WH Helm 2002. Tuberculosis and the Bronte family. Bronte Studies 27(2):157–167.
Z Abdeen , PG Greenough , A Chandran and R Qasrawi 2007. Assessment of the nutritional status of preschool-age children during the second Intifada in Palestine. Food Nutr Bull 28(3):274–82.
I Mert , AS Oruc , S Yuksel , ES Cakar , U Buyukkagnici , A Karaer and N Danisman 2012. Role of oxidative stress in preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction. J Obstet Gynaecol Res 38(4):658–64.
A Singhal , K Kennedy , J Lanigan , M Fewtrell , TJ Cole , T Stephenson , A Elias-Jones , LT Weaver , S Ibhanesebhor , PD MacDonald , J Bindels , A Lucas 2010a. Nutrition in infancy and long-term risk of obesity: evidence from 2 randomized controlled trials. Am J Clin Nutr 92(5):1133–44.
KK Ong , CJ Petry , PM Emmett , MS Sandhu , W Kiess , CN Hales , AR Ness , DB Dunger ; ALSPAC study team 2004. Insulin sensitivity and secretion in normal children related to size at birth, postnatal growth, and plasma insulin-like growth factor-I levels. Diabetologia 47(6):1064–70.
594 JC Wells , PC Hallal , JT Manning , CG Victora 2006. A trade-off between early growth rate and fluctuating asymmetry in Brazilian boys. Ann Hum Biol 33(1):112–24.
GS Thomas , LS Wann , AH Allam , RC Thompson , DE Michalik , ML Sutherland , et al 2014. Why did ancient people have atherosclerosis?: from autopsies to computed tomography to potential causes. Glob Heart 9(2):229–37.
DO Abegunde , CD Mathers , T Adam , M Ortegon and K Strong 2007. The burden and costs of chronic diseases in low-income and middle-income countries. Lancet 370(9603):1929–38.
CA Monteiro , WL Conde , B Lu , BM Popkin 2004a. Obesity and inequities in health in the developing world. Int J Obes 28(9):1181–6.
JC Wells , P Yao , JE Williams , R Gayner 2016. Maternal investment, life-history strategy of the offspring and adult chronic disease risk in South Asian women in the UK. Evol Med Public Health 2016(1):133–45.
J Abraham , PS Rao , SG Inbaraj , G Shetty and CJ Jose 1970. An epidemiological study of hemiplegia due to stroke in South India. Stroke 1(6):477–81.
ET Abrams and SR Meshnick 2009. Malaria during pregnancy in endemic areas: a lens for examining maternal-fetal conflict. Am J Hum Biol 21(5):643–50.
G Accardi , C Caruso , G Colonna-Romano , C Camarda , R Monastero and G Candore 2012. Can Alzheimer disease be a form of type 3 diabetes? Rejuv Res 15(2):217–21.
D Acevedo-Garcia 2000. Residential segregation and the epidemiology of infectious diseases. Soc Sci Med 51(8):1143–61.
A Adaikalakoteswari , M Balasubramanyam and V Mohan 2005. Telomere shortening occurs in Asian Indian Type 2 diabetic patients. Diabet Med 22(9):1151–6.
A Adaikalakoteswari , M Balasubramanyam , R Ravikumar , R Deepa and V Mohan 2007. Association of telomere shortening with impaired glucose tolerance and diabetic macroangiopathy. Atherosclerosis 195(1):83–9.
LS Adair and TJ Cole 2003. Rapid child growth raises blood pressure in adolescent boys who were thin at birth. Hypertension 41(3):451–6.
T Adali and I Koc 2011. Menarcheal age in Turkey: secular trend and socio-demographic correlates. Ann Hum Biol 38(3):345–53.
RS Ahima 2006. Adipose tissue as an endocrine organ. Obes 14 Suppl 5:242S–249S.
LC Aiello and P Wheeler 1995. The expensive-tissue hypothesis – the brain and the digestive-system in human and primate evolution. Curr Anthropol 36(2):199–221.
Y Akachi and D Canning 2007. The height of women in Sub-Saharan Africa: the role of health, nutrition, and income in childhood. Ann Hum Biol 34(4):397–410.
483 A Akkad , R Hastings , JC Konje , SC Bell , H Thurston and B Williams 2006. Telomere length in small-for-gestational-age babies. Br J Obstet Gynecol 113(3):318–23.
CA Aktipis , L Cronk and R de Aguiar 2011. Risk-pooling and herd survival: an agent-based model of a Maasai gift-giving system. Hum Ecol 39:131–40.
DS Alam , JM Van Raaij , JG Hautvast , M Yunus and GJ Fuchs 2003. Energy stress during pregnancy and lactation: consequences for maternal nutrition in rural Bangladesh. Eur J Clin Nutr 57(1):151–6.
KG Alberti , P Zimmet , J Shaw and Group IDFETFC 2005. The metabolic syndrome–a new worldwide definition. Lancet 366(9491):1059–62.
H Alderman , J Hoddinott and BH Kinsey 2006. Long term consequences of early childhood malnutrition. Oxford Economic Papers 58(3):450–74.
GR Alexander , M Kogan , J Martin and E Papiernik 1998. What are the fetal growth patterns of singletons, twins, and triplets in the United States? Clin Obstet Gynecol 41(1):114–25.
MM Ali and IH Shah 2000. Sanctions and childhood mortality in Iraq. Lancet 355(9218):1851–7.
AH Allam , RC Thompson , LS Wann , MI Miyamoto and GS Thomas 2009. Computed tomographic assessment of atherosclerosis in ancient Egyptian mummies. JAMA 302(19):2091–4.
AB Alquati , D Rubolini , M Romano , G Boncoraglio , M Fasola and N Saino 2007. Effects of egg albumen removal on yellow-legged gull chick phenotype. Funct Ecol 21:310–16.
M Alsan , DE Bloom and D Canning 2006. The effect of population health on foreign direct investment inflows to low- and middle-income countries. World Dev 34(4):613–30.
S Altizer , A Dobson , P Hosseini , P Hudson , M Pascual and P Rohani 2006. Seasonality and the dynamics of infectious diseases. Ecol Lett 9(4):467–84.
D Alvarez , NB Metcalfe 2007. The tradeoff between catch-up growth and escape speed: variation between habitats in the cost of compensation. Oikos 116:1144–51.
SH Alwasel , Z Abotalib , JS Aljarallah , C Osmond , SM Alkharaz , IM Alhazza , G Badr and DJ Barker 2010. Changes in placental size during Ramadan. Placenta 31(7):607–10.
SH Alwasel , Z Abotalib , JS Aljarallah , C Osmond , SM Alkharaz , IM Alhazza , A Harrath , K Thornburg and DJ Barker 2011. Sex differences in birth size and intergenerational effects of intrauterine exposure to Ramadan in Saudi Arabia. Am J Hum Biol 23(5):651–4.
SH Alwasel , A Harrath , JS Aljarallah , Z Abotalib , C Osmond , SY Al Omar , I Khaled and DJ Barker 2013. Intergenerational effects of in utero exposure to Ramadan in Tunisia. Am J Hum Biol 25(3):341–3.
KH Ames 1994. The Northwest coast: complex hunter-gatheres, ecology, and social evolution. Ann Rev Anthropol 23:209–29.
KH Ames 2010. On the evolution of the human capacity for inequality and/or egalitarianism In GM Feinman and TD Price , editors. Pathways to Power: New Perspectives on the Emergence of Social Inequality. New York: Springer. 15–44.
H Amigo , S Vasquez , P Bustos , G Ortiz and M Lara 2012. Socioeconomic status and age at menarche in indigenous and non-indigenous Chilean adolescents. Cad Saude Publica 28(5):977–83.
V Amsellem , G Gary-Bobo , E Marcos , B Maitre , V Chaar , P Validire et al. 2011. Telomere dysfunction causes sustained inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 184(12):1358–66.
CV Ananth and SW Wen 2002. Trends in fetal growth among singleton gestations in the United States and Canada, 1985 through 1998. Semin Perinatol 26:260–7.
GS Andersen , T Girma , JC Wells , P Kaestel , KF Michaelsen and H Friis 2011. Fat and fat-free mass at birth: air displacement plethysmography measurements on 350 Ethiopian newborns. Pediatr Res 70(5):501–6.
KK Andersen , N Azuma , JM Barnola , M Bigler , P Biscaye , N Caillon et al. 2004. High-resolution record of Northern Hemisphere climate extending into the last interglacial period. Nature 431(7005):147–51.
LB Andersen , M Harro , LB Sardinha , K Froberg , U Ekelund , S Brage and SA Anderssen 2006. Physical activity and clustered cardiovascular risk in children: a cross-sectional study (The European Youth Heart Study). Lancet 368(9532):299–304.
RM Anderson and RM May 1991. Infectious Disease of Humans: Dynamics and Control. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
S Andersson , T Uller , M Lohmus and F Sundstrom 2004. Effects of egg yolk testosterone on growth and immunity in a precocial bird. J Evol Biol 17(3):501–5.
V Andreo , C Provensal , S Levis , N Pini , D Enria and J Polop 2012. Summer-autumn distribution and abundance of the hantavirus host, Oligoryzomys longicaudatus, in northwestern Chubut, Argentina. J Mammal 93:1559–68.
TD Anekwe and S Kumar 2012. The effect of a vaccination program on child anthropometry: evidence from India’s Universal Immunization Program. J Public Health 34(4):489–97.
JL Angel 1975. Paleoecology, paleodemography and health. In S Polgar , editor. Population, Ecology, and Social Evolution. The Hague: Moulton Publishers. 167–90.
A Angell 1993. Chile since 1958. In L Bethell , editor. Chile Since Independence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 129–202.
M Anjana , S Sandeep , R Deepa , KS Vimaleswaran , S Farooq and V Mohan 2004. Visceral and central abdominal fat and anthropometry in relation to diabetes in Asian Indians. Diabetes Care 27(12):2948–53.
GJ Annas 1995. Hunger strikes. BMJ 311(7013):1114–15.
485 AN Antonov 1947. Children born during the siege of Leningrad in 1942. J Pediatr 30(3):250–9.
A Antonovsky 1967. Social class, life expectancy and overall mortality. Milbank Mem Fund Q 45(2):31–73.
A Antonovsky 1968. Social class and the major cardiovascular diseases. J Chronic Dis 21(2):65–106.
A Appadurai 1986. Introduction: commodities and the politics of value. In A Appadurai , editor. The Social Life of Things: Commodities in Cultural Perspective. Cambridge: University Press. 3–63.
FA Araghi 1995. Global depeasantization, 1945–1990. Sociol Q 36(2):337–68.
DR Ardia , KA Schat and DW Winkler 2003. Reproductive effort reduces longterm immune function in breeding tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor). Proc R Soc Lond B 270:1679–83.
GJ Armelagos , AH Goodman and KH Jacobs 1991. The origins of agriculture: population growth during a period of declining health. Pop Env 13(1):9–22.
K Asao , WH Kao , K Baptiste-Roberts , K Bandeen-Roche , TP Erlinger and FL Brancati 2006. Short stature and the risk of adiposity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes in middle age: the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988–1994. Diabetes Care 29(7):1632–7.
M Asghar , D Hasselquist , B Hansson , P Zehtindjiev , H Westerdahl and S Bensch 2015. Chronic infection. Hidden costs of infection: chronic malaria accelerates telomere degradation and senescence in wild birds. Science 347(6220):436–8.
K Ashok , Z Guan and T Yamagata 2001. Impact of the Indian Ocean Dipole on the relationship between the Indian Monsoon rainfall and ENSO. Geo Res Lett 28:4499–4502.
A Astrup 2006. The trans fatty acid story in Denmark. Atheroscler Suppl 7(2):43–6.
PJ Atkins 2005. Fattening children or fattening farmers? School milk in Britain, 1921–1941. Econ Hist Rev 58(1):57–78.
BM Auerbach 2011. Reaching great heights: changes in indigenous stature, body size and body shape with agricultural intensification in North America. In R Pinhasi and JT Stock , editors. Human Bioarchaeology of the Transition to Agriculture. Chichester, UK: John Wiley and Sons Ltd. 203–33.
SN Austad 1993. Retarded senescence in an insular population of Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana). J Zool 229(4):695–708.
NM Avena , P Rada and BG Hoebel 2008. Evidence for sugar addiction: behavioral and neurochemical effects of intermittent, excessive sugar intake. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 32(1):20–39.
PB Bach , HH Pham , D Schrag , RC Tate and JL Hargraves 2004. Primary care physicians who treat blacks and whites. N Engl J Med 351(6):575–84.
U Baig , P Belsare , M Watve and M Jog 2011. Can thrifty gene(s) or predictive fetal programming for thriftiness lead to obesity? J Obes 2011:861049.
S Baird , J Friedman and N Schady 2011. Aggregate income shocks and infant mortality in the developing world. Rev Econ Stat 93(3):847–56.
MA Bakewell , P Shi and J Zhang 2007. More genes underwent positive selection in chimpanzee evolution than in human evolution. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104(18):7489–94.
M Balter 2010. Archaeology: of two minds about Toba’s impact. Science 327(5970):1187–8.
C Bambra 2007. Going beyond the three worlds of welfare capitalism: regime theory and public health research. J Epidemiol Community Health 61(12):1098–102.
EB Barbier 2014. Economics: account for depreciation of natural capital. Nature 515:32–3.
G Barbujani , A Magagni , E Minch and LL Cavalli-Sforza 1997. An apportionment of human DNA diversity. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 94(9):4516–9.
DJ Barker 1981. Geographical variations in disease in Britain. BMJ 283(6288):398–400.
DJ Barker , AR Bull , C Osmond and SJ Simmonds 1990. Fetal and placental size and risk of hypertension in adult life. BMJ 301(6746):259–62.
DJ Barker , T Forsen , JG Eriksson and C Osmond 2002. Growth and living conditions in childhood and hypertension in adult life: a longitudinal study. J Hypertens 20(10):1951–6.
DJ Barker , KM Godfrey , C Osmond and A Bull 1992. The relation of fetal length, ponderal index and head circumference to blood pressure and the risk of hypertension in adult life. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 6(1):35–44.
487 DJ Barker , CN Hales , CH Fall , C Osmond , K Phipps and PM Clark 1993a. Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus, hypertension and hyperlipidaemia (syndrome X): relation to reduced fetal growth. Diabetologia 36(1):62–7.
DJ Barker , CN Martyn , C Osmond , CN Hales and CH Fall 1993b. Growth in utero and serum cholesterol concentrations in adult life. BMJ 307(6918):1524–7.
DJ Barker and C Osmond 1986a. Childhood respiratory infection and adult chronic bronchitis in England and Wales. BMJ 293(6557):1271–5.
DJ Barker and C Osmond 1986b. Diet and coronary heart disease in England and Wales during and after the second world war. J Epidemiol Community Health 40(1):37–44.
DJ Barker and C Osmond 1987. Death rates from stroke in England and Wales predicted from past maternal mortality. BMJ 295(6590):83–6.
DJ Barker , C Osmond , TJ Forsen , E Kajantie and JG Eriksson 2005. Trajectories of growth among children who have coronary events as adults. N Engl J Med 353(17):1802–9.
DJ Barker , C Osmond , SJ Simmonds and GA Wield 1993c. The relation of small head circumference and thinness at birth to death from cardiovascular disease in adult life. BMJ 306(6875):422–6.
CJ Barnard and RM Sibly 1981. Producers and scroungers: a general model and its application to captive flocks of house sparrows. Anim Behav 29:543–50.
F Barone-Adesi , A Gasparrini , L Vizzini , F Merletti and L Richiardi 2011. Effects of Italian smoking regulation on rates of hospital admission for acute coronary events: a country-wide study. PLoS One 6(3):e17419.
DP Barr , EM Russ and HA Eder 1951. Protein-lipid relationships in human plasma. II. In atherosclerosis and related conditions. Am J Med 11(4):480–93.
LB Barreiro and L Quintana-Murci 2010. From evolutionary genetics to human immunology: how selection shapes host defence genes. Nat Rev Genet 11(1):17–30.
AJ Barros , CG Victora , BL Horta , HD Goncalves , RC Lima and J Lynch 2006. Effects of socioeconomic change from birth to early adulthood on height and overweight. Int J Epidemiol 35(5):1233–8.
Z Barta and L-A Giraldeau 1998. The effect of dominance hierarchy on the use of alternative foraging tactics: a phenotype-limited producing-scrounging game. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 42:217–23.
Z Barta and L-A Giraldeau 2000. Daily patterns of optimal producer and scrounger use under predation hazard: a state-dependent dynamic game analysis. Am Nat 155(4):570–82.
M Bartley 1985. Coronary heart disease and the public health 1850–1983. Sociol Health Illness 7:289–312.
