Skip to main content
The Metabolic Ghetto
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 9
  • Cited by
    This (lowercase (translateProductType product.productType)) has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Haisma, Hinke Yousefzadeh, Sepideh and Boele Van Hensbroek, Pieter 2018. Towards a capability approach to child growth: A theoretical framework. Maternal & Child Nutrition, Vol. 14, Issue. 2, p. e12534.

    Pomeroy, Emma Macintosh, Alison Wells, Jonathan C.K. Cole, Tim J. and Stock, Jay T. 2018. Relationship between body mass, lean mass, fat mass, and limb bone cross-sectional geometry: Implications for estimating body mass and physique from the skeleton. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Vol. 166, Issue. 1, p. 56.

    Wells, Jonathan C. K. 2018. The capacity–load model of non-communicable disease risk: understanding the effects of child malnutrition, ethnicity and the social determinants of health. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 72, Issue. 5, p. 688.

    Wells, Jonathan C. K. and Marphatia, Akanksha A. 2018. The Palgrave Handbook of Biology and Society. p. 561.

    Wells, Jonathan C K 2017. Understanding developmental plasticity as adaptation requires an inter-generational perspective. Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health, Vol. 2017, Issue. 1, p. 185.

    Wells, Jonathan C.K. 2017. Worldwide variability in growth and its association with health: Incorporating body composition, developmental plasticity, and intergenerational effects. American Journal of Human Biology, Vol. 29, Issue. 2, p. e22954.

    Wells, Jonathan C. K. 2017. The New “Obstetrical Dilemma”: Stunting, Obesity and the Risk of Obstructed Labour. The Anatomical Record, Vol. 300, Issue. 4, p. 716.

    Wells, Jonathan C K Figueiroa, José N and Alves, Joao G 2017. Maternal pelvic dimensions and neonatal size. Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health, Vol. 2017, Issue. 1, p. 191.

    Wells, Jonathan C. K. Pomeroy, Emma Walimbe, Subhash R. Popkin, Barry M. and Yajnik, Chittaranjan S. 2016. The Elevated Susceptibility to Diabetes in India: An Evolutionary Perspective. Frontiers in Public Health, Vol. 4,

  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Recommend this book

    Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

    The Metabolic Ghetto
    • Online ISBN: 9780511972959
    • Book DOI:
    Please enter your name
    Please enter a valid email address
    Who would you like to send this to *
  • Buy the print book

Book description

Chronic diseases have rapidly become the leading global cause of morbidity and mortality, yet there is poor understanding of this transition, or why particular social and ethnic groups are especially susceptible. In this book, Wells adopts a multidisciplinary approach to human nutrition, emphasising how power relations shape the physiological pathways to obesity, diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Part I reviews the physiological basis of chronic diseases, presenting a 'capacity-load' model that integrates the nutritional contributions of developmental experience and adult lifestyle. Part II presents an evolutionary perspective on the sensitivity of human metabolism to ecological stresses, highlighting how social hierarchy impacts metabolism on an intergenerational timescale. Part III reviews how nutrition has changed over time, as societies evolved and coalesced towards a single global economic system. Part IV integrates these physiological, evolutionary and politico-economic perspectives in a unifying framework, to deepen our understanding of the societal basis of metabolic ill-health.


'Is it really possible to bring together philosophy, economics, history, evolutionary biology, epidemiology, nutrition and metabolism to understand obesity and chronic disease? Jonathan Wells has done it in an immensely readable and insightful way. A wonderful book.'

Michael Marmot - University College London

'No other book before has provided such a sophisticated and eloquent argument integrating knowledge about foetal and childhood environment and nutrition, with impacts of social, economic and historical factors. Jonathan Wells persuasively argues that a broad scope and an evolutionary framework are necessary to build our understanding of chronic and globally important diseases. Consequently, [he] succeeds in achieving a true consilience of very disparate perspectives on our health.'

Grazyna Jasienska - Jagiellonian University, Poland

Refine List
Actions for selected content:
Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive
  • Send content to

    To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to .

    To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

    Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

    Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

    Please be advised that item(s) you selected are not available.
    You are about to send

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.

