O and Zurita B 2002. Financial crisis health outcomes, and ageing: Mexico in the 1980s and 1990s. J Public Econ 84(1):279303.
Cutler RG 1975. Evolution of human longevity and the genetic complexity governing aging rate. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 72(11):4664–8.
da Luz Santos CD, Clemente AP, Martins VJ, Albuquerque MP and Sawaya AL 2010. Adolescents with mild stunting show alterations in glucose and insulin metabolism. J Nutr Metab 2010:943070.
Dahlgren J 2006. Pregnancy and insulin resistance. Metab Syndr Relat Disord 4(2):149–52.
Dahlmann N and Petersen K 1977. Influences of environmental conditions during infancy on final body stature. Pediatr Res 11(5):695700.
Dahly DL and Adair LS 2010. Does lower birth order amplify the association between high socioeconomic status and central adiposity in young adult Filipino males? Int J Obes 34(4):751–9.
Dalby A 1996. Siren Feasts: A History of Food and Gastronomy in Greece. London: Routledge.
Dallman MF, Pecoraro N, Akana SF, La Fleur SE, Gomez F, Houshyar H, Bell ME, Bhatnagar S, Laugero KD and Manalo S 2003. Chronic stress and obesity: a new view of ‘comfort food’. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100(20):11696–701.
Dando WA 1980. The Geography of Famine. London: Edward Arnold.
Dangour AD, Watson L, Cumming O, Boisson S, Che Y, Velleman Y, Cavill S, Allen E and Uauy R 2013. Interventions to improve water quality and supply, sanitation and hygiene practices, and their effects on the nutritional status of children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 8:CD009382.
Danker-Hopfe H 1986. Menarcheal age in Europe. Yearbk Phys Anthropol 29 Suppl 7:81112.
Danysh HE, Gilman RH, Wells JC, Pan WK, Zaitchik B, Gonzálvez G, Alvarez M and Checkley W 2014. El Niño adversely affected childhood stature and lean mass in northern Peru. Climate Change Responses 1:7.
Dark J 2005. Annual lipid cycles in hibernators: integration of physiology and behaviour. Ann Rev Nutr 25:469–97.
Darwin C 1859. On the Origins of Species by Means of Natural Selection. London: Murray.
Darwin C 1871. The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex. London: Murray.
Darwin J 2009. The Empire Project: The Rise and Fall of the British World-System, 18301970. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Das S and Bose K 2010. Body mass index and chronic energy deficiency among adult Santals of Purulia District, West Bengal, India. Int J Hum Sci 7(2):488503.
Das SK and Banerjee TK 2008. Stroke: Indian scenario. Circulation 118(25):2719–24.
Davey G, Ramachandran A, Snehalatha C, Hitman GA and McKeigue PM 2000. Familial aggregation of central obesity in Southern Indians. Int J Obes 24(11):1523–7.
Davey Smith G, Neaton JD, Wentworth D, Stamler R and Stamler J 1998. Mortality differences between black and white men in the USA: contribution of income and other risk factors among men screened for the MRFIT. MRFIT Research Group. Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial. Lancet 351(9107):934–9.
David M and Giraldeau LA 2012. Zebra finches in poor condition produce more and consume more food in a producer–scrounger game. Behav Ecol 23:174–80.
David RJ and Collins JW Jr. 1997. Differing birth weight among infants of U.S.-born blacks, African-born blacks, and U.S.-born whites. N Engl J Med 337(17):1209–14.
Davidson K 2009. Ethical concerns at the bottom of the pyramid: where CSR meets BOP. J Int Business Ethics 2:2232.
Davies J and Davies D 2010. Origins and evolution of antibiotic resistance. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 74(3):417–33.
Davis AM, Vinci LM, Okwuosa TM, Chase AR and Huang ES 2007. Cardiovascular health disparities: a systematic review of health care interventions. Med Care Res Rev 64(5 Suppl):29S100S.
Davis DH 1949. The affinities of the South African Gerbils of the genus Tatera. Proc Zool Soc Lond 118:1001–18.
Davis M 2002. Late Victorian Holocausts: El Niño and the Making of the Third World. London: Verso.
Davis M 2006. Planet of Slums. London: Verso.
Davison AN and Dobbing J 1966. Myelination as a vulnerable period in brain development. Br Med Bull 22(1):40–4.
Davison AN and Dobbing J 1968. The developing brain. In Davison AN and Dobbing J, editors. Applied Neurochemistry. Oxford: Blackwell. 253–86.
Davy P, Nagata M, Bullard P, Fogelson NS and Allsopp R 2009. Fetal growth restriction is associated with accelerated telomere shortening and increased expression of cell senescence markers in the placenta. Placenta 30(6):539–42.
Dawber TR, Kannel WB, Revotskie N, Stokes J 3rd, Kagan A and Gordon T 1959. Some factors associated with the development of coronary heart disease: six years’ follow-up experience in the Framingham study. Am J Public Health Nations Health 49:1349–56.
Dawber TR, Meadors GF and Moore FE Jr. 1951. Epidemiological approaches to heart disease: the Framingham study. Am J Public Health Nations Health 41(3):279–81.
Dawkins R 1986. The Blind Watchmaker. London: Longmans.
Dawkins R and Carlisle TR 1976. Parental investment, mate desertion and a fallacy. Nature 262:131–3.
De Blasio MJ, Gatford KL, McMillen IC, Robinson JS and Owens JA 2007. Placental restriction of fetal growth increases insulin action, growth, and adiposity in the young lamb. Endocrinol 148(3):1350–8.
de Block M and Stoks R 2008. Short-term larval food stress and associated compensatory growth reduce adult immune function in a damselfly. Ecol Entomol 33:796801.
de Craen AJ, Posthuma D, Remarque EJ, van den Biggelaar AH, Westendorp RG and Boomsma DI 2005. Heritability estimates of innate immunity: an extended twin study. Genes Immun 6(2):167–70.
de Geus EJ, Posthuma D, Ijzerman RG and Boomsma DI 2001. Comparing blood pressure of twins and their singleton siblings: being a twin does not affect adult blood pressure. Twin Res 4(5):385–91.
De Grazia V 2005. Irresistible Empire: America’s Advance Through 20th-Century Europe. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.
de la Grandmaison GL, Clairand I and Durigon M 2001. Organ weight in 684 adult autopsies: new tables for a Caucasoid population. Forensic Sci Int 119(2):149–54.
de Ruyter JC, Olthof MR, Seidell JC and Katan MB 2012. A trial of sugar-free or sugar-sweetened beverages and body weight in children. N Engl J Med 367(15):1397–406.
De Silva NM and Frayling TM 2010. Novel biological insights emerging from genetic studies of type 2 diabetes and related metabolic traits. Curr Opinion Lipidol 21(1):4450.
de Wilde JA, van Buuren S and Middelkoop BJ 2013. Trends in birth weight and the prevalence of low birth weight and small-for-gestational-age in Surinamese South Asian babies since 1974: cross-sectional study of three birth cohorts. BMC Public Health 13:931.
Deaton A 2003. Health, inequality and economic development. J Econ Lit 41:113–58.
Deaton A 2007. Height, health, and development. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104(33):13232–7.
Deaton A 2008. Height, health, and inequality: the distribution of adult heights in India. Am Econ Review 98(2):468–74.
Deepa M, Farooq S, Deepa R, Manjula D and Mohan V 2009. Prevalence and significance of generalized and central body obesity in an urban Asian Indian population in Chennai, India (CURES: 47). Eur J Clin Nutr 63(2):259–67.
Deerenberg C, Arpanius V, Daan S and Bos N 1997. Reproductive effort decreases antibody responsiveness. Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 264:1021–9.
Deerr N 1949/1950. The History of Sugar Volumes One and Two. London: Chapman and Hall.
Deevey ES 1960. The human population. Sci Am 203(3):194204.
Defay R, Jaussent I, Lacroux A and Fontbonne A 2007. Relationships between glycaemic abnormalities, obesity and insulin resistance in nondiabetic Polynesians of New Caledonia. Int J Obes 31(1):109–13.
DeFronzo RA and Ferrannini E 1991. Insulin resistance. A multifaceted syndrome responsible for NIDDM, obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Diabetes Care 14(3):173–94.
Degli Esposti M and McLennan H 1998. Mitochondria and cells produce reactive oxygen species in virtual anaerobiosis: relevance to ceramide-induced apoptosis. FEBS Lett 430(3):338–42.
Dehejia R and Lleras-Murray A 2004. Booms, busts, and babies’ health. Q J Econ 119:1091–130.
Del Giudice M, Ellis BJ and Shirtcliff EA 2011. The Adaptive Calibration Model of stress responsivity. Neurosci Biobehavl Rev 35(7):1562–92.
Del Mar C, Doust J and Glasziou P 2007. Clinical Thinking: Evidence, Communication and Decision-Making. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
del Ninno C and Lundberg M 2005. Treading water. The long-term impact of the 1998 flood on nutrition in Bangladesh. Econ Hum Biol 3(1):6796.
Demas GE 2004. The energetics of immunity: a neuroendocrine link between energy balance and immune function. Horm Behav 45(3):173–80.
Demas GE, Chefer V, Talan MI and Nelson R 1997. Metabolic costs of mounting an antigen-stimulated immune response in adult and aged C57BL/6J mice. Am J Physiol 273(5 Pt 2): R1631–7.
deMenocal PB 2005. Plio-Pleistocene African climate. Science 270:53–9.
Demerath EW, Cameron N, Gillman MW, Towne B and Siervogel RM 2004. Telomeres and telomerase in the fetal origins of cardiovascular disease: a review. Hum Biol 76(1):127–46.
Demissie S, Levy D, Benjamin EJ, Cupples LA, Gardner JP, Herbert A, Kimura M, Larson MG, Meigs JB, Keaney JF et al. 2006. Insulin resistance, oxidative stress, hypertension, and leukocyte telomere length in men from the Framingham Heart Study. Aging Cell 5(4):325–30.
Denic S and Agarwal MM 2007. Nutritional iron deficiency: an evolutionary perspective. Nutr 23(7–8):603–14.
Dennett DC 1993. Consciousness Explained. London: Penguin.
Dennett DC 1995. Darwin’s Dangerous Idea. London: Penguin.
Department for Business Innovation and Skills 2010. Manufacturing in the UK: An Economic Analysis of the Sector. BIS Economics Paper No. 10A. London: Department for Business Innovation and Skills.
Derrick VPA 1927. Observations on (1) errors on age on the population statistics of England and Wales and (2) the changes in mortality indicated by the national records. J Inst Actuaries 58:117–59.
Derrida J 1994. Specters of Marx: The State of the Debt, the Work of Mourning & the New International London. London: Routgledge.
Despres JP 2001. Health consequences of visceral obesity. Ann Med 33(8):534–41.
Dettwyler KA 1995. A time to wean: the hominid blueprint for the natural age of weaning in modern human populations. In Stuart MacAdam P and Dettwyler KA, editors. Breastfeeding: Biocultural Perspectives. New York: Aldine de Gruyter. 3973.
Deurenberg P, Deurenberg-Yap M and Guricci S 2002. Asians are different from Caucasians and from each other in their body mass index/body fat per cent relationship. Obes Rev 3(3):141–6.
Deutscher S, Ostrander LD and Epstein FH 1970. Familial factors in premature coronary heart disease–a preliminary report from the Tecumseh Community Health Study. Am J Epidemiol 91(3):233–7.
Devakumar D, Birch M, Osrin D, Sondorp E and Wells JC 2014. The intergenerational effects of war on the health of children. BMC Med 12:57.
Devaraj S, Hemarajata P and Versalovic J 2013. The human gut microbiome and body metabolism: implications for obesity and diabetes. Clin Chem 59(4):617–28.
Dewey KG and Cohen RJ 2007. Does birth spacing affect maternal or child nutritional status? A systematic literature review. Matern Child Nutr 3(3):151–73.
Dewey KG, Heinig MJ, Nommsen LA, Peerson JM and Lonnerdal B 1992a. Growth of breast-fed and formula-fed infants from 0 to 18 months: the DARLING Study. Pediatr 89(6 Pt 1):1035–41.
Dewey KG, Peerson JM, Heinig MJ, Nommsen LA, Lonnerdal B, Lopez de Romana G, de Kanashiro HC, Black RE and Brown KH 1992b. Growth patterns of breast-fed infants in affluent (United States) and poor (Peru) communities: implications for timing of complementary feeding. Am J Clin Nutr 56(6):1012–18.
DeWitte SN and Hughes-Morey G 2012. Stature and frailty during the Black Death: the effect of stature on risks of epidemic mortality in London, A.D. 1348–1350. J Arch Sci 39:1412–9.
Dezateux C, Lum S, Hoo AF, Hawdon J, Costeloe K, Stocks J 2004. Low birth weight for gestation and airway function in infancy: exploring the fetal origins hypothesis. Thorax 59(1):60–6.
Dgani J and Arad I 1992. Measurement of systolic blood pressure in the follow-up of low birth weight infants. J Perinat Med 20(5):365–70.
Di Lampedusa G 1964. The Leopard. London: Fontana Books.
Di Leonardo M 1991. Gender at the Crossroads: Feminist Anthropology in Historical Perspective. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Di Lorenzo L, De Pergola G, Zocchetti C, L’Abbate N, Basso A, Pannacciulli N, Cignarelli M, Giorgino R and Soleo L 2003. Effect of shift work on body mass index: results of a study performed in 319 glucose-tolerant men working in a Southern Italian industry. Int J Obes 27(11):1353–8.
Diagne N, Rogier C, Sokhna CS, Tall A, Fontenille D, Roussilhon C, Spiegel A and Trape JF 2000. Increased susceptibility to malaria during the early postpartum period. N Engl J Med 343(9):598603.
Diamond J 1998. Guns, Germs and Steel. London: Vintage.
Diamond J 2005. Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed. London: Penguin.
Diaz HF and McCabe GJ 1999. A possible connection between the 1878 yellow fever epidemic in the southern United States and the 1877078 El Nino episode. Bull Am Meteorol Soc 80:21–7.
Dick JL 1922. Rickets: A Study of Economic Conditions and Their Effects on the Health of the Nation. London: William Heinemann.
Dickens C 1854/1989. Hard Times. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Dickinson JL and Hatchwell BJ 2004. Fitness consequences of helping. In Koenig WD and Dickinson JL, editors. Ecology and Evolution of Cooperative Breeding in Birds. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 4866.
Diers CJ 1974. Historical trends in the age at menarche and menopause. Psychol Rep 34(3):931–7.
Dietler M 1997. Feasts and commensal politics in the political economy: food, power and status in prehistoric Europe. In Wiessner P and Schiefenhovel W, editors. Food and the Status Quest: An Interdisciplinary Perspective. Providence, RI: Bergahn Books. 87125.
Dietler M 2006. Alcohol: anthropological/archaeological perspectives. Ann Rev Anthropol 35:229–49.
Dijkstra C, Bult A, Bijlsma S, Daan S, Meijer T and Zijlstra M 1990. Brood size manipulations in the Kestrel (Falco tinnunculus): effects on offspring and parent survival. J Anim Ecol 59:269–85.
Dirks R 1993. Starvation and famine: cross-cultural codes and some hypothesis tests. Cross Cult Res 27:2869.
Disney AR 1978. Twilight of the Pepper Emprire. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Dmitriev S 2009. The rise and quick fall of the theory of ancient economic imperialism. Econ Hist Rev 62(4):785801.
Doak CM, Adair LS, Monteiro C and Popkin BM 2000. Overweight and underweight coexist within households in Brazil, China and Russia. J Nutr 130(12):2965–71.
Dobzhansky T 1974. Chance and creativity in evolution. In Ayala FJ and Dobzhansky T, editors. Studies in the Philosophy of Biology. London: Macmillan.
Dobzhansky T and Boesinger E 1983. Human Culture: A Moment in Evolution. New York: Columbia University Press.