S Bartz , A Mody , C Hornik , J Bain , M Muehlbauer , T Kiyimba , E Kiboneka , R Stevens , J Bartlett , St JV Peter et al. 2014. Severe acute malnutrition in childhood: hormonal and metabolic status at presentation, response to treatment, and predictors of mortality. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 99(6):2128–37.
488 H Basciano , L Federico and K Adeli 2005. Fructose, insulin resistance, and metabolic dyslipidemia. Nutr Metab 2(1):5.
S Basu , M McKee , G Galea and D Stuckler 2013a. Relationship of soft drink consumption to global overweight, obesity, and diabetes: a cross-national analysis of 75 countries. Am J Public Health 103(11):2071–7.
S Basu , D Stuckler , M McKee and G Galea 2013b. Nutritional determinants of worldwide diabetes: an econometric study of food markets and diabetes prevalence in 173 countries. Public Health Nutr 16(1):179–86.
S Basu , P Yoffe , N Hills and RH Lustig 2013c. The relationship of sugar to population-level diabetes prevalence: an econometric analysis of repeated cross-sectional data. PLoS One 8(2):e57873.
J Baten and M Blum 2012a. Growing tall but unequal: New findings and new background evidence on anthropometric welfare in 156 countries, 1810–1989. Econ Hist Dev Regions 27 Suppl 1:S66–S85.
P Bateson 1994. The dynamics of parent-offspring relationships in mammals. Trends Ecol Evol 9(10):399–403.
P Bateson 2001. Fetal experience and good adult design. Int J Epidemiol 30(5):928–34.
P Bateson , D Barker , T Clutton-Brock , D Deb , B D’Udine , RA Foley , P Gluckman , K Godfrey , T Kirkwood , MM Lahr et al. 2004. Developmental plasticity and human health. Nature 430(6998):419–21.
P Bateson and P Gluckman 2011. Plasticity, Robustness, Development and Evolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
R Bathula , AD Hughes , RB Panerai , JF Potter , GTSA Mc , T Tillin , AC Shore , R Hale , J Chambers , J Kooner et al. 2011. South Asians have adverse cerebrovascular haemodynamics, despite equivalent blood pressure, compared with Europeans. This is due to their greater hyperglycaemia. Int J Epidemiol 40(6):1490–8.
R Batniji , Y Rabaia , V Nguyen-Gillham , R Giacaman , E Sarraj , RL Punamaki , H Saab and W Boyce 2009. Health as human security in the occupied Palestinian territory. Lancet 373(9669):1133–43.
RF Baumeister and TF Heatherton 1996. Self-regulation failure: an overview. Psychol Inquiry 7:1–15.
A Bavdekar , CS Yajnik , CHD Fall , S Bapat , AN Pandit , V Deshpande , S Bhave , SD Kellingray and C Joglekar 1999. Insulin resistance syndrome in 8-year-old Indian children – small at birth, big at 8 years, or both? Diabetes 48(12):2422–9.
C Beauchamp 2006. Phenotypic correlates of scrounging behavior in zebra finches: role of foraging efficiency and dominance. Ethol 112:873–8.
HJ Beaumont , J Gallie , C Kost , GC Ferguson and PB Rainey 2009. Experimental evolution of bet hedging. Nature 462(7269):90–3.
C Becquet and M Przeworski 2007. A new approach to estimate parameters of speciation models with application to apes. Genom Res 17(10):1505–19.
489 AK Behrensmeyer 2006. Atmosphere. Climate change and human evolution. Science 311(5760):476–8.
PV Belsare , MG Watve , SS Ghaskadbi , DS Bhat , CS Yajnik and M Jog 2010. Metabolic syndrome: aggression control mechanisms gone out of control. Med Hyp 74(3):578–89.
J Belsky , LD Steinberg , RM Houts , SL Friedman , G DeHart , E Cauffman , GI Roisman , BL Halpern-Felsher and E Susman 2007. Family rearing antecedents of pubertal timing. Child Dev 78(4):1302–21.
Y Ben-Shlomo and GD Smith 1991. Deprivation in infancy or in adult life: which is more important for mortality risk? Lancet 337(8740):530–4.
A Benetos , K Okuda , M Lajemi , M Kimura , F Thomas , J Skurnick , C Labat , K Bean and A Aviv 2001. Telomere length as an indicator of biological aging: the gender effect and relation with pulse pressure and pulse wave velocity. Hypertension 37(2 Part 2):381–5.
M Benhariz , O Goulet , J Salas , V Colomb and C Ricour 1997. Energy cost of fever in children on total parenteral nutrition. Clin Nutr 16(5):251–5.
A Bennett , LD Epstein , RH Gilman , V Cama , C Bern , L Cabrera , AG Lescano , J Patz , C Carcamo , CR Sterling et al. 2012. Effects of the 1997–1998 El Nino episode on community rates of diarrhea. Am J Public Health 102(7):e63–69.
SC Benoit , DJ Clegg , RJ Seeley and SC Woods 2004. Insulin and leptin as adiposity signals. Recent Prog Horm Res 59:267–85.
A Bentley , S Das , G Alcock , N Shah More , S Pantvaidya and D Osrin 2015. Malnutrition and infant and young child feeding in informal settlements in Mumbai, India: findings from a census. Food Sci Nutr 3(3):257–71.
GR Bentley , T Goldberg and G Jasienska 1993. The fertility of agricultural and non-agricultural traditional societies. Popul Stud 47(2):269–81.
DC Benyshek , CS Johnston and JF Martin 2004. Post-natal diet determines insulin resistance in fetally malnourished, low birthweight rats (F1) but diet does not modify the insulin resistance of their offspring (F2). Life Sci 74(24):3033–41.
DC Benyshek and JT Watson 2006. Exploring the thrifty genotype’s food-shortage assumptions: a cross-cultural comparison of ethnographic accounts of food security among foraging and agricultural societies. Am J Phys Anthropol 131(1):120–6.
JC Berbesque , FW Marlowe , P Shaw and P Thompson 2014. Hunter-gatherers have less famine than agriculturalists. Biol Lett 10(1):20130853.
C Berg , A Rosengren , N Aires , G Lappas , K Toren , D Thelle and L Lissner 2005. Trends in overweight and obesity from 1985 to 2002 in Goteborg, West Sweden. Int J Obes 29(8):916–24.
P Berger and N Negus 1992. Offspring growth and development responses to maternal transfer of 6-MBOA information in Microtus montanus. Can J Zool 70:518–22.
490 BC Bergman , MA Cornier , TJ Horton and DH Bessesen 2007. Effects of fasting on insulin action and glucose kinetics in lean and obese men and women. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 293(4):E1103–1111.
RN Bergman , M Ader , K Huecking and CG Van 2002. Accurate assessment of beta-cell function: the hyperbolic correction. Diabetes 51 Suppl 1:S212–S220.
N Bergvall , A Iliadou , S Johansson , U de Faire , MS Kramer , Y Pawitan , NL Pedersen , P Lichtenstein and S Cnattingius 2007. Genetic and shared environmental factors do not confound the association between birth weight and hypertension: a study among Swedish twins. Circulation 115(23):2931–8.
CS Berkey , GA Colditz , HR Rockett , AL Frazier and WC Willett 2009. Dairy consumption and female height growth: prospective cohort study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 18(6):1881–7.
SA Berson and RS Yalow 1965. Some current controversies in diabetes research. Diabetes 14(9):549–72.
K Bettenhausen and JK Murnighan 1985. The emergence of norms in competitive decision-making groups. Admin Sci Quart 30:350–72.
CJ Beuret , F Zirulnik , MS Giménez 2005. Effect of the herbicide glyphosate on liver lipoperoxidation in pregnant rats and their fetuses. Reprod Toxicol 19(4):501–4.
S Bhardwaj , A Misra , R Misra , K Goel , SP Bhatt , K Rastogi , NK Vikram and S Gulati 2011. High prevalence of abdominal, intra-abdominal and subcutaneous adiposity and clustering of risk factors among urban Asian Indians in North India. PLoS One 6(9):e24362.
SK Bhargava , HS Sachdev , CH Fall , C Osmond , R Lakshmy , DJ Barker , SK Biswas , S Ramji , D Prabhakaran and KS Reddy 2004. Relation of serial changes in childhood body-mass index to impaired glucose tolerance in young adulthood. N Engl J Med 350(9):865–75.
LS Bhatia , NP Curzen , PC Calder and CD Byrne 2012. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a new and important cardiovascular risk factor? Eur Heart J 33(10):1190–200.
R Bhopal , T Rahemtulla and A Sheikh 2005. Persistent high stroke mortality in Bangladeshi populations. BMJ 331(7525):1096–97.
AR Bhuiyan , SR Srinivasan , W Chen , MJ Azevedo and GS Berenson 2011. Influence of low birth weight on C-reactive protein in asymptomatic younger adults: the bogalusa heart study. BMC Res Notes 4:71.
ZA Bhutta , FA Bawany , A Feroze , A Rizvi , SJ Thapa and M Patel 2009. Effects of the crises on child nutrition and health in East Asia and the Pacific. Global Social Policy 9:119–43.
491 F Bianchini , R Kaaks and H Vainio 2002. Overweight, obesity, and cancer risk. Lancet Oncol 3(9):565–74.
JC Bicca-Marques and PA Garber 2005. Use of social and ecological information in tamarin foraging decisions. Int J Primatol 26:1321–44.
T Bielicki , A Waliszko , B Hulanicka and K Kotlarz 1986. Social-class gradients in menarcheal age in Poland. Ann Hum Biol 13(1):1–11.
JR Bindon and PT Baker 1985. Modernization, migration and obesity among Samoan adults. Ann Hum Biol 12(1):67–76.
B Bingham , K McFadden , X Zhang , S Bhatnagar , S Beck and R Valentino 2011. Early adolescence as a critical window during which social stress distinctly alters behavior and brain norepinephrine activity. Neuropsychopharmacol 36(4):896–909.
F Biondi , A Gershunov and DR Cayan 2001. North Pacific Decadal Climate Variability Since 1661. J Climate 14:5–10.
T Biron-Shental , R Sukenik Halevy , L Goldberg-Bittman , D Kidron , MD Fejgin and A Amiel 2010a. Telomeres are shorter in placental trophoblasts of pregnancies complicated with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Early Hum Dev 86(7):451–6.
T Biron-Shental , R Sukenik-Halevy , Y Sharon , L Goldberg-Bittman , D Kidron , MD Fejgin and A Amiel 2010b. Short telomeres may play a role in placental dysfunction in preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction. Am J Obstet Gynecol 202(4):e381–7.
LL Bischoff , B Tschirren and H Richner 2009. Long-term effects of early parasite exposure on song duration and singing strategy in great tits. Behav Ecol 20:265–70.
P Bjorntorp and R Rosmond 2000. The metabolic syndrome–a neuroendocrine disorder? Br J Nutr 83 Suppl 1:S49–57.
PH Black and LD Garbutt 2002. Stress, inflammation and cardiovascular disease. J Psychosomat Res 52(1):1–23.
RE Black , CG Victora , SP Walker , ZA Bhutta , P Christian , M de Onis , M Ezzati , S Grantham-McGregor , J Katz , R Martorell et al. 2013. Maternal and child undernutrition and overweight in low-income and middle-income countries. Lancet 382(9890):427–51.
MJ Blaser and S Falkow 2009. What are the consequences of the disappearing human microbiota? Nature Rev Microbiol 7(12):887–94.
F Block and M Somers 2003. In the shadow of Speenhamland: social policy and the old poor law. Polit Soc 31:283–321.
JP Block , RA Scribner and KB DeSalvo 2004. Fast food, race/ethnicity, and income: a geographic analysis. Am J Prev Med 27(3):211–17.
DE Bloom , D Canning , L Hu , Y Liu , A Mahal and W Yip 2010. The contribution of population health and demographic change to economic growth in China and India. J Comp Econ 38(1):17–33.
DE Bloom , D Canning and J Sevilla 2004. The effect of health on economic growth: a production function approach. World Dev 32(1):1–13.
K Blum , PK Thanos and MS Gold 2014. Dopamine and glucose, obesity, and reward deficiency syndrome. Frontiers Psychol 5:919.
492 C Boehm 1993. Egalitarian behavior and reverse dominance hierarchy. Curr Anthropol 34:227–254.
C Boesch , G Kohou , H Nene and L Vigilant 2006. Male competition and paternity in wild chimpanzees of the Tai forest. Am J Phys Anthropol 130(1):103–15.
B Bogin 2009. Childhood, adolescence, and longevity: a multilevel model of the evolution of reserve capacity in human life history. Am J Hum Biol 21(4):567–77.
B Bogin and J Baker 2012. Low birth weight does not predict the ontogeny of relative leg length of infants and children: an allometric analysis of the NHANES III sample. Am J Phys Anthropol 148(4):487–94.
B Bogin , P Smith , AB Orden , MI Varela Silva and J Loucky 2002. Rapid change in height and body proportions of Maya American children. Am J Hum Biol 14(6):753–61.
B Bogin and MI Varela-Silva 2010. Leg length, body proportion, and health: a review with a note on beauty. Int J Env Res Public Health 7(3):1047–75.
N Boivin 2007. Anthropological, historical, archaeological and genetic perspectives on the origins of caste in South Asia. In MD Petraglia and B Allchin , editors. The Evolution and History of Human Populations in South Asia. Dordrecht: Springer. 341–61.
C Bolduan and L Weiner 1933. Causes of death among Jews of N. Y. city. New Engl J Med 208:407–16.
DR Bonds , SG Gabbe , S Kumar and T Taylor 1984. Fetal weight/placental weight ratio and perinatal outcome. Am J Obstet Gynecol 149(2):195–200.
R Bonnefille , R Potts , F Chalie , D Jolly and O Peyron 2004. High-resolution vegetation and climate change associated with Pliocene Australopithecus afarensis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101(33):12125–9.
M Borgerhoff Mulder , I Fazzio , W Irons , RL McElreath , S Bowles , AC Bell , T Hertz and L Hazzah 2010. Pastoralism and wealth inequality: revisiting an old question. Curr Anthropol 51:35–48.
N Borghol , M Suderman , W McArdle , A Racine , M Hallett , M Pembrey , C Hertzman , C Power and M Szyf 2012. Associations with early-life socio-economic position in adult DNA methylation. Int J Epidemiol 41(1):62–74.
SA Borinskaya , AS Gureev , AA Orlova , ED Sanina , AA Kim , F Gasemianrodsari , VI Shirmanov , OP Balanovsky , DV Rebrikov , AV Koshechkin et al. 2013. Allele frequency distributions of −174G/C polymorphism in regulatory region of interleukin 6 gene (IL6) in Russian and worldwide populations. Russian J Genet 49:90–109.
493 JM Born , SG Lemmens , F Rutters , AG Nieuwenhuizen , E Formisano , R Goebel and MS Westeterp-Plantenga 2010. Acute stress and food-related reward activation in the brain during food choice during eating in the absence of hunger. Int J Obes 34(1):172–81.
PA Bos , D Terburg and J van Honk 2010. Testosterone decreases trust in socially naive humans. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107(22):9991–5.
L Bouwens and I Rooman 2005. Regulation of pancreatic beta-cell mass. Physiol Rev 85(4):1255–70.
I Bove , T Miranda , C Campoy , R Uauy and M Napol 2012. Stunting, overweight and child development impairment go hand in hand as key problems of early infancy: Uruguayan case. Early Hum Dev 88(9):747–51.
L Bowen , S Ebrahim , B De Stavola , A Ness , S Kinra , AV Bharathi , D Prabhakaran and KS Reddy 2011. Dietary intake and rural-urban migration in India: a cross-sectional study. PLoS One 6(6):e14822.
RS Bowen , J Moodley , MF Dutton and AJ Theron 2001. Oxidative stress in pre-eclampsia. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 80(8):719–25.
S Bowles , EA Smith and M Borgerhoff Mulder 2010. The emergence and persistence of inequality in premodern societies. Curr Anthropol 51:7–17.
M Bowling , N Burch , M Johanson and O Tammelin 2015. Computer science. Heads-up limit hold’em poker is solved. Science 347(6218):145–9.
AJ Bradley , IR McDonald and AK Lee 1980. Stress and mortality in a small marsupial (Antechinus stuartii, Macleay). Gen Comp Endocrinol 40:188–200.
PJ Bradshaw , HS Alfonso , J Finn , J Owen and PL Thompson 2011. A comparison of coronary heart disease event rates among urban Australian Aboriginal people and a matched non-Aboriginal population. J Epidemiol Community Health 65(4):315–19.
J Brambila-Macias , B Shankar , S Capacci , M Mazzocchi , FJ Perez-Cueto , W Verbeke and WB Traill 2011. Policy interventions to promote healthy eating: a review of what works, what does not, and what is promising. Food Nutr Bull 32(4):365–75.