Page 2 of 2

Page 2 of 2

Abdeen, Z, Greenough, PG, Chandran, A and Qasrawi, R 2007. Assessment of the nutritional status of preschool-age children during the second Intifada in Palestine. Food Nutr Bull 28(3):274–82.
Abegunde, DO, Mathers, CD, Adam, T, Ortegon, M and Strong, K 2007. The burden and costs of chronic diseases in low-income and middle-income countries. Lancet 370(9603):1929–38.
Abraham, J, Rao, PS, Inbaraj, SG, Shetty, G and Jose, CJ 1970. An epidemiological study of hemiplegia due to stroke in South India. Stroke 1(6):477–81.
Abrams, ET and Meshnick, SR 2009. Malaria during pregnancy in endemic areas: a lens for examining maternal-fetal conflict. Am J Hum Biol 21(5):643–50.
Accardi, G, Caruso, C, Colonna-Romano, G, Camarda, C, Monastero, R and Candore, G 2012. Can Alzheimer disease be a form of type 3 diabetes? Rejuv Res 15(2):217–21.
Acevedo-Garcia, D 2000. Residential segregation and the epidemiology of infectious diseases. Soc Sci Med 51(8):1143–61.
Achebe, C 1994. The Art of Fiction. The Paris Review No. 133, Winter 1994.
Action Against Hunger 2001. The Geopolitics of Hunger, 2000–2001: Hunger and Power. Boulder, Colorado: Lynne Rienner Publishers.
Adaikalakoteswari, A, Balasubramanyam, M and Mohan, V 2005. Telomere shortening occurs in Asian Indian Type 2 diabetic patients. Diabet Med 22(9):1151–6.
Adaikalakoteswari, A, Balasubramanyam, M, Ravikumar, R, Deepa, R and Mohan, V 2007. Association of telomere shortening with impaired glucose tolerance and diabetic macroangiopathy. Atherosclerosis 195(1):83–9.
Adair, LS and Cole, TJ 2003. Rapid child growth raises blood pressure in adolescent boys who were thin at birth. Hypertension 41(3):451–6.
Adali, T and Koc, I 2011. Menarcheal age in Turkey: secular trend and socio-demographic correlates. Ann Hum Biol 38(3):345–53.
Adams, J 2010. Power Play: The Literature and Politics of Chess in the Late Middle Ages. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Aggarwal, J, Swami, G and Kumar, M 2013. Probiotics and their effects on metabolic diseases: an update. J Clin Diagnost Res 7(1):173–7.
Ahima, RS 2006. Adipose tissue as an endocrine organ. Obes 14 Suppl 5:242S249S.
Ahrens, RA 1974. Sucrose, hypertension, and heart disease: an historical perspective. Am J Clin Nutr 27:403–22.
Aiello, LC and Wheeler, P 1995. The expensive-tissue hypothesis – the brain and the digestive-system in human and primate evolution. Curr Anthropol 36(2):199221.
Akachi, Y and Canning, D 2007. The height of women in Sub-Saharan Africa: the role of health, nutrition, and income in childhood. Ann Hum Biol 34(4):397410.
Akari, S, Mateti, UV and Kunduru, BR 2013. Health-care cost of diabetes in South India: A cost of illness study. J Res Pharm Pract 2(3):114–17.
Akkad, A, Hastings, R, Konje, JC, Bell, SC, Thurston, H and Williams, B 2006. Telomere length in small-for-gestational-age babies. Br J Obstet Gynecol 113(3):318–23.
Aktipis, CA, Cronk, L and de Aguiar, R 2011. Risk-pooling and herd survival: an agent-based model of a Maasai gift-giving system. Hum Ecol 39:131–40.
Alam, DS, Van Raaij, JM, Hautvast, JG, Yunus, M and Fuchs, GJ 2003. Energy stress during pregnancy and lactation: consequences for maternal nutrition in rural Bangladesh. Eur J Clin Nutr 57(1):151–6.
Alberman, E 1991. Are our babies becoming bigger? J Roy Soc Med 84:257–60.
Alberti, KG, Zimmet, P, Shaw, J and Group IDFETFC 2005. The metabolic syndrome–a new worldwide definition. Lancet 366(9491):1059–62.
Albritton, R 2009. Let Them Eat Junk: How Capitalism Creates Hunger. London: Pluto Press.
Alchon, SA 2003. A Pest in the Land: New World Epidemics in a Global Perspective. Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico Press.
Alderman, H, Hoddinott, J and Kinsey, BH 2006. Long term consequences of early childhood malnutrition. Oxford Economic Papers 58(3):450–74.
Alderman, H, Hoogeven, H and Rossi, M 2008. Preschool nutrition and subsequent schooling attainment: longitudinal evidence from Tanzania. Econ Dev Cult Change 57(2):239–60.
Alexander, GR, Kogan, M, Martin, J and Papiernik, E 1998. What are the fetal growth patterns of singletons, twins, and triplets in the United States? Clin Obstet Gynecol 41(1):114–25.
Ali, MM and Shah, IH 2000. Sanctions and childhood mortality in Iraq. Lancet 355(9218):1851–7.
Allam, AH, Thompson, RC, Wann, LS, Miyamoto, MI and Thomas, GS 2009. Computed tomographic assessment of atherosclerosis in ancient Egyptian mummies. JAMA 302(19):2091–4.
Allen, FM 1913. Studies Concerning Glycosuria and Diabetes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Allen, JA 1877. The influence of physical conditions on the genesis of species. Radical Rev 1:108–40.
Alquati, AB, Rubolini, D, Romano, M, Boncoraglio, G, Fasola, M and Saino, N 2007. Effects of egg albumen removal on yellow-legged gull chick phenotype. Funct Ecol 21:310–16.
Alsan, M, Bloom, DE and Canning, D 2006. The effect of population health on foreign direct investment inflows to low- and middle-income countries. World Dev 34(4):613–30.
Altizer, S, Dobson, A, Hosseini, P, Hudson, P, Pascual, M and Rohani, P 2006. Seasonality and the dynamics of infectious diseases. Ecol Lett 9(4):467–84.
Alvarez, D, Metcalfe, NB 2007. The tradeoff between catch-up growth and escape speed: variation between habitats in the cost of compensation. Oikos 116:1144–51.
Alwasel, SH, Abotalib, Z, Aljarallah, JS, Osmond, C, Alkharaz, SM, Alhazza, IM, Badr, G and Barker, DJ 2010. Changes in placental size during Ramadan. Placenta 31(7):607–10.
Alwasel, SH, Abotalib, Z, Aljarallah, JS, Osmond, C, Alkharaz, SM, Alhazza, IM, Harrath, A, Thornburg, K and Barker, DJ 2011. Sex differences in birth size and intergenerational effects of intrauterine exposure to Ramadan in Saudi Arabia. Am J Hum Biol 23(5):651–4.
Alwasel, SH, Harrath, A, Aljarallah, JS, Abotalib, Z, Osmond, C, Al Omar, SY, Khaled, I and Barker, DJ 2013. Intergenerational effects of in utero exposure to Ramadan in Tunisia. Am J Hum Biol 25(3):341–3.
Ames, KH 1994. The Northwest coast: complex hunter-gatheres, ecology, and social evolution. Ann Rev Anthropol 23:209–29.
Ames, KH 2008. Slavery, household production and demography on the southern northwest coast: cables, tacking and ropewalks. In Cameron, C, editor. Invisible Citizens: Captives and Their Consequences. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press. 138–58.
Ames, KH 2010. On the evolution of the human capacity for inequality and/or egalitarianism In Feinman, GM and Price, TD, editors. Pathways to Power: New Perspectives on the Emergence of Social Inequality. New York: Springer. 1544.
Amigo, H, Vasquez, S, Bustos, P, Ortiz, G and Lara, M 2012. Socioeconomic status and age at menarche in indigenous and non-indigenous Chilean adolescents. Cad Saude Publica 28(5):977–83.
Amsellem, V, Gary-Bobo, G, Marcos, E, Maitre, B, Chaar, V, Validire, P et al. 2011. Telomere dysfunction causes sustained inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 184(12):1358–66.
Anand, K, Shah, B, Yadav, K, Singh, R, Mathur, P, Paul, E and Kapoor, SK 2007. Are the urban poor vulnerable to non-communicable diseases? A survey of risk factors for non-communicable diseases in urban slums of Faridabad. Natl Med J India 20(3):115–20.
Ananth, CV and Wen, SW 2002. Trends in fetal growth among singleton gestations in the United States and Canada, 1985 through 1998. Semin Perinatol 26:260–7.
Andersen, GS, Girma, T, Wells, JC, Kaestel, P, Michaelsen, KF and Friis, H 2011. Fat and fat-free mass at birth: air displacement plethysmography measurements on 350 Ethiopian newborns. Pediatr Res 70(5):501–6.
Andersen, KK, Azuma, N, Barnola, JM, Bigler, M, Biscaye, P, Caillon, N et al. 2004. High-resolution record of Northern Hemisphere climate extending into the last interglacial period. Nature 431(7005):147–51.
Andersen, LB, Harro, M, Sardinha, LB, Froberg, K, Ekelund, U, Brage, S and Anderssen, SA 2006. Physical activity and clustered cardiovascular risk in children: a cross-sectional study (The European Youth Heart Study). Lancet 368(9532):299304.
Anderson, P 1974. Passages from Antiquity to Feudalism. London: New Left Books.
Anderson, RM and May, RM 1991. Infectious Disease of Humans: Dynamics and Control. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Andersson, S, Uller, T, Lohmus, M and Sundstrom, F 2004. Effects of egg yolk testosterone on growth and immunity in a precocial bird. J Evol Biol 17(3):501–5.
Andreo, V, Provensal, C, Levis, S, Pini, N, Enria, D and Polop, J 2012. Summer-autumn distribution and abundance of the hantavirus host, Oligoryzomys longicaudatus, in northwestern Chubut, Argentina. J Mammal 93:1559–68.
Anekwe, TD and Kumar, S 2012. The effect of a vaccination program on child anthropometry: evidence from India’s Universal Immunization Program. J Public Health 34(4):489–97.
Angel, JL 1975. Paleoecology, paleodemography and health. In Polgar, S, editor. Population, Ecology, and Social Evolution. The Hague: Moulton Publishers. 167–90.
Angel, JL 1984. Health as a Crucial Factor in the Changes from Hunting to Developed Farming in the Eastern Mediterranean. In Cohen, MN, Armelagos, GJ, editors. Paleopathology at the Origins of Agriculture. Orlando: Academic Press. 5171.
Angell, A 1993. Chile since 1958. In Bethell, L, editor. Chile Since Independence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 129202.
Angell, N 1910. The Great Illusion: A Study of the Relation of Military Power in Nations to their Economic and Social Advantage London: Heinemann.
Anjana, M, Sandeep, S, Deepa, R, Vimaleswaran, KS, Farooq, S and Mohan, V 2004. Visceral and central abdominal fat and anthropometry in relation to diabetes in Asian Indians. Diabetes Care 27(12):2948–53.
Annas, GJ 1995. Hunger strikes. BMJ 311(7013):1114–15.
Anson, G 1748. A Voyage Round the World in the Years 1740 to 1744. London: John and Paul Knapton.
Antonov, AN 1947. Children born during the siege of Leningrad in 1942. J Pediatr 30(3):250–9.
Antonovsky, A 1967. Social class, life expectancy and overall mortality. Milbank Mem Fund Q 45(2):3173.
Antonovsky, A 1968. Social class and the major cardiovascular diseases. J Chronic Dis 21(2):65106.
Appadurai, A 1986. Introduction: commodities and the politics of value. In Appadurai, A, editor. The Social Life of Things: Commodities in Cultural Perspective. Cambridge: University Press. 363.
Araghi, FA 1995. Global depeasantization, 1945–1990. Sociol Q 36(2):337–68.
Arbuckle, TE and Sherman, GJ 1989. An analysis of birth weight by gestational age in Canada. CMAJ 140(2):157–60, 165.
Ardia, DR, Schat, KA and Winkler, DW 2003. Reproductive effort reduces longterm immune function in breeding tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor). Proc R Soc Lond B 270:1679–83.
Arim, RG, Shapka, JD, Dahinten, VS and Willms, JD 2007. Patterns and correlates of pubertal development in Canadian youth: effects of family context. Can J Public Health 98(2):91–6.
Armelagos, GJ, Goodman, AH and Jacobs, KH 1991. The origins of agriculture: population growth during a period of declining health. Pop Env 13(1):922.
Aryeetey, R, Ashinyo, A and Adjuik, M 2011. Age of menarche among basic level school girls in Medina, Accra. Afr J Reprod Health 15(3):103–10.
Asao, K, Kao, WH, Baptiste-Roberts, K, Bandeen-Roche, K, Erlinger, TP and Brancati, FL 2006. Short stature and the risk of adiposity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes in middle age: the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988–1994. Diabetes Care 29(7):1632–7.
Asghar, M, Hasselquist, D, Hansson, B, Zehtindjiev, P, Westerdahl, H and Bensch, S 2015. Chronic infection. Hidden costs of infection: chronic malaria accelerates telomere degradation and senescence in wild birds. Science 347(6220):436–8.
Asgharnia, M, Faraji, R, Sharami, H, Yadak, M and Oudi, M 2009. A study of menarcheal age in northern Iran (rasht). Oman Med J 24(2):95–8.
Ashok, K, Guan, Z and Yamagata, T 2001. Impact of the Indian Ocean Dipole on the relationship between the Indian Monsoon rainfall and ENSO. Geo Res Lett 28:44994502.
Astrup, A 2006. The trans fatty acid story in Denmark. Atheroscler Suppl 7(2):43–6.
Atkins, PJ 2005. Fattening children or fattening farmers? School milk in Britain, 1921–1941. Econ Hist Rev 58(1):5778.
Auer, SK, Arendt, JD, Chandramouli, R and Reznick, DN 2010. Juvenile compensatory growth has negative consequences for reproduction in Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata). Ecol Lett 13(8):9981007.
Auerbach, BM 2011. Reaching great heights: changes in indigenous stature, body size and body shape with agricultural intensification in North America. In Pinhasi, R and Stock, JT, editors. Human Bioarchaeology of the Transition to Agriculture. Chichester, UK: John Wiley and Sons Ltd. 203–33.
Austad, SN 1993. Retarded senescence in an insular population of Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana). J Zool 229(4):695708.
Avena, NM, Rada, P and Hoebel, BG 2008. Evidence for sugar addiction: behavioral and neurochemical effects of intermittent, excessive sugar intake. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 32(1):2039.
Bach, PB, Pham, HH, Schrag, D, Tate, RC and Hargraves, JL 2004. Primary care physicians who treat blacks and whites. N Engl J Med 351(6):575–84.
Baig, U, Belsare, P, Watve, M and Jog, M 2011. Can thrifty gene(s) or predictive fetal programming for thriftiness lead to obesity? J Obes 2011:861049.
Bailey, KV 1965. Quantity and composition of breastmilk in some New Guinean populations. J Trop Pediatr Afr Child Health 11(2):3549.
Baird, D 1949. Social factors in obstetrics. Lancet i:1079–83.
Baird, S, Friedman, J and Schady, N 2011. Aggregate income shocks and infant mortality in the developing world. Rev Econ Stat 93(3):847–56.
Bairey Merz, CN, Dwyer, J, Nordstrom, CK, Walton, KG, Salerno, JW and Schneider, RH 2002. Psychosocial stress and cardiovascular disease: pathophysiological links. Behav Med 27(4):141–7.
Bajekal, M 2005. Healthy life expectancy by area deprivation: magnitude and trends in England, 1994–1999. Health Stat Q(25):1827.
Bakan, J 2015. The invisible hand of law: private regulation and the rule of law. Cornell Int Law J 48:279300.
Baker, EA, Schootman, M, Barnidge, E and Kelly, C 2006. The role of race and poverty in access to foods that enable individuals to adhere to dietary guidelines. Prev Chronic Dis 3(3):A76.
Baker, SJ 1940. Fighting for Life. London: Robert Hale.
Bakewell, MA, Shi, P and Zhang, J 2007. More genes underwent positive selection in chimpanzee evolution than in human evolution. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104(18):7489–94.
Balasubramanyam, M, Adaikalakoteswari, A, Monickaraj, SF and Mohan, V 2007. Telomere shortening & metabolic/vascular diseases. Indian J Med Res 125(3):441–50.
Balikci, A 1970. The Netsilik Eskimo. Garden City, NY: Natural History Press.
Balter, M 2010. Archaeology: of two minds about Toba’s impact. Science 327(5970):1187–8.
Bambra, C 2007. Going beyond the three worlds of welfare capitalism: regime theory and public health research. J Epidemiol Community Health 61(12):1098–102.
Bar-Yosef, O and Belfer-Cohen, A 1992. From foarging to farming in the Mediterranean Levant. In Gebauer, AB and Price, TD, editors. Transitions to Agriculture in Prehistory: Monographs in World Prehistory 4. Madison, WI: Prehistory Press. 2148.