Dodds R, Denison HJ, Ntani G, Cooper R, Cooper C, Sayer AA and Baird J 2012. Birth weight and muscle strength: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Nutr Health Aging 16(7):609–15.
Dolinoy DC, Huang D and Jirtle RL 2007. Maternal nutrient supplementation counteracts bisphenol A-induced DNA hypomethylation in early development. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104(32):13056–61.
Dolinoy DC, Weidman JR, Waterland RA and Jirtle RL 2006. Maternal genistein alters coat color and protects Avy mouse offspring from obesity by modifying the fetal epigenome. Environ Health Perspect 114(4):567–72.
Doll R, Peto R, Wheatley K, Gray R and Sutherland I 1994. Mortality in relation to smoking: 40 years’ observations on male British doctors. BMJ 309(6959):901–11.
Dominguez-Salas P, Cox SE, Prentice AM, Hennig BJ and Moore SE 2012. Maternal nutritional status, C(1) metabolism and offspring DNA methylation: a review of current evidence in human subjects. Proc Nutr Soc 71(1):154–65.
Donahue JF 2003. Toward a typology of Roman public feasting. Am J Philol 124(3):423–41.
Donin AS, Nightingale CM, Owen CG, Rudnicka AR, McNamara MC, Prynne CJ, Stephen AM, Cook DG and Whincup PH 2010. Nutritional composition of the diets of South Asian, black African-Caribbean and white European children in the United Kingdom: the Child Heart and Health Study in England (CHASE). Br J Nutr 104(2):276–85.
Dos Santos Silva I, De Stavola BL, Mann V, Kuh D, Hardy R and Wadsworth ME 2002. Prenatal factors, childhood growth trajectories and age at menarche. Int J Epidemiol 31(2):405–12.
Douady D and Trémolières J 1947. Persistances d’importants deficits de croissance chez les infants d’âge scolaire en 1945–1946. La Press Médicale 55:599600.
Douglas AW 1969. Cotton textiles in England: The East India Company’s attempt to exploit developments in fashion 1660–1721. J Br Stud 8(2):2843.
Douglas M 1972. Deciphering a meal. Daedalus 101:6182.
Douglas M and Isherwood B 1979. The World of Goods: An Anthropology of Consumption. New York: Basic Books.
Dove MS, Dockery DW, Mittleman MA, Schwartz J, Sullivan EM, Keithly L and Land T 2010. The impact of Massachusetts’ smoke-free workplace laws on acute myocardial infarction deaths. Am J Public Health 100(11):2206–12.
Dowse GK, Zimmet PZ, Finch CF and Collins VR 1991. Decline in incidence of epidemic glucose intolerance in Nauruans: implications for the ‘thrifty genotype’. Am J Epidemiol 133(11):1093–104.
Doyal L and Pennell I 1979. The Political Economy of Health. London: Pluto Press.
Drake AJ and Liu L 2010. Intergenerational transmission of programmed effects: public health consequences. Trends Endocrinol Metab 21(4):206–13.
Drukker JW and Tassenaar V 1997. Paradoxes of modernization and material well-being in the Netherlands during the nineteenth century. In Steckel RH and Floud R, editors. Health and Welfare During Industrialization. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 331–77.
Dulloo AG, Jacquet J, Solinas G, Montani JP and Schutz Y 2010. Body composition phenotypes in pathways to obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Int J Obes 34 Suppl 2:S417.
Dumbaugh K and Martin MF 2009. Understanding China’s Political System. Library of Congress: Congressional Research Service.
Dunbar RIM 1982. Adaptation, fitness and the evolutionary tautology. In Group KsCS, editor. Current Problems in Sociobiology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 928.
Dunstan DW, Kingwell BA, Larsen R, Healy GN, Cerin E, Hamilton MT, Shaw JE, Bertovic DA, Zimmet PZ, Salmon J et al. 2012. Breaking up prolonged sitting reduces postprandial glucose and insulin responses. Diabetes Care 35(5):976–83.
Dunstan DW, Salmon J, Owen N, Armstrong T, Zimmet PZ, Welborn TA, Cameron AJ, Dwyer T, Jolley D and Shaw JE 2004. Physical activity and television viewing in relation to risk of undiagnosed abnormal glucose metabolism in adults. Diabetes Care 27(11):2603–9.
Durrani SA, Khan HA, Taj M and Renfrew C 1971. Obsidian source identification by fission track analysis. Nature 233(5317):242–5.
Dutt R 1901. Indian Famines: Their Causes and Prevention. London: P. S. King and Son.
Dwork D 1987. War Is Good for Babies and Other Young Children: A History of the Infant and Child Welfare Movement in England 1898–1918. London: Tavistock Publications.
Dyson T and Maharatna A 1991. Excess mortality during the Bengal famine: a re-evaluation. Ind Econ Soc Hist Rev 28:281–97.
Earle T 1997. How Chiefs Come to Power: The Political Economy in Prehistory. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Eaton SB and Konner M 1985. Paleolithic nutrition. a consideration of its nature and current implications. N Engl J Med 312(5):283–9.
Eaton SB, Pike MC, Short RV, Lee NC, Trussell J, Hatcher RA, Wood JW, Worthman CM, Blurton Jones NG, Konner MJ et al. 1994. Women’s reproductive cancers in evolutionary context. Q Rev Biol 69(3):353–67.
Ebrahim S, Kinra S, Bowen L, Andersen E, Ben-Shlomo Y, Lyngdoh T, Ramakrishnan L, Ahuja RC, Joshi P, Das SM et al. 2010. The effect of rural-to-urban migration on obesity and diabetes in India: a cross-sectional study. PLoS Med 7(4):e1000268.
Economides DL, Nicolaides KH and Campbell S 1991. Metabolic and endocrine findings in appropriate and small for gestational age fetuses. J Perinat Med 19(1–2):97105.
Economist Intelligence Unit 2013. Democracy index 2012: Democracy at a standstill.
Edel M 1969. The Brazilian sugar cycle of the seventeenth century and the rise of West Indian competition. Carib Stud 9(1):2444.
Editorial B 1930. National health and military service. BMJ 25 July:208.
Edwards CJ, Suchard MA, Lemey P, Welch JJ, Barnes I, Fulton TL, Barnett R, O’Connell TC, Coxon P, Monaghan N et al. 2011. Ancient hybridization and an Irish origin for the modern polar bear matriline. Curr Biol 21(15):1251–8.
Edwards MJ 2012. Genetic selection of embryos that later develop the metabolic syndrome. Med Hyp 78(5):621–5.
Eijkman C 1890/1990. Polyneuritis in Chickens, or the Origin of Vitamin Research. [Papers originally published in Geneeskd. Tijdshcr. Ned.-Indie 30: 295334 (1890), 32: 353–62 (1893); 36: 214–69 (1896) van der Heij, D. G., translator]. Basel, Switzerland: Hoffman-laRoche.
Eising CM and Groothuis TG 2003. Yolk androgens and begging behaviour in black-headed gull chicks: an experimental field study. Anim Behav 66(6):1027–34.
Ekelund U, Brage S, Franks PW, Hennings S, Emms S and Wareham NJ 2005. Physical activity energy expenditure predicts progression toward the metabolic syndrome independently of aerobic fitness in middle-aged healthy Caucasians: the Medical Research Council Ely Study. Diabetes Care 28(5):1195–200.
Ekelund U, Franks PW, Sharp S, Brage S and Wareham NJ 2007. Increase in physical activity energy expenditure is associated with reduced metabolic risk independent of change in fatness and fitness. Diabetes Care 30(8):2101–6.
Ekelund U, Luan J, Sherar LB, Esliger DW, Griew P and Cooper A 2012. Moderate to vigorous physical activity and sedentary time and cardiometabolic risk factors in children and adolescents. JAMA 307(7):704–12.
Ekelund U, Ong K, Linne Y, Neovius M, Brage S, Dunger DB, Wareham NJ and Rossner S 2006. Upward weight percentile crossing in infancy and early childhood independently predicts fat mass in young adults: the Stockholm Weight Development Study (SWEDES). Am J Clin Nutr 83(2):324–30.
El Mugamer IT, Ali Zayat AS, Hossain MM and Pugh RN 1995. Diabetes, obesity and hypertension in urban and rural people of bedouin origin in the United Arab Emirates. J Trop Med Hyg 98(6):407–15.
El-Shenawy NS 2009. Oxidative stress responses of rats exposed to Roundup and its active ingredient glyphosate. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 28(3):379–85.
Elford J and Ben-Shlomo Y 1997. Geography and migration. In Kuh D and Ben-Shlomo Y, editors. A Life Course Approach to Chronic Disease Epidemiology. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 220–41.
Elford J, Shaper AG and Whincup PH 1992. Early life experience and cardiovascular disease – ecological studies. J Epidemiol Comm Health 46:111.
Elgar MA 1989. Predator vigilance and group size in mammals and birds: a critical review of the empirical evidence. Biol Rev 64(1):1333.
Elks CE, Loos RJ, Hardy R, Wills AK, Wong A, Wareham NJ, Kuh D and Ong KK 2012. Adult obesity susceptibility variants are associated with greater childhood weight gain and a faster tempo of growth: the 1946 British Birth Cohort Study. Am J Clin Nutr 95(5):1150–6.
Elks CE, Loos RJ, Sharp SJ, Langenberg C, Ring SM, Timpson NJ, Ness AR, Davey Smith G, Dunger DB, Wareham NJ et al. 2010a. Genetic markers of adult obesity risk are associated with greater early infancy weight gain and growth. PLoS Med 7(5):e1000284.
Elks CE, Perry JR, Sulem P, Chasman DI, Franceschini N, He C, Lunetta KL, Visser JA, Byrne EM, Cousminer DL et al. 2010b. Thirty new loci for age at menarche identified by a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies. Nat Genet 42(12):1077–85.
Ellen IG 2000. Is segregation bad for your health? The case of low birth weight. Brookings-Wharton Papers on Urban Affairs:203–29.
Ellis BH, Figueredo AJ, Brumbach BH and Schlomer GL 2009. Fundamental dimensions of environmental risk: the impact of harsh versus unpredictable environments on the evolution and development of life history strategies. Hum Nat 20:204–68.
Ellis BJ 2004. Timing of pubertal maturation in girls: an integrated life history approach. Psychol Bull 130(6):920–58.
Ellis BJ and Del Giudice M 2014. Beyond allostatic load: rethinking the role of stress in regulating human development. Dev Psychopathol 26(1):120.
Ellis J 1993. The World War II Databook. The Essential Facts and Figures for All the Combatants. London: Aurum Press.
Ellis L 1995. Dominance and reproductive success among non-human animals: a systematic literature review. Ethol Sociobiol 16:257333.
Ellis RW 1945. Growth and health of Belgian children: during and after the German occupation (1940–1944). Arch Dis Child 20(103):97109.
Ellison GT and Kelly M 2005. Growth of Jersey schoolchildren during the 1940–1945 German occupation: comparison with schoolchildren on mainland Britain. Hum Biol 77(6):761–72.
Ellison PT 1981. Morbidity, morality, and menarche. Hum Biol 53(4):635–43.
Ellison PT 1990. Human ovarian function and reproductive ecology: new hypotheses. Am Anthropol 92:933–52.
Ellison PT 2001. On Fertile Ground. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Ellison PT 2008. Energetics, reproductive ecology, and human evolution. PaleoAnthropol 2008:172200.
Elton C 1927. Animal Ecology. London: Sidgwick and Jackson.
Emanuel I 1986. Maternal health during childhood and later reproductive performance. Ann NY Acad Sci 477:2739.
Emanuel I, Filakti H, Alberman E and Evans SJ 1992. Intergenerational studies of human birthweight from the 1958 birth cohort. 1. Evidence for a multigenerational effect. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 99(1):6774.
Emanuel I, Kimpo C and Moceri V 2004a. The association of grandmaternal and maternal factors with maternal adult stature. Int J Epidemiol 33(6):1243–8.
Emanuel I, Kimpo C and Moceri V 2004b. The association of maternal growth and socio-economic measures with infant birthweight in four ethnic groups. Int J Epidemiol 33(6):1236–42.
Emberson JR, Shaper AG, Wannamethee SG, Morris RW and Whincup PH 2005. Alcohol intake in middle age and risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality: accounting for intake variation over time. Am J Epidemiol 161(9):856–63.
Emiliani C 1955. Pleistocene temperatures. J Geol 63:538–78.
Endicott K 2013. Peaceful foragers: the significance of the Batek and Moriori. In Fry DP, editor. War, Peace, and Human Nature: The Convergence of Evolutionary and Cultural Views. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 243–61.
Enel C, Pinchinat S, Pison G and Simondon KB 2006. [Assessment of 24 years of infant growth monitoring in a rural area of Senegal (1969–1992)]. Sante 16(2):97101.
Enesco M and LeBlond CP 1962. Increase in cell number as a factor in the growth of the organs and tissues of the young male rat. J Embryol Exp Morphol 10:530–62.
Engelking B and Leociak J 2009. The Warsaw Ghetto: A Guide to the Perished City. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Engels DW 1978. Alexander the Great and the Logistics of the Macedonian Army. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Engels F 1845/2009. The Condition of the Working Class in England. London: Penguin.
Enos WF Jr., Beyer JC and Holmes RH 1955. Pathogenesis of coronary disease in American soldiers killed in Korea. J Am Med Ass 158(11):912–14.
Enquoselassie F, and Minyilshewa A 2000. Changes in birth weight of Hospital-delivered neonates in Addis Ababa. Ethiop J Health Dev 14(2):169–76.
Entringer S, Epel ES, Kumsta R, Lin J, Hellhammer DH, Blackburn EH, Wust S and Wadhwa PD 2011. Stress exposure in intrauterine life is associated with shorter telomere length in young adulthood. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 108(33):E513–18.
Entringer S, Kumsta R, Hellhammer DH, Wadhwa PD and Wust S 2009. Prenatal exposure to maternal psychosocial stress and HPA axis regulation in young adults. Horm Beh 55(2):292–8.
Entringer S, Kumsta R, Nelson EL, Hellhammer DH, Wadhwa PD and Wust S 2008a. Influence of prenatal psychosocial stress on cytokine production in adult women. Dev Psychobiol 50(6):579–87.
Entringer S, Wust S, Kumsta R, Layes IM, Nelson EL, Hellhammer DH and Wadhwa PD 2008b. Prenatal psychosocial stress exposure is associated with insulin resistance in young adults. Am J Obstet Gynecol 199(5):498, e491–7.
Environmental Working Group 2014. How Much Is Too Much? Excess Vitamins and Minerals in Food Can Harm Kids’ Health. Washington, DC: Environmental Working Group.
Epel ES, Blackburn EH, Lin J, Dhabhar FS, Adler NE, Morrow JD and Cawthon RM 2004. Accelerated telomere shortening in response to life stress. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101(49):17312–15.
Epstein AL 2006. Ethos and Identity: Three Studies in Ethnicity. London: Aldine Transaction.
Eriksson A and Manica A 2012. Effect of ancient population structure on the degree of polymorphism shared between modern human populations and ancient hominins. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 109(35):13956–60.
Eriksson JG, Forsen T, Tuomilehto J, Jaddoe VW, Osmond C and Barker DJ 2002. Effects of size at birth and childhood growth on the insulin resistance syndrome in elderly individuals. Diabetologia 45(3):342–8.
Eriksson JG, Forsen T, Tuomilehto J, Osmond C and Barker DJ 2000. Early growth, adult income, and risk of stroke. Stroke 31(4):869–74.
Eriksson JG, Forsen T, Tuomilehto J, Osmond C and Barker DJ 2001. Early growth and coronary heart disease in later life: longitudinal study. BMJ 322(7292):949–53.
Eriksson JG, Forsen T, Tuomilehto J, Winter PD, Osmond C and Barker DJ 1999. Catch-up growth in childhood and death from coronary heart disease: longitudinal study. BMJ 318(7181):427–31.
Eriksson JG, Forsen TJ, Osmond C and Barker DJ 2003. Pathways of infant and childhood growth that lead to type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 26(11):3006–10.