T Brass 2015. Peasants, academics, populists: Forward to the past? Critique in Anthropology 35(2):187–204
AA Bremer , M Mietus-Snyder and RH Lustig 2012. Toward a unifying hypothesis of metabolic syndrome. Pediatr 129(3):557–70.
ES Brezis 2001. Social classes, demographic transition and economic growth. Eur Econ Rev 45(6):707–17.
RG Bribiescas and SF Anestis 2010. Leptin associations with age, weight, and sex among chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). J Med Primatol 39(5):347–55.
GM Brieger , MS Rogers , AW Rushton and M Mongelli 1997. Are Hong Kong babies getting bigger? Int J Gynaecol Obstet 57(3):267–71.
E Brinda , A Rajkumar , U Enemark 2015. Association between gender inequality index and child mortality rates: a cross-national study of 138 countries. BMC Public Health 15:97.
NH Brodersen , A Steptoe , DR Boniface and J Wardle 2007. Trends in physical activity and sedentary behaviour in adolescence: ethnic and socioeconomic differences. Br J Sport Med 41(3):140–4.
WS Broecker 1997. Thermohaline circulation, the achilles heel of our climate system: will man-made CO2 upset the current balance? Science 278(5343):1582–8.
SF Brosnan 2006. Nonhuman species’ reactions to inequity and their implications for fairness. Soc Justice Res 19(2):153–85.
SF Brosnan and FB De Waal 2003. Monkeys reject unequal pay. Nature 425(6955):297–9.
SW Brouilette , JS Moore , AD McMahon , JR Thompson , I Ford , J Shepherd , CJ Packard and NJ Samani 2007. Telomere length, risk of coronary heart disease, and statin treatment in the West of Scotland Primary Prevention Study: a nested case-control study. Lancet 369(9556):107–14.
EA Brown 2012. Genetic explorations of recent human metabolic adaptations: hypotheses and evidence. Biol Rev 87(4):838–55.
IJ Brown , J Stamler , L Van Horn , CE Robertson , Q Chan , AR Dyer , CC Huang , BL Rodriguez , L Zhao , ML Daviglus et al. 2011. Sugar-sweetened beverage, sugar intake of individuals, and their blood pressure: international study of macro/micronutrients and blood pressure. Hypertension 57(4):695–701.
KH Brown , SE Wuehler and JM Peerson 2001. The importance of zinc in human nutrition and estimation of the global prevalence of zinc deficiency. Food Nutr Bull 22(2):113–25.
P Brown , T Sutikna , MJ Morwood , RP Soejono , Jatmiko , EW Saptomo and RA Due 2004. A new small-bodied hominin from the Late Pleistocene of Flores, Indonesia. Nature 431(7012):1055–61.
PJ Brown 1987. Microparasites and macroparasites. Cult Anthropol 2(1):155–71.
PJ Brown and M Konner 1987. An anthropological perspective on obesity. Ann NY Acad Sci 499:29–46.
WM Brown , L Cronk , K Grochow , A Jacobson , CK Liu , Z Popovic and R Trivers 2005. Dance reveals symmetry especially in young men. Nature 438(7071):1148–50.
KD Brownell and TR Frieden 2009. Ounces of prevention–the public policy case for taxes on sugared beverages. N Engl J Med 360(18):1805–8.
KD Brownell and KE Warner 2009. The perils of ignoring history: Big Tobacco played dirty and millions died. How similar is Big Food? Milbank Q 87(1):259–94.
JE Brudevoll , K Liestol and L Walloe 1979. Menarcheal age in Oslo during the last 140 years. Ann Hum Biol 6(5):407–16.
MW Bruford , DG Bradley and G Luikart 2003. DNA markers reveal the complexity of livestock domestication. Nat Rev Genet 4(11):900–10.
GH Brundtland , K Liestol and L Walloe 1980. Height, weight and menarcheal age of Oslo schoolchildren during the last 60 years. Ann Hum Biol 7(4):307–22.
EJ Brunner , H Hemingway , BR Walker , M Page , P Clarke , M Juneja , MJ Shipley , M Kumari , R Andrew , JR Seckl et al. 2002. 495Adrenocortical, autonomic, and inflammatory causes of the metabolic syndrome: nested case-control study. Circulation 106(21):2659–65.
MB Bruss , JR Morris , LL Dannison , MP Orbe , JA Quitugua and RT Palacios 2005. Food, culture, and family: exploring the coordinated management of meaning regarding childhood obesity. Health Commun 18(2):155–75.
KL Buchanan , S Leitner , KA Spencer , AR Goldsmith and CK Catchpole 2004. Developmental stress selectively affects the song control nucleus HVC in the zebra finch. Proc Biol Sci 271(1555):2381–6.
KL Buchanan , KA Spencer , AR Goldsmith and CK Catchpole 2003. Song as an honest signal of past developmental stress in the European starling (Sturnus vulgaris). Proc Biol Sci 270(1520):1149–56.
HC Bucher , P Hengstler , C Schindler and G Meier 2002. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in coronary heart disease: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J Med 112(4):298–304.
H Buchwald , R Estok , K Fahrbach , D Banel , MD Jensen , WJ Pories , JP Bantle and I Sledge 2009. Weight and type 2 diabetes after bariatric surgery: systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Med 122(3):248–56 e245.
C Buck and H Simpson 1982. Infant diarrhoea and subsequent mortality from heart disease and cancer. J Epidemiol Community Health 36(1):27–30.
JM Burkart , O Allon , F Amici , C Fichtel , C Finkenwirth , A Heschl , J Huber , K Isler , ZK Kosonen , E Martins et al. 2014. The evolutionary origin of human hyper-cooperation. Nature Commun 5:4747.
D Burman , A Mente , RA Hegele , S Islam , S Yusuf and SS Anand 2009. Relationship of the ApoE polymorphism to plasma lipid traits among South Asians, Chinese, and Europeans living in Canada. Atherosclerosis 203(1):192–200.
CD Bustamante , A Fledel-Alon , S Williamson , R Nielsen , MT Hubisz , S Glanowski , DM Tanenbaum , TJ White , JJ Sninsky , RD Hernandez et al. 2005. Natural selection on protein-coding genes in the human genome. Nature 437(7062):1153–7.
HZ Butt , G Atturu , NJ London , RD Sayers and MJ Bown 2010. Telomere length dynamics in vascular disease: a review. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 40(1):17–26.
AE Caballero 2003. Endothelial dysfunction in obesity and insulin resistance: a road to diabetes and heart disease. Obes Res 11(11):1278–89.
A Cabanes , N Ascunce , E Vidal , M Ederra , A Barcos , N Erdozain , V Lope and M Pollan 2009. Decline in age at menarche among Spanish women born from 1925 to 1962. BMC Public Health 9:449.
H Cabral , LE Fried , S Levenson , H Amaro and B Zuckerman 1990. Foreign-born and US-born black women: differences in health behaviors and birth outcomes. Am J Public Health 80(1):70–2.
N Cameron , J Pettifor , WT De and S Norris 2003. The relationship of rapid weight gain in infancy to obesity and skeletal maturity in childhood. Obes Res 11(3):457–60.
N Cameron , MM Wright , PL Griffiths , SA Norris and JM Pettifor 2005. Stunting at 2 years in relation to body composition at 9 years in African urban children. Obes Res 13(1):131–6.
WI Cameron , PS Moffitt and DR Williams 1986. Diabetes mellitus in the Australian aborigines of Bourke, New South Wales. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2(5):307–14.
DI Campbell , PG Lunn and M Elia 2002. Age-related association of small intestinal mucosal enteropathy with nutritional status in rural Gambian children. Br J Nutr 88(5):499–505.
DI Campbell , G McPhail , PG Lunn , M Elia and DJ Jeffries 2004. Intestinal inflammation measured by fecal neopterin in Gambian children with enteropathy: association with growth failure, Giardia lamblia, and intestinal permeability. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 39(2):153–7.
RL Cann , M Stoneking and AC Wilson 1987. Mitochondrial-DNA and human-evolution. Nature 325(6099):31–6.
S Capacci and M Mazzocchi 2011. Five-a-day, a price to pay: an evaluation of the UK program impact accounting for market forces. J Health Econ 30(1):87–98.
S Capacci , M Mazzocchi , B Shankar , JB Macias , W Verbeke , FJ Perez-Cueto , A Koziol-Kozakowska , B Piorecka , B Niedzwiedzka , D D’Addesa et al. 2012. Policies to promote healthy eating in Europe: a structured review of policies and their effectiveness. Nutr Rev 70(3):188–200.
S Capewell , R Beaglehole , M Seddon and J McMurray 2000. Explanation for the decline in coronary heart disease mortality rates in Auckland, New Zealand, between 1982 and 1993. Circulation 102(13):1511–16.
LA Carlson 1960. Serum lipids in men with myocardial infarction. Acta Med Scand 167:399–413.
JF Carroll , AL Chiapa , M Rodriquez , DR Phelps , KM Cardarelli , JK Vishwanatha , S Bae and R Cardarelli 2008. Visceral fat, waist circumference, and BMI: impact of race/ethnicity. Obesity 16(3):600–7.
C Caruso , G Candore , G Colonna-Romano , D Lio and C Franceschi 2005. Inflammation and life-span. Science 307(5707):208–9.
JE Castro 2008. Neoliberal water and sanitation policies as a failed development strategy lessons from developing countries. Prog Dev Stud 8(1):63–83.
PM Catalano , A Thomas , L Huston-Presley and SB Amini 2003. Increased fetal adiposity: a very sensitive marker of abnormal in utero development. Am J Obstet Gynecol 189(6):1698–704.
AE Cavelaars , AE Kunst , JJ Geurts , R Crialesi , L Grotvedt , U Helmert , E Lahelma , O Lundberg , A Mielck , NK Rasmussen et al. 2000. Persistent variations in average height between countries and between 497socio-economic groups: an overview of 10 European countries. Ann Hum Biol 27(4):407–21.
RM Cawthon , KR Smith , E O’Brien , A Sivatchenko and RA Kerber 2003. Association between telomere length in blood and mortality in people aged 60 years or older. Lancet 361(9355):393–5.
SM Ceesay , AM Prentice , TJ Cole , F Foord , LT Weaver , EM Poskitt and RG Whitehead 1997. Effects on birth weight and perinatal mortality of maternal dietary supplements in rural Gambia: 5 year randomised controlled trial. BMJ 315(7111):786–90.
PS Chain , E Carniel , FW Larimer , J Lamerdin , PO Stoutland , WM Regala , AM Georgescu , LM Vergez , ML Land , VL Motin et al. 2004. Insights into the evolution of Yersinia pestis through whole-genome comparison with Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101(38):13826–31.
T Chandola , A Britton , E Brunner , H Hemingway , M Malik , M Kumari , E Badrick , M Kivimaki and M Marmot 2008. Work stress and coronary heart disease: what are the mechanisms? Eur Heart J 29(5):640–8.
T Chandola , E Brunner and M Marmot 2006. Chronic stress at work and the metabolic syndrome: prospective study. BMJ 332(7540):521–5.
VW Chang 2006. Racial residential segregation and weight status among US adults. Soc Sci Med 63(5):1289–303.
YL Chang , SD Chang , AS Chao , PC Hsieh , CN Wang and LH Tseng 2008. The individual fetal weight/estimated placental weight ratios in monochorionic twins with selective intrauterine growth restriction. Prenat Diagn 28(3):217–21.
CR Chapman 2012. ‘Oh that you were like a brother to me, one who had nursed at my mother’s breasts.’ Breast milk as a kinship-forging substance. Journal of Hebrew Scriptures 12:Article 7 DOI:10.5508/jhs.2012.v5512.a5507.
JP Chaput 2011. Do active video games increase food intake? Am J Clin Nutr 94(4):1155; author reply 1156.
JP Chaput , V Drapeau , P Poirier , N Teasdale and A Tremblay 2008. Glycemic instability and spontaneous energy intake: association with knowledge-based work. Psychosom Med 70(7):797–804.
JP Chaput and A Tremblay 2007. Acute effects of knowledge-based work on feeding behavior and energy intake. Physiol Behav 90(1):66–72.
JP Chaput , T Visby , S Nyby , L Klingenberg , NT Gregersen , A Tremblay , A Astrup and A Sjodin 2011. Video game playing increases food intake in adolescents: a randomized crossover study. Am J Clin Nutr 93(6):1196–203.
G Charbonneau-Roberts , H Saudny-Unterberger , HV Kuhnlein and GM Egeland 2005. Body mass index may overestimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity among the Inuit. Int J Circumpolar Health 64(2):163–9.
N Chaturvedi , R Bathula , AC Shore , R Panerai , J Potter , J Kooner , J Chambers and AD Hughes 2012. South Asians have elevated postexercise blood pressure and myocardial oxygen consumption compared to Europeans despite equivalent resting pressure. J Am Heart Assoc 1(5):e000281.
J Chavarro , E Villamor , J Narvaez and A Hoyos 2004. Socio-demographic predictors of age at menarche in a group of Colombian university women. Ann Hum Biol 31(2):245–57.
CM Chen 2008. Overview of obesity in Mainland China. Obes Rev 9 Suppl 1:14–21.
FF Chen , YF Wang and J Mi 2014. Timing and secular trend of pubertal development in Beijing girls. World J Pediatr 10(1):74–9.
L Chen , B Caballero , DC Mitchell , C Loria , PH Lin , CM Champagne , PJ Elmer , JD Ard , BC Batch , CA Anderson et al. 2010. Reducing consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages is associated with reduced blood pressure: a prospective study among United States adults. Circulation 121(22):2398–406.
R Chen , E Corona , M Sikora , JT Dudley , AA Morgan , A Moreno-Estrada , GB Nilsen , D Ruau , SE Lincoln , CD Bustamante et al. 2012a. Type 2 diabetes risk alleles demonstrate extreme directional differentiation among human populations, compared to other diseases. PLoS Genet 8(4):e1002621.
X Chen , ZX Zhang , LK George , ZS Wang , ZJ Fan , T Xu , XL Zhou , SM Han , HB Wen and Y Zeng 2012b. Birth measurements, family history, and environmental factors associated with later-life hypertensive status. Am J Hypertens 25(4):464–71.
Z Chen , G Yang , A Offer , M Zhou , M Smith , R Peto , H Ge , L Yang and G Whitlock 2012c. Body mass index and mortality in China: a 15-year prospective study of 220 000 men. Int J Epidemiol 41(2):472–81.
H Cherif , JL Tarry , SE Ozanne and CN Hales 2003. Ageing and telomeres: a study into organ- and gender-specific telomere shortening. Nucleic Acids Research 31(5):1576–83.
BM Cheung , KL Ong , AW Tso , RY Leung , A Xu , SS Cherny , PC Sham , TH Lam and KS Lam 2012. C-reactive protein as a predictor of hypertension in the Hong Kong Cardiovascular Risk Factor Prevalence Study (CRISPS) cohort. J Hum Hypertens 26(2):108–16.
F Chiappelli , P Prolo and OS Cajulis 2005. Evidence-based research in complementary and alternative medicine I: history. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2(4):453–8.
U Chike-Obi , RJ David , R Coutinho and SY Wu 1996. Birth weight has increased over a generation. Am J Epidemiol 144(6):563–9.
VG Childe 1950. The urban revolution. Town Plan Rev 21(1):3–17.
JS Chisholm , JA Quinlivan , RW Peterson and DA Coall 2005. Early stress predicts age at menarche and first birth, adult attachment, and expected lifespan. Hum Nature 16(3):233–65.
ML Chiswick 1985. Intrauterine growth retardation. Br Med J 291(6499):845–8.
NA Christakis and JH Fowler 2007. The spread of obesity in a large social network over 32 years. NEngl J Med 357(4):370–9.
K Christensen , JW Vaupel , NV Holm and AI Yashin 1995. Mortality among twins after age 6: fetal origins hypothesis versus twin method. BMJ 310(6977):432–6.
H Christopoulou-Aletra and N Papavramidou 2004. Methods used by the hippocratic physicians for weight reduction. World J Surg 28(5):513–17.
D Churchill , IJ Perry and DG Beevers 1997. Ambulatory blood pressure in pregnancy and fetal growth. Lancet 349(9044):7–10.
F Cinnirella 2008. Optimists or pessimists? A reconsideration of nutritional status in Britain, 1740–1865. Eur Rev Econ Hist 12:325–54.
S Cinti , G Mitchell , G Barbatelli , I Murano , E Ceresi , E Faloia , S Wang , M Fortier , AS Greenberg and MS Obin 2005. Adipocyte death defines macrophage localization and function in adipose tissue of obese mice and humans. J Lipid Res 46(11):2347–55.
BF Clark and R York 2005. Carbon metabolism: global capitalism, climate change, and the biospheric rift. Theor Soc 34:391–428.
EM Clements 1953. Changes in the mean stature and weight of British children over the past seventy years. BMJ 2(4842):897–902.