Barbier, EB 2014. Economics: account for depreciation of natural capital. Nature 515:32–3.
Barbosa, L, Butte, NF, Villalpando, S, Wong, WW and Smith, EO 1997. Maternal energy balance and lactation performance of Mesoamerindians as a function of body mass index. Am J Clin Nutr 66(3):575–83.
Barbujani, G, Magagni, A, Minch, E and Cavalli-Sforza, LL 1997. An apportionment of human DNA diversity. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 94(9):4516–9.
Barclay, AW, Petocz, P, McMillan-Price, J, Flood, VM, Prvan, T, Mitchell, P and Brand-Miller, JC 2008. Glycemic index, glycemic load, and chronic disease risk–a meta-analysis of observational studies. Am J Clin Nutr 87(3):627–37.
Barker, DJ 1981. Geographical variations in disease in Britain. BMJ 283(6288):398400.
Barker, DJ 1992. Fetal and Infant Origins of Adult Disease. London: British Medical Journal.
Barker, DJ 1998. Mothers, Babies and Health in Later Life. Edinburgh: Churchill.
Barker, DJ, Bull, AR, Osmond, C and Simmonds, SJ 1990. Fetal and placental size and risk of hypertension in adult life. BMJ 301(6746):259–62.
Barker, DJ, Forsen, T, Eriksson, JG and Osmond, C 2002. Growth and living conditions in childhood and hypertension in adult life: a longitudinal study. J Hypertens 20(10):1951–6.
Barker, DJ, Godfrey, KM, Osmond, C and Bull, A 1992. The relation of fetal length, ponderal index and head circumference to blood pressure and the risk of hypertension in adult life. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 6(1):3544.
Barker, DJ, Hales, CN, Fall, CH, Osmond, C, Phipps, K and Clark, PM 1993a. Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus, hypertension and hyperlipidaemia (syndrome X): relation to reduced fetal growth. Diabetologia 36(1):62–7.
Barker, DJ, Martyn, CN, Osmond, C, Hales, CN and Fall, CH 1993b. Growth in utero and serum cholesterol concentrations in adult life. BMJ 307(6918):1524–7.
Barker, DJ and Osmond, C 1986a. Childhood respiratory infection and adult chronic bronchitis in England and Wales. BMJ 293(6557):1271–5.
Barker, DJ and Osmond, C 1986b. Diet and coronary heart disease in England and Wales during and after the second world war. J Epidemiol Community Health 40(1):3744.
Barker, DJ and Osmond, C 1986c. Infant mortality, childhood nutrition, and ischaemic heart disease in England and Wales. Lancet i(8489):1077–81.
Barker, DJ and Osmond, C 1987. Death rates from stroke in England and Wales predicted from past maternal mortality. BMJ 295(6590):83–6.
Barker, DJ, Osmond, C, Forsen, TJ, Kajantie, E and Eriksson, JG 2005. Trajectories of growth among children who have coronary events as adults. N Engl J Med 353(17):1802–9.
Barker, DJ, Osmond, C, Simmonds, SJ and Wield, GA 1993c. The relation of small head circumference and thinness at birth to death from cardiovascular disease in adult life. BMJ 306(6875):422–6.
Barker, DJ, Winter, PD, Osmond, C, Margetts, B and Simmonds, SJ 1989. Weight in infancy and death from ischaemic heart disease. Lancet 2(8663):577–80.
Barnard, CJ and Sibly, RM 1981. Producers and scroungers: a general model and its application to captive flocks of house sparrows. Anim Behav 29:543–50.
Barone-Adesi, F, Gasparrini, A, Vizzini, L, Merletti, F and Richiardi, L 2011. Effects of Italian smoking regulation on rates of hospital admission for acute coronary events: a country-wide study. PLoS One 6(3):e17419.
Barr, DP, Russ, EM and Eder, HA 1951. Protein-lipid relationships in human plasma. II. In atherosclerosis and related conditions. Am J Med 11(4):480–93.
Barreiro, LB and Quintana-Murci, L 2010. From evolutionary genetics to human immunology: how selection shapes host defence genes. Nat Rev Genet 11(1):1730.
Barros, AJ, Victora, CG, Horta, BL, Goncalves, HD, Lima, RC and Lynch, J 2006. Effects of socioeconomic change from birth to early adulthood on height and overweight. Int J Epidemiol 35(5):1233–8.
Barta, Z and Giraldeau, L-A 1998. The effect of dominance hierarchy on the use of alternative foraging tactics: a phenotype-limited producing-scrounging game. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 42:217–23.
Barta, Z and Giraldeau, L-A 2000. Daily patterns of optimal producer and scrounger use under predation hazard: a state-dependent dynamic game analysis. Am Nat 155(4):570–82.
Bartley, M 1985. Coronary heart disease and the public health 1850–1983. Sociol Health Illness 7:289312.
Bartness, TJ, Demas, GE and Song, CK 2002. Seasonal changes in adiposity: the roles of the photoperiod, melatonin and other hormones, and sympathetic nervous system. Exp Biol Med 227(6):363–76.
Bartz, S, Mody, A, Hornik, C, Bain, J, Muehlbauer, M, Kiyimba, T, Kiboneka, E, Stevens, R, Bartlett, J, St Peter, JV et al. 2014. Severe acute malnutrition in childhood: hormonal and metabolic status at presentation, response to treatment, and predictors of mortality. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 99(6):2128–37.
Baruzzi, R and Franco, L 1981. Amerindians of Brazil. In Trowell, HC and Burkitt, DP, editors. Western Diseases: Their Emergence and Prevention. London: Edward Arnold. 138–53.
Basciano, H, Federico, L and Adeli, K 2005. Fructose, insulin resistance, and metabolic dyslipidemia. Nutr Metab 2(1):5.
Basham, AL 1959. The Wonder That Was India. Volume 1. London: Sidgwick and Jackson.
Basu, S, McKee, M, Galea, G and Stuckler, D 2013a. Relationship of soft drink consumption to global overweight, obesity, and diabetes: a cross-national analysis of 75 countries. Am J Public Health 103(11):2071–7.
Basu, S, Stuckler, D, McKee, M and Galea, G 2013b. Nutritional determinants of worldwide diabetes: an econometric study of food markets and diabetes prevalence in 173 countries. Public Health Nutr 16(1):179–86.
Basu, S, Yoffe, P, Hills, N and Lustig, RH 2013c. The relationship of sugar to population-level diabetes prevalence: an econometric analysis of repeated cross-sectional data. PLoS One 8(2):e57873.
Baten, J and Blum, M 2012a. Growing tall but unequal: New findings and new background evidence on anthropometric welfare in 156 countries, 1810–1989. Econ Hist Dev Regions 27 Suppl 1:S66S85.
Baten, J and MB 2012b. An anthropometric history of the world, 1810–1980: did migration and globalization influence country trends? J Anthropol Sci 90:14.
Bateson, P 1994. The dynamics of parent-offspring relationships in mammals. Trends Ecol Evol 9(10):399403.
Bateson, P 2001. Fetal experience and good adult design. Int J Epidemiol 30(5):928–34.
Bateson, P, Barker, D, Clutton-Brock, T, Deb, D, D’Udine, B, Foley, RA, Gluckman, P, Godfrey, K, Kirkwood, T, Lahr, MM et al. 2004. Developmental plasticity and human health. Nature 430(6998):419–21.
Bateson, P and Gluckman, P 2011. Plasticity, Robustness, Development and Evolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Bateson, P and Martin, PC 1999. Design for a Life: How Behaviour Develops. London: Cape.
Bathula, R, Hughes, AD, Panerai, RB, Potter, JF, Mc, GTSA, Tillin, T, Shore, AC, Hale, R, Chambers, J, Kooner, J et al. 2011. South Asians have adverse cerebrovascular haemodynamics, despite equivalent blood pressure, compared with Europeans. This is due to their greater hyperglycaemia. Int J Epidemiol 40(6):1490–8.
Batniji, R, Rabaia, Y, Nguyen-Gillham, V, Giacaman, R, Sarraj, E, Punamaki, RL, Saab, H and Boyce, W 2009. Health as human security in the occupied Palestinian territory. Lancet 373(9669):1133–43.
Baudrillard, J 1970/1998. The Consumer Society: Myths and Structures. London: Sage Publications Ltd. 69.
Baumeister, RF and Heatherton, TF 1996. Self-regulation failure: an overview. Psychol Inquiry 7:115.
Bavdekar, A, Yajnik, CS, Fall, CHD, Bapat, S, Pandit, AN, Deshpande, V, Bhave, S, Kellingray, SD and Joglekar, C 1999. Insulin resistance syndrome in 8-year-old Indian children – small at birth, big at 8 years, or both? Diabetes 48(12):2422–9.
Beaton, GH 1989. Small but healthy? Are we asking the right question? Eur J Clin Nutr 43(12):863–75.
Beauchamp, C 2006. Phenotypic correlates of scrounging behavior in zebra finches: role of foraging efficiency and dominance. Ethol 112:873–8.
Beaumont, HJ, Gallie, J, Kost, C, Ferguson, GC and Rainey, PB 2009. Experimental evolution of bet hedging. Nature 462(7269):90–3.
Beaumont, J 2011. Population: Social Trends 41. Cardiff: Office for National Statistics.
Becker, J 1996. Hungry Ghosts: China’s Secret Famine. London: John Murray.
Becquet, C and Przeworski, M 2007. A new approach to estimate parameters of speciation models with application to apes. Genom Res 17(10):1505–19.
Behrensmeyer, AK 2006. Atmosphere. Climate change and human evolution. Science 311(5760):476–8.
Behrensmeyer, AK, Damuth, JD, Dimichele, WA, Potts, R, Sues, H-D and Wing, SL 1992. Terrestrial Ecosystems Through Time: Evolutionary Paleoecology of Terrestrial Plants and Animals. Chicago, IL: Chicago University Press.
Bellwood, P 2005. First Farmers: The Origins of Agricultural Societies. Oxford: Blackwell.
Belsare, PV, Watve, MG, Ghaskadbi, SS, Bhat, DS, Yajnik, CS and Jog, M 2010. Metabolic syndrome: aggression control mechanisms gone out of control. Med Hyp 74(3):578–89.
Belsky, J, Steinberg, LD, Houts, RM, Friedman, SL, DeHart, G, Cauffman, E, Roisman, GI, Halpern-Felsher, BL and Susman, E 2007. Family rearing antecedents of pubertal timing. Child Dev 78(4):1302–21.
Ben-Shlomo, Y and Smith, GD 1991. Deprivation in infancy or in adult life: which is more important for mortality risk? Lancet 337(8740):530–4.
Bendix, R 1964. Nation-building and Citizenship: Studies of Our Changing Social Order. New York: Wiley.
Benedict, R 1935. Patterns of Culture. London: Routledge.
Benetos, A, Okuda, K, Lajemi, M, Kimura, M, Thomas, F, Skurnick, J, Labat, C, Bean, K and Aviv, A 2001. Telomere length as an indicator of biological aging: the gender effect and relation with pulse pressure and pulse wave velocity. Hypertension 37(2 Part 2):381–5.
Benhariz, M, Goulet, O, Salas, J, Colomb, V and Ricour, C 1997. Energy cost of fever in children on total parenteral nutrition. Clin Nutr 16(5):251–5.
Bennett, A, Epstein, LD, Gilman, RH, Cama, V, Bern, C, Cabrera, L, Lescano, AG, Patz, J, Carcamo, C, Sterling, CR et al. 2012. Effects of the 1997–1998 El Nino episode on community rates of diarrhea. Am J Public Health 102(7):e6369.
Bennett, J 1987. The Hunger Machine: The Politics of Food. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Benoit, SC, Clegg, DJ, Seeley, RJ and Woods, SC 2004. Insulin and leptin as adiposity signals. Recent Prog Horm Res 59:267–85.
Bentham, J 1791/1995. The Panopticon Writings. London: Verso.
Bentley, A, Das, S, Alcock, G, Shah More, N, Pantvaidya, S and Osrin, D 2015. Malnutrition and infant and young child feeding in informal settlements in Mumbai, India: findings from a census. Food Sci Nutr 3(3):257–71.
Bentley, GR, Goldberg, T and Jasienska, G 1993. The fertility of agricultural and non-agricultural traditional societies. Popul Stud 47(2):269–81.
Benyshek, DC, Johnston, CS and Martin, JF 2004. Post-natal diet determines insulin resistance in fetally malnourished, low birthweight rats (F1) but diet does not modify the insulin resistance of their offspring (F2). Life Sci 74(24):3033–41.
Benyshek, DC and Watson, JT 2006. Exploring the thrifty genotype’s food-shortage assumptions: a cross-cultural comparison of ethnographic accounts of food security among foraging and agricultural societies. Am J Phys Anthropol 131(1):120–6.
Berbesque, JC, Marlowe, FW, Shaw, P and Thompson, P 2014. Hunter-gatherers have less famine than agriculturalists. Biol Lett 10(1):20130853.
Berg, C, Rosengren, A, Aires, N, Lappas, G, Toren, K, Thelle, D and Lissner, L 2005. Trends in overweight and obesity from 1985 to 2002 in Goteborg, West Sweden. Int J Obes 29(8):916–24.
Berger, J 1979. Pig Earth. London: Bloomsbury.
Berger, P and Negus, N 1992. Offspring growth and development responses to maternal transfer of 6-MBOA information in Microtus montanus. Can J Zool 70:518–22.
Berger, PL and Luckmann, T 1967. The Social Construction of Reality: A Treatise in the Sociology of Knowledge. London: Allen Lane.
Bergman, BC, Cornier, MA, Horton, TJ and Bessesen, DH 2007. Effects of fasting on insulin action and glucose kinetics in lean and obese men and women. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 293(4):E11031111.
Bergman, RN, Ader, M, Huecking, K and Van, CG 2002. Accurate assessment of beta-cell function: the hyperbolic correction. Diabetes 51 Suppl 1:S212S220.
Bergmann, C 1847. Über die Verhältnisse der wärmeökonomie der Thiere zu ihrer Grösse. Göttinger Studien 3:595708.
Bergvall, N, Iliadou, A, Johansson, S, de Faire, U, Kramer, MS, Pawitan, Y, Pedersen, NL, Lichtenstein, P and Cnattingius, S 2007. Genetic and shared environmental factors do not confound the association between birth weight and hypertension: a study among Swedish twins. Circulation 115(23):2931–8.
Berkey, CS, Colditz, GA, Rockett, HR, Frazier, AL and Willett, WC 2009. Dairy consumption and female height growth: prospective cohort study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 18(6):1881–7.
Bernard, C 1974. Lectures on the Phenomena Common to Animals and Plants. Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas.
Bernays, E 1928. Propaganda. New York: H. Liverwright.
Bernheimer, CS 1905/1971. The Russian Jew in the United States: Studies of Social Conditions in New York, Philadelphia, and Chicago, with a Description of Rural Settlements. New York: A. M. Kelley.
Bernstein, H 2006. Once were/still are peasants? Farming in a globalising ‘South’. New Polit Econ 11(3):399406.
Bernstein, W 2008. A splendid exchange: how trade shaped the world. London: Atlantic Books.
Berson, SA and Yalow, RS 1965. Some current controversies in diabetes research. Diabetes 14(9):549–72.
Bertram, BC 1975. Social factors influencing reproduction in wild lions. J Zool 177:463–82.
Bettenhausen, K and Murnighan, JK 1985. The emergence of norms in competitive decision-making groups. Admin Sci Quart 30:350–72.
Beuret, CJ, Zirulnik, F, Giménez, MS 2005. Effect of the herbicide glyphosate on liver lipoperoxidation in pregnant rats and their fetuses. Reprod Toxicol 19(4):501–4.
Bhalotra, S 2010. Fatal fluctuations? Cyclicality in infant mortality in India. J Dev Econ 93(1):719.
Bhandari, N, Bahl, R, Taneja, S, de Onis, M, Bhan, MK 2002. Growth performance of affluent Indian children is similar to that in developed countries. Bull World Health Organ 80(3):189–95.
Bhardwaj, S, Misra, A, Misra, R, Goel, K, Bhatt, SP, Rastogi, K, Vikram, NK and Gulati, S 2011. High prevalence of abdominal, intra-abdominal and subcutaneous adiposity and clustering of risk factors among urban Asian Indians in North India. PLoS One 6(9):e24362.
Bhargava, SK, Sachdev, HS, Fall, CH, Osmond, C, Lakshmy, R, Barker, DJ, Biswas, SK, Ramji, S, Prabhakaran, D and Reddy, KS 2004. Relation of serial changes in childhood body-mass index to impaired glucose tolerance in young adulthood. N Engl J Med 350(9):865–75.
Bhatia, LS, Curzen, NP, Calder, PC and Byrne, CD 2012. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a new and important cardiovascular risk factor? Eur Heart J 33(10):1190–200.
Bhattacharya, N, Khadse, A 2013. Indian farmers rise up against the corporate hijack of the world. La Via Campesina’s Open Book.
Bhopal, R, Rahemtulla, T and Sheikh, A 2005. Persistent high stroke mortality in Bangladeshi populations. BMJ 331(7525):1096–97.