Eriksson JG, Osmond C, Kajantie E, Forsen TJ and Barker DJ 2006. Patterns of growth among children who later develop type 2 diabetes or its risk factors. Diabetologia 49(12):2853–8.
Escobar A. 1995. Encountering Development: The Making and Unmaking of the Third World. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Evans JL, Goldfine ID, Maddux BA and Grodsky GM 2003. Are oxidative stress-activated signaling pathways mediators of insulin resistance and beta-cell dysfunction? Diabetes 52(1):18.
Evans K and Norris MR 2000. Ecological immunology: life history trade-offs and immune defense in birds. Behav Ecol 11:1926.
Eveleth PB and Tanner JM 1976. Worldwide Variation in Growth. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Ewans M 2002. European Atrocity, African Catastrophe: Leopold II, the Congo Free State and Its Aftermath. New York: Routledge Curzon.
Ewert UC 2006. The biological standard of living on the decline: Episodes from Germany during early industrialisation. Eur Rev Econ Hist 10(1):5188.
Eyre EL and Duncan MJ 2013. The impact of ethnicity on objectively measured physical activity in children. ISRN obesity 2013:757431.
Fagan B 2000. Floods, Famines and Emperors. New York: Basic Books.
Fagerberg B, Bondjers L and Nilsson P 2004. Low birth weight in combination with catch-up growth predicts the occurrence of the metabolic syndrome in men at late middle age: the Atherosclerosis and Insulin Resistance study. J Intern Med 256(3):254–9.
Fainsod M 1963. How Russia Is Ruled. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Fall CH, Osmond C, Barker DJ, Clark PM, Hales CN, Stirling Y and Meade TW 1995. Fetal and infant growth and cardiovascular risk factors in women. BMJ 310(6977):428–32.
Fall CH, Stein CE, Kumaran K, Cox V, Osmond C, Barker DJ and Hales CN 1998. Size at birth, maternal weight, and type 2 diabetes in South India. Diabet Med 15(3):220–7.
Fang J, Madhavan S, Bosworth W and Alderman MH 1998. Residential segregation and mortality in New York City. Soc Sci Med 47(4):469–76.
FAO/WHO/UNU 2001. Human energy requirements: report of a joint FAO/WHO/UNU expert consultation, Rome, 17–24 October 2001. Rome: FAO.
Farouk SE, Dolo A, Bereczky S, Kouriba B, Maiga B, Farnert A, Perlmann H, Hayano M, Montgomery SM, Doumbo OK et al. 2005. Different antibody- and cytokine-mediated responses to Plasmodium falciparum parasite in two sympatric ethnic tribes living in Mali. Microbes Infect 7(1):110–17.
Feakins SJ, deMenocal PB and Eglinton TI 2005. Biomarker records of late Neogene changes in northeast African vegetation. Geol 33:977–80.
Ferguson RB 2013. Pinker’s list: exaggerating prehistoric war mortality. In Fry DP, editor. War, Peace, and Human Nature: The Convergence of Evolutionary and Cultural Views. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 112–31.
Fernald LC and Neufeld LM 2007. Overweight with concurrent stunting in very young children from rural Mexico: prevalence and associated factors. Eur J Clin Nutr 61(5):623–32.
Fernandez-Real JM, Lopez-Bermejo A, Vendrell J, Ferri MJ, Recasens M and Ricart W 2006. Burden of infection and insulin resistance in healthy middle-aged men. Diabetes Care 29(5):1058–64.
Fernandez-Twinn DS, Wayman A, Ekizoglou S, Martin MS, Hales CN and Ozanne SE 2005. Maternal protein restriction leads to hyperinsulinemia and reduced insulin-signaling protein expression in 21-mo-old female rat offspring. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 288(2):R368–73.
Fernandez-Armesto F 2001. Food – A History. London: Macmillan.
Ferreira FHG and Schady N 2008. Aggregate economic shocks, child schooling and child health. Washington: World Bank Development Research Group.
Ferrie JE, Langenberg C, Shipley MJ and Marmot MG 2006. Birth weight, components of height and coronary heart disease: evidence from the Whitehall II study. Int J Epidemiol 35(6):1532–42.
Fillol F, Cournil A, Cames C, Sokhna C and Simondon KB 2010. Active malaria morbidity management has limited impact on height status of preschool Senegalese children. J Nutr 140(3):625–9.
Finch CE 2012. Evolution of the human lifespan, past, present, and future: phases in the evolution of human life expectancy in relation to the inflammatory load. Proc Am Philosoph Soc 156(1):944.
Finch CE and Crimmins EM 2004. Inflammatory exposure and historical changes in human life-spans. Science 305(5691):1736–9.
Finkel T and Holbrook NJ 2000. Oxidants, oxidative stress and the biology of ageing. Nature 408(6809):239–47.
Fisher MO, Nager RG and Monaghan P 2006. Compensatory growth impairs adult cognitive performance. PLoS Biol 4(8):e251.
Fisher RA 1930. The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection. London: Oxford University Press.
Flak JN, Jankord R, Solomon MB, Krause EG and Herman JP 2011. Opposing effects of chronic stress and weight restriction on cardiovascular, neuroendocrine and metabolic function. Physiol Behav 104(2):228–34.
Flanagan JG 1989. Hierarchy in simple ‘egalitarian’ societies. Ann Rev Anthropol 18:245–66.
Flannery K and Marcus J 2012. The Creation of Inequality: How our Prehistoric Ancestors Set the Stage for Monarchy, Slavery, and Empire. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Fleagle JG 1999. Primate Adaptation and Evolution (2nd edition). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Fleischer NL, Diez Roux AV, Alazraqui M and Spinelli H 2008. Social patterning of chronic disease risk factors in a Latin American city. J Urban Health 85(6):923–37.
Fleischmann F, Phalet K, Neels K and Deboosere P 2011. Contextualizing ethnic educational inequality: the role of stability and quality of neighborhoods and ethnic density in second-generation attainment. Int Migration Rev 45(2):386425.
Fletcher JM, Frisvold D and Tefft N 2010. Can Soft Drink Taxes Reduce Population Weight? Contemp Econ Pol 28(1):2335.
Florencio TM, Ferreira HS, de Franca AP, Cavalcante JC and Sawaya AL 2001. Obesity and undernutrition in a very-low-income population in the city of Maceio, northeastern Brazil. Br J Nutr 86(2):277–84.
Floud R 2002. The dimensions of inequality: weight and height variation in Britain, 1700–2000. Contemp Br Hist 16:1326.
Floud R, Fogel RW, Harris B and Hong SC 2011. The Changing Body: Health, Nutrition, and Human Development in the Western World Since 1700. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Floud R and Harris B 1997. Health, height, and welfare: Britain, 1700–1980. In Steckel RH and Floud R, editors. Health and Welfare During Industrialization. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 91126.
Floud R, Wachter K and Gregory A 1990. Height, Health and History: Nutritional Status in the United Kingdom 1750–1980. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Floud R and Wachter KW 1982. Poverty and physical stature: evidence on the standard of living of London boys, 1770–870. Soc Sci Hist 6:422452.
Foley R 1987. Another Unique Species. Patterns in Human Evolutionary Ecology. Somerset, NJ: John Wiley and Sons.
Foley RA 1993. The influence of seasonality on human evolution. In Ulijaszek SJ, Strickland SS, editors. Seasonality and Human Ecology. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. 1737.
Foley R 2001. The evolutionary consequences of increased carnivory in humans. In Stanford CB, and Bunn HT, editors. Meat-Eating and Human Evolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 305–31.
Foley RA 1994. Speciation, extinction and climatic change in hominind evolution. J Hum Evol 26:275–89.
Fontaine KR, Redden DT, Wang C, Westfall AO and Allison DB 2003. Years of life lost due to obesity. JAMA 289(2):187–93.
Food and Agriculture Organization and the World Food Programme (FAO/WFP) 1997. Food Supply and Nutrition Assessment Mission to Iraq (TCP/IRQ/6713). Rome: FAO.
Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations 1996. Rome Declaration on World Food Security and World Food Summit Plan of Action. Rome: World Food Summit, 13–17 November.
Food and Agriculture Organization 2009. Women and Rural Employment: Fighting Poverty by Redefining Gender Role. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization.
Food and Agriculture Organization 2000. The State of Food and Agriculture, 2000. Rome: Food and Agricultural Organization.
Food and Agriculture Organization 2011a. Global Food Losses and Food Waste. Rome: Food and Agricultural Organization.
Food and Agriculture Organization 2011b. World Livestock 2011: Livestock in Food Security. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organisation.
Ford ES, Ajani UA, Croft JB, Critchley JA, Labarthe DR, Kottke TE, Giles WH and Capewell S 2007. Explaining the decrease in U.S. deaths from coronary disease, 1980–2000. N Engl J Med 356(23):2388–98.
Ford ES, Merritt RK, Heath GW, Powell KE, Washburn RA, Kriska A and Haile G 1991. Physical activity behaviors in lower and higher socioeconomic status populations. Am J Epidemiol 133(12):1246–56.
Forrest D 1973. Tea for the British: The Social and Economic History of a Famous Trade. London: Chatto and Windus.
Forsdahl A 1977. Are poor living conditions in childhood and adolescence an important risk factor for arteriosclerotic heart disease? Br J Prev Soc Med 31(2):91–5.
Forsdahl A 1978. Living conditions in childhood and subsequent development of risk factors for arteriosclerotic heart disease. The cardiovascular survey in Finnmark 1974–75. J Epidemiol Community Health 32(1):34–7.
Forsen T, Eriksson J, Qiao Q, Tervahauta M, Nissinen A and Tuomilehto J 2000a. Short stature and coronary heart disease: a 35-year follow-up of the Finnish cohorts of The Seven Countries Study. J Intern Med 248(4):326–32.
Forsen T, Eriksson J, Tuomilehto J, Reunanen A, Osmond C and Barker D 2000b. The fetal and childhood growth of persons who develop type 2 diabetes. Ann Intern Med 133(3):176–82.
Forsen T, Eriksson JG, Tuomilehto J, Osmond C and Barker DJ 1999. Growth in utero and during childhood among women who develop coronary heart disease: longitudinal study. BMJ 319(7222):1403–7.
Fotbolcu H, Yakar T, Duman D, Ozden K, Karaahmet T, Tigen K, Kurtoglu U and Dindar I 2010. Aortic elastic properties in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Blood Press Monit 15(3):139–45.
Foucault M 1975/1977. Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison. London: Allen Lane.
Fouts HN, Hewlett BS and Lamb ME 2005. Parent-offspring weaning conflicts among the Bofi farmers and foragers of central Africa. Curr Anthropol 46(1):2950.
Fowler C 2008. The Svalbard Global Seed Vault: Securing the Future of Agriculture. CropTrust.
Fowler C and Mooney P 1990. The Threatened Gene: Food, Politics and the Loss of Genetic Diversity. Cambridge: Lutterworth.
Fowler S 2014. Workhouse: The People, the Places, the Life Behind Doors. Barnsley: Pen and Sword.
Fraga MF, Ballestar E, Paz MF, Ropero S, Setien F, Ballestar ML, Heine-Suner D, Cigudosa JC, Urioste M, Benitez J et al. 2005. Epigenetic differences arise during the lifetime of monozygotic twins. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102(30):10604–9.
Franceschi C, Capri M, Monti D, Giunta S, Olivieri F, Sevini F, Panourgia MP, Invidia L, Celani L, Scurti M et al. 2007. Inflammaging and anti-inflammaging: a systemic perspective on aging and longevity emerged from studies in humans. Mech Ageing Dev 128(1):92105.
Frankel S, Elwood P, Sweetnam P, Yarnell J and Smith GD 1996. Birthweight, body-mass index in middle age, and incident coronary heart disease. Lancet 348(9040):1478–80.
Fraser A, Ebrahim S, Davey Smith G and Lawlor DA 2008. The associations between height components (leg and trunk length) and adult levels of liver enzymes. J Epidemiol Community Health 62(1):4853.
Fredriks AM, van Buuren S, Burgmeijer RJ, Verloove-Vanhorik SP and Wit JM 1998. Nederlandse groeidiagrammen 1997 in historisch perspectief. In Wit JM, editor. De vierde Landelijke Groeistudie (1997) Presenatie niewe groeidiagrammen. Leiden: TNO Preventie en Gezondheit. 113.
Freedman DS, Khan LK, Serdula MK, Ogden CL and Dietz WH 2006. Racial and ethnic differences in secular trends for childhood BMI, weight, and height. Obesity 14(2):301–8.
Freedman P 1999. Images of the Medieval Peasant. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Freeman JV, Cole TJ, Chinn S, Jones PR, White EM and Preece MA 1995. Cross sectional stature and weight reference curves for the UK, 1990. Arch Dis Child 73(1):1724.
Freidberg S 2009. Fresh: A Perishable History. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.
Freitak D, Ots I, Vanatoa A and Horak P 2003. Immune response is energetically costly in white cabbage butterfly pupae. Proc Biol Sci 270 Suppl 2:S220–2.
Fretwell SD 1972. Populations in a Seasonal Environment. Pinceton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Fretwell SD and Lucas HL 1970. On territorial behaviour and other factors influencing habitat distribution in birds. I. Theoretical development. Acta Biotheoretica 19:1636.
Freuchen P 1961. Book of the Eskimos. New York: Fawcett World.
Friedman M 1962. Capitalism and Freedom. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Friedman M 1970. The social responsibility of business is to increase its profits. New York Times Magazine September 13.
Frier B 1983. Roman life expectancy: Ulpian’s evidence. Harvard Stud Classical Philol 86:213–51.
Frisancho AR, Cole PE and Klayman JE 1977. Greater contribution to secular trend among offspring of short parents. Hum Biol 49(1):5160.
Fry DP and Soderberg P 2013. Lethal aggression in mobile forager bands and implications for the origins of war. Science 341(6143):270–3.
Fryer P 1988. Black People in the British Empire: An Introduction. London: Pluto Press.
Fukuyama F 1992. The End of History and the Last Man. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Fukuyama F 2012. The future of history: can liberal democracy survive the decline of the middle classes? Foreign Affairs 91(1):5361.
Fulker DW 1970. Maternal buffering of rodent genotypic responses to stress: a complex genotype-environment interaction. Behav Genet 1(2):119–24.
Fuller JFC 1958. The Generalship of Alexander the Great. London: Eyre and Spottiswoode.
Fumagalli M, Cagliani R, Pozzoli U, Riva S, Comi GP, Menozzi G, Bresolin N and Sironi M 2009a. Widespread balancing selection and pathogen-driven selection at blood group antigen genes. Genom Res 19(2):199212.
Fumagalli M, Pozzoli U, Cagliani R, Comi GP, Riva S, Clerici M, Bresolin N and Sironi M 2009b. Parasites represent a major selective force for interleukin genes and shape the genetic predisposition to autoimmune conditions. J Exp Med 206(6):1395–408.
Furuichi T 1997. Agonistic interactions and matrifocal dominance rank of wild bonobos (Pan paniscus) at Wamba. Int J Primatol 18:855–75.
Gabriel W, Luttbeg B, Sih A and Tollrian R 2005. Environmental tolerance, heterogeneity, and the evolution of reversible plastic responses. Am Nat 166(3):339–53.
Gabrielsson BG, Johansson JM, Lonn M, Jernas M, Olbers T, Peltonen M, Larsson I, Lonn L, Sjostrom L, Carlsson B et al. 2003. High expression of complement components in omental adipose tissue in obese men. Obes Res 11(6):699708.
Gagnon A, Smith KR, Tremblay M, Vezina H, Pare PP and Desjardins B 2009. Is there a trade-off between fertility and longevity? A comparative study of women from three large historical databases accounting for mortality selection. Am J Hum Biol 21(4):533–40.
Gaillard T, Schuster D and Osei K 2009. Metabolic syndrome in Black people of the African diaspora: the paradox of current classification, definition and criteria. Ethn Dis 19(2 Suppl 2):S2–1–7.