S Cnattingius , E Villamor , YT Lagerros , AK Wikstrom and F Granath 2012. High birth weight and obesity-a vicious circle across generations. Int J Obes 36(10):1320–4.
A Coale 1974. History of the human population. Sci Am 231(3):41–51.
A Cockburn and AF Russell 2011. Cooperative breeding: a question of climate? Curr Biol 21(5):R195–7.
TA Cockburn 1971. Infectious diseases in ancient populations. Curr Anthropol 12:45–62.
PR Coelho and RA McGuire 2000 Diets versus diseases: the anthropometrics of slave children. J Econ Hist 60:232–46.
AS Cohen , JR Stone , KR Beuning , LE Park , PN Reinthal , D Dettman , CA Scholz , TC Johnson , JW King , MR Talbot et al. 2007. Ecological consequences of early Late Pleistocene megadroughts in tropical Africa. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104(42):16422–7.
DA Cohen 2008. Obesity and the built environment: changes in environmental cues cause energy imbalances. Int J Obes 32 Suppl 7:S137–42.
JC Cohen , RS Kiss , A Pertsemlidis , YL Marcel , R McPherson and HH Hobbs 2004. Multiple rare alleles contribute to low plasma levels of HDL cholesterol. Science 305(5685):869–72.
500 JC Cohen , A Pertsemlidis , S Fahmi , S Esmail , GL Vega , SM Grundy and HH Hobbs 2006. Multiple rare variants in NPC1L1 associated with reduced sterol absorption and plasma low-density lipoprotein levels. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103(6):1810–15.
C Colantuoni , P Rada , J McCarthy , C Patten , NM Avena , A Chadeayne and BG Hoebel 2002. Evidence that intermittent, excessive sugar intake causes endogenous opioid dependence. Obes Res 10(6):478–88.
TJ Cole 2000. Secular trends in growth. Proc Nutr Soc 59(2):317–24.
TJ Cole , JV Freeman and MA Preece 1995. Body mass index reference curves for the UK, 1990. Arch Dis Child 73(1):25–9.
JW Collins Jr., RJ David , KM Rankin and JR Desireddi 2009. Transgenerational effect of neighborhood poverty on low birth weight among African Americans in Cook County, Illinois. Am J Epidemiol 169(6):712–17.
JW Collins Jr., SY Wu and RJ David 2002. Differing intergenerational birth weights among the descendants of US-born and foreign-born Whites and African Americans in Illinois. Am J Epidemiol 155(3):210–16.
M Collins , S-I An , W Cai , A Ganachaud , E Guilyardi , F-F Jin , M Jochum , M Lengaigne , S Power , A Timmermann et al. 2010. The impact of global warming on the tropical Pacific Ocean and El Niño. Nature Geosci 3:391–7.
VR Collins , GK Dowse , WE Plehwe , TT Imo , PM Toelupe , HR Taylor and PZ Zimmet 1995. High prevalence of diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy in Polynesians of Western Samoa. Diabetes Care 18(8):1140–9.
A Conde-Agudelo and JM Belizan 2000. Maternal morbidity and mortality associated with interpregnancy interval: cross sectional study. BMJ 321(7271):1255–9.
AL Cooper , RB Fitzgeorge , A Baskerville , RA Little and NJ Rothwell 1989. Bacterial infection (Legionella pneumophila) stimulates fever, metabolic rate and brown adipose tissue activity in the guinea pig. Life Sci 45(9):843–7.
R Cooper and C Power 2008. Sex differences in the associations between birthweight and lipid levels in middle-age: findings from the 1958 British birth cohort. Atherosclerosis 200(1):141–9.
501 WN Cooper , B Khulan , S Owens , CE Elks , V Seidel , AM Prentice , G Belteki , KK Ong , NA Affara , M Constancia et al. 2012. DNA methylation profiling at imprinted loci after periconceptional micronutrient supplementation in humans: results of a pilot randomized controlled trial. FASEB J 26(5):1782–90.
E Corpeleijn , WH Saris and EE Blaak 2009. Metabolic flexibility in the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes: effects of lifestyle. Obes Rev 10(2):178–93.
DL Costa 2000. Understanding the twentieth-century decline in chronic conditions among older men. Demogr 37(1):53–72.
DL Costa 2004. Race and pregnancy outcomes in the twentieth century: a long-term comparison. J Econ Hist 64(4):1056–86.
MJ Costa , DA Monteiro , AL Oliveira-Neto , FT Rantin , AL Kalinin 2008. Oxidative stress biomarkers and heart function in bullfrog tadpoles exposed to Roundup Original. Ecotoxicol 17(3):153–63.
A Cournil , R Defay , A Lacroux , S Barny and A Fontbonne 2007. Paradoxical relationships between anthropometric variables and phenotypic expression of the metabolic syndrome in nondiabetic Polynesians of New Caledonia. Diabetes Care 30(7):1909–11.
MM Covelli , CE Wood and HN Yarandi 2007. The association of low birth weight and physiological risk factors of hypertension in African American adolescents. J Cardiovasc Nurs 22(6):440–7; quiz 448–9.
CC Cowie , KF Rust , ES Ford , MS Eberhardt , DD Byrd-Holt , C Li , DE Williams , EW Gregg , KE Bainbridge , SH Saydah et al. 2009. Full accounting of diabetes and pre-diabetes in the U.S. population in 1988–1994 and 2005–2006. Diabetes Care 32(2):287–94.
G Cowlishaw and RIM Dunbar 1991. Dominance rank and mating success in male primates. Anim Behav 41(6):1045–56.
P Craig , V Halavatau , E Comino and I Caterson 2001. Differences in body composition between Tongans and Australians: time to rethink the healthy weight ranges? Int J Obes 25(12):1806–14.
WY Craig , GE Palomaki and JE Haddow 1989. Cigarette smoking and serum lipid and lipoprotein concentrations: an analysis of published data. BMJ 298(6676):784–8.
F Crews , J He and C Hodge 2007. Adolescent cortical development: a critical period of vulnerability for addiction. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 86(2):189–99.
KS Crider , LB Bailey and RJ Berry 2011. Folic acid food fortification-its history, effect, concerns, and future directions. Nutrients 3(3):370–84.
EM Crimmins and Y Saito 2001. Trends in healthy life expectancy in the United States, 1970–1990: gender, racial, and educational differences. Soc Sci Med 52(11):1629–41.
J Critchley , J Liu , D Zhao , W Wei and S Capewell 2004. Explaining the increase in coronary heart disease mortality in Beijing between 1984 and 1999. Circulation 110(10):1236–44.
E Crognier 1981. Climate and anthropometric variations in Europe and the Mediterranean area. Ann Hum Biol 8:99–107.
JE Cropley , CM Suter , KB Beckman and DI Martin 2006. Germ-line epigenetic modification of the murine A vy allele by nutritional supplementation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103(46):17308–12.
JH Cross , J Eminson and BA Wharton 1990. Ramadan and birth weight at full term in Asian Moslem pregnant women in Birmingham. Arch Dis Child 65(10 Spec No):1053–6.
JK Cruickshank , F Mzayek , L Liu , L Kieltyka , R Sherwin , LS Webber , SR Srinavasan and GS Berenson 2005. Origins of the ‘black/white’ difference in blood pressure: roles of birth weight, postnatal growth, early blood pressure, and adolescent body size: the Bogalusa heart study. Circulation 111(15):1932–7.
G Cuco , V Arija , R Iranzo , J Vila , MT Prieto and J Fernandez-Ballart 2006. Association of maternal protein intake before conception and throughout pregnancy with birth weight. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 85(4):413–21.
MC Cunha , ML Zanetti and VJ Hass 2008. Sleep quality in type 2 diabetics. Rev Lat Am Enfermagem 16(5):850–5.
MJ Cunningham , DK Clifton and RA Steiner 1999. Leptin’s actions on the reproductive axis: perspectives and mechanisms. Biol Reprod 60(2):216–22.
DM Cutler , F Knaul , R Lozano , O Méndez and B Zurita 2002. Financial crisis health outcomes, and ageing: Mexico in the 1980s and 1990s. J Public Econ 84(1):279–303.
RG Cutler 1975. Evolution of human longevity and the genetic complexity governing aging rate. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 72(11):4664–8.
J Dahlgren 2006. Pregnancy and insulin resistance. Metab Syndr Relat Disord 4(2):149–52.
N Dahlmann and K Petersen 1977. Influences of environmental conditions during infancy on final body stature. Pediatr Res 11(5):695–700.
DL Dahly and LS Adair 2010. Does lower birth order amplify the association between high socioeconomic status and central adiposity in young adult Filipino males? Int J Obes 34(4):751–9.
MF Dallman , N Pecoraro , SF Akana , SE La Fleur , F Gomez , H Houshyar , ME Bell , S Bhatnagar , KD Laugero and S Manalo 2003. Chronic stress and obesity: a new view of ‘comfort food’. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100(20):11696–701.
HE Danysh , RH Gilman , JC Wells , WK Pan , B Zaitchik , G Gonzálvez , M Alvarez and W Checkley 2014. El Niño adversely affected childhood stature and lean mass in northern Peru. Climate Change Responses 1:7.
C Darwin 1871. The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex. London: Murray.
SK Das and TK Banerjee 2008. Stroke: Indian scenario. Circulation 118(25):2719–24.
G Davey , A Ramachandran , C Snehalatha , GA Hitman and PM McKeigue 2000. Familial aggregation of central obesity in Southern Indians. Int J Obes 24(11):1523–7.
M David and LA Giraldeau 2012. Zebra finches in poor condition produce more and consume more food in a producer–scrounger game. Behav Ecol 23:174–80.
RJ David and JW Collins Jr. 1997. Differing birth weight among infants of U.S.-born blacks, African-born blacks, and U.S.-born whites. N Engl J Med 337(17):1209–14.
J Davies and D Davies 2010. Origins and evolution of antibiotic resistance. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 74(3):417–33.
AM Davis , LM Vinci , TM Okwuosa , AR Chase and ES Huang 2007. Cardiovascular health disparities: a systematic review of health care interventions. Med Care Res Rev 64(5 Suppl):29S–100S.
M Davis 2006. Planet of Slums. London: Verso.
P Davy , M Nagata , P Bullard , NS Fogelson and R Allsopp 2009. Fetal growth restriction is associated with accelerated telomere shortening and increased expression of cell senescence markers in the placenta. Placenta 30(6):539–42.
TR Dawber , WB Kannel , N Revotskie , J Stokes 3rd, A Kagan and T Gordon 1959. Some factors associated with the development of coronary heart disease: six years’ follow-up experience in the Framingham study. Am J Public Health Nations Health 49:1349–56.
TR Dawber , GF Meadors and FE Moore Jr. 1951. Epidemiological approaches to heart disease: the Framingham study. Am J Public Health Nations Health 41(3):279–81.
R Dawkins and TR Carlisle 1976. Parental investment, mate desertion and a fallacy. Nature 262:131–3.
MJ De Blasio , KL Gatford , IC McMillen , JS Robinson and JA Owens 2007. Placental restriction of fetal growth increases insulin action, growth, and adiposity in the young lamb. Endocrinol 148(3):1350–8.
AJ de Craen , D Posthuma , EJ Remarque , AH van den Biggelaar , RG Westendorp and DI Boomsma 2005. Heritability estimates of innate immunity: an extended twin study. Genes Immun 6(2):167–70.
EJ de Geus , D Posthuma , RG Ijzerman and DI Boomsma 2001. Comparing blood pressure of twins and their singleton siblings: being a twin does not affect adult blood pressure. Twin Res 4(5):385–91.
GL de la Grandmaison , I Clairand and M Durigon 2001. Organ weight in 684 adult autopsies: new tables for a Caucasoid population. Forensic Sci Int 119(2):149–54.
JC de Ruyter , MR Olthof , JC Seidell and MB Katan 2012. A trial of sugar-free or sugar-sweetened beverages and body weight in children. N Engl J Med 367(15):1397–406.
NM De Silva and TM Frayling 2010. Novel biological insights emerging from genetic studies of type 2 diabetes and related metabolic traits. Curr Opinion Lipidol 21(1):44–50.
JA de Wilde , S van Buuren and BJ Middelkoop 2013. Trends in birth weight and the prevalence of low birth weight and small-for-gestational-age in Surinamese South Asian babies since 1974: cross-sectional study of three birth cohorts. BMC Public Health 13:931.
A Deaton 2003. Health, inequality and economic development. J Econ Lit 41:113–58.
A Deaton 2007. Height, health, and development. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104(33):13232–7.
A Deaton 2008. Height, health, and inequality: the distribution of adult heights in India. Am Econ Review 98(2):468–74.
M Deepa , S Farooq , R Deepa , D Manjula and V Mohan 2009. Prevalence and significance of generalized and central body obesity in an urban Asian Indian population in Chennai, India (CURES: 47). Eur J Clin Nutr 63(2):259–67.
C Deerenberg , V Arpanius , S Daan and N Bos 1997. Reproductive effort decreases antibody responsiveness. Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 264:1021–9.
ES Deevey 1960. The human population. Sci Am 203(3):194–204.
R Defay , I Jaussent , A Lacroux and A Fontbonne 2007. Relationships between glycaemic abnormalities, obesity and insulin resistance in nondiabetic Polynesians of New Caledonia. Int J Obes 31(1):109–13.
RA DeFronzo and E Ferrannini 1991. Insulin resistance. A multifaceted syndrome responsible for NIDDM, obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Diabetes Care 14(3):173–94.
M Degli Esposti and H McLennan 1998. Mitochondria and cells produce reactive oxygen species in virtual anaerobiosis: relevance to ceramide-induced apoptosis. FEBS Lett 430(3):338–42.
R Dehejia and A Lleras-Murray 2004. Booms, busts, and babies’ health. Q J Econ 119:1091–130.
C del Ninno and M Lundberg 2005. Treading water. The long-term impact of the 1998 flood on nutrition in Bangladesh. Econ Hum Biol 3(1):67–96.
GE Demas 2004. The energetics of immunity: a neuroendocrine link between energy balance and immune function. Horm Behav 45(3):173–80.
EW Demerath , N Cameron , MW Gillman , B Towne and RM Siervogel 2004. Telomeres and telomerase in the fetal origins of cardiovascular disease: a review. Hum Biol 76(1):127–46.
S Demissie , D Levy , EJ Benjamin , LA Cupples , JP Gardner , A Herbert , M Kimura , MG Larson , JB Meigs , JF Keaney et al. 2006. Insulin resistance, oxidative stress, hypertension, and leukocyte telomere length in men from the Framingham Heart Study. Aging Cell 5(4):325–30.
S Denic and MM Agarwal 2007. Nutritional iron deficiency: an evolutionary perspective. Nutr 23(7–8):603–14.
DC Dennett 1993. Consciousness Explained. London: Penguin.
JP Despres 2001. Health consequences of visceral obesity. Ann Med 33(8):534–41.
P Deurenberg , M Deurenberg-Yap and S Guricci 2002. Asians are different from Caucasians and from each other in their body mass index/body fat per cent relationship. Obes Rev 3(3):141–6.
D Devakumar , M Birch , D Osrin , E Sondorp and JC Wells 2014. The intergenerational effects of war on the health of children. BMC Med 12:57.
S Devaraj , P Hemarajata and J Versalovic 2013. The human gut microbiome and body metabolism: implications for obesity and diabetes. Clin Chem 59(4):617–28.
KG Dewey and RJ Cohen 2007. Does birth spacing affect maternal or child nutritional status? A systematic literature review. Matern Child Nutr 3(3):151–73.
SN DeWitte and G Hughes-Morey 2012. Stature and frailty during the Black Death: the effect of stature on risks of epidemic mortality in London, A.D. 1348–1350. J Arch Sci 39:1412–9.
J Dgani and I Arad 1992. Measurement of systolic blood pressure in the follow-up of low birth weight infants. J Perinat Med 20(5):365–70.
L Di Lorenzo , G De Pergola , C Zocchetti , N L’Abbate , A Basso , N Pannacciulli , M Cignarelli , R Giorgino and L Soleo 2003. Effect of shift work on body mass index: results of a study performed in 319 glucose-tolerant men working in a Southern Italian industry. Int J Obes 27(11):1353–8.
N Diagne , C Rogier , CS Sokhna , A Tall , D Fontenille , C Roussilhon , A Spiegel and JF Trape 2000. Increased susceptibility to malaria during the early postpartum period. N Engl J Med 343(9):598–603.
HF Diaz and GJ McCabe 1999. A possible connection between the 1878 yellow fever epidemic in the southern United States and the 1877078 El Nino episode. Bull Am Meteorol Soc 80:21–7.
JL Dickinson and BJ Hatchwell 2004. Fitness consequences of helping. In WD Koenig and JL Dickinson , editors. Ecology and Evolution of Cooperative Breeding in Birds. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 48–66.
CJ Diers 1974. Historical trends in the age at menarche and menopause. Psychol Rep 34(3):931–7.