Bhuiyan, AR, Srinivasan, SR, Chen, W, Azevedo, MJ and Berenson, GS 2011. Influence of low birth weight on C-reactive protein in asymptomatic younger adults: the bogalusa heart study. BMC Res Notes 4:71.
Bhutta, ZA, Bawany, FA, Feroze, A, Rizvi, A, Thapa, SJ and Patel, M 2009. Effects of the crises on child nutrition and health in East Asia and the Pacific. Global Social Policy 9:119–43.
Bianchini, F, Kaaks, R and Vainio, H 2002. Overweight, obesity, and cancer risk. Lancet Oncol 3(9):565–74.
Bicca-Marques, JC and Garber, PA 2005. Use of social and ecological information in tamarin foraging decisions. Int J Primatol 26:1321–44.
Bielicki, T, Szczotka, H and Charzewski, J 1981. The influence of three socio-economic factors on body height in Polish military conscripts. Hum Biol 53(4):543–55.
Bielicki, T, Waliszko, A, Hulanicka, B and Kotlarz, K 1986. Social-class gradients in menarcheal age in Poland. Ann Hum Biol 13(1):111.
Bindon, JR and Baker, PT 1985. Modernization, migration and obesity among Samoan adults. Ann Hum Biol 12(1):6776.
Bingham, B, McFadden, K, Zhang, X, Bhatnagar, S, Beck, S and Valentino, R 2011. Early adolescence as a critical window during which social stress distinctly alters behavior and brain norepinephrine activity. Neuropsychopharmacol 36(4):896909.
Bingham Powell, G 2000. Elections as Instruments of Democracy: Majoritarian and Proportionate Visions. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Biondi, F, Gershunov, A and Cayan, DR 2001. North Pacific Decadal Climate Variability Since 1661. J Climate 14:510.
Biron-Shental, T, Sukenik Halevy, R, Goldberg-Bittman, L, Kidron, D, Fejgin, MD and Amiel, A 2010a. Telomeres are shorter in placental trophoblasts of pregnancies complicated with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Early Hum Dev 86(7):451–6.
Biron-Shental, T, Sukenik-Halevy, R, Sharon, Y, Goldberg-Bittman, L, Kidron, D, Fejgin, MD and Amiel, A 2010b. Short telomeres may play a role in placental dysfunction in preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction. Am J Obstet Gynecol 202(4):e381–7.
Bischoff, LL, Tschirren, B and Richner, H 2009. Long-term effects of early parasite exposure on song duration and singing strategy in great tits. Behav Ecol 20:265–70.
Bjorntorp, P and Rosmond, R 2000. The metabolic syndrome–a neuroendocrine disorder? Br J Nutr 83 Suppl 1:S4957.
Black, PH and Garbutt, LD 2002. Stress, inflammation and cardiovascular disease. J Psychosomat Res 52(1):123.
Black, RE, Victora, CG, Walker, SP, Bhutta, ZA, Christian, P, de Onis, M, Ezzati, M, Grantham-McGregor, S, Katz, J, Martorell, R et al. 2013. Maternal and child undernutrition and overweight in low-income and middle-income countries. Lancet 382(9890):427–51.
Blaser, MJ and Falkow, S 2009. What are the consequences of the disappearing human microbiota? Nature Rev Microbiol 7(12):887–94.
Block, F and Somers, M 2003. In the shadow of Speenhamland: social policy and the old poor law. Polit Soc 31:283321.
Block, JP, Scribner, RA and DeSalvo, KB 2004. Fast food, race/ethnicity, and income: a geographic analysis. Am J Prev Med 27(3):211–17.
Bloom, DE, Canning, D, Hu, L, Liu, Y, Mahal, A and Yip, W 2010. The contribution of population health and demographic change to economic growth in China and India. J Comp Econ 38(1):1733.
Bloom, DE, Canning, D and Sevilla, J 2004. The effect of health on economic growth: a production function approach. World Dev 32(1):113.
Bloom, KJ 1993. Mississippi Valley’s Great Yellow Fever Epidemic of 1878. Baton Rouge: Louisana State University Press.
Blum, K, Thanos, PK and Gold, MS 2014. Dopamine and glucose, obesity, and reward deficiency syndrome. Frontiers Psychol 5:919.
Blum, W 1994. Killing Hope: U.S. Military and CIA Interventions Since World War II. Monroe, Maine: Common Courage Press.
Blundell, S 1995. Women in Ancient Greece. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
BMJ 1903/1904. Physical degeneration. BMJ 1903: 1338–41; 1430–1; 1471–4. 1904: 1986–8; 1140–2.
Boehm, C 1993. Egalitarian behavior and reverse dominance hierarchy. Curr Anthropol 34:227254.
Boehm, C 1999. Hierarchy in the Forest: The Evolution of Egalitarian Behaviour. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Boesch, C, Kohou, G, Nene, H and Vigilant, L 2006. Male competition and paternity in wild chimpanzees of the Tai forest. Am J Phys Anthropol 130(1):103–15.
Bogin, B 1999. Patterns of Human Growth (2nd edition). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Bogin, B 2009. Childhood, adolescence, and longevity: a multilevel model of the evolution of reserve capacity in human life history. Am J Hum Biol 21(4):567–77.
Bogin, B and Baker, J 2012. Low birth weight does not predict the ontogeny of relative leg length of infants and children: an allometric analysis of the NHANES III sample. Am J Phys Anthropol 148(4):487–94.
Bogin, B and Keep, R 1999. Eight thousand years of economic and political history in Latin America revealed by anthropometry. Ann Hum Biol 26(4):333–51.
Bogin, B, Smith, P, Orden, AB, Varela Silva, MI and Loucky, J 2002. Rapid change in height and body proportions of Maya American children. Am J Hum Biol 14(6):753–61.
Bogin, B and Varela-Silva, MI 2010. Leg length, body proportion, and health: a review with a note on beauty. Int J Env Res Public Health 7(3):1047–75.
Boisaubin, EV 1988. Cardiology in ancient Egypt. Texas Heart Inst J 15(2):80–5.
Boivin, N 2007. Anthropological, historical, archaeological and genetic perspectives on the origins of caste in South Asia. In Petraglia, MD and Allchin, B, editors. The Evolution and History of Human Populations in South Asia. Dordrecht: Springer. 341–61.
Boix, C and Rosenbluth, F 2004. Bones of contention: the political economy of height inequality. Annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.
Bolduan, C and Weiner, L 1933. Causes of death among Jews of N. Y. city. New Engl J Med 208:407–16.
Bonds, DR, Gabbe, SG, Kumar, S and Taylor, T 1984. Fetal weight/placental weight ratio and perinatal outcome. Am J Obstet Gynecol 149(2):195200.
Bonetti, PO, Trachsel, LD, Kuhn, MU, Schulzki, T, Erne, P, Radovanovic, D and Reinhart, WH 2011. Incidence of acute myocardial infarction after implementation of a public smoking ban in Graubunden, Switzerland: two year follow-up. Swiss Med Wkly 141:w13206.
Boney, CM, Verma, A, Tucker, R and Vohr, BR 2005. Metabolic syndrome in childhood: association with birth weight, maternal obesity, and gestational diabetes mellitus. Pediatri 115(3):e290–6.
Bonnefille, R, Potts, R, Chalie, F, Jolly, D and Peyron, O 2004. High-resolution vegetation and climate change associated with Pliocene Australopithecus afarensis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101(33):12125–9.
Bonner, JT 1965. Size and Cycle. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Bonner, R 1982. Guatemala Enlists Religion in Battle. New York Times, 18 July.
Borgerhoff Mulder, M, Fazzio, I, Irons, W, McElreath, RL, Bowles, S, Bell, AC, Hertz, T and Hazzah, L 2010. Pastoralism and wealth inequality: revisiting an old question. Curr Anthropol 51:3548.
Borghol, N, Suderman, M, McArdle, W, Racine, A, Hallett, M, Pembrey, M, Hertzman, C, Power, C and Szyf, M 2012. Associations with early-life socio-economic position in adult DNA methylation. Int J Epidemiol 41(1):6274.
Borinskaya, SA, Gureev, AS, Orlova, AA, Sanina, ED, Kim, AA, Gasemianrodsari, F, Shirmanov, VI, Balanovsky, OP, Rebrikov, DV, Koshechkin, AV et al. 2013. Allele frequency distributions of −174G/C polymorphism in regulatory region of interleukin 6 gene (IL6) in Russian and worldwide populations. Russian J Genet 49:90109.
Borkin, J 1979. The Crime and Punishment of I.G. Farben. London: Deutsch.
Born, JM, Lemmens, SG, Rutters, F, Nieuwenhuizen, AG, Formisano, E, Goebel, R and Westeterp-Plantenga, MS 2010. Acute stress and food-related reward activation in the brain during food choice during eating in the absence of hunger. Int J Obes 34(1):172–81.
Borodin, L 1984. The year of miracle and grief. London: Quartet Books.
Borodin, L 1991. The Third Truth. London: Collins-Harvill. 131.
Bos, PA, Terburg, D and van Honk, J 2010. Testosterone decreases trust in socially naive humans. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107(22):9991–5.
Bourne, LT, Langenhoven, ML, Steyn, K, Jooste, PL, Laubscher, JA and Bourne, DE 1994. Nutritional status of 3–6 year-old African children in the Cape Peninsula. East Afr Med J 71(11):695702.
Bouwens, L and Rooman, I 2005. Regulation of pancreatic beta-cell mass. Physiol Rev 85(4):1255–70.
Bove, I, Miranda, T, Campoy, C, Uauy, R and Napol, M 2012. Stunting, overweight and child development impairment go hand in hand as key problems of early infancy: Uruguayan case. Early Hum Dev 88(9):747–51.
Bowen, L, Ebrahim, S, De Stavola, B, Ness, A, Kinra, S, Bharathi, AV, Prabhakaran, D and Reddy, KS 2011. Dietary intake and rural-urban migration in India: a cross-sectional study. PLoS One 6(6):e14822.
Bowen, RS, Moodley, J, Dutton, MF and Theron, AJ 2001. Oxidative stress in pre-eclampsia. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 80(8):719–25.
Bowles, S and Gintis, H 1986. Democracy and Capitalism: Property, Community, and the Contradictions of Modern Social Thought. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
Bowles, S, Smith, EA and Borgerhoff Mulder, M 2010. The emergence and persistence of inequality in premodern societies. Curr Anthropol 51:717.
Bowling, M, Burch, N, Johanson, M and Tammelin, O 2015. Computer science. Heads-up limit hold’em poker is solved. Science 347(6218):145–9.
Boxer, CR 1969. The Portuguese Seaborne Empire 1415–1825. London: Hutchinson and Co Ltd.
Bradbury, J 1992. The Medieval Siege. Woodbridge: Boydell Press.
Bradley, AJ, McDonald, IR and Lee, AK 1980. Stress and mortality in a small marsupial (Antechinus stuartii, Macleay). Gen Comp Endocrinol 40:188200.
Bradshaw, PJ, Alfonso, HS, Finn, J, Owen, J and Thompson, PL 2011. A comparison of coronary heart disease event rates among urban Australian Aboriginal people and a matched non-Aboriginal population. J Epidemiol Community Health 65(4):315–19.
Brambila-Macias, J, Shankar, B, Capacci, S, Mazzocchi, M, Perez-Cueto, FJ, Verbeke, W and Traill, WB 2011. Policy interventions to promote healthy eating: a review of what works, what does not, and what is promising. Food Nutr Bull 32(4):365–75.
Brass, T 2015. Peasants, academics, populists: Forward to the past? Critique in Anthropology 35(2):187204
Braudel, F 1967/1973. Capitalism and Material Life. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson.
Bray, GA 1990. Obesity: historical development of scientific and cultural ideas. Int J Obes 14(11):909–26.
Bremer, AA, Mietus-Snyder, M and Lustig, RH 2012. Toward a unifying hypothesis of metabolic syndrome. Pediatr 129(3):557–70.
Brennan, L, McDonald, J and Shlomowitz, R 1997. Towards an anthropometric history of Indians under British rule. Res Econ Hist 17:185246.
Brennan, L, McDonald, J and Shlomowitz, R 2004. A long run decline in final adult height in India? Man Ind 84:913.
Brezis, ES 2001. Social classes, demographic transition and economic growth. Eur Econ Rev 45(6):707–17.
Brialic, I, Rodin, U, Vrdoljak, J, Plavec, D and Capkun, V 2006. Secular birth weight changes in liveborn infants before, during, and after 1991–1995 homeland war in Croatia. Croat Med J 47(3):452–8.
Bribiescas, RG and Anestis, SF 2010. Leptin associations with age, weight, and sex among chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). J Med Primatol 39(5):347–55.
Brieger, GM, Rogers, MS, Rushton, AW and Mongelli, M 1997. Are Hong Kong babies getting bigger? Int J Gynaecol Obstet 57(3):267–71.
Brinda, E, Rajkumar, A, Enemark, U 2015. Association between gender inequality index and child mortality rates: a cross-national study of 138 countries. BMC Public Health 15:97.
Brockmann, HJ and Barnard, CJ 1979. Kleptoparasitism in birds. Anim Behav 27:487514.
Brodersen, NH, Steptoe, A, Boniface, DR and Wardle, J 2007. Trends in physical activity and sedentary behaviour in adolescence: ethnic and socioeconomic differences. Br J Sport Med 41(3):140–4.
Broecker, WS 1997. Thermohaline circulation, the achilles heel of our climate system: will man-made CO2 upset the current balance? Science 278(5343):1582–8.
Brosnan, SF 2006. Nonhuman species’ reactions to inequity and their implications for fairness. Soc Justice Res 19(2):153–85.
Brosnan, SF and De Waal, FB 2003. Monkeys reject unequal pay. Nature 425(6955):297–9.
Brouilette, SW, Moore, JS, McMahon, AD, Thompson, JR, Ford, I, Shepherd, J, Packard, CJ and Samani, NJ 2007. Telomere length, risk of coronary heart disease, and statin treatment in the West of Scotland Primary Prevention Study: a nested case-control study. Lancet 369(9556):107–14.
Brown, DE 1991. Human Universals. New York: McGraw-Hill Inc.
Brown, EA 2012. Genetic explorations of recent human metabolic adaptations: hypotheses and evidence. Biol Rev 87(4):838–55.
Brown, IJ, Stamler, J, Van Horn, L, Robertson, CE, Chan, Q, Dyer, AR, Huang, CC, Rodriguez, BL, Zhao, L, Daviglus, ML et al. 2011. Sugar-sweetened beverage, sugar intake of individuals, and their blood pressure: international study of macro/micronutrients and blood pressure. Hypertension 57(4):695701.
Brown, JE, Jacobson, HN, Askue, LH and Peick, MG 1981. Influence of pregnancy weight gain on the size of infants born to underweight women. Obstet Gynecol 57(1):1317.
Brown, KH, Wuehler, SE and Peerson, JM 2001. The importance of zinc in human nutrition and estimation of the global prevalence of zinc deficiency. Food Nutr Bull 22(2):113–25.
Brown, P, Sutikna, T, Morwood, MJ, Soejono, RP, Jatmiko, , Saptomo, EW and Due, RA 2004. A new small-bodied hominin from the Late Pleistocene of Flores, Indonesia. Nature 431(7012):1055–61.
Brown, PJ 1987. Microparasites and macroparasites. Cult Anthropol 2(1):155–71.
Brown, PJ and Konner, M 1987. An anthropological perspective on obesity. Ann NY Acad Sci 499:2946.
Brown, WM, Cronk, L, Grochow, K, Jacobson, A, Liu, CK, Popovic, Z and Trivers, R 2005. Dance reveals symmetry especially in young men. Nature 438(7071):1148–50.
Brownell, KD and Frieden, TR 2009. Ounces of prevention–the public policy case for taxes on sugared beverages. N Engl J Med 360(18):1805–8.
Brownell, KD and Warner, KE 2009. The perils of ignoring history: Big Tobacco played dirty and millions died. How similar is Big Food? Milbank Q 87(1):259–94.
Brudevoll, JE, Liestol, K and Walloe, L 1979. Menarcheal age in Oslo during the last 140 years. Ann Hum Biol 6(5):407–16.
Bruford, MW, Bradley, DG and Luikart, G 2003. DNA markers reveal the complexity of livestock domestication. Nat Rev Genet 4(11):900–10.
Brundtland, GH, Liestol, K and Walloe, L 1980. Height, weight and menarcheal age of Oslo schoolchildren during the last 60 years. Ann Hum Biol 7(4):307–22.
Brunner, EJ, Hemingway, H, Walker, BR, Page, M, Clarke, P, Juneja, M, Shipley, MJ, Kumari, M, Andrew, R, Seckl, JR et al. 2002. Adrenocortical, autonomic, and inflammatory causes of the metabolic syndrome: nested case-control study. Circulation 106(21):2659–65.
Bruss, MB, Morris, JR, Dannison, LL, Orbe, MP, Quitugua, JA and Palacios, RT 2005. Food, culture, and family: exploring the coordinated management of meaning regarding childhood obesity. Health Commun 18(2):155–75.