Gaillard T, Schuster D and Osei K 2010. Differential impact of serum glucose, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol on cardiovascular risk factor burden in nondiabetic, obese African American women: implications for the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Metab 59(8):1115–23.
Galbraith JK 1958. The Affluent Society. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Galdikas BM and Wood JW 1990. Birth spacing patterns in humans and apes. Am J Phys Anthropol 83(2):185–91.
Gale EA 2013. Is type 2 diabetes a category error? Lancet 381(9881):1956–7.
Galeotti G 1947. Lo sviluppo somatico degli alumni delle scuole communali di Roma in periodo di emergenza alimentare (1945). Rivista Antropol 35:285–95.
Galgani JE, Moro C and Ravussin E 2008. Metabolic flexibility and insulin resistance. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 295(5):E1009–17.
Gallagher A 2013. Stature, body mass, and brain size: a two-million-year odyssey. Econ Hum Biol 11(4):551–62.
Gallagher J and Robinson R 1953. The imperialism of free trade. Econ Hist Rev 6(1):115.
Galloway JH 1977. The Mediterranean sugar industry. Geogr Rev 67(2):177–94.
Galloway T, Chateau-Degat ML, Egeland GM and Young TK 2011. Does sitting height ratio affect estimates of obesity prevalence among Canadian Inuit? Results from the 2007–2008 Inuit Health Survey. Am J Hum Biol 23(5):655–63.
Galobardes B, Lynch JW and Davey Smith G 2004. Childhood socioeconomic circumstances and cause-specific mortality in adulthood: systematic review and interpretation. Epidemiol Rev 26:721.
Galvin CA 1992. Nutritional ecology of pastoralists in dry tropical Africa. Am J Hum Biol 4:209–21.
Gamble C 1993. Timewalkers: The Prehistory of Global Colonisation. Stroud: Alan Sutton.
Gamborg M, Byberg L, Rasmussen F, Andersen PK, Baker JL, Bengtsson C, Canoy D, Droyvold W, Eriksson JG, Forsen T et al. 2007. Birth weight and systolic blood pressure in adolescence and adulthood: meta-regression analysis of sex- and age-specific results from 20 Nordic studies. Am J Epidemiol 166(6):634–45.
Gamerro C 2012. An Open Secret. London: Pushkin.
Gangestad SW, Thornhill R and Yeo RA 1994. Facial attractiveness, developmental stability, and fluctuating asymmetry. Ethol Sociobiol 15:7385.
Ganguly P 1979. A Study of Sixty Population Groups. In Stini WA, editor. The Hague: Mouton Publishers. 315–37.
Ganong WF 1999. Review of Medical Physiology (19th edition). Stamford, CT: Appleton and Lange.
Garber AK and Lustig RH 2011. Is fast food addictive? Curr Drug Abuse Rev 4(3):146–62.
Garcia C, Lee PC and Rosetta L 2009. Growth in colony living anubis baboon infants and its relationship with maternal activity budgets and reproductive status. Am J Phys Anthropol 138(2):123–35.
Garcia Carrapato MR 2003. The offspring of gestational diabetes. J Perinat Med 31(1):511.
Gardiner R and Christensen AE 1996. The Earliest Ships: The Evolution of Boats into Ships. London: Conway Maritime Press.
Gardner MJ, Winter PD and Barker DJ 1984. Atlas of Mortality from Selected Diseases: In England and Wales 1968–1978. Chichester: John Wiley.
Garenne M 2011. Trends in nutritional status in adult women in sub-Saharan Africa. DHS Comparative Reports 27. Calverton, MD: ICF Macro.
Garnham PC 1949. Distribution of wild-rodent plague. Bull World Health Organ 2(2):271–8.
Garrigan D and Hammer MF 2006. Reconstructing human origins in the genomic era. Nat Rev Genet 7(9):669–80.
Garrison RJ, Gold RS, Wilson PW and Kannel WB 1993. Educational attainment and coronary heart disease risk: the Framingham Offspring Study. Prev Med 22(1):5464.
Garrow JS and Webster J 1985. Quetelet’s index (W/H2) as a measure of fatness. Int J Obes 9(2):147–53.
Gault A, O’Dea K, Rowley KG, McLeay T and Traianedes K 1996. Abnormal glucose tolerance and other coronary heart disease risk factors in an isolated aboriginal community in central Australia. Diabetes Care 19(11):1269–73.
Gavin JR 3rd, Fox KM and Grandy S 2011. Race/Ethnicity and gender differences in health intentions and behaviors regarding exercise and diet for adults with type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional analysis. BMC Public Health 11:533.
Gawlik A, Walker RS and Hochberg Z 2011. Impact of infancy duration on adult size in 22 subsistence-based societies. Acta Paediatr 100(12):e248–52.
Gear J and Davis DH 1942. The susceptibility of the South African Gerbils (Genus tatera) to rickettsial diseases and their use in the preparation of anti-typhus vaccine. Trans Roy Soc Trop Med Hyg 36: 17.
Geiger S, Le Vaillant M, Lebard T, Reichert S, Stier A, Lem Y and Criscuolo F 2012. Catching-up but telomere loss: half-opening the black box of growth and ageing trade-off in wild king penguin chicks. Mol Ecol 21(6):1500–10.
Geiss LS, Wang J, Cheng YJ, Thompson TJ, Barker L, Li Y, Albright AL and Gregg EW 2014. Prevalence and incidence trends for diagnosed diabetes among adults aged 20 to 79 years, United States, 1980–2012. JAMA 312(12):1218–26.
Geller M 2009. Coca-Cola Aims to Double System Revenue by 2020. Atlanta: Reuters 16 November 2009.
Geneva Declaration Secretariat 2008. The Global Burden of Armed Violence. Geneva: Geneva Declaration Secretariat.
Gerbault P, Liebert A, Itan Y, Powell A, Currat M, Burger J, Swallow DM and Thomas MG 2011. Evolution of lactase persistence: an example of human niche construction. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 366(1566):863–77.
Gerhards G 2005. Secular variations in the body stature of the inhabitants of Latvia (7th millennium BC – 20th c. AD). Acta Med Lituanica 12:33–9.
Geronimus AT 1992. The weathering hypothesis and the health of African-American women and infants: evidence and speculations. Ethn Dis 2(3):207–21.
Geronimus AT 1996. Black/white differences in the relationship of maternal age to birthweight: a population-based test of the weathering hypothesis. Soc Sci Med 42(4):589–97.
Gertler MM, Garn SM and White PD 1951. Young candidates for coronary heart disease. J Am Med Ass 147(7):621–5.
Ghaffar A, Reddy KS and Singhi M 2004. Burden of non-communicable diseases in South Asia. BMJ 328(7443):807–10.
Ghosh JR and Bandyopadhyay AR 2006. Income, birth order, siblings, and anthropometry. Hum Biol 78(6):733–41.
Ghosh S and Malik SL 2007. Parent-offspring correlations in body measurements, physique and physiological variables among Santhals of West Bengal. J Exerc Sci Physiother 3(1):2643.
Gibson MA and Mace R 2006. An energy-saving development initiative increases birth rate and childhood malnutrition in rural Ethiopia. PLoS Med 3(4):e87.
Giele JZ and Elder GH 1998. Life course research: development of a field. In Giele JZ and Elder GH, editors. Methods of Life Course Research: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc. 527.
Gielen M, Lindsey PJ, Derom C, Smeets HJ, Souren NY, Paulussen AD, Derom R and Nijhuis JG 2008. Modeling genetic and environmental factors to increase heritability and ease the identification of candidate genes for birth weight: a twin study. Behav Genet 38(1):4454.
Gill CA 1921. The role of meteorology in malaria. Ind J Med Res 8:633–93.
Gill JM, Celis-Morales CA and Ghouri N 2014. Physical activity, ethnicity and cardio-metabolic health: does one size fit all? Atherosclerosis 232(2):319–33.
Gill RJ, Ramos-Rodriguez O and Raine NE 2012. Combined pesticide exposure severely affects individual- and colony-level traits in bees. Nature 491(7422):105–8.
Gimble JM, Robinson CE, Wu X and Kelly KA 1996. The function of adipocytes in the bone marrow stroma: an update. Bone 19(5):421–8.
Ginsberg HN 2000. Insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease. J Clin Invest 106(4):453–8.
Giskes K, van Lenthe FJ, Turrell G, Kamphuis CB, Brug J and Mackenbach JP 2008. Socioeconomic position at different stages of the life course and its influence on body weight and weight gain in adulthood: a longitudinal study with 13-year follow-up. Obesity 16(6):1377–81.
Githeko AK, Lindsay SW, Confalonieri UE and Patz JA 2000. Climate change and vector-borne diseases: a regional analysis. Bull World Health Organ 78(9):1136–47.
Giunta S 2006. Is inflammaging an auto[innate]immunity subclinical syndrome? Immun Ageing: I & A 3:12.
Gladwin T 1967. Poverty U.S.A. Boston, MA: Little, Brown.
Glaeser B 1987. Agriculture between the Green Revolution and ecodevelopment: which way to go? In Glaeser B, editor. The Green Revolution Revisited: Critique and Alternatives. London: Allen & Unwin. 19.
Glantz M 2001. Currents of Change: Impacts of El Niño and La Niña on Climate and Society (2nd). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Glasgow D 1981. The Black Underclass: Poverty, Unemployment and Entrapment of Ghetto Youth. New York: Vintage Books.
Global Slavery Index 2014. Global Slavery Index 2014. Walk Free Foundation.
Gluckman P, Godfrey K, Hanson M and Kuzawa C 2009. Developmental aspects of diseases of modern environments. Evol Med Rev October 28 (
Gluckman P and Hanson M 2004. The Fetal Matrix: Evolution, Development and Disease. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Gluckman PD, Hanson MA, Cooper C and Thornburg KL 2008. Effect of in utero and early-life conditions on adult health and disease. N Engl J Med 359(1):6173.
Godfray HC, Beddington JR, Crute IR, Haddad L, Lawrence D, Muir JF, Pretty J, Robinson S, Thomas SM and Toulmin C 2010. Food security: the challenge of feeding 9 billion people. Science 327(5967):812–18.
Godfrey KM, Redman CW, Barker DJ and Osmond C 1991. The effect of maternal anaemia and iron deficiency on the ratio of fetal weight to placental weight. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 98(9):886–91.
Goldstein DB 2009. Common genetic variation and human traits. N Engl J Med 360(17):1696–8.
Golden M 1988. The effects of malnutrition in the metabolism of children. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 82: 36.
Goodey J, Kennedy J and Milmo C 2014. Councils paid to cut smoking, but have £2bn of tobacco shares. Independent on Sunday 09 November 2014.
Gopalan C 1958. Studies on lactation in poor Indian communities. J Trop Pediatr 4(3):8797.
Gopinath N, Chadha SL, Jain P, Shekhawat S and Tandon R 1994. An epidemiological study of obesity in adults in the urban population of Delhi. J Assoc Physicians India 42(3):212–15.
Gordon-Larsen P, McMurray RG and Popkin BM 1999. Adolescent physical activity and inactivity vary by ethnicity: The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. J Pediatr 135(3):301–6.
Gorgias N, Maidatsi P, Tsolaki M, Alvanou A, Kiriazis G, Kaidoglou K and Giala M 1996. Hypoxic pretreatment protects against neuronal damage of the rat hippocampus induced by severe hypoxia. Brain Res 714(1–2):215–25.
Gosden C 1989. Debt, production, and prehistory. J Anthropol Archaeol 8:355–87.
Goss PE, Strasser-Weippl K, Lee-Bychkovsky BL, Fan L, Li J, Chavarri-Guerra Y, Liedke PE, Pramesh CS, Badovinac-Crnjevic T, Sheikine Y et al. 2014. Challenges to effective cancer control in China, India, and Russia. Lancet Oncol 15(5):489538.
Goto C, Higashi Y, Kimura M, Noma K, Hara K, Nakagawa K, Kawamura M, Chayama K, Yoshizumi M and Nara I 2003. Effect of different intensities of exercise on endothelium-dependent vasodilation in humans: role of endothelium-dependent nitric oxide and oxidative stress. Circulation 108(5):530–5.
Grady SC 2006. Racial disparities in low birthweight and the contribution of residential segregation: a multilevel analysis. Soc Sci Med 63(12):3013–29.
Graeber D 2011. Debt: The First 5,000 Years. London: Melville House.
Grafen A 1988. On the uses of data on lifetime reproductive success. In Clutton-Brock T, editor. Reproductive Success. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. 454–71.
GRAIN 2014. Hungry for land: small farmers feed the world with less than a quarter of all farmland.
Grandi C and Dipierri JE 2008. [Secular trend of birth weight in Argentina (1992–2002): a population based study]. Arch Argent Pediatr 106(3):219–25.
Green AS, Rozance PJ, Limesand SW 2010a. Consequences of a compromised intrauterine environment on islet function. J Endocrinol 205(3):211–24.
Green RE, Krause J, Briggs AW, Maricic T, Stenzel U, Kircher M, Patterson N, Li H, Zhai W, Fritz MH et al. 2010b. A draft sequence of the Neandertal genome. Science 328(5979):710–22.
Greene G 1978. The Human Factor. London: Penguin. 35.
Greenfield SM. 1977. Madeira and the beginnings of new world sugar cane cultivation and plantation slavery: a study in institution building. Ann N Y Acad Sci 292:536–52.
Greenwood A 1913. The Health and Physique of School Children. London: P.S. King & Son.
Gregory CA 1982. Gifts and Commodities. New York: Academic Press.
Grey C, Wells S, Riddell T, Kerr A, Gentles D, Pylypchuk R, Marshall R, Ameratunga S, Drury P, Elley CR et al. 2010. A comparative analysis of the cardiovascular disease risk factor profiles of Pacific peoples and Europeans living in New Zealand assessed in routine primary care: PREDICT CVD-11. N Z Med J 123(1309):6275.
Grier PT 1996. The End of History and the Return of History. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press.
Griffiths PL and Bentley ME 2001. The nutrition transition is underway in India. J Nutr 131(10):2692–700.
Grigg DB 1975. The world’s agricultural labour force 1800–1970. Geogr 60(3):194202.
Grigg DB 1992. Agriculture in the world economy: an historical geography of decline. Geogr 77(3):210–22.
Grijalva-Eternod CS, Lawlor DA and Wells JC 2013. Testing a capacity-load model for hypertension: disentangling early and late growth effects on childhood blood pressure in a prospective birth cohort. PLoS One 8(2):e56078.
Grijalva-Eternod CS, Wells JC, Cortina-Borja M, Salse-Ubach N, Tondeur MC, Dolan C, Meziani C, Wilkinson C, Spiegel P and Seal AJ 2012. The double burden of obesity and malnutrition in a protracted emergency setting: a cross-sectional study of Western sahara refugees. PLoS Med 9(10):e1001320.
Grinnell J 1917. The niche-relationship of the California Thrasher. Auk 34:427–33.
Grinnell J 1924. Geography and evolution. Ecol 5:225–9.
Grousset R 1970. The Empire of the Steppes: A History of Central Asia New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
Grube K and Burkle A 1992. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activity in mononuclear leukocytes of 13 mammalian species correlates with species-specific life span. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 89(24):11759–63.
Gruber T, Potts KB, Krupenye C, Byrne MR, Mackworth-Young C, McGrew WC, Reynolds V and Zuberbuhler K 2012. The influence of ecology on chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) cultural behavior: a case study of five Ugandan chimpanzee communities. J Comp Psychol 126(4):446–57.
Grzeskowiak L, Collado MC, Mangani C, Maleta K, Laitinen K, Ashorn P, Isolauri E and Salminen S 2012. Distinct gut microbiota in southeastern African and northern European infants. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 54(6):812–16.
Guenard F, Deshaies Y, Cianflone K, Kral JG, Marceau P and Vohl MC 2013. Differential methylation in glucoregulatory genes of offspring born before vs. after maternal gastrointestinal bypass surgery. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 110(28):11439–44.