M Dietler 2006. Alcohol: anthropological/archaeological perspectives. Ann Rev Anthropol 35:229–49.
C Dijkstra , A Bult , S Bijlsma , S Daan , T Meijer and M Zijlstra 1990. Brood size manipulations in the Kestrel (Falco tinnunculus): effects on offspring and parent survival. J Anim Ecol 59:269–85.
R Dirks 1993. Starvation and famine: cross-cultural codes and some hypothesis tests. Cross Cult Res 27:28–69.
S Dmitriev 2009. The rise and quick fall of the theory of ancient economic imperialism. Econ Hist Rev 62(4):785–801.
T Dobzhansky 1974. Chance and creativity in evolution. In FJ Ayala and T Dobzhansky , editors. Studies in the Philosophy of Biology. London: Macmillan.
R Dodds , HJ Denison , G Ntani , R Cooper , C Cooper , AA Sayer and J Baird 2012. Birth weight and muscle strength: a systematic 507review and meta-analysis. J Nutr Health Aging 16(7):609–15.
DC Dolinoy , D Huang and RL Jirtle 2007. Maternal nutrient supplementation counteracts bisphenol A-induced DNA hypomethylation in early development. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104(32):13056–61.
DC Dolinoy , JR Weidman , RA Waterland and RL Jirtle 2006. Maternal genistein alters coat color and protects Avy mouse offspring from obesity by modifying the fetal epigenome. Environ Health Perspect 114(4):567–72.
R Doll , R Peto , K Wheatley , R Gray and I Sutherland 1994. Mortality in relation to smoking: 40 years’ observations on male British doctors. BMJ 309(6959):901–11.
P Dominguez-Salas , SE Cox , AM Prentice , BJ Hennig and SE Moore 2012. Maternal nutritional status, C(1) metabolism and offspring DNA methylation: a review of current evidence in human subjects. Proc Nutr Soc 71(1):154–65.
AS Donin , CM Nightingale , CG Owen , AR Rudnicka , MC McNamara , CJ Prynne , AM Stephen , DG Cook and PH Whincup 2010. Nutritional composition of the diets of South Asian, black African-Caribbean and white European children in the United Kingdom: the Child Heart and Health Study in England (CHASE). Br J Nutr 104(2):276–85.
AW Douglas 1969. Cotton textiles in England: The East India Company’s attempt to exploit developments in fashion 1660–1721. J Br Stud 8(2):28–43.
MS Dove , DW Dockery , MA Mittleman , J Schwartz , EM Sullivan , L Keithly and T Land 2010. The impact of Massachusetts’ smoke-free workplace laws on acute myocardial infarction deaths. Am J Public Health 100(11):2206–12.
AJ Drake and L Liu 2010. Intergenerational transmission of programmed effects: public health consequences. Trends Endocrinol Metab 21(4):206–13.
AG Dulloo , J Jacquet , G Solinas , JP Montani and Y Schutz 2010. Body composition phenotypes in pathways to obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Int J Obes 34 Suppl 2:S4–17.
DW Dunstan , BA Kingwell , R Larsen , GN Healy , E Cerin , MT Hamilton , JE Shaw , DA Bertovic , PZ Zimmet , J Salmon et al. 2012. Breaking up prolonged sitting reduces 508postprandial glucose and insulin responses. Diabetes Care 35(5):976–83.
DW Dunstan , J Salmon , N Owen , T Armstrong , PZ Zimmet , TA Welborn , AJ Cameron , T Dwyer , D Jolley and JE Shaw 2004. Physical activity and television viewing in relation to risk of undiagnosed abnormal glucose metabolism in adults. Diabetes Care 27(11):2603–9.
SA Durrani , HA Khan , M Taj and C Renfrew 1971. Obsidian source identification by fission track analysis. Nature 233(5317):242–5.
SB Eaton and M Konner 1985. Paleolithic nutrition. a consideration of its nature and current implications. N Engl J Med 312(5):283–9.
SB Eaton , MC Pike , RV Short , NC Lee , J Trussell , RA Hatcher , JW Wood , CM Worthman , NG Blurton Jones , MJ Konner et al. 1994. Women’s reproductive cancers in evolutionary context. Q Rev Biol 69(3):353–67.
S Ebrahim , S Kinra , L Bowen , E Andersen , Y Ben-Shlomo , T Lyngdoh , L Ramakrishnan , RC Ahuja , P Joshi , SM Das et al. 2010. The effect of rural-to-urban migration on obesity and diabetes in India: a cross-sectional study. PLoS Med 7(4):e1000268.
DL Economides , KH Nicolaides and S Campbell 1991. Metabolic and endocrine findings in appropriate and small for gestational age fetuses. J Perinat Med 19(1–2):97–105.
CJ Edwards , MA Suchard , P Lemey , JJ Welch , I Barnes , TL Fulton , R Barnett , TC O’Connell , P Coxon , N Monaghan et al. 2011. Ancient hybridization and an Irish origin for the modern polar bear matriline. Curr Biol 21(15):1251–8.
MJ Edwards 2012. Genetic selection of embryos that later develop the metabolic syndrome. Med Hyp 78(5):621–5.
CM Eising and TG Groothuis 2003. Yolk androgens and begging behaviour in black-headed gull chicks: an experimental field study. Anim Behav 66(6):1027–34.
U Ekelund , S Brage , PW Franks , S Hennings , S Emms and NJ Wareham 2005. Physical activity energy expenditure predicts progression toward the metabolic syndrome independently of aerobic fitness in middle-aged healthy Caucasians: the Medical Research Council Ely Study. Diabetes Care 28(5):1195–200.
U Ekelund , PW Franks , S Sharp , S Brage and NJ Wareham 2007. Increase in physical activity energy expenditure is associated with reduced metabolic risk independent of change in fatness and fitness. Diabetes Care 30(8):2101–6.
U Ekelund , J Luan , LB Sherar , DW Esliger , P Griew and A Cooper 2012. Moderate to vigorous physical activity and sedentary time 509and cardiometabolic risk factors in children and adolescents. JAMA 307(7):704–12.
NS El-Shenawy 2009. Oxidative stress responses of rats exposed to Roundup and its active ingredient glyphosate. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 28(3):379–85.
J Elford , AG Shaper and PH Whincup 1992. Early life experience and cardiovascular disease – ecological studies. J Epidemiol Comm Health 46:1–11.
MA Elgar 1989. Predator vigilance and group size in mammals and birds: a critical review of the empirical evidence. Biol Rev 64(1):13–33.
CE Elks , RJ Loos , R Hardy , AK Wills , A Wong , NJ Wareham , D Kuh and KK Ong 2012. Adult obesity susceptibility variants are associated with greater childhood weight gain and a faster tempo of growth: the 1946 British Birth Cohort Study. Am J Clin Nutr 95(5):1150–6.
CE Elks , RJ Loos , SJ Sharp , C Langenberg , SM Ring , NJ Timpson , AR Ness , G Davey Smith , DB Dunger , NJ Wareham et al. 2010a. Genetic markers of adult obesity risk are associated with greater early infancy weight gain and growth. PLoS Med 7(5):e1000284.
CE Elks , JR Perry , P Sulem , DI Chasman , N Franceschini , C He , KL Lunetta , JA Visser , EM Byrne , DL Cousminer et al. 2010b. Thirty new loci for age at menarche identified by a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies. Nat Genet 42(12):1077–85.
BH Ellis , AJ Figueredo , BH Brumbach and GL Schlomer 2009. Fundamental dimensions of environmental risk: the impact of harsh versus unpredictable environments on the evolution and development of life history strategies. Hum Nat 20:204–68.
BJ Ellis 2004. Timing of pubertal maturation in girls: an integrated life history approach. Psychol Bull 130(6):920–58.
BJ Ellis and M Del Giudice 2014. Beyond allostatic load: rethinking the role of stress in regulating human development. Dev Psychopathol 26(1):1–20.
L Ellis 1995. Dominance and reproductive success among non-human animals: a systematic literature review. Ethol Sociobiol 16:257–333.
RW Ellis 1945. Growth and health of Belgian children: during and after the German occupation (1940–1944). Arch Dis Child 20(103):97–109.
GT Ellison and M Kelly 2005. Growth of Jersey schoolchildren during the 1940–1945 German occupation: comparison with schoolchildren on mainland Britain. Hum Biol 77(6):761–72.
PT Ellison 1990. Human ovarian function and reproductive ecology: new hypotheses. Am Anthropol 92:933–52.
I Emanuel 1986. Maternal health during childhood and later reproductive performance. Ann NY Acad Sci 477:27–39.
I Emanuel , H Filakti , E Alberman and SJ Evans 1992. Intergenerational studies of human birthweight from the 1958 birth cohort. 1. Evidence for a multigenerational effect. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 99(1):67–74.
I Emanuel , C Kimpo and V Moceri 2004a. The association of grandmaternal and maternal factors with maternal adult stature. Int J Epidemiol 33(6):1243–8.
I Emanuel , C Kimpo and V Moceri 2004b. The association of maternal growth and socio-economic measures with infant birthweight in four ethnic groups. Int J Epidemiol 33(6):1236–42.
JR Emberson , AG Shaper , SG Wannamethee , RW Morris and PH Whincup 2005. Alcohol intake in middle age and risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality: accounting for intake variation over time. Am J Epidemiol 161(9):856–63.
C Emiliani 1955. Pleistocene temperatures. J Geol 63:538–78.
K Endicott 2013. Peaceful foragers: the significance of the Batek and Moriori. In DP Fry , editor. War, Peace, and Human Nature: The Convergence of Evolutionary and Cultural Views. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 243–61.
WF Enos Jr., JC Beyer and RH Holmes 1955. Pathogenesis of coronary disease in American soldiers killed in Korea. J Am Med Ass 158(11):912–14.
S Entringer , ES Epel , R Kumsta , J Lin , DH Hellhammer , EH Blackburn , S Wust and PD Wadhwa 2011. Stress exposure in intrauterine life is associated with shorter telomere length in young adulthood. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 108(33):E513–18.
S Entringer , R Kumsta , DH Hellhammer , PD Wadhwa and S Wust 2009. Prenatal exposure to maternal psychosocial stress and HPA axis regulation in young adults. Horm Beh 55(2):292–8.
S Entringer , R Kumsta , EL Nelson , DH Hellhammer , PD Wadhwa and S Wust 2008a. Influence of prenatal psychosocial stress on cytokine production in adult women. Dev Psychobiol 50(6):579–87.
S Entringer , S Wust , R Kumsta , IM Layes , EL Nelson , DH Hellhammer and PD Wadhwa 2008b. Prenatal psychosocial stress exposure is associated with insulin resistance in young adults. Am J Obstet Gynecol 199(5):498, e491–7.
ES Epel , EH Blackburn , J Lin , FS Dhabhar , NE Adler , JD Morrow and RM Cawthon 2004. Accelerated telomere shortening in 511response to life stress. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101(49):17312–15.
A Eriksson and A Manica 2012. Effect of ancient population structure on the degree of polymorphism shared between modern human populations and ancient hominins. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 109(35):13956–60.
JG Eriksson , T Forsen , J Tuomilehto , VW Jaddoe , C Osmond and DJ Barker 2002. Effects of size at birth and childhood growth on the insulin resistance syndrome in elderly individuals. Diabetologia 45(3):342–8.
JG Eriksson , T Forsen , J Tuomilehto , C Osmond and DJ Barker 2000. Early growth, adult income, and risk of stroke. Stroke 31(4):869–74.
JG Eriksson , T Forsen , J Tuomilehto , C Osmond and DJ Barker 2001. Early growth and coronary heart disease in later life: longitudinal study. BMJ 322(7292):949–53.
JG Eriksson , T Forsen , J Tuomilehto , PD Winter , C Osmond and DJ Barker 1999. Catch-up growth in childhood and death from coronary heart disease: longitudinal study. BMJ 318(7181):427–31.
JG Eriksson , TJ Forsen , C Osmond and DJ Barker 2003. Pathways of infant and childhood growth that lead to type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 26(11):3006–10.
JG Eriksson , C Osmond , E Kajantie , TJ Forsen and DJ Barker 2006. Patterns of growth among children who later develop type 2 diabetes or its risk factors. Diabetologia 49(12):2853–8.
JL Evans , ID Goldfine , BA Maddux and GM Grodsky 2003. Are oxidative stress-activated signaling pathways mediators of insulin resistance and beta-cell dysfunction? Diabetes 52(1):1–8.
UC Ewert 2006. The biological standard of living on the decline: Episodes from Germany during early industrialisation. Eur Rev Econ Hist 10(1):51–88.
EL Eyre and MJ Duncan 2013. The impact of ethnicity on objectively measured physical activity in children. ISRN obesity 2013:757431.
B Fagerberg , L Bondjers and P Nilsson 2004. Low birth weight in combination with catch-up growth predicts the occurrence of the metabolic syndrome in men at late middle age: the Atherosclerosis and Insulin Resistance study. J Intern Med 256(3):254–9.
M Fainsod 1963. How Russia Is Ruled. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
CH Fall , C Osmond , DJ Barker , PM Clark , CN Hales , Y Stirling and TW Meade 1995. Fetal and infant growth and cardiovascular risk factors in women. BMJ 310(6977):428–32.
CH Fall , CE Stein , K Kumaran , V Cox , C Osmond , DJ Barker and CN Hales 1998. Size at birth, maternal weight, and type 2 diabetes in South India. Diabet Med 15(3):220–7.
J Fang , S Madhavan , W Bosworth and MH Alderman 1998. Residential segregation and mortality in New York City. Soc Sci Med 47(4):469–76.
512 SE Farouk , A Dolo , S Bereczky , B Kouriba , B Maiga , A Farnert , H Perlmann , M Hayano , SM Montgomery , OK Doumbo et al. 2005. Different antibody- and cytokine-mediated responses to Plasmodium falciparum parasite in two sympatric ethnic tribes living in Mali. Microbes Infect 7(1):110–17.
SJ Feakins , PB deMenocal and TI Eglinton 2005. Biomarker records of late Neogene changes in northeast African vegetation. Geol 33:977–80.
RB Ferguson 2013. Pinker’s list: exaggerating prehistoric war mortality. In DP Fry , editor. War, Peace, and Human Nature: The Convergence of Evolutionary and Cultural Views. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 112–31.
JM Fernandez-Real , A Lopez-Bermejo , J Vendrell , MJ Ferri , M Recasens and W Ricart 2006. Burden of infection and insulin resistance in healthy middle-aged men. Diabetes Care 29(5):1058–64.
FHG Ferreira and N Schady 2008. Aggregate economic shocks, child schooling and child health. Washington: World Bank Development Research Group.
JE Ferrie , C Langenberg , MJ Shipley and MG Marmot 2006. Birth weight, components of height and coronary heart disease: evidence from the Whitehall II study. Int J Epidemiol 35(6):1532–42.
F Fillol , A Cournil , C Cames , C Sokhna and KB Simondon 2010. Active malaria morbidity management has limited impact on height status of preschool Senegalese children. J Nutr 140(3):625–9.
CE Finch and EM Crimmins 2004. Inflammatory exposure and historical changes in human life-spans. Science 305(5691):1736–9.
T Finkel and NJ Holbrook 2000. Oxidants, oxidative stress and the biology of ageing. Nature 408(6809):239–47.
MO Fisher , RG Nager and P Monaghan 2006. Compensatory growth impairs adult cognitive performance. PLoS Biol 4(8):e251.
JN Flak , R Jankord , MB Solomon , EG Krause and JP Herman 2011. Opposing effects of chronic stress and weight restriction on cardiovascular, neuroendocrine and metabolic function. Physiol Behav 104(2):228–34.
JG Flanagan 1989. Hierarchy in simple ‘egalitarian’ societies. Ann Rev Anthropol 18:245–66.
K Flannery and J Marcus 2012. The Creation of Inequality: How our Prehistoric Ancestors Set the Stage for Monarchy, Slavery, and Empire. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
NL Fleischer , AV Diez Roux , M Alazraqui and H Spinelli 2008. Social patterning of chronic disease risk factors in a Latin American city. J Urban Health 85(6):923–37.
F Fleischmann , K Phalet , K Neels and P Deboosere 2011. Contextualizing ethnic educational inequality: the role of stability and quality of neighborhoods and ethnic 513density in second-generation attainment. Int Migration Rev 45(2):386–425.
JM Fletcher , D Frisvold and N Tefft 2010. Can Soft Drink Taxes Reduce Population Weight? Contemp Econ Pol 28(1):23–35.
TM Florencio , HS Ferreira , AP de Franca , JC Cavalcante and AL Sawaya 2001. Obesity and undernutrition in a very-low-income population in the city of Maceio, northeastern Brazil. Br J Nutr 86(2):277–84.
R Floud 2002. The dimensions of inequality: weight and height variation in Britain, 1700–2000. Contemp Br Hist 16:13–26.