Buchan, J 1997. Frozen Desire: An Inquiry into the Meaning of Money. London: Picador.
Buchanan, KL, Leitner, S, Spencer, KA, Goldsmith, AR and Catchpole, CK 2004. Developmental stress selectively affects the song control nucleus HVC in the zebra finch. Proc Biol Sci 271(1555):2381–6.
Buchanan, KL, Spencer, KA, Goldsmith, AR and Catchpole, CK 2003. Song as an honest signal of past developmental stress in the European starling (Sturnus vulgaris). Proc Biol Sci 270(1520):1149–56.
Bucher, HC, Hengstler, P, Schindler, C and Meier, G 2002. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in coronary heart disease: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J Med 112(4):298304.
Buchwald, H, Estok, R, Fahrbach, K, Banel, D, Jensen, MD, Pories, WJ, Bantle, JP and Sledge, I 2009. Weight and type 2 diabetes after bariatric surgery: systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Med 122(3):248–56 e245.
Buck, C and Simpson, H 1982. Infant diarrhoea and subsequent mortality from heart disease and cancer. J Epidemiol Community Health 36(1):2730.
Burkart, JM, Allon, O, Amici, F, Fichtel, C, Finkenwirth, C, Heschl, A, Huber, J, Isler, K, Kosonen, ZK, Martins, E et al. 2014. The evolutionary origin of human hyper-cooperation. Nature Commun 5:4747.
Burman, D, Mente, A, Hegele, RA, Islam, S, Yusuf, S and Anand, SS 2009. Relationship of the ApoE polymorphism to plasma lipid traits among South Asians, Chinese, and Europeans living in Canada. Atherosclerosis 203(1):192200.
Bursztyn, M and Raz, I 1995. Blood pressure and insulin in Ethiopian immigrants: longitudinal study. J Hum Hypertens 9(4):245–8.
Bustamante, CD, Fledel-Alon, A, Williamson, S, Nielsen, R, Hubisz, MT, Glanowski, S, Tanenbaum, DM, White, TJ, Sninsky, JJ, Hernandez, RD et al. 2005. Natural selection on protein-coding genes in the human genome. Nature 437(7062):1153–7.
Butler, C, Tull, ES, Chambers, EC and Taylor, J 2002. Internalized racism, body fat distribution, and abnormal fasting glucose among African-Caribbean women in Dominica, West Indies. J Natl Med Assoc 94(3):143–8.
Butt, HZ, Atturu, G, London, NJ, Sayers, RD and Bown, MJ 2010. Telomere length dynamics in vascular disease: a review. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 40(1):1726.
Byrne, R 1995. The Thinking Ape: Evolutionary Origins of Intelligence. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Byrne, R and Whiten, A 1989. Machiavellian Intelligence: Social Expertise and the Evolution of Intellect in Monkeys, Apes, and Humans. Oxford: Oxford Science Publications.
Caballero, AE 2003. Endothelial dysfunction in obesity and insulin resistance: a road to diabetes and heart disease. Obes Res 11(11):1278–89.
Cabanes, A, Ascunce, N, Vidal, E, Ederra, M, Barcos, A, Erdozain, N, Lope, V and Pollan, M 2009. Decline in age at menarche among Spanish women born from 1925 to 1962. BMC Public Health 9:449.
Cabral, H, Fried, LE, Levenson, S, Amaro, H and Zuckerman, B 1990. Foreign-born and US-born black women: differences in health behaviors and birth outcomes. Am J Public Health 80(1):70–2.
Caesar, J 1908. Commentaries on the Gallic Wars, Book VII, trans. Holmes, T Rice. London: Macmillan.
Calimani, R 1988. The Ghetto of Venice. Milan: Rusconi Libri.
Calvino, I 1972/1974. Invisible Cities. Orlando, FL: Harcourt Brace and Co.
Cameron, N 2003. Physical growth in a transitional economy: the aftermath of South African apartheid. Econ Hum Biol 1(1):2942.
Cameron, N, Pettifor, J, De, WT and Norris, S 2003. The relationship of rapid weight gain in infancy to obesity and skeletal maturity in childhood. Obes Res 11(3):457–60.
Cameron, N, Wright, MM, Griffiths, PL, Norris, SA and Pettifor, JM 2005. Stunting at 2 years in relation to body composition at 9 years in African urban children. Obes Res 13(1):131–6.
Cameron, WI, Moffitt, PS and Williams, DR 1986. Diabetes mellitus in the Australian aborigines of Bourke, New South Wales. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2(5):307–14.
Campbell, DI, Elia, M and Lunn, PG 2003. Growth faltering in rural Gambian infants is associated with impaired small intestinal barrier function, leading to endotoxemia and systemic inflammation. J Nutr 133(5):1332–8.
Campbell, DI, Lunn, PG and Elia, M 2002. Age-related association of small intestinal mucosal enteropathy with nutritional status in rural Gambian children. Br J Nutr 88(5):499505.
Campbell, DI, McPhail, G, Lunn, PG, Elia, M and Jeffries, DJ 2004. Intestinal inflammation measured by fecal neopterin in Gambian children with enteropathy: association with growth failure, Giardia lamblia, and intestinal permeability. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 39(2):153–7.
Cani, PD and Delzenne, NM 2010. Involvement of the gut micorbiota in the development of low grade inflammation associated with obesity: focus on this neglected partner. Acta Gastroenterol Belg 73:267–9.
Cann, RL, Stoneking, M and Wilson, AC 1987. Mitochondrial-DNA and human-evolution. Nature 325(6099):31–6.
Cannon, WB 1929. Organization for physiological homeostasis. Physiol Rev 9(3):399431.
Capacci, S and Mazzocchi, M 2011. Five-a-day, a price to pay: an evaluation of the UK program impact accounting for market forces. J Health Econ 30(1):8798.
Capacci, S, Mazzocchi, M, Shankar, B, Macias, JB, Verbeke, W, Perez-Cueto, FJ, Koziol-Kozakowska, A, Piorecka, B, Niedzwiedzka, B, D’Addesa, D et al. 2012. Policies to promote healthy eating in Europe: a structured review of policies and their effectiveness. Nutr Rev 70(3):188200.
Capewell, S, Beaglehole, R, Seddon, M and McMurray, J 2000. Explanation for the decline in coronary heart disease mortality rates in Auckland, New Zealand, between 1982 and 1993. Circulation 102(13):1511–16.
Cardoso, HF and Gomes, JE 2008. Trends in adult stature of peoples who inhabited the modern Portuguese territory from the Meoslithic to the late 20th century. Int J Archaeol 2008: 115.
Carlson, LA 1960. Serum lipids in men with myocardial infarction. Acta Med Scand 167:399413.
Carneiro, R 1990. Chiefom-level warfare as exemplified in Fiji and the Cauca Valley. In Haas, J, editor. The Anthropology of War. New York: Cambridge University Press. 190211.
Carroll, JF, Chiapa, AL, Rodriquez, M, Phelps, DR, Cardarelli, KM, Vishwanatha, JK, Bae, S and Cardarelli, R 2008. Visceral fat, waist circumference, and BMI: impact of race/ethnicity. Obesity 16(3):600–7.
Caruso, C, Candore, G, Colonna-Romano, G, Lio, D and Franceschi, C 2005. Inflammation and life-span. Science 307(5707):208–9.
Castro, JE 2008. Neoliberal water and sanitation policies as a failed development strategy lessons from developing countries. Prog Dev Stud 8(1):6383.
Catalano, PM, Thomas, A, Huston-Presley, L and Amini, SB 2003. Increased fetal adiposity: a very sensitive marker of abnormal in utero development. Am J Obstet Gynecol 189(6):1698–704.
Cavelaars, AE, Kunst, AE, Geurts, JJ, Crialesi, R, Grotvedt, L, Helmert, U, Lahelma, E, Lundberg, O, Mielck, A, Rasmussen, NK et al. 2000. Persistent variations in average height between countries and between socio-economic groups: an overview of 10 European countries. Ann Hum Biol 27(4):407–21.
Cawley, R, McKeown, T and Record, R 1954. Parental stature and birth weight. Am J Hum Genet 6:448–56.
Cawthon, RM, Smith, KR, O’Brien, E, Sivatchenko, A and Kerber, RA 2003. Association between telomere length in blood and mortality in people aged 60 years or older. Lancet 361(9355):393–5.
Ceesay, SM, Prentice, AM, Cole, TJ, Foord, F, Weaver, LT, Poskitt, EM and Whitehead, RG 1997. Effects on birth weight and perinatal mortality of maternal dietary supplements in rural Gambia: 5 year randomised controlled trial. BMJ 315(7111):786–90.
Centre for Social Justice Working Group 2013. Maxed out: Serious personal debt in Britain. London: Centre for Social Justice.
Chadwick-Jones, J 1998. Developing a Social Psychology of Monkeys and Apes. Hove, UK: Psychology Press, Taylor and Francis.
Chain, PS, Carniel, E, Larimer, FW, Lamerdin, J, Stoutland, PO, Regala, WM, Georgescu, AM, Vergez, LM, Land, ML, Motin, VL et al. 2004. Insights into the evolution of Yersinia pestis through whole-genome comparison with Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101(38):13826–31.
Chakravarti, U 1985. Of Dasas and Karmakaras: servile labour in ancient India. In Patnaik, U and Dingwaney, M, editors. Chains of Servitude: Bondage and Slavery in India. Madras: Sangam Books Ltd. 3575.
Chambers, EC, Tull, ES, Fraser, HS, Mutunhu, NR, Sobers, N and Niles, E. 2004. The relationship of internalized racism to body fat distribution and insulin resistance among African adolescent youth. J Natl Med Assoc 96(12):1594–8.
Chandola, T, Britton, A, Brunner, E, Hemingway, H, Malik, M, Kumari, M, Badrick, E, Kivimaki, M and Marmot, M 2008. Work stress and coronary heart disease: what are the mechanisms? Eur Heart J 29(5):640–8.
Chandola, T, Brunner, E and Marmot, M 2006. Chronic stress at work and the metabolic syndrome: prospective study. BMJ 332(7540):521–5.
Chang, H-J 2002. Kicking Away the Ladder: Development Strategy in Historical Perspective. London: Anthem Press.
Chang, H-J 2010. 23 Things They Don’t Tell You About Capitalism. London: Allen Lane.
Chang, VW 2006. Racial residential segregation and weight status among US adults. Soc Sci Med 63(5):1289–303.
Chang, YL, Chang, SD, Chao, AS, Hsieh, PC, Wang, CN and Tseng, LH 2008. The individual fetal weight/estimated placental weight ratios in monochorionic twins with selective intrauterine growth restriction. Prenat Diagn 28(3):217–21.
Chapman, CR 2012. ‘Oh that you were like a brother to me, one who had nursed at my mother’s breasts.’ Breast milk as a kinship-forging substance. Journal of Hebrew Scriptures 12:Article 7 DOI:10.5508/jhs.2012.v5512.a5507.
Chaput, JP 2011. Do active video games increase food intake? Am J Clin Nutr 94(4):1155; author reply 1156.
Chaput, JP, Drapeau, V, Poirier, P, Teasdale, N and Tremblay, A 2008. Glycemic instability and spontaneous energy intake: association with knowledge-based work. Psychosom Med 70(7):797804.
Chaput, JP and Tremblay, A 2007. Acute effects of knowledge-based work on feeding behavior and energy intake. Physiol Behav 90(1):6672.
Chaput, JP, Visby, T, Nyby, S, Klingenberg, L, Gregersen, NT, Tremblay, A, Astrup, A and Sjodin, A 2011. Video game playing increases food intake in adolescents: a randomized crossover study. Am J Clin Nutr 93(6):1196–203.
Charbonneau-Roberts, G, Saudny-Unterberger, H, Kuhnlein, HV and Egeland, GM 2005. Body mass index may overestimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity among the Inuit. Int J Circumpolar Health 64(2):163–9.
Charlton, J 1996. Which areas are healthiest? Popul Trends (83):1724.
Charnov, EL 1993. Life History Invariants: Some Explorations of Symmetry in Evolutionary Ecology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Chaturvedi, N, Bathula, R, Shore, AC, Panerai, R, Potter, J, Kooner, J, Chambers, J and Hughes, AD 2012. South Asians have elevated postexercise blood pressure and myocardial oxygen consumption compared to Europeans despite equivalent resting pressure. J Am Heart Assoc 1(5):e000281.
Chavarro, J, Villamor, E, Narvaez, J and Hoyos, A 2004. Socio-demographic predictors of age at menarche in a group of Colombian university women. Ann Hum Biol 31(2):245–57.
Chen, CM 2008. Overview of obesity in Mainland China. Obes Rev 9 Suppl 1:1421.
Chen, FF, Wang, YF and Mi, J 2014. Timing and secular trend of pubertal development in Beijing girls. World J Pediatr 10(1):74–9.
Chen, L, Caballero, B, Mitchell, DC, Loria, C, Lin, PH, Champagne, CM, Elmer, PJ, Ard, JD, Batch, BC, Anderson, CA et al. 2010. Reducing consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages is associated with reduced blood pressure: a prospective study among United States adults. Circulation 121(22):2398–406.
Chen, LC, Chowdhury, A and Huffman, SL 1980. Anthropometric assessment of energy-protein malnutrition and subsequent risk of mortality among preschool aged children. Am J Clin Nutr 33(8):1836–45.
Chen, R, Corona, E, Sikora, M, Dudley, JT, Morgan, AA, Moreno-Estrada, A, Nilsen, GB, Ruau, D, Lincoln, SE, Bustamante, CD et al. 2012a. Type 2 diabetes risk alleles demonstrate extreme directional differentiation among human populations, compared to other diseases. PLoS Genet 8(4):e1002621.
Chen, X, Zhang, ZX, George, LK, Wang, ZS, Fan, ZJ, Xu, T, Zhou, XL, Han, SM, Wen, HB and Zeng, Y 2012b. Birth measurements, family history, and environmental factors associated with later-life hypertensive status. Am J Hypertens 25(4):464–71.
Chen, Z, Yang, G, Offer, A, Zhou, M, Smith, M, Peto, R, Ge, H, Yang, L and Whitlock, G 2012c. Body mass index and mortality in China: a 15-year prospective study of 220 000 men. Int J Epidemiol 41(2):472–81.
Cheney, DL, and Seyfarth, RM 1990. How Monkeys See the World. Inside the Mind of Another Species. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Cherif, H, Tarry, JL, Ozanne, SE and Hales, CN 2003. Ageing and telomeres: a study into organ- and gender-specific telomere shortening. Nucleic Acids Research 31(5):1576–83.
Cheung, BM, Ong, KL, Tso, AW, Leung, RY, Xu, A, Cherny, SS, Sham, PC, Lam, TH and Lam, KS 2012. C-reactive protein as a predictor of hypertension in the Hong Kong Cardiovascular Risk Factor Prevalence Study (CRISPS) cohort. J Hum Hypertens 26(2):108–16.
Chiappelli, F, Prolo, P and Cajulis, OS 2005. Evidence-based research in complementary and alternative medicine I: history. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2(4):453–8.
Chike-Obi, U, David, RJ, Coutinho, R and Wu, SY 1996. Birth weight has increased over a generation. Am J Epidemiol 144(6):563–9.
Childe, VG 1950. The urban revolution. Town Plan Rev 21(1):317.
Chisholm, JS, Quinlivan, JA, Peterson, RW and Coall, DA 2005. Early stress predicts age at menarche and first birth, adult attachment, and expected lifespan. Hum Nature 16(3):233–65.
Chiswick, ML 1985. Intrauterine growth retardation. Br Med J 291(6499):845–8.
Chomsky, N 1999. Profit over People – Neoliberalism and Global Order. New York: Seven Stories Press.
Chomsky, N and Herman, ES 1994. Manufacturing Consent: The Political Economy of the Mass Media. London: Vintage.
Chomtho, S, Wells, JC, Williams, JE, Davies, PS, Lucas, A and Fewtrell, MS 2008. Infant growth and later body composition: evidence from the 4-component model. Am J Clin Nutr 87(6):1776–84.
Christakis, NA and Fowler, JH 2007. The spread of obesity in a large social network over 32 years. NEngl J Med 357(4):370–9.
Christensen, K, Vaupel, JW, Holm, NV and Yashin, AI 1995. Mortality among twins after age 6: fetal origins hypothesis versus twin method. BMJ 310(6977):432–6.
Christopoulou-Aletra, H and Papavramidou, N 2004. Methods used by the hippocratic physicians for weight reduction. World J Surg 28(5):513–17.
Chrousos, GP 1995. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and immune-mediated inflammation. N Engl J Med 332(20):1351–62.
Churchill, D, Perry, IJ and Beevers, DG 1997. Ambulatory blood pressure in pregnancy and fetal growth. Lancet 349(9044):710.
Cinnirella, F 2008. Optimists or pessimists? A reconsideration of nutritional status in Britain, 1740–1865. Eur Rev Econ Hist 12:325–54.
Cinti, S, Mitchell, G, Barbatelli, G, Murano, I, Ceresi, E, Faloia, E, Wang, S, Fortier, M, Greenberg, AS and Obin, MS 2005. Adipocyte death defines macrophage localization and function in adipose tissue of obese mice and humans. J Lipid Res 46(11):2347–55.