Guernier V, Hochberg ME and Guegan JF 2004. Ecology drives the worldwide distribution of human diseases. PLoS Biol 2(6):e141.
Guidici A, Navarro J, Juste C and González-Solís J 2010. Physiological ecology of breeders and sabbaticals in a pelagic seabird. J Exp Marine Biol Ecol 389:1317.
Gunnell D, Rogers J and Dieppe P 2001. Height and health: predicting longevity from bone length in archaeological remains. J Epidemiol Community Health 55(7):505–7.
Gunnell D, Smith GD, McConnachie A, Greenwood R, Upton M and Frankel S 1999. Separating in-utero and postnatal influences on later disease. Lancet 354(9189):1526–7.
Gunnell D, Whitley E, Upton MN, McConnachie A, Smith GD and Watt GC 2003. Associations of height, leg length, and lung function with cardiovascular risk factors in the Midspan Family Study. J Epidemiol Community Health 57(2):141–6.
Gunnell DJ, Smith GD, Frankel SJ, Kemp M and Peters TJ 1998. Socio-economic and dietary influences on leg length and trunk length in childhood: a reanalysis of the Carnegie (Boyd Orr) survey of diet and health in prewar Britain (1937–39). Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 12 Suppl 1:96113.
Guntupalli AM and Baten J 2006. The development and inequality of heights in North, West, and East India 1915–1944. Explor Econ Hist 43:578608.
Guntupalli AM and Moradi A 2008. What does gender dimorphism in stature tell us about discrimination in rural India, 1930 – 1975? In Pal MB, Ghosh B and Vasulu TS, editors. Gender and Discrimination: Health, Nutritional Status, and Role of Women in India. New Delhi, India: Oxford University Press. 258–77.
Gupta DK, Shah P, Misra A, Bharadwaj S, Gulati S, Gupta N, Sharma R, Pandey RM and Goel K 2011. Secular trends in prevalence of overweight and obesity from 2006 to 2009 in urban Asian Indian adolescents aged 14–17 years. PLoS One 6(2):e17221.
Gupta P and Dutta PC 1966. Anthropometry in India (1868–1961): A Reference Manual of Somatological Studies. In Anthropological Survey, Calcutta.
Gupta R, Joshi P, Mohan V, Reddy KS and Yusuf S 2008. Epidemiology and causation of coronary heart disease and stroke in India. Heart 94(1):1626.
Gupta R, Kaul V, Bhagat N, Agrawal M, Gupta VP, Misra A and Vikram NK 2007. Trends in prevalence of coronary risk factors in an urban Indian population: Jaipur Heart Watch-4. Indian Heart J 59(4):346–53.
Gupta R and Majumdar S 1994. Correlation of waist-hip ratio with coronary heart disease and risk factor prevalence in a rural male population. Indian Heart J 46(4):145–8.
Gupta R, Misra A, Vikram NK, Kondal D, Gupta SS, Agrawal A and Pandey RM 2009. Younger age of escalation of cardiovascular risk factors in Asian Indian subjects. BMC Cardiovasc Disord 9:28.
Guriev S and Rachinsky A 2005. The role of oligarchs in Russian capitalism. J Econ Perspect 19(1):131–50.
Gurven M, Borgerhoof Mulder M, Hooper PL, Kaplan H, Quinlan R, Sear R, Schniter E, von Rueden C, Bowles S, Hertz T et al. 2010. Domestication alone does not lead to inequality: intergenerational wealth transmission among horticulturalists. Curr Anthropol 51:4964.
Gurven M and Kaplan H 2007. Longevity among hunter‐gatherers: a cross‐cultural examination. Pop Dev Rev 33:321–65.
Gurven M and Walker R 2006. Energetic demand of multiple dependents and the evolution of slow human growth. Proc Biol Sci 273(1588):835–41.
Gustafsson L and Sutherland WJ 1988. The costs of reproduction in the collared flycatcher Ficedula albicollis. Nature 335:813–15.
Guyatt HL and Snow RW 2004. Impact of malaria during pregnancy on low birth weight in sub-Saharan Africa. Clin Microbiol Rev 17(4):760–9, table of contents.
Gwassa GC and Iliffe J 1968. Records of the Maji Maji Rising. Nairobi: East African Publishing House.
Haas J and Piscitelli M 2013. The prehistory of warfare: misled by ethnography. In Fry DP, editor. War, Peace, and Human Nature: The Convergence of Evolutionary and Cultural Views. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 168–90.
Habermas J 1968/1970. Towards a Rational Society. Boston, MA: Beacon Press.
Habu J 1996. Jomon sedentism and intersite variability: collectors of the Early Jomon Moroiso Phase in Japan. Arctic Anthropol 33(2):3849.
Hacker AG, Collins R and Jacobson MS 1987. Marketing Booze to Blacks. Washington, DC: Center for Science in the Public Interest.
Hackett JA, Sengupta R, Zylicz JJ, Murakami K, Lee C, Down TA and Surani MA 2013. Germline DNA demethylation dynamics and imprint erasure through 5-hydroxymethylcytosine. Science 339(6118):448–52.
Hackett JA and Surani MA 2013. DNA methylation dynamics during the mammalian life cycle. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 368(1609):20110328.
Hadzihalilovic J, Halilovic SH, Brahimaj F, Begic A, Tupkusic R and Mesalic L 2009. Secular changes of anthropometric parameters in newborns from Gracanica area in the period from 1998 to 2008. Medicinski Arhiv 63(5):267–70.
Hagger MS, Wood C, Stiff C and Chatzisarantis NL 2010. Ego depletion and the strength model of self-control: a meta-analysis. Psychol Bull 136(4):495525.
Haig D 1993. Genetic conflicts in human pregnancy. Q Rev Biol 68(4):495532.
Haig D 1996. Placental hormones, genomic imprinting, and maternal-fetal communication. J Evol Biol 9:357–80.
Haig D 1997. Parental antagonism, relatedness asymmetries, and genomic imprinting. Proc Biol Sci 264(1388):1657–62.
Haig D 1999. Genetic conflicts of pregnancy and childhood. In Stearns SC, editor. Evolution in Health and Disease. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 7790.
Hajkova Z, Streda A and Skrha F 1965. Hyperostotic spondylosis and diabetes mellitus. Ann Rheum Dis 24(6):536–43.
Hales CN and Barker DJ 1992. Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus: the thrifty phenotype hypothesis. Diabetologia 35(7):595601.
Hales CN, Barker DJ, Clark PM, Cox LJ, Fall C, Osmond C and Winter PD 1991. Fetal and infant growth and impaired glucose tolerance at age 64. BMJ 303(6809):1019–22.
Hall V, Thomsen RW, Henriksen O and Lohse N 2011. Diabetes in Sub Saharan Africa 1999–2011: epidemiology and public health implications. A systematic review. BMC Public Health 11:564.
Hallal PC, Andersen LB, Bull FC, Guthold R, Haskell W, Ekelund U and Lancet Physical Activity Series Working G. 2012. Global physical activity levels: surveillance progress, pitfalls, and prospects. Lancet 380(9838):247–57.
Hallal PC, Victora CG, Wells JC and Lima RC 2003. Physical inactivity: prevalence and associated variables in Brazilian adults. Med Sci Sports Exerc 35(11):1894–900.
Halpern SD, French B, Small DS, Saulsgiver K, Harhay MO, Audrain-McGovern J, Loewenstein G, Brennan TA, Asch DA and Volpp KG 2015. Randomized trial of four financial-incentive programs for smoking cessation. N Engl J Med 372(22):2108–17.
Halvorsen CP, Andolf E, Hu J, Pilo C, Winbladh B and Norman M 2006. Discordant twin growth in utero and differences in blood pressure and endothelial function at 8 years of age. J Intern Med 259(2):155–63.
Hamburg MA and Collins FS 2010. The path to personalized medicine. N Engl J Med 363(4):301–4.
Hamel S, Craine JM and Towne EG 2012. Maternal allocation in bison: co-occurrence of senescence, cost of reproduction, and individual quality. Ecol Appl 22(5):1628–39.
Hamilton MT, Hamilton DG and Zderic TW 2007. Role of low energy expenditure and sitting in obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Diabetes 56(11):2655–67.
Hamilton MT, Healy GN, Dunstan DW, Zderic TW and Owen N 2008. Too Little Exercise and Too Much Sitting: Inactivity Physiology and the Need for New Recommendations on Sedentary Behavior. Curr Cardiovasc Risk Rep 2(4):292–8.
Hamilton WD 1964a. The genetical evolution of social behaviour. I. J Theor Biol 7(1):116.
Hamilton WD 1964b. The genetical evolution of social behaviour. II. J Theor Biol 7(1):1752.
Hammerstein P and GHagen EH 2005. The second wave of evolutionary economics in biology. Trends Ecol Evol 20:604–9.
Hammond EC and Garfinkel L 1969. Coronary heart disease, roke, and aortic aneurysm. Factors in the etiology. Arch Env Health 19(2):167–82.
Hancock AM, Alkorta-Aranburu G, Witonsky DB and Di Rienzo A 2010a. Adaptations to new environments in humans: the role of subtle allele frequency shifts. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 365(1552):2459–68.
Hancock AM, Witonsky DB, Ehler E, Alkorta-Aranburu G, Beall C, Gebremedhin A, Sukernik R, Utermann G, Pritchard J, Coop G et al. 2010b. Human adaptations to diet, subsistence, and ecoregion are due to subtle shifts in allele frequency. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107 Suppl 2:8924–30.
Hancock AM, Witonsky DB, Gordon AS, Eshel G, Pritchard JK, Coop G and Di Rienzo A 2008. Adaptations to climate in candidate genes for common metabolic disorders. PLoS Genet 4:e32.
Hann C and Hart K 2011. Economic Anthropology. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Hansen AJ 1986. Fighting behavior in Bald Eagles: a test of game theory. Ecol 67:787–97.
Hansen J, Sato M and Ruedy R 2012. Perception of climate change. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA vol 109(37): E2415E2423.
Hanson JD and Kysar DA 1999. Taking behavioralism seriously: some evidence of market manipulation. Harvard Law Rev 112(7):1420–572.
Hanway J 1757. A Journal of Eight Days Journey: From Portsmouth to Kingston upon Thames; Through Southampton, Wiltshire, &c. with Miscellaneous Thoughts,… By a Gentleman of the Partie. London: H. Woodfall.
Harder T, Rodekamp E, Schellong K, Dudenhausen JW and Plagemann A 2007. Birth weight and subsequent risk of type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis. Am J Epidemiol 165(8):849–57.
Hardy R, Kuh D, Whincup PH and Wadsworth ME 2006. Age at puberty and adult blood pressure and body size in a British birth cohort study. J Hypertens 24(1):5966.
Harley CB 1991. Telomere loss: mitotic clock or genetic time bomb? Mutat Res 256(2–6):271–82.
Harman D 1956. Aging: a theory based on free radical and radiation chemistry. J Gerontol 11(3):298300.
Harmand S, Lewis JE, Feibel CS, Lepre CJ, Prat S, Lenoble A, Boes X, Quinn RL, Brenet M, Arroyo A et al. 2015. 3.3-million-year-old stone tools from Lomekwi 3, West Turkana, Kenya. Nature 521(7552):310–15.
Haroun D, Taylor SJ, Viner RM, Hayward RS, Darch TS, Eaton S, Cole TJ and Wells JC 2010. Validation of bioelectrical impedance analysis in adolescents across different ethnic groups. Obesity 18(6):1252–9.
Harrer H 1959. The White Spider: The History of the Eiger’s North Face. London: Hart-Davis.
Harrington TA, Thomas EL, Frost G, Modi N and Bell JD 2004. Distribution of adipose tissue in the newborn. Pediatr Res 55(3):437–41.
Harris JL, Bargh JA and Brownell KD 2009. Priming effects of television food advertising on eating behavior. Health Psychol 28(4):404–13.
Harrison ME and Chivers DJ 2007. The orang-utan mating system and the unflanged male: A product of increased food stress during the late Miocene and Pliocene? J Hum Evol 52:275–93.
Harshman LG and Zera AJ 2007. The cost of reproduction: the devil in the details. Trends Ecol Evol 22:80–6.
Hart K 2002. World society as an old regime. In Shore C and Nugent S, editors. Elite Cultures: Anthropological Perspectives. London: Routledge. 2236.
Hart K 2013. State, Region and Revolution in African Development. The Memory Bank.
Hart K and Sperling L 1987. Cattle as capital. Ethnos 52:324–38.
Hart N 1993. Famine, maternal nutrition and infant mortality: a re-examination of the Dutch hunger winter. Popul Stud 47(1):2746.
Harvey B 1993. Living and Dying in England 1100–1540: The Monastic Experience. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Hatton TJ 2011. Infant mortality and the health of survivors: Britain, 1910–50. Econ Hist Rev 64(3):951–72.
Hatton TJ and Bray BE 2010. Long run trends in the heights of European men, 19th–20th centuries. Econ Hum Biol 8(3):405–13.
Hau M 2001. Timing of breeding in variable environments: tropical birds as model systems. Horm Behav 40(2):281–90.
Haugaard LK, Ajslev TA, Zimmermann E, Angquist L and Sorensen TI 2013. Being an only or last-born child increases later risk of obesity. PLoS One 8(2):e56357.
Hauspie RC, Vercauteren M and Susanne C 1997. Secular changes in growth and maturation: an update. Acta Paediatr Suppl 423:20–7.
Haviaras S 1986. The Heroic Age. Harmondsworth: King Penguin. 310.
Haviland WA 1967. Stature at Tikal, Guatemala: implications for ancient Maya demography and social organization. Am Antiq 32:316–25.
Hawkes K 2006. Life History Theory and Human Evolution. In Hawkes K and Paine RR, editors. Oxford: James Currey. 4593.
Hawkes K, O’Connell JF and Blurton Jones NG 1989. Hardworking hadza grandmothers. In Standen V and Foley RA, editors. Comparative Socioecology. Oxford: Blackwell. 341–66.
Hawkes K, O’Connell JF, Jones NG, Alvarez H and Charnov EL 1998. Grandmothering, menopause, and the evolution of human life histories. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 95(3):1336–9.
Hawkesworth S 2009. Exploiting dietary supplementation trials to assess the impact of the prenatal environment on CVD risk. Proc Nutr Soc 68(1):7888.
Hawkesworth S, Moore SE, Fulford AJ, Barclay GR, Darboe AA, Mark H, Nyan OA and Prentice AM 2013. Evidence for metabolic endotoxemia in obese and diabetic Gambian women. Nutr Diabetes 3:e83.
Hawkesworth S, Prentice AM, Fulford AJ and Moore SE 2009. Maternal protein-energy supplementation does not affect adolescent blood pressure in The Gambia. Int J Epidemiol 38(1):119–27.
Hawkesworth S, Sawo Y, Fulford AJ, Goldberg GR, Jarjou LM, Prentice A and Moore SE 2010. Effect of maternal calcium supplementation on offspring blood pressure in 5- to 10-y-old rural Gambian children. Am J Clin Nutr 92(4):741–7.
Hawkesworth S, Walker CG, Sawo Y, Fulford AJ, Jarjou LM, Goldberg GR, Prentice A, Prentice AM and Moore SE 2011. Nutritional supplementation during pregnancy and offspring cardiovascular disease risk in The Gambia. Am J Clin Nutr 94(6 Suppl):1853S1860S.
Hay J, Maximova K, Durksen A, Carson V, Rinaldi RL, Torrance B, Ball GD, Majumdar SR, Plotnikoff RC, Veugelers P et al. 2012. Physical activity intensity and cardiometabolic risk in youth. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 166(11):1022–9.
Hayakawa T, Culleton R, Otani H, Horii T and Tanabe K 2008. Big bang in the evolution of extant malaria parasites. Mol Biol Evol 25(10):2233–9.