R Floud , RW Fogel , B Harris and SC Hong 2011. The Changing Body: Health, Nutrition, and Human Development in the Western World Since 1700. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
R Floud , K Wachter and A Gregory 1990. Height, Health and History: Nutritional Status in the United Kingdom 1750–1980. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
R Floud and KW Wachter 1982. Poverty and physical stature: evidence on the standard of living of London boys, 1770–870. Soc Sci Hist 6:422–452.
RA Foley 1994. Speciation, extinction and climatic change in hominind evolution. J Hum Evol 26:275–89.
KR Fontaine , DT Redden , C Wang , AO Westfall and DB Allison 2003. Years of life lost due to obesity. JAMA 289(2):187–93.
ES Ford , UA Ajani , JB Croft , JA Critchley , DR Labarthe , TE Kottke , WH Giles and S Capewell 2007. Explaining the decrease in U.S. deaths from coronary disease, 1980–2000. N Engl J Med 356(23):2388–98.
A Forsdahl 1978. Living conditions in childhood and subsequent development of risk factors for arteriosclerotic heart disease. The cardiovascular survey in Finnmark 5141974–75. J Epidemiol Community Health 32(1):34–7.
T Forsen , J Eriksson , Q Qiao , M Tervahauta , A Nissinen and J Tuomilehto 2000a. Short stature and coronary heart disease: a 35-year follow-up of the Finnish cohorts of The Seven Countries Study. J Intern Med 248(4):326–32.
T Forsen , J Eriksson , J Tuomilehto , A Reunanen , C Osmond and D Barker 2000b. The fetal and childhood growth of persons who develop type 2 diabetes. Ann Intern Med 133(3):176–82.
T Forsen , JG Eriksson , J Tuomilehto , C Osmond and DJ Barker 1999. Growth in utero and during childhood among women who develop coronary heart disease: longitudinal study. BMJ 319(7222):1403–7.
H Fotbolcu , T Yakar , D Duman , K Ozden , T Karaahmet , K Tigen , U Kurtoglu and I Dindar 2010. Aortic elastic properties in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Blood Press Monit 15(3):139–45.
HN Fouts , BS Hewlett and ME Lamb 2005. Parent-offspring weaning conflicts among the Bofi farmers and foragers of central Africa. Curr Anthropol 46(1):29–50.
MF Fraga , E Ballestar , MF Paz , S Ropero , F Setien , ML Ballestar , D Heine-Suner , JC Cigudosa , M Urioste , J Benitez et al. 2005. Epigenetic differences arise during the lifetime of monozygotic twins. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102(30):10604–9.
C Franceschi , M Capri , D Monti , S Giunta , F Olivieri , F Sevini , MP Panourgia , L Invidia , L Celani , M Scurti et al. 2007. Inflammaging and anti-inflammaging: a systemic perspective on aging and longevity emerged from studies in humans. Mech Ageing Dev 128(1):92–105.
S Frankel , P Elwood , P Sweetnam , J Yarnell and GD Smith 1996. Birthweight, body-mass index in middle age, and incident coronary heart disease. Lancet 348(9040):1478–80.
A Fraser , S Ebrahim , G Davey Smith and DA Lawlor 2008. The associations between height components (leg and trunk length) and adult levels of liver enzymes. J Epidemiol Community Health 62(1):48–53.
DS Freedman , LK Khan , MK Serdula , CL Ogden and WH Dietz 2006. Racial and ethnic differences in secular trends for childhood BMI, weight, and height. Obesity 14(2):301–8.
JV Freeman , TJ Cole , S Chinn , PR Jones , EM White and MA Preece 1995. Cross sectional stature and weight reference curves for the UK, 1990. Arch Dis Child 73(1):17–24.
D Freitak , I Ots , A Vanatoa and P Horak 2003. Immune response is energetically costly in white cabbage butterfly pupae. Proc Biol Sci 270 Suppl 2:S220–2.
SD Fretwell and HL Lucas 1970. On territorial behaviour and other factors influencing habitat distribution in birds. I. Theoretical development. Acta Biotheoretica 19:16–36.
DP Fry and P Soderberg 2013. Lethal aggression in mobile forager bands and implications for the origins of war. Science 341(6143):270–3.
M Fumagalli , R Cagliani , U Pozzoli , S Riva , GP Comi , G Menozzi , N Bresolin and M Sironi 2009a. Widespread balancing selection and pathogen-driven selection at blood group antigen genes. Genom Res 19(2):199–212.
M Fumagalli , U Pozzoli , R Cagliani , GP Comi , S Riva , M Clerici , N Bresolin and M Sironi 2009b. Parasites represent a major selective force for interleukin genes and shape the genetic predisposition to autoimmune conditions. J Exp Med 206(6):1395–408.
W Gabriel , B Luttbeg , A Sih and R Tollrian 2005. Environmental tolerance, heterogeneity, and the evolution of reversible plastic responses. Am Nat 166(3):339–53.
BG Gabrielsson , JM Johansson , M Lonn , M Jernas , T Olbers , M Peltonen , I Larsson , L Lonn , L Sjostrom , B Carlsson et al. 2003. High expression of complement components in omental adipose tissue in obese men. Obes Res 11(6):699–708.
A Gagnon , KR Smith , M Tremblay , H Vezina , PP Pare and B Desjardins 2009. Is there a trade-off between fertility and longevity? A comparative study of women from three large historical databases accounting for mortality selection. Am J Hum Biol 21(4):533–40.
T Gaillard , D Schuster and K Osei 2010. Differential impact of serum glucose, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol on cardiovascular risk factor burden in nondiabetic, obese African American women: implications for the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Metab 59(8):1115–23.
BM Galdikas and JW Wood 1990. Birth spacing patterns in humans and apes. Am J Phys Anthropol 83(2):185–91.
EA Gale 2013. Is type 2 diabetes a category error? Lancet 381(9881):1956–7.
JE Galgani , C Moro and E Ravussin 2008. Metabolic flexibility and insulin resistance. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 295(5):E1009–17.
A Gallagher 2013. Stature, body mass, and brain size: a two-million-year odyssey. Econ Hum Biol 11(4):551–62.
J Gallagher and R Robinson 1953. The imperialism of free trade. Econ Hist Rev 6(1):1–15.
516 JH Galloway 1977. The Mediterranean sugar industry. Geogr Rev 67(2):177–94.
T Galloway , ML Chateau-Degat , GM Egeland and TK Young 2011. Does sitting height ratio affect estimates of obesity prevalence among Canadian Inuit? Results from the 2007–2008 Inuit Health Survey. Am J Hum Biol 23(5):655–63.
B Galobardes , JW Lynch and G Davey Smith 2004. Childhood socioeconomic circumstances and cause-specific mortality in adulthood: systematic review and interpretation. Epidemiol Rev 26:7–21.
CA Galvin 1992. Nutritional ecology of pastoralists in dry tropical Africa. Am J Hum Biol 4:209–21.
M Gamborg , L Byberg , F Rasmussen , PK Andersen , JL Baker , C Bengtsson , D Canoy , W Droyvold , JG Eriksson , T Forsen et al. 2007. Birth weight and systolic blood pressure in adolescence and adulthood: meta-regression analysis of sex- and age-specific results from 20 Nordic studies. Am J Epidemiol 166(6):634–45.
SW Gangestad , R Thornhill and RA Yeo 1994. Facial attractiveness, developmental stability, and fluctuating asymmetry. Ethol Sociobiol 15:73–85.
AK Garber and RH Lustig 2011. Is fast food addictive? Curr Drug Abuse Rev 4(3):146–62.
C Garcia , PC Lee and L Rosetta 2009. Growth in colony living anubis baboon infants and its relationship with maternal activity budgets and reproductive status. Am J Phys Anthropol 138(2):123–35.
D Garrigan and MF Hammer 2006. Reconstructing human origins in the genomic era. Nat Rev Genet 7(9):669–80.
RJ Garrison , RS Gold , PW Wilson and WB Kannel 1993. Educational attainment and coronary heart disease risk: the Framingham Offspring Study. Prev Med 22(1):54–64.
A Gault , K O’Dea , KG Rowley , T McLeay and K Traianedes 1996. Abnormal glucose tolerance and other coronary heart disease risk factors in an isolated aboriginal community in central Australia. Diabetes Care 19(11):1269–73.
JR Gavin 3rd, KM Fox and S Grandy 2011. Race/Ethnicity and gender differences in health intentions and behaviors regarding exercise and diet for adults with type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional analysis. BMC Public Health 11:533.
A Gawlik , RS Walker and Z Hochberg 2011. Impact of infancy duration on adult size in 22 subsistence-based societies. Acta Paediatr 100(12):e248–52.
J Gear and DH Davis 1942. The susceptibility of the South African Gerbils (Genus tatera) to rickettsial diseases and their use in the 517preparation of anti-typhus vaccine. Trans Roy Soc Trop Med Hyg 36: 1–7.
S Geiger , M Le Vaillant , T Lebard , S Reichert , A Stier , Y Lem and F Criscuolo 2012. Catching-up but telomere loss: half-opening the black box of growth and ageing trade-off in wild king penguin chicks. Mol Ecol 21(6):1500–10.
LS Geiss , J Wang , YJ Cheng , TJ Thompson , L Barker , Y Li , AL Albright and EW Gregg 2014. Prevalence and incidence trends for diagnosed diabetes among adults aged 20 to 79 years, United States, 1980–2012. JAMA 312(12):1218–26.
P Gerbault , A Liebert , Y Itan , A Powell , M Currat , J Burger , DM Swallow and MG Thomas 2011. Evolution of lactase persistence: an example of human niche construction. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 366(1566):863–77.
AT Geronimus 1996. Black/white differences in the relationship of maternal age to birthweight: a population-based test of the weathering hypothesis. Soc Sci Med 42(4):589–97.
MM Gertler , SM Garn and PD White 1951. Young candidates for coronary heart disease. J Am Med Ass 147(7):621–5.
A Ghaffar , KS Reddy and M Singhi 2004. Burden of non-communicable diseases in South Asia. BMJ 328(7443):807–10.
JR Ghosh and AR Bandyopadhyay 2006. Income, birth order, siblings, and anthropometry. Hum Biol 78(6):733–41.
MA Gibson and R Mace 2006. An energy-saving development initiative increases birth rate and childhood malnutrition in rural Ethiopia. PLoS Med 3(4):e87.
M Gielen , PJ Lindsey , C Derom , HJ Smeets , NY Souren , AD Paulussen , R Derom and JG Nijhuis 2008. Modeling genetic and environmental factors to increase heritability and ease the identification of candidate genes for birth weight: a twin study. Behav Genet 38(1):44–54.
JM Gill , CA Celis-Morales and N Ghouri 2014. Physical activity, ethnicity and cardio-metabolic health: does one size fit all? Atherosclerosis 232(2):319–33.
RJ Gill , O Ramos-Rodriguez and NE Raine 2012. Combined pesticide exposure severely affects individual- and colony-level traits in bees. Nature 491(7422):105–8.
JM Gimble , CE Robinson , X Wu and KA Kelly 1996. The function of adipocytes in the bone marrow stroma: an update. Bone 19(5):421–8.
HN Ginsberg 2000. Insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease. J Clin Invest 106(4):453–8.
K Giskes , FJ van Lenthe , G Turrell , CB Kamphuis , J Brug and JP Mackenbach 2008. Socioeconomic position at different stages of the life course and its influence on body weight and weight gain in adulthood: a longitudinal study with 13-year follow-up. Obesity 16(6):1377–81.
S Giunta 2006. Is inflammaging an auto[innate]immunity subclinical syndrome? Immun Ageing: I & A 3:12.
P Gluckman and M Hanson 2004. The Fetal Matrix: Evolution, Development and Disease. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
PD Gluckman , MA Hanson , C Cooper and KL Thornburg 2008. Effect of in utero and early-life conditions on adult health and disease. N Engl J Med 359(1):61–73.
HC Godfray , JR Beddington , IR Crute , L Haddad , D Lawrence , JF Muir , J Pretty , S Robinson , SM Thomas and C Toulmin 2010. Food security: the challenge of feeding 9 billion people. Science 327(5967):812–18.
KM Godfrey , CW Redman , DJ Barker and C Osmond 1991. The effect of maternal anaemia and iron deficiency on the ratio of fetal weight to placental weight. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 98(9):886–91.
DB Goldstein 2009. Common genetic variation and human traits. N Engl J Med 360(17):1696–8.
C Gopalan 1958. Studies on lactation in poor Indian communities. J Trop Pediatr 4(3):87–97.
P Gordon-Larsen , RG McMurray and BM Popkin 1999. Adolescent physical activity and inactivity vary by ethnicity: The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. J Pediatr 135(3):301–6.
N Gorgias , P Maidatsi , M Tsolaki , A Alvanou , G Kiriazis , K Kaidoglou and M Giala 1996. Hypoxic pretreatment protects against neuronal damage of the rat hippocampus induced by severe hypoxia. Brain Res 714(1–2):215–25.
C Gosden 1989. Debt, production, and prehistory. J Anthropol Archaeol 8:355–87.
PE Goss , K Strasser-Weippl , BL Lee-Bychkovsky , L Fan , J Li , Y Chavarri-Guerra , PE Liedke , CS Pramesh , T Badovinac-Crnjevic , Y Sheikine et al. 2014. Challenges to effective cancer control in China, India, and Russia. Lancet Oncol 15(5):489–538.
C Goto , Y Higashi , M Kimura , K Noma , K Hara , K Nakagawa , M Kawamura , K Chayama , M Yoshizumi and I Nara 2003. Effect of different intensities of exercise on endothelium-dependent vasodilation in humans: role of endothelium-dependent nitric oxide and oxidative stress. Circulation 108(5):530–5.
519 SC Grady 2006. Racial disparities in low birthweight and the contribution of residential segregation: a multilevel analysis. Soc Sci Med 63(12):3013–29.
AS Green , PJ Rozance , SW Limesand 2010a. Consequences of a compromised intrauterine environment on islet function. J Endocrinol 205(3):211–24.
SM Greenfield . 1977. Madeira and the beginnings of new world sugar cane cultivation and plantation slavery: a study in institution building. Ann N Y Acad Sci 292:536–52.
CS Grijalva-Eternod , DA Lawlor and JC Wells 2013. Testing a capacity-load model for hypertension: disentangling early and late growth effects on childhood blood pressure in a prospective birth cohort. PLoS One 8(2):e56078.
CS Grijalva-Eternod , JC Wells , M Cortina-Borja , N Salse-Ubach , MC Tondeur , C Dolan , C Meziani , C Wilkinson , P Spiegel and AJ Seal 2012. The double burden of obesity and malnutrition in a protracted emergency setting: a cross-sectional study of Western sahara refugees. PLoS Med 9(10):e1001320.
J Grinnell 1917. The niche-relationship of the California Thrasher. Auk 34:427–33.
J Grinnell 1924. Geography and evolution. Ecol 5:225–9.
K Grube and A Burkle 1992. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activity in mononuclear leukocytes of 13 mammalian species correlates with species-specific life span. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 89(24):11759–63.
T Gruber , KB Potts , C Krupenye , MR Byrne , C Mackworth-Young , WC McGrew , V Reynolds and K Zuberbuhler 2012. The influence of ecology on chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) cultural behavior: a case study of five Ugandan chimpanzee communities. J Comp Psychol 126(4):446–57.
L Grzeskowiak , MC Collado , C Mangani , K Maleta , K Laitinen , P Ashorn , E Isolauri and S Salminen 2012. Distinct gut microbiota 520in southeastern African and northern European infants. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 54(6):812–16.
F Guenard , Y Deshaies , K Cianflone , JG Kral , P Marceau and MC Vohl 2013. Differential methylation in glucoregulatory genes of offspring born before vs. after maternal gastrointestinal bypass surgery. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 110(28):11439–44.
V Guernier , ME Hochberg and JF Guegan 2004. Ecology drives the worldwide distribution of human diseases. PLoS Biol 2(6):e141.
A Guidici , J Navarro , C Juste and J González-Solís 2010. Physiological ecology of breeders and sabbaticals in a pelagic seabird. J Exp Marine Biol Ecol 389:13–17.
D Gunnell , J Rogers and P Dieppe 2001. Height and health: predicting longevity from bone length in archaeological remains. J Epidemiol Community Health 55(7):505–7.
D Gunnell , GD Smith , A McConnachie , R Greenwood , M Upton and S Frankel 1999. Separating in-utero and postnatal influences on later disease. Lancet 354(9189):1526–7.
D Gunnell , E Whitley , MN Upton , A McConnachie , GD Smith and GC Watt 2003. Associations of height, leg length, and lung function with cardiovascular risk factors in the Midspan Family Study. J Epidemiol Community Health 57(2):141–6.