Clark, BF and York, R 2005. Carbon metabolism: global capitalism, climate change, and the biospheric rift. Theor Soc 34:391428.
Clark, CW and Mangel, M 1986. The evolutionary advantages of group foraging. Theor Popul Biol 3:4575.
Cleave, TL 1956. The neglect of natural principles in current medical practice. J Roy Naval Serv 42(2):5583.
Clements, EM 1953. Changes in the mean stature and weight of British children over the past seventy years. BMJ 2(4842):897902.
Cliff, N 2012. The Last Crusade: The Epic Voyages of Vasco da Gama. London: Atlantic Books.
Cnattingius, S, Villamor, E, Lagerros, YT, Wikstrom, AK and Granath, F 2012. High birth weight and obesity-a vicious circle across generations. Int J Obes 36(10):1320–4.
Coale, A 1974. History of the human population. Sci Am 231(3):4151.
Cochran, G and Harpending, H 2009. The 10,000 Year Explosion: How Civilization Accelerated Human Evolution. New York: Basic Books.
Cochran, S 1980. Big Business in China: Sino-foreign Rivalry in the Cigarette Industry, 1890–1930. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Cockburn, A and Russell, AF 2011. Cooperative breeding: a question of climate? Curr Biol 21(5):R195–7.
Cockburn, TA 1971. Infectious diseases in ancient populations. Curr Anthropol 12:4562.
Coelho, PR and McGuire, RA 2000 Diets versus diseases: the anthropometrics of slave children. J Econ Hist 60:232–46.
Coetzee, CG 1975. The biology, behaviour, and ecology of Mastomys natalensis in southern Africa. Bull World Health Organ 52(4–6):637–44.
Cohen, AS, Stone, JR, Beuning, KR, Park, LE, Reinthal, PN, Dettman, D, Scholz, CA, Johnson, TC, King, JW, Talbot, MR et al. 2007. Ecological consequences of early Late Pleistocene megadroughts in tropical Africa. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104(42):16422–7.
Cohen, DA 2008. Obesity and the built environment: changes in environmental cues cause energy imbalances. Int J Obes 32 Suppl 7:S137–42.
Cohen, DA and Babey, SH 2012. Contextual influences on eating behaviours: heuristic processing and dietary choices. Obes Rev 13(9):766–79.
Cohen, JC, Kiss, RS, Pertsemlidis, A, Marcel, YL, McPherson, R and Hobbs, HH 2004. Multiple rare alleles contribute to low plasma levels of HDL cholesterol. Science 305(5685):869–72.
Cohen, JC, Pertsemlidis, A, Fahmi, S, Esmail, S, Vega, GL, Grundy, SM and Hobbs, HH 2006. Multiple rare variants in NPC1L1 associated with reduced sterol absorption and plasma low-density lipoprotein levels. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103(6):1810–15.
Cohen, MN 1989. Health and the Rise of Civilisation. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Cohen, MN 1998. The emergence of health and social inequalities in the archaeological record. In Strickland, SS and Shetty, PS, editors. Human Biology and Social Inequality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 249–71.
Cohen, MN and Armelagos, GJ 1984. Palaeopathology and the Origins of Agriculture. Orlando, Florida: Academic Press.
Colantuoni, C, Rada, P, McCarthy, J, Patten, C, Avena, NM, Chadeayne, A and Hoebel, BG 2002. Evidence that intermittent, excessive sugar intake causes endogenous opioid dependence. Obes Res 10(6):478–88.
Cole, TJ 2000. Secular trends in growth. Proc Nutr Soc 59(2):317–24.
Cole, TJ, Freeman, JV and Preece, MA 1995. Body mass index reference curves for the UK, 1990. Arch Dis Child 73(1):25–9.
Collingham, L 2011. The Taste of War: World War Two and the Battle for Food. London: Penguin.
Collins, JW Jr., David, RJ, Rankin, KM and Desireddi, JR 2009. Transgenerational effect of neighborhood poverty on low birth weight among African Americans in Cook County, Illinois. Am J Epidemiol 169(6):712–17.
Collins, JW Jr., Wu, SY and David, RJ 2002. Differing intergenerational birth weights among the descendants of US-born and foreign-born Whites and African Americans in Illinois. Am J Epidemiol 155(3):210–16.
Collins, M, An, S-I, Cai, W, Ganachaud, A, Guilyardi, E, Jin, F-F, Jochum, M, Lengaigne, M, Power, S, Timmermann, A et al. 2010. The impact of global warming on the tropical Pacific Ocean and El Niño. Nature Geosci 3:391–7.
Collins, VR, Dowse, GK, Plehwe, WE, Imo, TT, Toelupe, PM, Taylor, HR and Zimmet, PZ 1995. High prevalence of diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy in Polynesians of Western Samoa. Diabetes Care 18(8):1140–9.
Conde-Agudelo, A and Belizan, JM 2000. Maternal morbidity and mortality associated with interpregnancy interval: cross sectional study. BMJ 321(7271):1255–9.
Conlisk, AJ, Barnhart, HX, Martorell, R, Grajeda, R and Stein, AD 2004. Maternal and child nutritional supplementation are inversely associated with fasting plasma glucose concentration in young Guatemalan adults. J Nutr 134(4):890–7.
Conquest, R 1986. The Harvest of Sorrow. New York: Oxford University Press.
Considine, RV, Premkumar, A, Reynolds, JC, Sebring, NG, Ricks, M and Sumner, AE 2008. Adiponectin and leptin in African Americans. Obes 16(2):428–34.
Cook, J 2013. Ice Age Art: Arrival of the Modern Mind. London: British Museum Press.
Coombes, R 2011. Trans fats: chasing a global ban. BMJ 343:d5567.
Cooper, AL, Fitzgeorge, RB, Baskerville, A, Little, RA and Rothwell, NJ 1989. Bacterial infection (Legionella pneumophila) stimulates fever, metabolic rate and brown adipose tissue activity in the guinea pig. Life Sci 45(9):843–7.
Cooper, C, Cawley, M, Bhalla, A, Egger, P, Ring, F, Morton, L and Barker, D 1995. Childhood growth, physical activity, and peak bone mass in women. J Bone Min Res 10(6):940–7.
Cooper, N, Purcell, S and Jackson, R 2014. Below the Breadline: The Relentless Rise of Food Poverty in Britain. Oxford: Church Action on Poverty, The Trussell Trust and Oxfam.
Cooper, R and Power, C 2008. Sex differences in the associations between birthweight and lipid levels in middle-age: findings from the 1958 British birth cohort. Atherosclerosis 200(1):141–9.
Cooper, WN, Khulan, B, Owens, S, Elks, CE, Seidel, V, Prentice, AM, Belteki, G, Ong, KK, Affara, NA, Constancia, M et al. 2012. DNA methylation profiling at imprinted loci after periconceptional micronutrient supplementation in humans: results of a pilot randomized controlled trial. FASEB J 26(5):1782–90.
Coppoletta, JM and Wolbach, SB 1933. Body Length and Organ Weights of Infants and Children: A Study of the Body Length and Normal Weights of the More Important Vital Organs of the Body Between Birth and Twelve Years of Age. Am J Pathol 9(1):5570.
Corpeleijn, E, Saris, WH and Blaak, EE 2009. Metabolic flexibility in the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes: effects of lifestyle. Obes Rev 10(2):178–93.
Corral, I, Landrine, H, Hao, Y, Zhao, L, Mellerson, JL and Cooper, DL 2011. Residential segregation, health behavior and overweight/obesity among a national sample of African American adults. J Health Psychol 17(3):371–8.
Costa, DL 2000. Understanding the twentieth-century decline in chronic conditions among older men. Demogr 37(1):5372.
Costa, DL 2004. Race and pregnancy outcomes in the twentieth century: a long-term comparison. J Econ Hist 64(4):1056–86.
Costa, DL and Steckel, RH 1997. Long-term trends in health, welfare, and economic growth in the United States. In Steckel, RH and Floud, R, editors. Health and Welfare During Industrialization. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. 4789.
Costa, MJ, Monteiro, DA, Oliveira-Neto, AL, Rantin, FT, Kalinin, AL 2008. Oxidative stress biomarkers and heart function in bullfrog tadpoles exposed to Roundup Original. Ecotoxicol 17(3):153–63.
Cote, HC, Soudeyns, H, Thorne, A, Alimenti, A, Lamarre, V, Maan, EJ, Sattha, B, Singer, J, Lapointe, N, Money, DM et al. 2012. Leukocyte telomere length in HIV-infected and HIV-exposed uninfected children: shorter telomeres with uncontrolled HIV viremia. PLoS One 7(7):e39266.
Couper-Johnston, R 2000. El Niño: The Weather Phenomenon That Changed the World. London: Hodder & Stoughton.
Cournil, A, Defay, R, Lacroux, A, Barny, S and Fontbonne, A 2007. Paradoxical relationships between anthropometric variables and phenotypic expression of the metabolic syndrome in nondiabetic Polynesians of New Caledonia. Diabetes Care 30(7):1909–11.
Courtwright, DT 2001. Forces of Habit – Drugs and the Making of the Modern World. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Covelli, MM, Wood, CE and Yarandi, HN 2007. The association of low birth weight and physiological risk factors of hypertension in African American adolescents. J Cardiovasc Nurs 22(6):440–7; quiz 448–9.
Cowie, CC, Rust, KF, Ford, ES, Eberhardt, MS, Byrd-Holt, DD, Li, C, Williams, DE, Gregg, EW, Bainbridge, KE, Saydah, SH et al. 2009. Full accounting of diabetes and pre-diabetes in the U.S. population in 1988–1994 and 2005–2006. Diabetes Care 32(2):287–94.
Cowlishaw, G and Dunbar, RIM 1991. Dominance rank and mating success in male primates. Anim Behav 41(6):1045–56.
Craig, P, Halavatau, V, Comino, E and Caterson, I 2001. Differences in body composition between Tongans and Australians: time to rethink the healthy weight ranges? Int J Obes 25(12):1806–14.
Craig, WY, Palomaki, GE and Haddow, JE 1989. Cigarette smoking and serum lipid and lipoprotein concentrations: an analysis of published data. BMJ 298(6676):784–8.
Crary, J. 2013. 24/7: Late Capitalism and the Ends of Sleep. London: Verso.
Crews, F, He, J and Hodge, C 2007. Adolescent cortical development: a critical period of vulnerability for addiction. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 86(2):189–99.
Crider, KS, Bailey, LB and Berry, RJ 2011. Folic acid food fortification-its history, effect, concerns, and future directions. Nutrients 3(3):370–84.
Crimmins, EM and Finch, CE 2004. Inflammatory exposure and historical changes in human life-spans. Science 305(5691):1736–9.
Crimmins, EM and Finch, CE 2006. Infection, inflammation, height, and longevity. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103(2):498503.
Crimmins, EM and Saito, Y 2001. Trends in healthy life expectancy in the United States, 1970–1990: gender, racial, and educational differences. Soc Sci Med 52(11):1629–41.
Critchley, J, Liu, J, Zhao, D, Wei, W and Capewell, S 2004. Explaining the increase in coronary heart disease mortality in Beijing between 1984 and 1999. Circulation 110(10):1236–44.
Crognier, E 1981. Climate and anthropometric variations in Europe and the Mediterranean area. Ann Hum Biol 8:99107.
Cropley, JE, Suter, CM, Beckman, KB and Martin, DI 2006. Germ-line epigenetic modification of the murine A vy allele by nutritional supplementation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103(46):17308–12.
Cross, JH, Eminson, J and Wharton, BA 1990. Ramadan and birth weight at full term in Asian Moslem pregnant women in Birmingham. Arch Dis Child 65(10 Spec No):1053–6.
Crowley, RH 1908. The provision of meals for school children. Public Health 20:325–35.
Cruickshank, JK, Mzayek, F, Liu, L, Kieltyka, L, Sherwin, R, Webber, LS, Srinavasan, SR and Berenson, GS 2005. Origins of the ‘black/white’ difference in blood pressure: roles of birth weight, postnatal growth, early blood pressure, and adolescent body size: the Bogalusa heart study. Circulation 111(15):1932–7.
Cuco, G, Arija, V, Iranzo, R, Vila, J, Prieto, MT and Fernandez-Ballart, J 2006. Association of maternal protein intake before conception and throughout pregnancy with birth weight. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 85(4):413–21.
Cummings, V 2013. The Anthropology of Hunter-Gatherers: Key Themes for Archaeologists. London: Bloomsbury.
Cunha, MC, Zanetti, ML and Hass, VJ 2008. Sleep quality in type 2 diabetics. Rev Lat Am Enfermagem 16(5):850–5.
Cunningham, MJ, Clifton, DK and Steiner, RA 1999. Leptin’s actions on the reproductive axis: perspectives and mechanisms. Biol Reprod 60(2):216–22.
Cutler, DM, Knaul, F, Lozano, R, Méndez, O and Zurita, B 2002. Financial crisis health outcomes, and ageing: Mexico in the 1980s and 1990s. J Public Econ 84(1):279303.
Cutler, RG 1975. Evolution of human longevity and the genetic complexity governing aging rate. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 72(11):4664–8.
da Luz Santos, CD, Clemente, AP, Martins, VJ, Albuquerque, MP and Sawaya, AL 2010. Adolescents with mild stunting show alterations in glucose and insulin metabolism. J Nutr Metab 2010:943070.
Dahlgren, J 2006. Pregnancy and insulin resistance. Metab Syndr Relat Disord 4(2):149–52.
Dahlmann, N and Petersen, K 1977. Influences of environmental conditions during infancy on final body stature. Pediatr Res 11(5):695700.
Dahly, DL and Adair, LS 2010. Does lower birth order amplify the association between high socioeconomic status and central adiposity in young adult Filipino males? Int J Obes 34(4):751–9.
Dalby, A 1996. Siren Feasts: A History of Food and Gastronomy in Greece. London: Routledge.
Dallman, MF, Pecoraro, N, Akana, SF, La Fleur, SE, Gomez, F, Houshyar, H, Bell, ME, Bhatnagar, S, Laugero, KD and Manalo, S 2003. Chronic stress and obesity: a new view of ‘comfort food’. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100(20):11696–701.
Dando, WA 1980. The Geography of Famine. London: Edward Arnold.
Dangour, AD, Watson, L, Cumming, O, Boisson, S, Che, Y, Velleman, Y, Cavill, S, Allen, E and Uauy, R 2013. Interventions to improve water quality and supply, sanitation and hygiene practices, and their effects on the nutritional status of children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 8:CD009382.
Danker-Hopfe, H 1986. Menarcheal age in Europe. Yearbk Phys Anthropol 29 Suppl 7:81112.
Danysh, HE, Gilman, RH, Wells, JC, Pan, WK, Zaitchik, B, Gonzálvez, G, Alvarez, M and Checkley, W 2014. El Niño adversely affected childhood stature and lean mass in northern Peru. Climate Change Responses 1:7.
Dark, J 2005. Annual lipid cycles in hibernators: integration of physiology and behaviour. Ann Rev Nutr 25:469–97.
Darwin, C 1859. On the Origins of Species by Means of Natural Selection. London: Murray.
Darwin, C 1871. The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex. London: Murray.
Darwin, J 2009. The Empire Project: The Rise and Fall of the British World-System, 18301970. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Das, S and Bose, K 2010. Body mass index and chronic energy deficiency among adult Santals of Purulia District, West Bengal, India. Int J Hum Sci 7(2):488503.
Das, SK and Banerjee, TK 2008. Stroke: Indian scenario. Circulation 118(25):2719–24.
Davey, G, Ramachandran, A, Snehalatha, C, Hitman, GA and McKeigue, PM 2000. Familial aggregation of central obesity in Southern Indians. Int J Obes 24(11):1523–7.
Davey Smith, G, Neaton, JD, Wentworth, D, Stamler, R and Stamler, J 1998. Mortality differences between black and white men in the USA: contribution of income and other risk factors among men screened for the MRFIT. MRFIT Research Group. Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial. Lancet 351(9107):934–9.
David, M and Giraldeau, LA 2012. Zebra finches in poor condition produce more and consume more food in a producer–scrounger game. Behav Ecol 23:174–80.
David, RJ and Collins, JW Jr. 1997. Differing birth weight among infants of U.S.-born blacks, African-born blacks, and U.S.-born whites. N Engl J Med 337(17):1209–14.