Hayden B 1997. The Pithouses of Keatley Creek. New York: Harcourt Brace College.
Hayden B 2001. Richman, poorman, beggarman, chief: the dynamics of social inequality. In Feinman G and Price TD, editors. Archaeology at the Millennium: A Sourcebook. New York: Springer. 231–72.
Hayek FA 1944. The Road to Serfdom. Abingdon: George Routledge and Sons.
Hays JD, Imbrie J and Shackleton NJ 1976. Variations in the Earth’s Orbit: Pacemaker of the Ice Ages. Science 194(4270):1121–32.
Hayward AD, Holopainen J, Pettay JE and Lummaa V 2012. Food and fitness: associations between crop yields and life-history traits in a longitudinally monitored pre-industrial human population. Proc Biol Sci 279(1745):4165–73.
Hayward AD, Rickard IJ and Lummaa V 2013. Influence of early-life nutrition on mortality and reproductive success during a subsequent famine in a preindustrial population. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 110(34):13886–91.
Hayward LS and Wingfield JC 2004. Maternal corticosterone is transferred to avian yolk and may alter offspring growth and adult phenotype. Gen Comp Endocrinol 135(3):365–71.
He FJ, Pombo-Rodrigues S and MacGregor GA 2014. Salt reduction in England from 2003 to 2011: its relationship to blood pressure, stroke and ischaemic heart disease mortality. BMJ Open 4:e004549.
He J, Klag MJ, Whelton PK, Chen JY, Mo JP, Qian MC, Mo PS and He GQ 1991a. Migration, blood pressure pattern, and hypertension: the Yi Migrant Study. Am J Epidemiol 134(10):1085–101.
He J, Tell GS, Tang YC, Mo PS and He GQ 1991b. Effect of migration on blood pressure: the Yi People Study. Epidemiol 2(2):8897.
Hedrick PW, Whittam TS and Parham P 1991. Heterozygosity at individual amino acid sites: extremely high levels for HLA-A and -B genes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 88(13):5897–901.
Hegaard HK, Pedersen BK, Nielsen BB and Damm P 2007. Leisure time physical activity during pregnancy and impact on gestational diabetes mellitus, pre-eclampsia, preterm delivery and birth weight: a review. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 86(11):1290–6.
Heidinger BJ, Blount JD, Boner W, Griffiths K, Metcalfe NB and Monaghan P 2012. Telomere length in early life predicts lifespan. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 109(5):1743–8.
Heijmans BT, Tobi EW, Stein AD, Putter H, Blauw GJ, Susser ES, Slagboom PE and Lumey LH 2008. Persistent epigenetic differences associated with prenatal exposure to famine in humans. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 105(44):17046–9.
Heim S 2003. Kalorien, Kautschuk, Karrieren. Planzenzüchtung und landwirtschaftliche Forschung in Kaiser-Wilhelm-Instituten 1933–1945. Göttingen: Wallstein.
Hein W and Wehrberger K 2010. Löwenmensch 2. Nachbildung der Elfenbeinstatuette aus der Höhlenstein-Stadel Hohle mit authentischen Werzeugen. Exp Arch Eur 9:4753.
Helle S, Lummaa V and Jokela J 2004. Accelerated immunosenescence in preindustrial twin mothers. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101(33):12391–6.
Helm WH 2002. Tuberculosis and the Bronte family. Bronte Studies 27(2):157167.
Helmerhorst HJ, Wijndaele K, Brage S, Wareham NJ and Ekelund U 2009. Objectively measured sedentary time may predict insulin resistance independent of moderate- and vigorous-intensity physical activity. Diabetes 58(8):1776–9.
Hemachandra AH and Klebanoff MA 2006. Use of serial ultrasound to identify periods of fetal growth restriction in relation to neonatal anthropometry. Am J Hum Biol 18(6):791–7.
Hendrickson D, Mearns R and Armon J 1996. Livestock raiding among the pastoral Turkana of Kenya: redistribution, predation and the links to faming. Inst Dev Studies Bull 27(3):1730.
Henneberg M 1998. Evolution of the human brain: is bigger better? Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 25:745–9.
Hennessy MB 1986. Multiple, brief maternal separations in the squirrel monkey: changes in hormonal and behavioral responsiveness. Physiol Behav 36(2):245–50.
Hennessy MB, O’Leary SK, Hawke JL and Wilson SE 2002. Social influences on cortisol and behavioral responses of preweaning, periadolescent, and adult guinea pigs. Physiol Behav 76(2):305–14.
Hermanussen M, Hermanussen B and Burmeister J 1988. The association between birth order and adult stature. Ann Hum Biol 15(2):161–5.
Hernandez RD, Kelley JL, Elyashiv E, Melton SC, Auton A, McVean G, Genomes P, Sella G and Przeworski M 2011. Classic selective sweeps were rare in recent human evolution. Science 331(6019):920–4.
Herrera MG, Mora JO, De Paredes B and Wagner M 1980. Maternal Weight/Height and the Effect of Food Supplementation During Pregnancy and Lactation. Bern: Hans Huber.
Hewlett B 1988. Sexual selection and parental investment among Aka pygmies. In Betzig L, Borgerhoff-Mulder M and Turke P, editors. Human Reproductive Behavior. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 263–76.
Hewlett BS and Winn S 2014. Allomaternal nursing in humans. Curr Anthropol 55(2):200–29.
Hey J 2010. The divergence of chimpanzee species and subspecies as revealed in multipopulation isolation-with-migration analyses. Mol Biol Evol 27(4):921–33.
Hicks J and Allen G 1999. A Century of Change: Trends in UK Statistics Since 1990. London: House of Commons Library.
Hiernaux J 1968. La diversite humaine en Afrique Sub-Saharienne. Recherches biologiques. Bruxelles: Editions de l’Institute de Sociology de l’Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
Hiernaux J and Froment A 1976. The correlations between anthropobiological and climatic variables in sub-Saharan Africa: revised estimates. Hum Biol 48(4):757–67.
Hietakangas V and Cohen SM 2009. Regulation of tissue growth through nutrient sensing. Ann Rev Genet 43:389410.
Higgs E 1995. Occupational censuses and the agricultural workforce in Victorian England and Wales. Econ Hist Rev 48(4):700–16.
Hikmet N 1970. Selected Poems of Nazim Hikmet, trans. Baybars T. London: Jonathan Cape.
Hill JC 1984. Prestige and reproductive success in man. Ethol Sociobiol 5:7795.
Hill K 1993. Life history theory and evolutionary anthropology. Evol Anthropol 2:7889.
Hill K, Boesch C, Goodall J, Pusey A, Williams J and Wrangham R 2001. Mortality rates among wild chimpanzees. J Hum Evol 40(5):437–50.
Hill K and Kaplan H 1999. Life history traits in humans: theory and empirical studies. Ann Rev Anthropol 28:387430.
Himmelfarb G 1984. The Idea of Poverty: England in the Early Industrial Age. London: Faber and Faber.
Himmelmann A, Svensson A and Hansson L 1994. Relation of maternal blood pressure during pregnancy to birth weight and blood pressure in children. The Hypertension in Pregnancy Offspring Study. J Intern Med 235(4):347–52.
Hinchliffe SA, Lynch MR, Sargent PH, Howard CV and Van Velzen D 1992. The effect of intrauterine growth retardation on the development of renal nephrons. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 99(4):296301.
Hingorani A and Humphries S 2005. Nature’s randomised trials. Lancet 366(9501):1906–8.
Hiraiwa-Hasegawa M 1988. Adaptive significance of infanticide in primates. Trends Ecol Evol 3:102–15.
Hirsch D and Zukowska Z 2012. NPY and stress 30 years later: the peripheral view. Cell Mol Neurobiol 32(5):645–59.
Hirschman AO 1977. The Passions and the Interests: Political Arguments for Capitalism Before Its Triumph. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Hirschman AO 1991. The Rhetoric of Reaction: Perversity, Futility, Jeopardy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Hitze B, Hubold C, van Dyken R, Schlichting K, Lehnert H, Entringer S and Peters A 2010. How the selfish brain organizes its supply and demand. Frontiers Neuroenerget 2:7.
Hobbes T 1651/1909. Leviathan: reprinted from the edition of 1651. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Hobsbawm E 1968. Industry and Empire. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books.
Hobsbawm E 2000. The New Century. London: Abacus.
Hochberg Z and Albertsson-Wikland K 2008. Evo-devo of infantile and childhood growth. Pediatr Res 64(1):27.
Hochschild A 1998. King Leopold’s Ghost: A Story of Greed, Terror, and Heroism in Colonial Africa. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.
Hoddinott J and Kinsey B 2001. Child growth in the time of drought. Oxford Bull Econ Stat 63(4):409–36.
Hodge AM, Maple-Brown L, Cunningham J, Boyle J, Dunbar T, Weeramanthri T, Shaw J and O’Dea K 2010. Abdominal obesity and other risk factors largely explain the high CRP in indigenous Australians relative to the general population, but not gender differences: a cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health 10:700.
Hoehn KL, Salmon AB, Hohnen-Behrens C, Turner N, Hoy AJ, Maghzal GJ, Stocker R, Van Remmen H, Kraegen EW, Cooney GJ et al. 2009. Insulin resistance is a cellular antioxidant defense mechanism. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 106(42):17787–92.
Hoffman DJ, Sawaya AL, Verreschi I, Tucker KL and Roberts SB 2000. Why are nutritionally stunted children at increased risk of obesity? Studies of metabolic rate and fat oxidation in shantytown children from Sao Paulo, Brazil. Am J Clin Nutr 72(3):702–7.
Hogstad O 1987. It is expensive to be dominant. Auk 104:333–6.
Hogue CJ, Buehler JW, Strauss LT and Smith JC 1987. Overview of the National Infant Mortality Surveillance (NIMS) project–design, methods, results. Public Health Rep 102(2):126–38.
Hold-Cavell B 1996. The ethological bases of status hierarchies. In Wiessner P and Schiefenhovel W, editors. Food and the Status Quest: An Interdisciplinary Perspective. Providence, RI: Bergahn Books. 1931.
Hollis AC 1905. The Masai. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Holloszy JO 1967. Biochemical adaptations in muscle. Effects of exercise on mitochondrial oxygen uptake and respiratory enzyme activity in skeletal muscle. J Biol Chem 242(9):2278–82.
Holscher C 2011. Diabetes as a risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease: insulin signalling impairment in the brain as an alternative model of Alzheimer’s disease. Biochem Soc Trans 39(4):891–7.
Holt BM 2003. Mobility in Upper Paleolithic and Mesolithic Europe: evidence from the lower limb. Am J Phys Anthropol 122(3):200–15.
Homer 1965–67. The Odyssey, edited Stanford WB. London: Macmillan.
Honda G 1997. Differential structure, differential health: Industrialization in Japan, 1868–1940. In Steckel RH and Floud R, editors. Health and Welfare During Industrialization. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 251–84.
Honjo K, Iso H, Inoue M and Tsugane S 2011. Adult height and the risk of cardiovascular disease among middle aged men and women in Japan. Eur J Epidemiol 26(1):1321.
Hop le T 2003. Secular trend in size at birth of Vietnamese newborns during the last 2 decades (1980–2000). Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 12(3):266270.
Hopkirk P 1984. Setting the East Ablaze: Lenin’s Dream of an Empire in Asia. London: John Murray.
Hopkirk P 1991. The Great Game: On Secret Service in High Asia. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Hoppe C, Molgaard C, Thomsen BL, Juul A and Michaelsen KF 2004a. Protein intake at 9 mo of age is associated with body size but not with body fat in 10-y-old Danish children. Am J Clin Nutr 79(3):494501.
Hoppe C, Udam TR, Lauritzen L, Molgaard C, Juul A and Michaelsen KF 2004b. Animal protein intake, serum insulin-like growth factor I, and growth in healthy 2.5-y-old Danish children. Am J Clin Nutr 80(2):447–52.
Horikoshi M, Yaghootkar H, Mook-Kanamori DO, Sovio U, Taal HR, Hennig BJ, Bradfield JP, St Pourcain B, Evans DM, Charoen P et al. 2013. New loci associated with birth weight identify genetic links between intrauterine growth and adult height and metabolism. Nat Genet 45(1):7682.
Horn HS 1978. Optimal tactics of reproduction and life-history. In Krebs JR and Davies NB, editors. Behavioural Ecology: An Evolutionary Approach. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates. 411–29.
Horrell S and Humphries J 1995. ‘The exploitation of little children’: child labour and the family economy in the industrial revolution. Explor EconHist 32:485516.
Horton TH 1984. Growth and reproductive development of male Microtus montanus is affected by the prenatal photoperiod. Biol Reprod 31(3):499504.
Hosseinpoor AR, Parker LA, Tursan d’Espaignet E and Chatterji S 2012. Socioeconomic inequality in smoking in low-income and middle-income countries: results from the World Health Survey. PLoS One 7(8):e42843.
Houstis N, Rosen ED and Lander ES 2006. Reactive oxygen species have a causal role in multiple forms of insulin resistance. Nature 440(7086):944–8.
Houston M 2000. Chinese climate, history, and state stability in AD 536. In Gunn JD, editor. The Years Without Summer: Tracing AD 536 and Its Aftermath. Oxford: BAR International Series 872. Archaeopress. 71–7.
Howarth WJ 1905. The influence of feeding on the mortality of infants. Lancet 22 July:210–13.
Howell N 2010. Life Histories of the Dobe!Kung: Food, Fatness, and Well-Being over the Life-Span. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Hoy WE and Nicol JL 2010. Birthweight and natural deaths in a remote Australian Aboriginal community. Med J Austr 192(1):1419.
Hozawa A, Murakami Y, Okamura T, Kadowaki T, Nakamura K, Hayakawa T, Kita Y, Nakamura Y, Okayama A and Ueshima H 2007. Relation of adult height with stroke mortality in Japan: NIPPON DATA80. Stroke 38(1):22–6.
Hrdy SB 2005. Cooperative breeders with an ace in the hole. In Voland E, Chasiotis A and Schiefenhovel W, editors. Grandmotherhood: The Evolutionary Significance of the Second half of the Female Life. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press. 295317.
Hrdy SB 2009. Mothers and Others: The Evolutionary Origins of Mutual Understanding. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press.
Hruschka DJ and Brewis AA 2013. Absolute wealth and world region strongly predict overweight among women (ages 18–49) in 360 populations across 36 developing countries. Econ Hum Biol 11(3):337–44.
Hruschka DJ, Hadley C, Brewis AA and Stojanowski CM 2015. Genetic population structure accounts for contemporary ecogeographic patterns in tropic and subtropic-dwelling humans. PLoS One 10(3):e0122301.
Hu FB 2011. Globalization of diabetes: the role of diet, lifestyle, and genes. Diabetes Care 34(6):1249–57.
Hu FB, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, Colditz G, Liu S, Solomon CG and Willett WC 2001. Diet, lifestyle, and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in women. N Engl J Med 345(11):790–7.
Hu FB, Stampfer MJ, Manson JE, Rimm E, Colditz GA, Rosner BA, Hennekens CH and Willett WC 1997. Dietary fat intake and the risk of coronary heart disease in women. N Engl J Med 337(21):1491–9.
Huang C, Li Z, Wang M and Martorell R 2010. Early life exposure to the 1959–1961 Chinese famine has long-term health consequences. J Nutr 140(10):1874–8.
Hubbard LE 1939. The Economics of Soviet Agriculture. London: Macmillan and Co.
Huber J 2007. On the Origins of Gender Inequality. Boulder, CO: Paradigm Publishers.
Huda MS, Wilding JP and Pinkney JH 2006. Gut peptides and the regulation of appetite. Obes Rev 7(2):163–82.
Hudson M 2002. Reconstructing the origins of interest-bearing debt and the logic of clean slates. In Hudson M and Van de Mieroop M, editors. Debt and Economic Renewal in the Ancient Near East. Bethesda: CDL Press. 758.