DJ Gunnell , GD Smith , SJ Frankel , M Kemp and TJ Peters 1998. Socio-economic and dietary influences on leg length and trunk length in childhood: a reanalysis of the Carnegie (Boyd Orr) survey of diet and health in prewar Britain (1937–39). Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 12 Suppl 1:96–113.
DK Gupta , P Shah , A Misra , S Bharadwaj , S Gulati , N Gupta , R Sharma , RM Pandey and K Goel 2011. Secular trends in prevalence of overweight and obesity from 2006 to 2009 in urban Asian Indian adolescents aged 14–17 years. PLoS One 6(2):e17221.
R Gupta , P Joshi , V Mohan , KS Reddy and S Yusuf 2008. Epidemiology and causation of coronary heart disease and stroke in India. Heart 94(1):16–26.
R Gupta , A Misra , NK Vikram , D Kondal , SS Gupta , A Agrawal and RM Pandey 2009. Younger age of escalation of cardiovascular risk factors in Asian Indian subjects. BMC Cardiovasc Disord 9:28.
S Guriev and A Rachinsky 2005. The role of oligarchs in Russian capitalism. J Econ Perspect 19(1):131–50.
M Gurven , M Borgerhoof Mulder , PL Hooper , H Kaplan , R Quinlan , R Sear , E Schniter , C von Rueden , S Bowles , T Hertz et al. 2010. Domestication alone does not lead to inequality: intergenerational wealth transmission among horticulturalists. Curr Anthropol 51:49–64.
M Gurven and H Kaplan 2007. Longevity among hunter‐gatherers: a cross‐cultural examination. Pop Dev Rev 33:321–65.
M Gurven and R Walker 2006. Energetic demand of multiple dependents and the evolution of slow human growth. Proc Biol Sci 273(1588):835–41.
521 L Gustafsson and WJ Sutherland 1988. The costs of reproduction in the collared flycatcher Ficedula albicollis. Nature 335:813–15.
HL Guyatt and RW Snow 2004. Impact of malaria during pregnancy on low birth weight in sub-Saharan Africa. Clin Microbiol Rev 17(4):760–9, table of contents.
J Haas and M Piscitelli 2013. The prehistory of warfare: misled by ethnography. In DP Fry , editor. War, Peace, and Human Nature: The Convergence of Evolutionary and Cultural Views. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 168–90.
JA Hackett , R Sengupta , JJ Zylicz , K Murakami , C Lee , TA Down and MA Surani 2013. Germline DNA demethylation dynamics and imprint erasure through 5-hydroxymethylcytosine. Science 339(6118):448–52.
JA Hackett and MA Surani 2013. DNA methylation dynamics during the mammalian life cycle. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 368(1609):20110328.
MS Hagger , C Wood , C Stiff and NL Chatzisarantis 2010. Ego depletion and the strength model of self-control: a meta-analysis. Psychol Bull 136(4):495–525.
D Haig 1993. Genetic conflicts in human pregnancy. Q Rev Biol 68(4):495–532.
D Haig 1996. Placental hormones, genomic imprinting, and maternal-fetal communication. J Evol Biol 9:357–80.
D Haig 1997. Parental antagonism, relatedness asymmetries, and genomic imprinting. Proc Biol Sci 264(1388):1657–62.
Z Hajkova , A Streda and F Skrha 1965. Hyperostotic spondylosis and diabetes mellitus. Ann Rheum Dis 24(6):536–43.
CN Hales and DJ Barker 1992. Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus: the thrifty phenotype hypothesis. Diabetologia 35(7):595–601.
CN Hales , DJ Barker , PM Clark , LJ Cox , C Fall , C Osmond and PD Winter 1991. Fetal and infant growth and impaired glucose tolerance at age 64. BMJ 303(6809):1019–22.
V Hall , RW Thomsen , O Henriksen and N Lohse 2011. Diabetes in Sub Saharan Africa 1999–2011: epidemiology and public health implications. A systematic review. BMC Public Health 11:564.
PC Hallal , LB Andersen , FC Bull , R Guthold , W Haskell , U Ekelund and Lancet Physical Activity Series Working G. 2012. Global physical activity levels: surveillance progress, pitfalls, and prospects. Lancet 380(9838):247–57.
PC Hallal , CG Victora , JC Wells and RC Lima 2003. Physical inactivity: prevalence and associated variables in Brazilian adults. Med Sci Sports Exerc 35(11):1894–900.
SD Halpern , B French , DS Small , K Saulsgiver , MO Harhay , J Audrain-McGovern , G Loewenstein , TA Brennan , DA Asch and KG Volpp 2015. Randomized trial of four financial-incentive programs for smoking cessation. N Engl J Med 372(22):2108–17.
CP Halvorsen , E Andolf , J Hu , C Pilo , B Winbladh and M Norman 2006. Discordant twin growth in utero and differences in blood pressure and endothelial function at 8 years of age. J Intern Med 259(2):155–63.
522 MA Hamburg and FS Collins 2010. The path to personalized medicine. N Engl J Med 363(4):301–4.
S Hamel , JM Craine and EG Towne 2012. Maternal allocation in bison: co-occurrence of senescence, cost of reproduction, and individual quality. Ecol Appl 22(5):1628–39.
MT Hamilton , DG Hamilton and TW Zderic 2007. Role of low energy expenditure and sitting in obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Diabetes 56(11):2655–67.
MT Hamilton , GN Healy , DW Dunstan , TW Zderic and N Owen 2008. Too Little Exercise and Too Much Sitting: Inactivity Physiology and the Need for New Recommendations on Sedentary Behavior. Curr Cardiovasc Risk Rep 2(4):292–8.
WD Hamilton 1964a. The genetical evolution of social behaviour. I. J Theor Biol 7(1):1–16.
WD Hamilton 1964b. The genetical evolution of social behaviour. II. J Theor Biol 7(1):17–52.
P Hammerstein and EH GHagen 2005. The second wave of evolutionary economics in biology. Trends Ecol Evol 20:604–9.
EC Hammond and L Garfinkel 1969. Coronary heart disease, roke, and aortic aneurysm. Factors in the etiology. Arch Env Health 19(2):167–82.
AM Hancock , G Alkorta-Aranburu , DB Witonsky and A Di Rienzo 2010a. Adaptations to new environments in humans: the role of subtle allele frequency shifts. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 365(1552):2459–68.
AM Hancock , DB Witonsky , E Ehler , G Alkorta-Aranburu , C Beall , A Gebremedhin , R Sukernik , G Utermann , J Pritchard , G Coop et al. 2010b. Human adaptations to diet, subsistence, and ecoregion are due to subtle shifts in allele frequency. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107 Suppl 2:8924–30.
AM Hancock , DB Witonsky , AS Gordon , G Eshel , JK Pritchard , G Coop and A Di Rienzo 2008. Adaptations to climate in candidate genes for common metabolic disorders. PLoS Genet 4:e32.
AJ Hansen 1986. Fighting behavior in Bald Eagles: a test of game theory. Ecol 67:787–97.
J Hansen , M Sato and R Ruedy 2012. Perception of climate change. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA vol 109(37): E2415–E2423.
JD Hanson and DA Kysar 1999. Taking behavioralism seriously: some evidence of market manipulation. Harvard Law Rev 112(7):1420–572.
T Harder , E Rodekamp , K Schellong , JW Dudenhausen and A Plagemann 2007. Birth weight and subsequent risk of type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis. Am J Epidemiol 165(8):849–57.
R Hardy , D Kuh , PH Whincup and ME Wadsworth 2006. Age at puberty and adult blood pressure and body size in a British birth cohort study. J Hypertens 24(1):59–66.
D Harman 1956. Aging: a theory based on free radical and radiation chemistry. J Gerontol 11(3):298–300.
S Harmand , JE Lewis , CS Feibel , CJ Lepre , S Prat , A Lenoble , X Boes , RL Quinn , M Brenet , A Arroyo et al. 2015. 3.3-million-year-old stone tools from Lomekwi 3, West Turkana, Kenya. Nature 521(7552):310–15.
D Haroun , SJ Taylor , RM Viner , RS Hayward , TS Darch , S Eaton , TJ Cole and JC Wells 2010. Validation of bioelectrical impedance analysis in adolescents across different ethnic groups. Obesity 18(6):1252–9.
TA Harrington , EL Thomas , G Frost , N Modi and JD Bell 2004. Distribution of adipose tissue in the newborn. Pediatr Res 55(3):437–41.
523 JL Harris , JA Bargh and KD Brownell 2009. Priming effects of television food advertising on eating behavior. Health Psychol 28(4):404–13.
ME Harrison and DJ Chivers 2007. The orang-utan mating system and the unflanged male: A product of increased food stress during the late Miocene and Pliocene? J Hum Evol 52:275–93.
LG Harshman and AJ Zera 2007. The cost of reproduction: the devil in the details. Trends Ecol Evol 22:80–6.
K Hart and L Sperling 1987. Cattle as capital. Ethnos 52:324–38.
N Hart 1993. Famine, maternal nutrition and infant mortality: a re-examination of the Dutch hunger winter. Popul Stud 47(1):27–46.
TJ Hatton 2011. Infant mortality and the health of survivors: Britain, 1910–50. Econ Hist Rev 64(3):951–72.
TJ Hatton and BE Bray 2010. Long run trends in the heights of European men, 19th–20th centuries. Econ Hum Biol 8(3):405–13.
M Hau 2001. Timing of breeding in variable environments: tropical birds as model systems. Horm Behav 40(2):281–90.
LK Haugaard , TA Ajslev , E Zimmermann , L Angquist and TI Sorensen 2013. Being an only or last-born child increases later risk of obesity. PLoS One 8(2):e56357.
WA Haviland 1967. Stature at Tikal, Guatemala: implications for ancient Maya demography and social organization. Am Antiq 32:316–25.
K Hawkes , JF O’Connell , NG Jones , H Alvarez and EL Charnov 1998. Grandmothering, menopause, and the evolution of human life histories. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 95(3):1336–9.
S Hawkesworth 2009. Exploiting dietary supplementation trials to assess the impact of the prenatal environment on CVD risk. Proc Nutr Soc 68(1):78–88.
S Hawkesworth , AM Prentice , AJ Fulford and SE Moore 2009. Maternal protein-energy supplementation does not affect adolescent blood pressure in The Gambia. Int J Epidemiol 38(1):119–27.
S Hawkesworth , Y Sawo , AJ Fulford , GR Goldberg , LM Jarjou , A Prentice and SE Moore 2010. Effect of maternal calcium supplementation on offspring blood pressure in 5- to 10-y-old rural Gambian children. Am J Clin Nutr 92(4):741–7.
S Hawkesworth , CG Walker , Y Sawo , AJ Fulford , LM Jarjou , GR Goldberg , A Prentice , AM Prentice and SE Moore 2011. Nutritional supplementation during pregnancy and offspring cardiovascular disease risk in The Gambia. Am J Clin Nutr 94(6 Suppl):1853S–1860S.
J Hay , K Maximova , A Durksen , V Carson , RL Rinaldi , B Torrance , GD Ball , SR Majumdar , RC Plotnikoff , P Veugelers et al. 2012. Physical activity intensity and cardiometabolic risk in youth. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 166(11):1022–9.
524 T Hayakawa , R Culleton , H Otani , T Horii and K Tanabe 2008. Big bang in the evolution of extant malaria parasites. Mol Biol Evol 25(10):2233–9.
B Hayden 2001. Richman, poorman, beggarman, chief: the dynamics of social inequality. In G Feinman and TD Price , editors. Archaeology at the Millennium: A Sourcebook. New York: Springer. 231–72.
JD Hays , J Imbrie and NJ Shackleton 1976. Variations in the Earth’s Orbit: Pacemaker of the Ice Ages. Science 194(4270):1121–32.
AD Hayward , J Holopainen , JE Pettay and V Lummaa 2012. Food and fitness: associations between crop yields and life-history traits in a longitudinally monitored pre-industrial human population. Proc Biol Sci 279(1745):4165–73.
AD Hayward , IJ Rickard and V Lummaa 2013. Influence of early-life nutrition on mortality and reproductive success during a subsequent famine in a preindustrial population. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 110(34):13886–91.
LS Hayward and JC Wingfield 2004. Maternal corticosterone is transferred to avian yolk and may alter offspring growth and adult phenotype. Gen Comp Endocrinol 135(3):365–71.
FJ He , S Pombo-Rodrigues and GA MacGregor 2014. Salt reduction in England from 2003 to 2011: its relationship to blood pressure, stroke and ischaemic heart disease mortality. BMJ Open 4:e004549.
J He , GS Tell , YC Tang , PS Mo and GQ He 1991b. Effect of migration on blood pressure: the Yi People Study. Epidemiol 2(2):88–97.
PW Hedrick , TS Whittam and P Parham 1991. Heterozygosity at individual amino acid sites: extremely high levels for HLA-A and -B genes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 88(13):5897–901.
HK Hegaard , BK Pedersen , BB Nielsen and P Damm 2007. Leisure time physical activity during pregnancy and impact on gestational diabetes mellitus, pre-eclampsia, preterm delivery and birth weight: a review. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 86(11):1290–6.
BJ Heidinger , JD Blount , W Boner , K Griffiths , NB Metcalfe and P Monaghan 2012. Telomere length in early life predicts lifespan. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 109(5):1743–8.
BT Heijmans , EW Tobi , AD Stein , H Putter , GJ Blauw , ES Susser , PE Slagboom and LH Lumey 2008. Persistent epigenetic differences associated with prenatal exposure to famine in humans. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 105(44):17046–9.
S Helle , V Lummaa and J Jokela 2004. Accelerated immunosenescence in preindustrial twin mothers. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101(33):12391–6.
HJ Helmerhorst , K Wijndaele , S Brage , NJ Wareham and U Ekelund 2009. Objectively measured sedentary time may predict insulin resistance independent of moderate- and vigorous-intensity physical activity. Diabetes 58(8):1776–9.
AH Hemachandra and MA Klebanoff 2006. Use of serial ultrasound to identify periods of fetal growth restriction in relation to neonatal anthropometry. Am J Hum Biol 18(6):791–7.
525 D Hendrickson , R Mearns and J Armon 1996. Livestock raiding among the pastoral Turkana of Kenya: redistribution, predation and the links to faming. Inst Dev Studies Bull 27(3):17–30.
M Henneberg 1998. Evolution of the human brain: is bigger better? Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 25:745–9.
MB Hennessy 1986. Multiple, brief maternal separations in the squirrel monkey: changes in hormonal and behavioral responsiveness. Physiol Behav 36(2):245–50.
MB Hennessy , SK O’Leary , JL Hawke and SE Wilson 2002. Social influences on cortisol and behavioral responses of preweaning, periadolescent, and adult guinea pigs. Physiol Behav 76(2):305–14.
M Hermanussen , B Hermanussen and J Burmeister 1988. The association between birth order and adult stature. Ann Hum Biol 15(2):161–5.
RD Hernandez , JL Kelley , E Elyashiv , SC Melton , A Auton , G McVean , P Genomes , G Sella and M Przeworski 2011. Classic selective sweeps were rare in recent human evolution. Science 331(6019):920–4.
BS Hewlett and S Winn 2014. Allomaternal nursing in humans. Curr Anthropol 55(2):200–29.
J Hey 2010. The divergence of chimpanzee species and subspecies as revealed in multipopulation isolation-with-migration analyses. Mol Biol Evol 27(4):921–33.
V Hietakangas and SM Cohen 2009. Regulation of tissue growth through nutrient sensing. Ann Rev Genet 43:389–410.
E Higgs 1995. Occupational censuses and the agricultural workforce in Victorian England and Wales. Econ Hist Rev 48(4):700–16.
JC Hill 1984. Prestige and reproductive success in man. Ethol Sociobiol 5:77–95.
K Hill 1993. Life history theory and evolutionary anthropology. Evol Anthropol 2:78–89.
K Hill , C Boesch , J Goodall , A Pusey , J Williams and R Wrangham 2001. Mortality rates among wild chimpanzees. J Hum Evol 40(5):437–50.
K Hill and H Kaplan 1999. Life history traits in humans: theory and empirical studies. Ann Rev Anthropol 28:387–430.
A Himmelmann , A Svensson and L Hansson 1994. Relation of maternal blood pressure during pregnancy to birth weight and blood pressure in children. The Hypertension in Pregnancy Offspring Study. J Intern Med 235(4):347–52.
SA Hinchliffe , MR Lynch , PH Sargent , CV Howard and D Van Velzen 1992. The effect of intrauterine growth retardation on the development of renal nephrons. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 99(4):296–301.
A Hingorani and S Humphries 2005. Nature’s randomised trials. Lancet 366(9501):1906–8.
526 M Hiraiwa-Hasegawa 1988. Adaptive significance of infanticide in primates. Trends Ecol Evol 3:102–15.
D Hirsch and Z Zukowska 2012. NPY and stress 30 years later: the peripheral view. Cell Mol Neurobiol 32(5):645–59.