Davidson, K 2009. Ethical concerns at the bottom of the pyramid: where CSR meets BOP. J Int Business Ethics 2:2232.
Davies, J and Davies, D 2010. Origins and evolution of antibiotic resistance. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 74(3):417–33.
Davis, AM, Vinci, LM, Okwuosa, TM, Chase, AR and Huang, ES 2007. Cardiovascular health disparities: a systematic review of health care interventions. Med Care Res Rev 64(5 Suppl):29S100S.
Davis, DH 1949. The affinities of the South African Gerbils of the genus Tatera. Proc Zool Soc Lond 118:1001–18.
Davis, M 2002. Late Victorian Holocausts: El Niño and the Making of the Third World. London: Verso.
Davis, M 2006. Planet of Slums. London: Verso.
Davison, AN and Dobbing, J 1966. Myelination as a vulnerable period in brain development. Br Med Bull 22(1):40–4.
Davison, AN and Dobbing, J 1968. The developing brain. In Davison, AN and Dobbing, J, editors. Applied Neurochemistry. Oxford: Blackwell. 253–86.
Davy, P, Nagata, M, Bullard, P, Fogelson, NS and Allsopp, R 2009. Fetal growth restriction is associated with accelerated telomere shortening and increased expression of cell senescence markers in the placenta. Placenta 30(6):539–42.
Dawber, TR, Kannel, WB, Revotskie, N, Stokes, J 3rd, Kagan, A and Gordon, T 1959. Some factors associated with the development of coronary heart disease: six years’ follow-up experience in the Framingham study. Am J Public Health Nations Health 49:1349–56.
Dawber, TR, Meadors, GF and Moore, FE Jr. 1951. Epidemiological approaches to heart disease: the Framingham study. Am J Public Health Nations Health 41(3):279–81.
Dawkins, R 1986. The Blind Watchmaker. London: Longmans.
Dawkins, R and Carlisle, TR 1976. Parental investment, mate desertion and a fallacy. Nature 262:131–3.
De Blasio, MJ, Gatford, KL, McMillen, IC, Robinson, JS and Owens, JA 2007. Placental restriction of fetal growth increases insulin action, growth, and adiposity in the young lamb. Endocrinol 148(3):1350–8.
de Block, M and Stoks, R 2008. Short-term larval food stress and associated compensatory growth reduce adult immune function in a damselfly. Ecol Entomol 33:796801.
de Craen, AJ, Posthuma, D, Remarque, EJ, van den Biggelaar, AH, Westendorp, RG and Boomsma, DI 2005. Heritability estimates of innate immunity: an extended twin study. Genes Immun 6(2):167–70.
de Geus, EJ, Posthuma, D, Ijzerman, RG and Boomsma, DI 2001. Comparing blood pressure of twins and their singleton siblings: being a twin does not affect adult blood pressure. Twin Res 4(5):385–91.
De Grazia, V 2005. Irresistible Empire: America’s Advance Through 20th-Century Europe. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.
de la Grandmaison, GL, Clairand, I and Durigon, M 2001. Organ weight in 684 adult autopsies: new tables for a Caucasoid population. Forensic Sci Int 119(2):149–54.
de Ruyter, JC, Olthof, MR, Seidell, JC and Katan, MB 2012. A trial of sugar-free or sugar-sweetened beverages and body weight in children. N Engl J Med 367(15):1397–406.
De Silva, NM and Frayling, TM 2010. Novel biological insights emerging from genetic studies of type 2 diabetes and related metabolic traits. Curr Opinion Lipidol 21(1):4450.
de Wilde, JA, van Buuren, S and Middelkoop, BJ 2013. Trends in birth weight and the prevalence of low birth weight and small-for-gestational-age in Surinamese South Asian babies since 1974: cross-sectional study of three birth cohorts. BMC Public Health 13:931.
Deaton, A 2003. Health, inequality and economic development. J Econ Lit 41:113–58.
Deaton, A 2007. Height, health, and development. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104(33):13232–7.
Deaton, A 2008. Height, health, and inequality: the distribution of adult heights in India. Am Econ Review 98(2):468–74.
Deepa, M, Farooq, S, Deepa, R, Manjula, D and Mohan, V 2009. Prevalence and significance of generalized and central body obesity in an urban Asian Indian population in Chennai, India (CURES: 47). Eur J Clin Nutr 63(2):259–67.
Deerenberg, C, Arpanius, V, Daan, S and Bos, N 1997. Reproductive effort decreases antibody responsiveness. Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 264:1021–9.
Deerr, N 1949/1950. The History of Sugar Volumes One and Two. London: Chapman and Hall.
Deevey, ES 1960. The human population. Sci Am 203(3):194204.
Defay, R, Jaussent, I, Lacroux, A and Fontbonne, A 2007. Relationships between glycaemic abnormalities, obesity and insulin resistance in nondiabetic Polynesians of New Caledonia. Int J Obes 31(1):109–13.
DeFronzo, RA and Ferrannini, E 1991. Insulin resistance. A multifaceted syndrome responsible for NIDDM, obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Diabetes Care 14(3):173–94.
Degli Esposti, M and McLennan, H 1998. Mitochondria and cells produce reactive oxygen species in virtual anaerobiosis: relevance to ceramide-induced apoptosis. FEBS Lett 430(3):338–42.
Dehejia, R and Lleras-Murray, A 2004. Booms, busts, and babies’ health. Q J Econ 119:1091–130.
Del Giudice, M, Ellis, BJ and Shirtcliff, EA 2011. The Adaptive Calibration Model of stress responsivity. Neurosci Biobehavl Rev 35(7):1562–92.
Del Mar, C, Doust, J and Glasziou, P 2007. Clinical Thinking: Evidence, Communication and Decision-Making. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
del Ninno, C and Lundberg, M 2005. Treading water. The long-term impact of the 1998 flood on nutrition in Bangladesh. Econ Hum Biol 3(1):6796.
Demas, GE 2004. The energetics of immunity: a neuroendocrine link between energy balance and immune function. Horm Behav 45(3):173–80.
Demas, GE, Chefer, V, Talan, MI and Nelson, R 1997. Metabolic costs of mounting an antigen-stimulated immune response in adult and aged C57BL/6J mice. Am J Physiol 273(5 Pt 2): R1631–7.
deMenocal, PB 2005. Plio-Pleistocene African climate. Science 270:53–9.
Demerath, EW, Cameron, N, Gillman, MW, Towne, B and Siervogel, RM 2004. Telomeres and telomerase in the fetal origins of cardiovascular disease: a review. Hum Biol 76(1):127–46.
Demissie, S, Levy, D, Benjamin, EJ, Cupples, LA, Gardner, JP, Herbert, A, Kimura, M, Larson, MG, Meigs, JB, Keaney, JF et al. 2006. Insulin resistance, oxidative stress, hypertension, and leukocyte telomere length in men from the Framingham Heart Study. Aging Cell 5(4):325–30.
Denic, S and Agarwal, MM 2007. Nutritional iron deficiency: an evolutionary perspective. Nutr 23(7–8):603–14.
Dennett, DC 1993. Consciousness Explained. London: Penguin.
Dennett, DC 1995. Darwin’s Dangerous Idea. London: Penguin.
Department for Business Innovation and Skills 2010. Manufacturing in the UK: An Economic Analysis of the Sector. BIS Economics Paper No. 10A. London: Department for Business Innovation and Skills.
Derrick, VPA 1927. Observations on (1) errors on age on the population statistics of England and Wales and (2) the changes in mortality indicated by the national records. J Inst Actuaries 58:117–59.
Derrida, J 1994. Specters of Marx: The State of the Debt, the Work of Mourning & the New International London. London: Routgledge.
Despres, JP 2001. Health consequences of visceral obesity. Ann Med 33(8):534–41.
Dettwyler, KA 1995. A time to wean: the hominid blueprint for the natural age of weaning in modern human populations. In Stuart MacAdam, P and Dettwyler, KA, editors. Breastfeeding: Biocultural Perspectives. New York: Aldine de Gruyter. 3973.
Deurenberg, P, Deurenberg-Yap, M and Guricci, S 2002. Asians are different from Caucasians and from each other in their body mass index/body fat per cent relationship. Obes Rev 3(3):141–6.
Deutscher, S, Ostrander, LD and Epstein, FH 1970. Familial factors in premature coronary heart disease–a preliminary report from the Tecumseh Community Health Study. Am J Epidemiol 91(3):233–7.
Devakumar, D, Birch, M, Osrin, D, Sondorp, E and Wells, JC 2014. The intergenerational effects of war on the health of children. BMC Med 12:57.
Devaraj, S, Hemarajata, P and Versalovic, J 2013. The human gut microbiome and body metabolism: implications for obesity and diabetes. Clin Chem 59(4):617–28.
Dewey, KG and Cohen, RJ 2007. Does birth spacing affect maternal or child nutritional status? A systematic literature review. Matern Child Nutr 3(3):151–73.
Dewey, KG, Heinig, MJ, Nommsen, LA, Peerson, JM and Lonnerdal, B 1992a. Growth of breast-fed and formula-fed infants from 0 to 18 months: the DARLING Study. Pediatr 89(6 Pt 1):1035–41.
Dewey, KG, Peerson, JM, Heinig, MJ, Nommsen, LA, Lonnerdal, B, Lopez de Romana, G, de Kanashiro, HC, Black, RE and Brown, KH 1992b. Growth patterns of breast-fed infants in affluent (United States) and poor (Peru) communities: implications for timing of complementary feeding. Am J Clin Nutr 56(6):1012–18.
DeWitte, SN and Hughes-Morey, G 2012. Stature and frailty during the Black Death: the effect of stature on risks of epidemic mortality in London, A.D. 1348–1350. J Arch Sci 39:1412–9.
Dezateux, C, Lum, S, Hoo, AF, Hawdon, J, Costeloe, K, Stocks, J 2004. Low birth weight for gestation and airway function in infancy: exploring the fetal origins hypothesis. Thorax 59(1):60–6.
Dgani, J and Arad, I 1992. Measurement of systolic blood pressure in the follow-up of low birth weight infants. J Perinat Med 20(5):365–70.
Di Lampedusa, G 1964. The Leopard. London: Fontana Books.
Di Leonardo, M 1991. Gender at the Crossroads: Feminist Anthropology in Historical Perspective. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Di Lorenzo, L, De Pergola, G, Zocchetti, C, L’Abbate, N, Basso, A, Pannacciulli, N, Cignarelli, M, Giorgino, R and Soleo, L 2003. Effect of shift work on body mass index: results of a study performed in 319 glucose-tolerant men working in a Southern Italian industry. Int J Obes 27(11):1353–8.
Diagne, N, Rogier, C, Sokhna, CS, Tall, A, Fontenille, D, Roussilhon, C, Spiegel, A and Trape, JF 2000. Increased susceptibility to malaria during the early postpartum period. N Engl J Med 343(9):598603.
Diamond, J 1998. Guns, Germs and Steel. London: Vintage.
Diamond, J 2005. Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed. London: Penguin.
Diaz, HF and McCabe, GJ 1999. A possible connection between the 1878 yellow fever epidemic in the southern United States and the 1877078 El Nino episode. Bull Am Meteorol Soc 80:21–7.
Dick, JL 1922. Rickets: A Study of Economic Conditions and Their Effects on the Health of the Nation. London: William Heinemann.
Dickens, C 1854/1989. Hard Times. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Dickinson, JL and Hatchwell, BJ 2004. Fitness consequences of helping. In Koenig, WD and Dickinson, JL, editors. Ecology and Evolution of Cooperative Breeding in Birds. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 4866.
Diers, CJ 1974. Historical trends in the age at menarche and menopause. Psychol Rep 34(3):931–7.
Dietler, M 1997. Feasts and commensal politics in the political economy: food, power and status in prehistoric Europe. In Wiessner, P and Schiefenhovel, W, editors. Food and the Status Quest: An Interdisciplinary Perspective. Providence, RI: Bergahn Books. 87125.
Dietler, M 2006. Alcohol: anthropological/archaeological perspectives. Ann Rev Anthropol 35:229–49.
Dijkstra, C, Bult, A, Bijlsma, S, Daan, S, Meijer, T and Zijlstra, M 1990. Brood size manipulations in the Kestrel (Falco tinnunculus): effects on offspring and parent survival. J Anim Ecol 59:269–85.
Dirks, R 1993. Starvation and famine: cross-cultural codes and some hypothesis tests. Cross Cult Res 27:2869.
Disney, AR 1978. Twilight of the Pepper Emprire. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Dmitriev, S 2009. The rise and quick fall of the theory of ancient economic imperialism. Econ Hist Rev 62(4):785801.
Doak, CM, Adair, LS, Monteiro, C and Popkin, BM 2000. Overweight and underweight coexist within households in Brazil, China and Russia. J Nutr 130(12):2965–71.
Dobzhansky, T 1974. Chance and creativity in evolution. In Ayala, FJ and Dobzhansky, T, editors. Studies in the Philosophy of Biology. London: Macmillan.
Dobzhansky, T and Boesinger, E 1983. Human Culture: A Moment in Evolution. New York: Columbia University Press.
Dodds, R, Denison, HJ, Ntani, G, Cooper, R, Cooper, C, Sayer, AA and Baird, J 2012. Birth weight and muscle strength: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Nutr Health Aging 16(7):609–15.
Dolinoy, DC, Huang, D and Jirtle, RL 2007. Maternal nutrient supplementation counteracts bisphenol A-induced DNA hypomethylation in early development. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104(32):13056–61.
Dolinoy, DC, Weidman, JR, Waterland, RA and Jirtle, RL 2006. Maternal genistein alters coat color and protects Avy mouse offspring from obesity by modifying the fetal epigenome. Environ Health Perspect 114(4):567–72.
Doll, R, Peto, R, Wheatley, K, Gray, R and Sutherland, I 1994. Mortality in relation to smoking: 40 years’ observations on male British doctors. BMJ 309(6959):901–11.
Dominguez-Salas, P, Cox, SE, Prentice, AM, Hennig, BJ and Moore, SE 2012. Maternal nutritional status, C(1) metabolism and offspring DNA methylation: a review of current evidence in human subjects. Proc Nutr Soc 71(1):154–65.
Donahue, JF 2003. Toward a typology of Roman public feasting. Am J Philol 124(3):423–41.
Donin, AS, Nightingale, CM, Owen, CG, Rudnicka, AR, McNamara, MC, Prynne, CJ, Stephen, AM, Cook, DG and Whincup, PH 2010. Nutritional composition of the diets of South Asian, black African-Caribbean and white European children in the United Kingdom: the Child Heart and Health Study in England (CHASE). Br J Nutr 104(2):276–85.
Dos Santos Silva, I, De Stavola, BL, Mann, V, Kuh, D, Hardy, R and Wadsworth, ME 2002. Prenatal factors, childhood growth trajectories and age at menarche. Int J Epidemiol 31(2):405–12.
Douady, D and Trémolières, J 1947. Persistances d’importants deficits de croissance chez les infants d’âge scolaire en 1945–1946. La Press Médicale 55:599600.
Douglas, AW 1969. Cotton textiles in England: The East India Company’s attempt to exploit developments in fashion 1660–1721. J Br Stud 8(2):2843.
Douglas, M 1972. Deciphering a meal. Daedalus 101:6182.
Douglas, M and Isherwood, B 1979. The World of Goods: An Anthropology of Consumption. New York: Basic Books.
Dove, MS, Dockery, DW, Mittleman, MA, Schwartz, J, Sullivan, EM, Keithly, L and Land, T 2010. The impact of Massachusetts’ smoke-free workplace laws on acute myocardial infarction deaths. Am J Public Health 100(11):2206–12.
Dowse, GK, Zimmet, PZ, Finch, CF and Collins, VR 1991. Decline in incidence of epidemic glucose intolerance in Nauruans: implications for the ‘thrifty genotype’. Am J Epidemiol 133(11):1093–104.
Doyal, L and Pennell, I 1979. The Political Economy of Health. London: Pluto Press.
Drake, AJ and Liu, L 2010. Intergenerational transmission of programmed effects: public health consequences. Trends Endocrinol Metab 21(4):206–13.
Drukker, JW and Tassenaar, V 1997. Paradoxes of modernization and material well-being in the Netherlands during the nineteenth century. In Steckel, RH and Floud, R, editors. Health and Welfare During Industrialization. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 331–77.
Dulloo, AG, Jacquet, J, Solinas, G, Montani, JP and Schutz, Y 2010. Body composition phenotypes in pathways to obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Int J Obes 34 Suppl 2:S417.
Dumbaugh, K and Martin, MF 2009. Understanding China’s Political System. Library of Congress: Congressional Research Service.