Huffman SL, Piwoz EG, Vosti SA and Dewey KG 2014. Babies, soft drinks and snacks: a concern in low- and middle-income countries? Matern Child Nutr 10(4):562574.
Hughes AL 2002. Natural selection and the diversification of vertebrate immune effectors. Immunol Rev 190:161–8.
Hughes SM and Gallup GG 2003. Sex differences in morphological predictors of sexual behavior: shoulder to hip and waist to hip ratios. Evol Hum Behav 24:173–8.
Huizinga J 1972. Casual blood pressure in populations. In Vorster DJM, editor. Human Biology of Environmental Change. London: International Biological Programme. 164–9.
Hulsegge G, Picavet HS, Blokstra A, Nooyens AC, Spijkerman AM, van der Schouw YT, Smit HA and Verschuren WM 2014. Today’s adult generations are less healthy than their predecessors: generation shifts in metabolic risk factors: the Doetinchem Cohort Study. Eur J Prev Cardiol 21(9):1134–44.
Hulsey TC, Levkoff AH and Alexander GR 1991. Birth weights of infants of black and white mothers without pregnancy complications. Am J Obstet Gynecol 164(5 Pt 1):1299–302.
Hult M, Tornhammar P, Ueda P, Chima C, Bonamy AK, Ozumba B and Norman M 2010. Hypertension, diabetes and overweight: looming legacies of the Biafran famine. PLoS One 5(10):e13582.
Humphrey N 1986. The Inner Eye. London: Faber and Faber.
Hung LQ, de Vries PJ, Giao PT, Binh TQ, Nam NV, Chong MT and Kager PA 2005. Nutritional status following malaria control in a Vietnamese ethnic minority commune. Eur J Clin Nutr 59(8):891–9.
Hurrell JW, Kushnir Y, Ottersen G and Visbeck M 2003. The North Atlantic Oscillation: Climatic Significance and Environmental Impact. Washington, DC: American Geophysical Union.
Husseini A, Abu-Rmeileh NM, Mikki N, Ramahi TM, Ghosh HA, Barghuthi N, Khalili M, Bjertness E, Holmboe-Ottesen G and Jervell J 2009. Cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, and cancer in the occupied Palestinian territory. Lancet 373(9668):1041–9.
Hutchinson GE 1944. Limnological studies in Connecticut. VII. A critical examination of the supposed relationship between phytoplankton periodicity and chemical changes in later waters. Ecol Appl 25:36.
Huxley A 1932. Brave New World. London: Chatto and Windus.
Huxley R, Owen CG, Whincup PH, Cook DG, Colman S and Collins R 2004. Birth weight and subsequent cholesterol levels: exploration of the ‘fetal origins’ hypothesis. JAMA 292(22):2755–64.
Huxley R, Owen CG, Whincup PH, Cook DG, Rich-Edwards J, Smith GD and Collins R 2007. Is birth weight a risk factor for ischemic heart disease in later life? Am J Clin Nutr 85(5):1244–50.
Huxley RR, Lloyd BB, Goldacre M and Neil HA 2000a. Nutritional research in World War 2: the Oxford Nutrition Survey and its research potential 50 years later. Br J Nutr 84(2):247–51.
Huxley RR, Shiell AW and Law CM 2000b. The role of size at birth and postnatal catch-up growth in determining systolic blood pressure: a systematic review of the literature. J Hypertens 18(7):815–31.
Hwang JY, Shin C, Frongillo EA, Shin KR and Jo I 2003. Secular trend in age at menarche for South Korean women born between 1920 and 1986: the Ansan Study. Ann Hum Biol 30(4):434–42.
Hypponen E, Power C and Smith GD 2004. Parental growth at different life stages and offspring birthweight: an intergenerational cohort study. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 18(3):168–77.
Iakovleva L 2003. Les habitats en os de mammouths du plaéolithique superieur d’Europe orientale: les données et leurs interpretations. In Vasil’ev SA, Soffer O and Kozlowski J, editors. Perceived Landscapes and Built Environments: The Cultural Geography of Late Paleolithic Eurasia BAR International Series 1122. Oxford: Archaeopress. 4757.
Iannitti T and Palmieri B 2011. Inflammation and genetics: an insight in the centenarian model. Hum Biol 83(4):531–59.
Ibanez L, Lopez-Bermejo A, Diaz M, Marcos MV, Casano P and de Zegher F 2009. Abdominal fat partitioning and high-molecular-weight adiponectin in short children born small for gestational age. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 94(3):1049–52.
Ibanez L, Lopez-Bermejo A, Suarez L, Marcos MV, Diaz M and De ZF 2008a. Visceral adiposity Without overweight in children born small-for-gestational-age. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 93:2079–83.
Ibanez L, Ong K, Dunger DB and De ZF 2006. Early development of adiposity and insulin resistance after catch-up weight gain in small-for-gestational-age children. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 91(6):2153–8.
Ibanez L, Suarez L, Lopez-Bermejo A, Diaz M, Valls C and De ZF 2008b. Early development of visceral fat excess after spontaneous catch-up growth in children with low birth weight. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 93(3):925–8.
Iglehart JK 1999. The American health care system–expenditures. N Engl J Med 340(1):70–6.
Illsley R 1966. Preventive medicine in the perinatal period. Early prediction of perinatal risk. Proc R Soc Med 59:181–4.
Ilmonen P, Kotrschal A and Penn DJ 2008. Telomere attrition due to infection. PLoS One 3(5):e2143.
Imai CM, Halldorsson TI, Gunnarsdottir I, Gudnason V, Aspelund T, Jonsson G, Birgisdottir BE and Thorsdottir I 2012. Effect of birth year on birth weight and obesity in adulthood: comparison between subjects born prior to and during the great depression in Iceland. PLoS One 7(9):e44551.
Ingham G 2004. The Nature of Money. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Iniguez G, Gonzalez CA, Argandona F, Kakarieka E, Johnson MC and Cassorla F 2010. Expression and protein content of IGF-I and IGF-I receptor in placentas from small, adequate and large for gestational age newborns. Horm Res Paediatr 73(5):320–7.
Innes AM 1913. What is money? Bank Law J (May):377408.
International Diabetes Federation 2009. Diabetes Atlas (4th edition). Brussels: International Diabetes Federation.
International Diabetes Federation 2013. IDF Diabetes Atlas, (6th edition). Brussels: International Diabetes Federation.
International Institute for Population Sciences 1995. National Family Health Survey (MCH and Family Planning), India 1992–93. Bombay: International Institute for Population Sciences.
International Institute for Population Sciences and Macrointernational 2007. National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3), 2005–6: India. Mumbai: International Institute for Population Sciences.
International Institute for Population Sciences and ORC Macro 2000. National Family Health Survey (NFHS-2), 1988–99: India. Mumbai: International Institute for Population Sciences.
Ioannidis JP, Ntzani EE and Trikalinos TA 2004. ‘Racial’ differences in genetic effects for complex diseases. Nat Genet 36(12):1312–18.
Isaacson M, Taylor P and Arntzen L 1983. Ecology of plague in Africa: response of indigenous wild rodents to experimental plague infection. Bull World Health Organ 61(2):339–44.
Isler K and van Shaik CP 2012. How our ancestors broke through the grey ceiling: comparative evidence for cooperative breeding in early Homo. Curr Anthropol 53 Suppl 6:S453S465.
Isomaa B, Almgren P, Tuomi T, Forsen B, Lahti K, Nissen M, Taskinen MR and Groop L 2001. Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality associated with the metabolic syndrome. Diabetes Care 24(4):683–9.
Ivanova M, Ruiqing J, Kawai S, Matsushita M, Ochiai N, Maruya E and Saji H 2011. IL-6 SNP diversity among four ethnic groups as revealed by bead-based liquid array profiling. Int J Immunogenet 38(1):1720.
Jacobs JD and Wingfield JC 2000. Endocrine control of life-cycle stages: a constraint on response to the environment? Condor 102(1):3551.
Jacobson MF and Brownell KD 2000. Small taxes on soft drinks and snack foods to promote health. Am J Public Health 90(6):854–7.
Jagger C, Gillies C, Moscone F, Cambois E, Van Oyen H, Nusselder W, Robine JM and team E 2008. Inequalities in healthy life years in the 25 countries of the European Union in 2005: a cross-national meta-regression analysis. Lancet 372(9656):2124–31.
James C 2014. Brief 46: Global Status of Commercialized Biotech/GM Crops: 2013. Ithaca, NY: International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-biotech Applications.
James J, Thomas P, Cavan D and Kerr D 2004. Preventing childhood obesity by reducing consumption of carbonated drinks: cluster randomised controlled trial. BMJ 328(7450):1237.
James WP, Nelson M, Ralph A and Leather S 1997. Socioeconomic determinants of health. The contribution of nutrition to inequalities in health. BMJ 314(7093):1545–9.
James-Todd T, Tehranifar P, Rich-Edwards J, Titievsky L and Terry MB 2010. The impact of socioeconomic status across early life on age at menarche among a racially diverse population of girls. Ann Epidemiol 20(11):836–42.
Jang HC, Min HK, Lee HK, Cho NH and Metzger BE 1998. Short stature in Korean women: a contribution to the multifactorial predisposition to gestational diabetes mellitus. Diabetologia 41(7):778–3.
Janghorbani M, Mansourian M and Hosseini E 2014. Systematic review and meta-analysis of age at menarche and risk of type 2 diabetes. Acta Diabetol 51(4):519–28.
Jankauskas R and Kozlovskaya M 1999. Biosocial differentiation in Lithuanian Iron Age. Anthropol 37:177–85.
Jantz LM and Jantz RL 1999. Secular change in long bone length and proportion in the United States, 18001970. Am J Phys Anthropol 110(1):5767.
Jaquet D, Vidal H, Hankard R, Czernichow P and Levy-Marchal C 2001. Impaired regulation of glucose transporter 4 gene expression in insulin resistance associated with in utero undernutrition. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 86(7):3266–71.
Jaruratanasirikul S and Sriplung H 2015. Secular trends of growth and pubertal maturation of school children in Southern Thailand. Ann Hum Biol:1–8 42(5): 447454.
Jasienska G 2009. Low birth weight of contemporary African Americans: an intergenerational effect of slavery? Am J Hum Biol 21(1):1624.
Jasienska G 2013. The Fragile Wisdom: An Evolutionary View of Women’s Biology and Health. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Jasienska G, Thune I and Ellison PT 2006. Fatness at birth predicts adult susceptibility to ovarian suppression: an empirical test of the Predictive Adaptive Response hypothesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103(34):12759–62.
Jaskelioff M, Muller FL, Paik JH, Thomas E, Jiang S, Adams AC, Sahin E, Kost-Alimova M, Protopopov A, Cadinanos J et al. 2011. Telomerase reactivation reverses tissue degeneration in aged telomerase-deficient mice. Nature 469(7328):102–6.
Jelliffe DB and Jelliffe EF 1978. The volume and composition of human milk in poorly nourished communities. A review. Am J ClinNutr 31(3):492515.
Jennings BJ, Ozanne SE, Dorling MW and Hales CN 1999. Early growth determines longevity in male rats and may be related to telomere shortening in the kidney. FEBS Lett 448(1):48.
Jensen R 2000. Agricultural volatility and investments in children. Am Econ Rev 90(2):399404.
Jetz W and Rubenstein DR 2011. Environmental uncertainty and the global biogeography of cooperative breeding in birds. Curr Biol 21(1):72–8.
Joglekar CV, Fall CH, Deshpande VU, Joshi N, Bhalerao A, Solat V, Deokar TM, Chougule SD, Leary SD, Osmond C et al. 2007. Newborn size, infant and childhood growth, and body composition and cardiovascular disease risk factors at the age of 6 years: the Pune Maternal Nutrition Study. Int J Obes 31(10):1534–44.
Johnson JD 1981. The regional and ethnic distribution of lactose malabsorption. Adaptive and genetic hypotheses. In Paige DM and Bayless TM, editors. Lactose Digestion: Clinical and Nutritional Implications. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. 1122.
Johnson MC, Owen D and Blackburn C 2000. Black and Ethnic Minority Groups in England: The Second Health and Lifestyles Survey. London: Health Education Authority.
Johnson RC 2008. Gene banks pay big dividends to agriculture, the environment, and human welfare. PLoS Biol 6(6):e148.
Johnson RK, Appel LJ, Brands M, Howard BV, Lefevre M, Lustig RH, Sacks F, Steffen LM, Wylie-Rosett J, American Heart Association Nutrition Committee of the Council on Nutrition PA et al. 2009. Dietary sugars intake and cardiovascular health: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation 120(11):1011–20.
Johnson SE 2003. Life history and the competitive environment: trajectories of growth, maturation, and reproductive output among chacma baboons. Am J Phys Anthropol 120(1):8398.
Johnsson JI and Bohlin T 2006. The cost of catching up: increased winter mortality following structural growth compensation in the wild. Proc Biol Sci 273(1591):1281–6.
Johnston SE, Gratten J, Berenos C, Pilkington JG, Clutton-Brock TH, Pemberton JM and Slate J 2013. Life history trade-offs at a single locus maintain sexually selected genetic variation. Nature. 502:9395.
Jones COH and White NG 1994. Adiposity in Aboriginal people from Arnhem Land, Australia: variation in degree and distribution associated with age, sex and lifestyle. Ann Hum Biol 21:207–27.
Jones LL, Griffiths PL, Norris SA, Pettifor JM and Cameron N 2009. Age at menarche and the evidence for a positive secular trend in urban South Africa. Am J Hum Biol 21(1):130–2.
Jones M 2007. Feast: Why Humans Share Food. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Jones-Smith JC, Gordon-Larsen P, Siddiqi A and Popkin BM 2011. Cross-national comparisons of time trends in overweight inequality by socioeconomic status among women using repeated cross-sectional surveys from 37 developing countries, 1989–2007. Am J Epidemiol 173(6):667–75.
Jones-Smith JC, Gordon-Larsen P, Siddiqi A and Popkin BM 2012. Is the burden of overweight shifting to the poor across the globe? Time trends among women in 39 low- and middle-income countries (1991–2008). Int J Obes 36(8):1114–20.
Jönsson KI 1997. Capital and income breeding as alternative tactics of resource use in reproduction. Oikos 78:5766.
Joordens JC, Vonhof HB, Feibel CS, Lourens LJ, Dupont-Nivet G, van de Lubbe JH, Sier MJ, Davies GR and Kroon D 2011. An astronomically-tuned climate framework for hominins in the Turkana basin. Earth Planet Sci Lett 80:18.
Jordan TE 2007. Sir William Petty, 1623–1687: The Genius Entrepreneur of Seventeenth-Century Ireland Lewiston, NY Edwin Mellen Press.
Jose S 2011. Adult undernutrition in India: is there a huge gender gap? Economic and Political Weekly 46(29):95102.
Joseph A, Ackerman D, Talley JD, Johnstone J and Kupersmith J 1993. Manifestations of coronary atherosclerosis in young trauma victims–an autopsy study. J Am Coll Cardiol 22(2):459–67.
Joseph JG, Prior IA, Salmond CE and Stanley D 1983. Elevation of systolic and diastolic blood pressure associated with migration: the Tokelau island migrant study. J Chronic Dis 36(7):507–16.
Jovanovic-Peterson L, Fuhrmann K, Hedden K, Walker L and Peterson CM 1989. Maternal milk and plasma glucose and insulin levels: studies in normal and diabetic subjects. J Am Coll Nutr 8(2):125–31.
Julkunen H, Karava R and Viljanen V 1966. Hyperostosis of the spine in diabetes mellitus and acromegaly. Diabetologia 2(2):123–6.
Kaati G, Bygren LO, Pembrey M and Sjostrom M 2007. Transgenerational response to nutrition, early life circumstances and longevity. Eur J Hum Genet 15(7):784–90.
Kac G, Auxiliadora de Santa Cruz C and Velasquez-Melendez G 2000. Secular trend in age at menarche for women born between 1920 and 1979 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Ann Hum Biol 27(4):423–8.