Z Hochberg and K Albertsson-Wikland 2008. Evo-devo of infantile and childhood growth. Pediatr Res 64(1):2–7.
J Hoddinott and B Kinsey 2001. Child growth in the time of drought. Oxford Bull Econ Stat 63(4):409–36.
AM Hodge , L Maple-Brown , J Cunningham , J Boyle , T Dunbar , T Weeramanthri , J Shaw and K O’Dea 2010. Abdominal obesity and other risk factors largely explain the high CRP in indigenous Australians relative to the general population, but not gender differences: a cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health 10:700.
KL Hoehn , AB Salmon , C Hohnen-Behrens , N Turner , AJ Hoy , GJ Maghzal , R Stocker , H Van Remmen , EW Kraegen , GJ Cooney et al. 2009. Insulin resistance is a cellular antioxidant defense mechanism. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 106(42):17787–92.
C Holscher 2011. Diabetes as a risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease: insulin signalling impairment in the brain as an alternative model of Alzheimer’s disease. Biochem Soc Trans 39(4):891–7.
BM Holt 2003. Mobility in Upper Paleolithic and Mesolithic Europe: evidence from the lower limb. Am J Phys Anthropol 122(3):200–15.
527 K Honjo , H Iso , M Inoue and S Tsugane 2011. Adult height and the risk of cardiovascular disease among middle aged men and women in Japan. Eur J Epidemiol 26(1):13–21.
M Horikoshi , H Yaghootkar , DO Mook-Kanamori , U Sovio , HR Taal , BJ Hennig , JP Bradfield , St B Pourcain , DM Evans , P Charoen et al. 2013. New loci associated with birth weight identify genetic links between intrauterine growth and adult height and metabolism. Nat Genet 45(1):76–82.
S Horrell and J Humphries 1995. ‘The exploitation of little children’: child labour and the family economy in the industrial revolution. Explor EconHist 32:485–516.
TH Horton 1984. Growth and reproductive development of male Microtus montanus is affected by the prenatal photoperiod. Biol Reprod 31(3):499–504.
AR Hosseinpoor , LA Parker , E Tursan d’Espaignet and S Chatterji 2012. Socioeconomic inequality in smoking in low-income and middle-income countries: results from the World Health Survey. PLoS One 7(8):e42843.
N Houstis , ED Rosen and ES Lander 2006. Reactive oxygen species have a causal role in multiple forms of insulin resistance. Nature 440(7086):944–8.
A Hozawa , Y Murakami , T Okamura , T Kadowaki , K Nakamura , T Hayakawa , Y Kita , Y Nakamura , A Okayama and H Ueshima 2007. Relation of adult height with stroke mortality in Japan: NIPPON DATA80. Stroke 38(1):22–6.
DJ Hruschka and AA Brewis 2013. Absolute wealth and world region strongly predict overweight among women (ages 18–49) in 360 populations across 36 developing countries. Econ Hum Biol 11(3):337–44.
DJ Hruschka , C Hadley , AA Brewis and CM Stojanowski 2015. Genetic population structure accounts for contemporary ecogeographic patterns in tropic and subtropic-dwelling humans. PLoS One 10(3):e0122301.
528 FB Hu 2011. Globalization of diabetes: the role of diet, lifestyle, and genes. Diabetes Care 34(6):1249–57.
FB Hu , JE Manson , MJ Stampfer , G Colditz , S Liu , CG Solomon and WC Willett 2001. Diet, lifestyle, and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in women. N Engl J Med 345(11):790–7.
FB Hu , MJ Stampfer , JE Manson , E Rimm , GA Colditz , BA Rosner , CH Hennekens and WC Willett 1997. Dietary fat intake and the risk of coronary heart disease in women. N Engl J Med 337(21):1491–9.
C Huang , Z Li , M Wang and R Martorell 2010. Early life exposure to the 1959–1961 Chinese famine has long-term health consequences. J Nutr 140(10):1874–8.
MS Huda , JP Wilding and JH Pinkney 2006. Gut peptides and the regulation of appetite. Obes Rev 7(2):163–82.
SL Huffman , EG Piwoz , SA Vosti and KG Dewey 2014. Babies, soft drinks and snacks: a concern in low- and middle-income countries? Matern Child Nutr 10(4):562–574.
AL Hughes 2002. Natural selection and the diversification of vertebrate immune effectors. Immunol Rev 190:161–8.
SM Hughes and GG Gallup 2003. Sex differences in morphological predictors of sexual behavior: shoulder to hip and waist to hip ratios. Evol Hum Behav 24:173–8.
G Hulsegge , HS Picavet , A Blokstra , AC Nooyens , AM Spijkerman , YT van der Schouw , HA Smit and WM Verschuren 2014. Today’s adult generations are less healthy than their predecessors: generation shifts in metabolic risk factors: the Doetinchem Cohort Study. Eur J Prev Cardiol 21(9):1134–44.
TC Hulsey , AH Levkoff and GR Alexander 1991. Birth weights of infants of black and white mothers without pregnancy complications. Am J Obstet Gynecol 164(5 Pt 1):1299–302.
M Hult , P Tornhammar , P Ueda , C Chima , AK Bonamy , B Ozumba and M Norman 2010. Hypertension, diabetes and overweight: looming legacies of the Biafran famine. PLoS One 5(10):e13582.
LQ Hung , PJ de Vries , PT Giao , TQ Binh , NV Nam , MT Chong and PA Kager 2005. Nutritional status following malaria control in a Vietnamese ethnic minority commune. Eur J Clin Nutr 59(8):891–9.
JW Hurrell , Y Kushnir , G Ottersen and M Visbeck 2003. The North Atlantic Oscillation: Climatic Significance and Environmental Impact. Washington, DC: American Geophysical Union.
A Husseini , NM Abu-Rmeileh , N Mikki , TM Ramahi , HA Ghosh , N Barghuthi , M Khalili , E Bjertness , G Holmboe-Ottesen and J Jervell 2009. Cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, and cancer in the occupied Palestinian territory. Lancet 373(9668):1041–9.
R Huxley , CG Owen , PH Whincup , DG Cook , S Colman and R Collins 2004. Birth weight and subsequent cholesterol levels: exploration of the ‘fetal origins’ hypothesis. JAMA 292(22):2755–64.
RR Huxley , BB Lloyd , M Goldacre and HA Neil 2000a. Nutritional research in World War 2: the Oxford Nutrition Survey and its research potential 50 years later. Br J Nutr 84(2):247–51.
RR Huxley , AW Shiell and CM Law 2000b. The role of size at birth and postnatal catch-up growth in determining systolic blood pressure: a systematic review of the literature. J Hypertens 18(7):815–31.
JY Hwang , C Shin , EA Frongillo , KR Shin and I Jo 2003. Secular trend in age at menarche for South Korean women born between 1920 and 1986: the Ansan Study. Ann Hum Biol 30(4):434–42.
E Hypponen , C Power and GD Smith 2004. Parental growth at different life stages and offspring birthweight: an intergenerational cohort study. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 18(3):168–77.
T Iannitti and B Palmieri 2011. Inflammation and genetics: an insight in the centenarian model. Hum Biol 83(4):531–59.
L Ibanez , A Lopez-Bermejo , M Diaz , MV Marcos , P Casano and F de Zegher 2009. Abdominal fat partitioning and high-molecular-weight adiponectin in short children born small for gestational age. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 94(3):1049–52.
L Ibanez , A Lopez-Bermejo , L Suarez , MV Marcos , M Diaz and ZF De 2008a. Visceral adiposity Without overweight in children born small-for-gestational-age. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 93:2079–83.
L Ibanez , K Ong , DB Dunger and ZF De 2006. Early development of adiposity and insulin resistance after catch-up weight gain in small-for-gestational-age children. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 91(6):2153–8.
L Ibanez , L Suarez , A Lopez-Bermejo , M Diaz , C Valls and ZF De 2008b. Early development of visceral fat excess after spontaneous catch-up growth in children with low birth weight. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 93(3):925–8.
P Ilmonen , A Kotrschal and DJ Penn 2008. Telomere attrition due to infection. PLoS One 3(5):e2143.
CM Imai , TI Halldorsson , I Gunnarsdottir , V Gudnason , T Aspelund , G Jonsson , BE Birgisdottir and I Thorsdottir 2012. Effect of birth year on birth weight and obesity in adulthood: comparison between subjects born prior to and during the great depression in Iceland. PLoS One 7(9):e44551.
G Iniguez , CA Gonzalez , F Argandona , E Kakarieka , MC Johnson and F Cassorla 2010. Expression and protein content of IGF-I and IGF-I receptor in placentas from small, adequate and large for gestational age newborns. Horm Res Paediatr 73(5):320–7.
JP Ioannidis , EE Ntzani and TA Trikalinos 2004. ‘Racial’ differences in genetic effects for complex diseases. Nat Genet 36(12):1312–18.
K Isler and CP van Shaik 2012. How our ancestors broke through the grey ceiling: comparative evidence for cooperative breeding in early Homo. Curr Anthropol 53 Suppl 6:S453–S465.
B Isomaa , P Almgren , T Tuomi , B Forsen , K Lahti , M Nissen , MR Taskinen and L Groop 2001. Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality associated with the metabolic syndrome. Diabetes Care 24(4):683–9.
M Ivanova , J Ruiqing , S Kawai , M Matsushita , N Ochiai , E Maruya and H Saji 2011. IL-6 SNP diversity among four ethnic groups as revealed by bead-based liquid array profiling. Int J Immunogenet 38(1):17–20.
JD Jacobs and JC Wingfield 2000. Endocrine control of life-cycle stages: a constraint on response to the environment? Condor 102(1):35–51.
C Jagger , C Gillies , F Moscone , E Cambois , H Van Oyen , W Nusselder , JM Robine and E team 2008. Inequalities in healthy life years in the 25 countries of the European Union in 2005: a cross-national meta-regression analysis. Lancet 372(9656):2124–31.
J James , P Thomas , D Cavan and D Kerr 2004. Preventing childhood obesity by reducing consumption of carbonated drinks: cluster randomised controlled trial. BMJ 328(7450):1237.
WP James , M Nelson , A Ralph and S Leather 1997. Socioeconomic determinants of health. The contribution of nutrition to inequalities in health. BMJ 314(7093):1545–9.
T James-Todd , P Tehranifar , J Rich-Edwards , L Titievsky and MB Terry 2010. The impact of socioeconomic status across early life on age at menarche among a racially diverse population of girls. Ann Epidemiol 20(11):836–42.
HC Jang , HK Min , HK Lee , NH Cho and BE Metzger 1998. Short stature in Korean women: a contribution to the multifactorial predisposition to gestational diabetes mellitus. Diabetologia 41(7):778–3.
M Janghorbani , M Mansourian and E Hosseini 2014. Systematic review and meta-analysis of age at menarche and risk of type 2 diabetes. Acta Diabetol 51(4):519–28.
LM Jantz and RL Jantz 1999. Secular change in long bone length and proportion in the United States, 1800–1970. Am J Phys Anthropol 110(1):57–67.
D Jaquet , H Vidal , R Hankard , P Czernichow and C Levy-Marchal 2001. Impaired regulation of glucose transporter 4 gene expression in insulin resistance associated with in utero undernutrition. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 86(7):3266–71.
S Jaruratanasirikul and H Sriplung 2015. Secular trends of growth and pubertal maturation of school children in Southern Thailand. Ann Hum Biol:1–8 42(5): 447–454.
G Jasienska 2009. Low birth weight of contemporary African Americans: an 531intergenerational effect of slavery? Am J Hum Biol 21(1):16–24.
G Jasienska , I Thune and PT Ellison 2006. Fatness at birth predicts adult susceptibility to ovarian suppression: an empirical test of the Predictive Adaptive Response hypothesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103(34):12759–62.
M Jaskelioff , FL Muller , JH Paik , E Thomas , S Jiang , AC Adams , E Sahin , M Kost-Alimova , A Protopopov , J Cadinanos et al. 2011. Telomerase reactivation reverses tissue degeneration in aged telomerase-deficient mice. Nature 469(7328):102–6.
BJ Jennings , SE Ozanne , MW Dorling and CN Hales 1999. Early growth determines longevity in male rats and may be related to telomere shortening in the kidney. FEBS Lett 448(1):4–8.
R Jensen 2000. Agricultural volatility and investments in children. Am Econ Rev 90(2):399–404.
W Jetz and DR Rubenstein 2011. Environmental uncertainty and the global biogeography of cooperative breeding in birds. Curr Biol 21(1):72–8.
CV Joglekar , CH Fall , VU Deshpande , N Joshi , A Bhalerao , V Solat , TM Deokar , SD Chougule , SD Leary , C Osmond et al. 2007. Newborn size, infant and childhood growth, and body composition and cardiovascular disease risk factors at the age of 6 years: the Pune Maternal Nutrition Study. Int J Obes 31(10):1534–44.
RC Johnson 2008. Gene banks pay big dividends to agriculture, the environment, and human welfare. PLoS Biol 6(6):e148.
RK Johnson , LJ Appel , M Brands , BV Howard , M Lefevre , RH Lustig , F Sacks , LM Steffen , J Wylie-Rosett , American Heart Association Nutrition Committee of the Council on Nutrition PA et al. 2009. Dietary sugars intake and cardiovascular health: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation 120(11):1011–20.
SE Johnson 2003. Life history and the competitive environment: trajectories of growth, maturation, and reproductive output among chacma baboons. Am J Phys Anthropol 120(1):83–98.
JI Johnsson and T Bohlin 2006. The cost of catching up: increased winter mortality following structural growth compensation in the wild. Proc Biol Sci 273(1591):1281–6.
SE Johnston , J Gratten , C Berenos , JG Pilkington , TH Clutton-Brock , JM Pemberton and J Slate 2013. Life history trade-offs at a single locus maintain sexually selected genetic variation. Nature. 502:93–95.
COH Jones and NG White 1994. Adiposity in Aboriginal people from Arnhem Land, Australia: variation in degree and distribution associated with age, sex and lifestyle. Ann Hum Biol 21:207–27.
LL Jones , PL Griffiths , SA Norris , JM Pettifor and N Cameron 2009. Age at menarche and the evidence for a positive secular trend in urban South Africa. Am J Hum Biol 21(1):130–2.
JC Jones-Smith , P Gordon-Larsen , A Siddiqi and BM Popkin 2011. Cross-national comparisons of time trends in overweight inequality by socioeconomic status among women using 532repeated cross-sectional surveys from 37 developing countries, 1989–2007. Am J Epidemiol 173(6):667–75.
JC Jones-Smith , P Gordon-Larsen , A Siddiqi and BM Popkin 2012. Is the burden of overweight shifting to the poor across the globe? Time trends among women in 39 low- and middle-income countries (1991–2008). Int J Obes 36(8):1114–20.
KI Jönsson 1997. Capital and income breeding as alternative tactics of resource use in reproduction. Oikos 78:57–66.
A Joseph , D Ackerman , JD Talley , J Johnstone and J Kupersmith 1993. Manifestations of coronary atherosclerosis in young trauma victims–an autopsy study. J Am Coll Cardiol 22(2):459–67.
JG Joseph , IA Prior , CE Salmond and D Stanley 1983. Elevation of systolic and diastolic blood pressure associated with migration: the Tokelau island migrant study. J Chronic Dis 36(7):507–16.
L Jovanovic-Peterson , K Fuhrmann , K Hedden , L Walker and CM Peterson 1989. Maternal milk and plasma glucose and insulin levels: studies in normal and diabetic subjects. J Am Coll Nutr 8(2):125–31.
H Julkunen , R Karava and V Viljanen 1966. Hyperostosis of the spine in diabetes mellitus and acromegaly. Diabetologia 2(2):123–6.
G Kaati , LO Bygren , M Pembrey and M Sjostrom 2007. Transgenerational response to nutrition, early life circumstances and longevity. Eur J Hum Genet 15(7):784–90.
G Kac , C Auxiliadora de Santa Cruz and G Velasquez-Melendez 2000. Secular trend in age at menarche for women born between 1920 and 1979 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Ann Hum Biol 27(4):423–8.
M Kadyrov , G Kosanke , J Kingdom and P Kaufmann 1998. Increased fetoplacental angiogenesis during first trimester in anaemic women. Lancet 352(9142):1747–9.
Y Kagawa , Y Yanagisawa , K Hasegawa , H Suzuki , K Yasuda , H Kudo , M Abe , S Matsuda , Y Ishikawa , N Tsuchiya et al. 2002. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of thrifty genes for energy metabolism: evolutionary origins and prospects for intervention to prevent obesity-related diseases. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 295(2):207–22.
L Kalichman , I Malkin and E Kobyliansky 2007. Time-related trends of age at menopause and reproductive period of women in a Chuvashian rural population. Menopause 14(1):135–40.