Kadyrov M, Kosanke G, Kingdom J and Kaufmann P 1998. Increased fetoplacental angiogenesis during first trimester in anaemic women. Lancet 352(9142):1747–9.
Kagawa Y, Yanagisawa Y, Hasegawa K, Suzuki H, Yasuda K, Kudo H, Abe M, Matsuda S, Ishikawa Y, Tsuchiya N et al. 2002. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of thrifty genes for energy metabolism: evolutionary origins and prospects for intervention to prevent obesity-related diseases. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 295(2):207–22.
Kalichman L, Malkin I and Kobyliansky E 2007. Time-related trends of age at menopause and reproductive period of women in a Chuvashian rural population. Menopause 14(1):135–40.
Kalk WJ, Felix M, Snoey ER and Veriawa Y 1993. Voluntary total fasting in political prisoners–clinical and biochemical observations. South Afr Med J 83(6):391–4.
Kant I 1784/1824. Idea of a universal history on a cosmopolitical plan. London Magazine:385–93.
Kapahi P, Boulton ME and Kirkwood TB 1999. Positive correlation between mammalian life span and cellular resistance to stress. Free Radic Biol Med 26(5–6):495500.
Kaplan GA and Keil JE 1993. Socioeconomic factors and cardiovascular disease: a review of the literature. Circulation 88(4 Pt 1):1973–98.
Kaplan H and Hill K 1985. Hunting ability and reproductive success among male Ache foragers. Curr Anthropol 26:131–3.
Kaplan H, Hill K, Lancaster J and Hurtado AM 2000. A theory of human life history evolution: Diet, intelligence, and longevity. Evol Anthropol 9:156–84.
Kaplan H, Lancaster J and Robson A 2003. Embodied capital and the evolutionary economics of the human life span. In Carey JR and Tuljapurkar S, editors. Life Span: Evolutionary, Ecological, and Demographic Perspectives. New York: Population Council. 152–82.
Kaplan H, Lancaster JB, Bock J and Johnson S 1995. Does observed fertility maximize fitness among New Mexican men? A test of an optimality model and a new theory of parental investment in the embodied capital of offspring. Hum Nat 6(4):325–60.
Kaplan T 2014. Democracy: A World History. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Kaplan RC, McGinn AP, Baird AE, Hendrix SL, Kooperberg C, Lynch J, Rosenbaum DM, Johnson KC, Strickler HD and Wassertheil-Smoller S 2008. Inflammation and hemostasis biomarkers for predicting stroke in postmenopausal women: the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 17(6):344–55.
Kapoor S, Kapoor AK, Bhalla R and Singh IP 1985. Parent-offspring correlation for body measurements and subcutaneous fat distribution. Hum Biol 57(2):141–50.
Karamanou M, Panayiotakopoulos G, Tsoucalas G, Kousoulis AA and Androutsos G 2012. From miasmas to germs: a historical approach to theories of infectious disease transmission. Infez Med 20(1):5862.
Kareiva P, Watts S, McDonald R and Boucher T 2007. Domesticated nature: shaping landscapes and ecosystems for human welfare. Science 316(5833):1866–9.
Karlsson B, Knutsson A and Lindahl B 2001. Is there an association between shift work and having a metabolic syndrome? Results from a population based study of 27,485 people. Occup Environ Med 58(11):747–52.
Karlsson BH, Knutsson AK, Lindahl BO and Alfredsson LS 2003. Metabolic disturbances in male workers with rotating three-shift work. Results of the WOLF study. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 76(6):424–30.
Karlsson F, Tremaroli V, Nielsen J and Backhed F 2013. Assessing the human gut microbiota in metabolic diseases. Diabetes 62(10):3341–9.
Karn MN and Penrose LS 1951. Birth weight and gestation time in relation to maternal age, parity and infant survival. Ann Eugen 16(2):147–64.
Karnani A 2007. The mirage of marketing to the bottom of the pyramid: how the private sector can help alleviate poverty. California Management Rev 49(4):90111.
Katz AM and Katz PB 1962. Diseases of the heart in the works of Hippocrates. Br Heart J 24:257–64.
Katzmarzyk PT, Church TS, Craig CL and Bouchard C 2009. Sitting time and mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Med Sci Sports Exerc 41(5):9981005.
Katzmarzyk PT and Leonard WR 1998. Climatic influences on human body size and proportions: ecological adaptations and secular trends. Am J Phys Anthropol 106(4):483503.
Kavehmanesh Z and Abolghasemi H 2004. Maternal Ramadan fasting and neonatal health. J Perinatol 24(12):748–50.
Kay AJ 2006. Exploitation, Resettlement, Mass Murder. Political and Economic Planning for German Occupation Policy in the Soviet Union, 1940–1941. Oxford: Berghahn Books.
Keast RS, Sayompark D, Sacks G, Swinburn BA and Riddell LJ 2011. The influence of caffeine on energy content of sugar-sweetened beverages: ‘the caffeine-calorie effect’. Eur J Clin Nutr 65(12):1338–44.
Keast RS, Swinburn BA, Sayompark D, Whitelock S and Riddell LJ 2015. Caffeine increases sugar-sweetened beverage consumption in a free-living population: a randomised controlled trial. Br J Nutr:16.
Keeley LH 1996. War Before Civilization: The Myth of the Peaceful Savage. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Keller L and Genoud M 1997. Extraordinary lifespans in ants: a test of evolutionary theories of ageing. Nature 389:958–60.
Kelly RC 2000. Warless Societies and the Origins of War. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Kelly RL 1995. The Foraging Spectrum. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press.
Kelly Y, Panico L, Bartley M, Marmot M, Nazroo J and Sacker A 2009. Why does birthweight vary among ethnic groups in the UK? Findings from the Millennium Cohort Study. J Public Health 31(1):131–7.
Kelsey G and Feil R 2013. New insights into establishment and maintenance of DNA methylation imprints in mammals. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 368(1609):20110336.
Kemkes-Grottenthaler A 2005. The short die young: the interrelationship between stature and longevity-evidence from skeletal remains. Am J Phys Anthropol 128(2):340–7.
Kemnitz JW, Sapolsky RM, Altmann J, Muruthi P, Mott GE and Stefanick ML 2002. Effects of food availability on serum insulin and lipid concentrations in free-ranging baboons. Am J Primatol 57(1):1319.
Kemp DM 2013. Does chronic low-grade endotoxemia define susceptibility of obese humans to insulin resistance via dietary effects on gut microbiota? Adipocyte 2(3):188–90.
Kenez P 1999. A History of the Soviet Union from Beginning to End. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Kennedy J and King L 2014. The political economy of farmers’ suicides in India: indebted cash-crop farmers with marginal landholdings explain state-level variation in suicide rates. Global Health 10:16.
Kensara OA, Wootton SA, Phillips DI, Patel M, Jackson AA and Elia M 2005. Fetal programming of body composition: relation between birth weight and body composition measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and anthropometric methods in older Englishmen. Am J Clin Nutr 82(5):980–7.
Kentikelenis A, Karanikolos M, Reeves A, McKee M and Stuckler D 2014. Greece’s health crisis: from austerity to denialism. Lancet 383(9918):748–53.
Kermack WO, McKendrick AG and McKinlay PL 1934. Death-rates in Great Britain and Sweden: expression of specific mortality rates as products of two factors, and some consequences thereof. J Hyg 34(4):433–57.
Kershbaum A, Bellet S, Dickstein ER and Feinbergl J 1961. Effect of cigarette smoking and nicotine on serum free fatty acids based on a study in the human subject and the experimental animal. Circulation Res 9:631–8.
Kertzer D 1991. Household and gender in a life-course perspective. In Masini E and Stratigos S, editors. Women, Households and Change. Tokyo, Japan: United Nations University Press. 1829.
Kessler HS, Sisson SB and Short KR 2012. The potential for high-intensity interval training to reduce cardiometabolic disease risk. Sports Med 42(6):489509.
Keusch GT 2003. The history of nutrition: malnutrition, infection and immunity. J Nutr 133(1):336S340S.
Keynes JM 1926. The End of Laissez-Faire. London: Leonard and Virginia Woolf at the Hogarth Press.
Keys A 1953. Atherosclerosis: a problem in newer public health. J Mount Sinai Hosp NY 20(2):118–39.
Keys A 1957. Diet and the epidemiology of coronary heart disease. JAMA 164(17):1912–19.
Keys A, Anderson JT, Fidanza F, Keys MH and Swahn B 1955. Effects of diet on blood lipids in man, particularly cholesterol and lipoproteins. Clin Chem 1(1):3452.
Keys A, Anderson JT and Grande F 1957. Prediction of serum-cholesterol responses of man to changes in fats in the diet. Lancet 273(7003):959–66.
Keys A, Brozek J, Henschel A, Mickelsen O and Taylor HL 1950. The Biology of Human Starvation. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Keys A, Taylor HL, Blackburn H, Brozek J, Anderson JT and Simonson E 1963. Coronary Heart Disease among Minnesota Business and Professional Men Followed Fifteen Years. Circulation 28:381–95.
Keys D 1989. Catastophe: An Investigation into the Origins of the Modern World. London: Century.
Khachatourians GG 1998. Agricultural use of antibiotics and the evolution and transfer of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. CMAJ 159(9):1129–36.
Khan AI, Kabir I, Ekstrom EC, Asling-Monemi K, Alam DS, Frongillo EA, Yunus M, Arifeen S and Persson LA 2011. Effects of prenatal food and micronutrient supplementation on child growth from birth to 54 months of age: a randomized trial in Bangladesh. Nutr J 10:134.
Khan AI, Kabir I, Hawkesworth S, Ekstrom EC, Arifeen S, Frongillo EA and Persson LA 2015. Early invitation to food and/or multiple micronutrient supplementation in pregnancy does not affect body composition in offspring at 54 months: follow-up of the MINIMat randomised trial, Bangladesh. Matern Child Nutr 11(3):385–97.
Khan UI, Wang D, Sowers MR, Mancuso P, Everson-Rose SA, Scherer PE and Wildman RP 2012. Race-ethnic differences in adipokine levels: the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN). Metabolism 61(9):1261–9.
Khatib-Chahidi J 1992. Milk kinship in Shi’ite Islamic Iran. In Maher V, editor. The Anthropology of Breast-Feeding: Natural Law or Social Construct. Providence, RI: Berg Publishers Ltd.
Khorshid A and Galal OM 1995. Development of food consumption monitoring system for Egypt. National Agricultural Research Project, Final Report. Submitted to the US Department of Agriculture and Egyptian Ministry of Agriculture.
Khulan B, Cooper WN, Skinner BM, Bauer J, Owens S, Prentice AM, Belteki G, Constancia M, Dunger D and Affara NA 2012. Periconceptional maternal micronutrient supplementation is associated with widespread gender related changes in the epigenome: a study of a unique resource in the Gambia. Hum Mol Genet 21(9):2086–101.
Kidd P 2003. Th1/Th2 balance: the hypothesis, its limitations, and implications for health and disease. Alt Med Rev 8(3):223–46.
Killawala A 2007. Financial Inclusion of the Urban Poor: Issues and Options. Pune, Maharastra: College of Agricultural Banking.
Kim CX, Bailey KR, Klee GG, Ellington AA, Liu G, Mosley TH Jr., Rehman H and Kullo IJ 2010. Sex and ethnic differences in 47 candidate proteomic markers of cardiovascular disease: the Mayo Clinic proteomic markers of arteriosclerosis study. PLoS One 5(2):e9065.
Kim SY, Lee SP, Lee JS, Yoon SJ, Jun G and Hwang YJ 2006. Telomerase and apoptosis in the placental trophoblasts of growth discordant twins. Yonsei Med Jl 47(5):698705.
Kimura C, Watanabe K, Iwasaki A, Mori T, Matsushita H, Shinohara K and Wakatsuki A 2013. The severity of hypoxic changes and oxidative DNA damage in the placenta of early-onset preeclamptic women and fetal growth restriction. J Maternal Fetal Neonat Med 26(5):491–6.
Kimura K 1984. Studies on growth and development in Japan. Yearbk Phys Anthropol 27:179214.
Kin CF, Shan WS, Shun LJ, Chung LP and Jean W 2007. Experience of famine and bone health in post-menopausal women. Int J Epidemiol 36(5):1143–50.
King AJ, Isaac NJ and Cowlishaw G 2009. Ecological, social and reproductive factors shape producer-scrounger dynamics in baboons. Behav Ecol 20:1039–49.
King JC 2006. Maternal obesity, metabolism, and pregnancy outcomes. Annu Rev Nutr 26:271–91.
King JL and Duke TH 1969. Non-Darwinian evolution. Science 164:788–98.
Kingston JD 2007. Shifting adaptive landscapes: progress and challenges in reconstructing early hominid environments. Yearbk Phys Anthropol 45:2058.
Kingston JD, Deino AL, Edgar RK and Hill A 2007. Astronomically forced climate change in the Kenyan Rift Valley 2.7–2.55 Ma: implications for the evolution of early hominin ecosystems. J Hum Evol 53(5):487503.
Kinra S, Andersen E, Ben-Shlomo Y, Bowen L, Lyngdoh T, Prabhakaran D, Reddy KS, Ramakrishnan L, Bharathi A, Vaz M et al. 2011. Association between urban life-years and cardiometabolic risk: the Indian migration study. Am J Epidemiol 174(2):154–64.
Kinra S, Rameshwar Sarma KV, Ghafoorunissa , Mendu VV, Ravikumar R, Mohan V, Wilkinson IB, Cockcroft JR, Davey Smith G and Ben-Shlomo Y 2008. Effect of integration of supplemental nutrition with public health programmes in pregnancy and early childhood on cardiovascular risk in rural Indian adolescents: long term follow-up of Hyderabad nutrition trial. BMJ 337:a605.
Kirkwood TB 1989. DNA, mutations and aging. Mutat Res 219(1):17.
Kirkwood TB and Austad SN 2000. Why do we age? Nature 408(6809):233–8.
Kirkwood TB and Rose MR 1991. Evolution of senescence. Phil Tran R Soc Lond B 332:1524.
Kivimaki M, Leino-Arjas P, Luukkonen R, Riihimaki H, Vahtera J and Kirjonen J 2002. Work stress and risk of cardiovascular mortality: prospective cohort study of industrial employees. BMJ 325(7369):857.
Kivipelto M, Ngandu T, Fratiglioni L, Viitanen M, Kareholt I, Winblad B, Helkala EL, Tuomilehto J, Soininen H and Nissinen A 2005. Obesity and vascular risk factors at midlife and the risk of dementia and Alzheimer disease. Arch Neurol 62(10):1556–60.
Klein N 2007. The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism. London: Allen Lane.
Klimentidis YC, Abrams M, Wang J, Fernandez JR and Allison DB 2011. Natural selection at genomic regions associated with obesity and type-2 diabetes: East Asians and sub-Saharan Africans exhibit high levels of differentiation at type-2 diabetes regions. Hum Genet 129(4):407–18.
Knott CD 1998. Changes in orangutan caloric intake, energy balance, and ketones in response to fluctuating fruit availability. Int J Primatol 19:1061–79.
Knowler WC, Bennett PH, Hamman RF and Miller M 1978. Diabetes incidence and prevalence in Pima Indians: a 19-fold greater incidence than in Rochester, Minnesota. Am J Epidemiol 108(6):497505.
Knutson KL 2010. Sleep duration and cardiometabolic risk: a review of the epidemiologic evidence. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 24(5):731–43.
Koepke N and Baten J 2008. Agricultural specialization and height in ancient and medieval Europe. Explor Econ Hist 45:127–46.
Kohli A and Aggarwal NK 2006. Normal organ weights in Indian adults. Medico-Legal Update 6:36.
Koivula M, Koskela E, Mappes T and Oksanen TA 2003. Cost of reproduction in the wild: manipulation of reproductive effort in the bank vole. Ecol 84(2):398405.
Kok J 2007. Principles and prospects of the life course paradigm. Ann Demogr Hist 113(