Dunbar, RIM 1982. Adaptation, fitness and the evolutionary tautology. In Group KsCS, editor. Current Problems in Sociobiology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 928.
Dunstan, DW, Kingwell, BA, Larsen, R, Healy, GN, Cerin, E, Hamilton, MT, Shaw, JE, Bertovic, DA, Zimmet, PZ, Salmon, J et al. 2012. Breaking up prolonged sitting reduces postprandial glucose and insulin responses. Diabetes Care 35(5):976–83.
Dunstan, DW, Salmon, J, Owen, N, Armstrong, T, Zimmet, PZ, Welborn, TA, Cameron, AJ, Dwyer, T, Jolley, D and Shaw, JE 2004. Physical activity and television viewing in relation to risk of undiagnosed abnormal glucose metabolism in adults. Diabetes Care 27(11):2603–9.
Durrani, SA, Khan, HA, Taj, M and Renfrew, C 1971. Obsidian source identification by fission track analysis. Nature 233(5317):242–5.
Dutt, R 1901. Indian Famines: Their Causes and Prevention. London: P. S. King and Son.
Dwork, D 1987. War Is Good for Babies and Other Young Children: A History of the Infant and Child Welfare Movement in England 1898–1918. London: Tavistock Publications.
Dyson, T and Maharatna, A 1991. Excess mortality during the Bengal famine: a re-evaluation. Ind Econ Soc Hist Rev 28:281–97.
Earle, T 1997. How Chiefs Come to Power: The Political Economy in Prehistory. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Eaton, SB and Konner, M 1985. Paleolithic nutrition. a consideration of its nature and current implications. N Engl J Med 312(5):283–9.
Eaton, SB, Pike, MC, Short, RV, Lee, NC, Trussell, J, Hatcher, RA, Wood, JW, Worthman, CM, Blurton Jones, NG, Konner, MJ et al. 1994. Women’s reproductive cancers in evolutionary context. Q Rev Biol 69(3):353–67.
Ebrahim, S, Kinra, S, Bowen, L, Andersen, E, Ben-Shlomo, Y, Lyngdoh, T, Ramakrishnan, L, Ahuja, RC, Joshi, P, Das, SM et al. 2010. The effect of rural-to-urban migration on obesity and diabetes in India: a cross-sectional study. PLoS Med 7(4):e1000268.
Economides, DL, Nicolaides, KH and Campbell, S 1991. Metabolic and endocrine findings in appropriate and small for gestational age fetuses. J Perinat Med 19(1–2):97105.
Economist Intelligence Unit 2013. Democracy index 2012: Democracy at a standstill.
Edel, M 1969. The Brazilian sugar cycle of the seventeenth century and the rise of West Indian competition. Carib Stud 9(1):2444.
Editorial, B 1930. National health and military service. BMJ 25 July:208.
Edwards, CJ, Suchard, MA, Lemey, P, Welch, JJ, Barnes, I, Fulton, TL, Barnett, R, O’Connell, TC, Coxon, P, Monaghan, N et al. 2011. Ancient hybridization and an Irish origin for the modern polar bear matriline. Curr Biol 21(15):1251–8.
Edwards, MJ 2012. Genetic selection of embryos that later develop the metabolic syndrome. Med Hyp 78(5):621–5.
Eijkman, C 1890/1990. Polyneuritis in Chickens, or the Origin of Vitamin Research. [Papers originally published in Geneeskd. Tijdshcr. Ned.-Indie 30: 295334 (1890), 32: 353–62 (1893); 36: 214–69 (1896) van der Heij, D. G., translator]. Basel, Switzerland: Hoffman-laRoche.
Eising, CM and Groothuis, TG 2003. Yolk androgens and begging behaviour in black-headed gull chicks: an experimental field study. Anim Behav 66(6):1027–34.
Ekelund, U, Brage, S, Franks, PW, Hennings, S, Emms, S and Wareham, NJ 2005. Physical activity energy expenditure predicts progression toward the metabolic syndrome independently of aerobic fitness in middle-aged healthy Caucasians: the Medical Research Council Ely Study. Diabetes Care 28(5):1195–200.
Ekelund, U, Franks, PW, Sharp, S, Brage, S and Wareham, NJ 2007. Increase in physical activity energy expenditure is associated with reduced metabolic risk independent of change in fatness and fitness. Diabetes Care 30(8):2101–6.
Ekelund, U, Luan, J, Sherar, LB, Esliger, DW, Griew, P and Cooper, A 2012. Moderate to vigorous physical activity and sedentary time and cardiometabolic risk factors in children and adolescents. JAMA 307(7):704–12.
Ekelund, U, Ong, K, Linne, Y, Neovius, M, Brage, S, Dunger, DB, Wareham, NJ and Rossner, S 2006. Upward weight percentile crossing in infancy and early childhood independently predicts fat mass in young adults: the Stockholm Weight Development Study (SWEDES). Am J Clin Nutr 83(2):324–30.
El Mugamer, IT, Ali Zayat, AS, Hossain, MM and Pugh, RN 1995. Diabetes, obesity and hypertension in urban and rural people of bedouin origin in the United Arab Emirates. J Trop Med Hyg 98(6):407–15.
El-Shenawy, NS 2009. Oxidative stress responses of rats exposed to Roundup and its active ingredient glyphosate. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 28(3):379–85.
Elford, J and Ben-Shlomo, Y 1997. Geography and migration. In Kuh, D and Ben-Shlomo, Y, editors. A Life Course Approach to Chronic Disease Epidemiology. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 220–41.
Elford, J, Shaper, AG and Whincup, PH 1992. Early life experience and cardiovascular disease – ecological studies. J Epidemiol Comm Health 46:111.
Elgar, MA 1989. Predator vigilance and group size in mammals and birds: a critical review of the empirical evidence. Biol Rev 64(1):1333.
Elks, CE, Loos, RJ, Hardy, R, Wills, AK, Wong, A, Wareham, NJ, Kuh, D and Ong, KK 2012. Adult obesity susceptibility variants are associated with greater childhood weight gain and a faster tempo of growth: the 1946 British Birth Cohort Study. Am J Clin Nutr 95(5):1150–6.
Elks, CE, Loos, RJ, Sharp, SJ, Langenberg, C, Ring, SM, Timpson, NJ, Ness, AR, Davey Smith, G, Dunger, DB, Wareham, NJ et al. 2010a. Genetic markers of adult obesity risk are associated with greater early infancy weight gain and growth. PLoS Med 7(5):e1000284.
Elks, CE, Perry, JR, Sulem, P, Chasman, DI, Franceschini, N, He, C, Lunetta, KL, Visser, JA, Byrne, EM, Cousminer, DL et al. 2010b. Thirty new loci for age at menarche identified by a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies. Nat Genet 42(12):1077–85.
Ellen, IG 2000. Is segregation bad for your health? The case of low birth weight. Brookings-Wharton Papers on Urban Affairs:203–29.
Ellis, BH, Figueredo, AJ, Brumbach, BH and Schlomer, GL 2009. Fundamental dimensions of environmental risk: the impact of harsh versus unpredictable environments on the evolution and development of life history strategies. Hum Nat 20:204–68.
Ellis, BJ 2004. Timing of pubertal maturation in girls: an integrated life history approach. Psychol Bull 130(6):920–58.
Ellis, BJ and Del Giudice, M 2014. Beyond allostatic load: rethinking the role of stress in regulating human development. Dev Psychopathol 26(1):120.
Ellis, J 1993. The World War II Databook. The Essential Facts and Figures for All the Combatants. London: Aurum Press.
Ellis, L 1995. Dominance and reproductive success among non-human animals: a systematic literature review. Ethol Sociobiol 16:257333.
Ellis, RW 1945. Growth and health of Belgian children: during and after the German occupation (1940–1944). Arch Dis Child 20(103):97109.
Ellison, GT and Kelly, M 2005. Growth of Jersey schoolchildren during the 1940–1945 German occupation: comparison with schoolchildren on mainland Britain. Hum Biol 77(6):761–72.
Ellison, PT 1981. Morbidity, morality, and menarche. Hum Biol 53(4):635–43.
Ellison, PT 1990. Human ovarian function and reproductive ecology: new hypotheses. Am Anthropol 92:933–52.
Ellison, PT 2001. On Fertile Ground. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Ellison, PT 2008. Energetics, reproductive ecology, and human evolution. PaleoAnthropol 2008:172200.
Elton, C 1927. Animal Ecology. London: Sidgwick and Jackson.
Emanuel, I 1986. Maternal health during childhood and later reproductive performance. Ann NY Acad Sci 477:2739.
Emanuel, I, Filakti, H, Alberman, E and Evans, SJ 1992. Intergenerational studies of human birthweight from the 1958 birth cohort. 1. Evidence for a multigenerational effect. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 99(1):6774.
Emanuel, I, Kimpo, C and Moceri, V 2004a. The association of grandmaternal and maternal factors with maternal adult stature. Int J Epidemiol 33(6):1243–8.
Emanuel, I, Kimpo, C and Moceri, V 2004b. The association of maternal growth and socio-economic measures with infant birthweight in four ethnic groups. Int J Epidemiol 33(6):1236–42.
Emberson, JR, Shaper, AG, Wannamethee, SG, Morris, RW and Whincup, PH 2005. Alcohol intake in middle age and risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality: accounting for intake variation over time. Am J Epidemiol 161(9):856–63.
Emiliani, C 1955. Pleistocene temperatures. J Geol 63:538–78.
Endicott, K 2013. Peaceful foragers: the significance of the Batek and Moriori. In Fry, DP, editor. War, Peace, and Human Nature: The Convergence of Evolutionary and Cultural Views. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 243–61.
Enel, C, Pinchinat, S, Pison, G and Simondon, KB 2006. [Assessment of 24 years of infant growth monitoring in a rural area of Senegal (1969–1992)]. Sante 16(2):97101.
Enesco, M and LeBlond, CP 1962. Increase in cell number as a factor in the growth of the organs and tissues of the young male rat. J Embryol Exp Morphol 10:530–62.
Engelking, B and Leociak, J 2009. The Warsaw Ghetto: A Guide to the Perished City. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Engels, DW 1978. Alexander the Great and the Logistics of the Macedonian Army. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Engels, F 1845/2009. The Condition of the Working Class in England. London: Penguin.
Enos, WF Jr., Beyer, JC and Holmes, RH 1955. Pathogenesis of coronary disease in American soldiers killed in Korea. J Am Med Ass 158(11):912–14.
Enquoselassie, F, and Minyilshewa, A 2000. Changes in birth weight of Hospital-delivered neonates in Addis Ababa. Ethiop J Health Dev 14(2):169–76.
Entringer, S, Epel, ES, Kumsta, R, Lin, J, Hellhammer, DH, Blackburn, EH, Wust, S and Wadhwa, PD 2011. Stress exposure in intrauterine life is associated with shorter telomere length in young adulthood. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 108(33):E513–18.
Entringer, S, Kumsta, R, Hellhammer, DH, Wadhwa, PD and Wust, S 2009. Prenatal exposure to maternal psychosocial stress and HPA axis regulation in young adults. Horm Beh 55(2):292–8.
Entringer, S, Kumsta, R, Nelson, EL, Hellhammer, DH, Wadhwa, PD and Wust, S 2008a. Influence of prenatal psychosocial stress on cytokine production in adult women. Dev Psychobiol 50(6):579–87.
Entringer, S, Wust, S, Kumsta, R, Layes, IM, Nelson, EL, Hellhammer, DH and Wadhwa, PD 2008b. Prenatal psychosocial stress exposure is associated with insulin resistance in young adults. Am J Obstet Gynecol 199(5):498, e491–7.
Environmental Working Group 2014. How Much Is Too Much? Excess Vitamins and Minerals in Food Can Harm Kids’ Health. Washington, DC: Environmental Working Group.
Epel, ES, Blackburn, EH, Lin, J, Dhabhar, FS, Adler, NE, Morrow, JD and Cawthon, RM 2004. Accelerated telomere shortening in response to life stress. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101(49):17312–15.
Epstein, AL 2006. Ethos and Identity: Three Studies in Ethnicity. London: Aldine Transaction.
Eriksson, A and Manica, A 2012. Effect of ancient population structure on the degree of polymorphism shared between modern human populations and ancient hominins. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 109(35):13956–60.
Eriksson, JG, Forsen, T, Tuomilehto, J, Jaddoe, VW, Osmond, C and Barker, DJ 2002. Effects of size at birth and childhood growth on the insulin resistance syndrome in elderly individuals. Diabetologia 45(3):342–8.
Eriksson, JG, Forsen, T, Tuomilehto, J, Osmond, C and Barker, DJ 2000. Early growth, adult income, and risk of stroke. Stroke 31(4):869–74.
Eriksson, JG, Forsen, T, Tuomilehto, J, Osmond, C and Barker, DJ 2001. Early growth and coronary heart disease in later life: longitudinal study. BMJ 322(7292):949–53.
Eriksson, JG, Forsen, T, Tuomilehto, J, Winter, PD, Osmond, C and Barker, DJ 1999. Catch-up growth in childhood and death from coronary heart disease: longitudinal study. BMJ 318(7181):427–31.
Eriksson, JG, Forsen, TJ, Osmond, C and Barker, DJ 2003. Pathways of infant and childhood growth that lead to type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 26(11):3006–10.
Eriksson, JG, Osmond, C, Kajantie, E, Forsen, TJ and Barker, DJ 2006. Patterns of growth among children who later develop type 2 diabetes or its risk factors. Diabetologia 49(12):2853–8.
Escobar, A. 1995. Encountering Development: The Making and Unmaking of the Third World. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Evans, JL, Goldfine, ID, Maddux, BA and Grodsky, GM 2003. Are oxidative stress-activated signaling pathways mediators of insulin resistance and beta-cell dysfunction? Diabetes 52(1):18.
Evans, K and Norris, MR 2000. Ecological immunology: life history trade-offs and immune defense in birds. Behav Ecol 11:1926.
Eveleth, PB and Tanner, JM 1976. Worldwide Variation in Growth. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Ewans, M 2002. European Atrocity, African Catastrophe: Leopold II, the Congo Free State and Its Aftermath. New York: Routledge Curzon.
Ewert, UC 2006. The biological standard of living on the decline: Episodes from Germany during early industrialisation. Eur Rev Econ Hist 10(1):5188.
Eyre, EL and Duncan, MJ 2013. The impact of ethnicity on objectively measured physical activity in children. ISRN obesity 2013:757431.
Fagan, B 2000. Floods, Famines and Emperors. New York: Basic Books.
Fagerberg, B, Bondjers, L and Nilsson, P 2004. Low birth weight in combination with catch-up growth predicts the occurrence of the metabolic syndrome in men at late middle age: the Atherosclerosis and Insulin Resistance study. J Intern Med 256(3):254–9.
Fainsod, M 1963. How Russia Is Ruled. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Fall, CH, Osmond, C, Barker, DJ, Clark, PM, Hales, CN, Stirling, Y and Meade, TW 1995. Fetal and infant growth and cardiovascular risk factors in women. BMJ 310(6977):428–32.
Fall, CH, Stein, CE, Kumaran, K, Cox, V, Osmond, C, Barker, DJ and Hales, CN 1998. Size at birth, maternal weight, and type 2 diabetes in South India. Diabet Med 15(3):220–7.
Fang, J, Madhavan, S, Bosworth, W and Alderman, MH 1998. Residential segregation and mortality in New York City. Soc Sci Med 47(4):469–76.
FAO/WHO/UNU 2001. Human energy requirements: report of a joint FAO/WHO/UNU expert consultation, Rome, 17–24 October 2001. Rome: FAO.
Farouk, SE, Dolo, A, Bereczky, S, Kouriba, B, Maiga, B, Farnert, A, Perlmann, H, Hayano, M, Montgomery, SM, Doumbo, OK et al. 2005. Different antibody- and cytokine-mediated responses to Plasmodium falciparum parasite in two sympatric ethnic tribes living in Mali. Microbes Infect 7(1):110–17.
Feakins, SJ, deMenocal, PB and Eglinton, TI 2005. Biomarker records of late Neogene changes in northeast African vegetation. Geol 33:977–80.
Ferguson, RB 2013. Pinker’s list: exaggerating prehistoric war mortality. In Fry, DP, editor. War, Peace, and Human Nature: The Convergence of Evolutionary and Cultural Views. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 112–31.
Fernald, LC and Neufeld, LM 2007. Overweight with concurrent stunting in very young children from rural Mexico: prevalence and associated factors. Eur J Clin Nutr 61(5):623–32.
Fernandez-Real, JM, Lopez-Bermejo, A, Vendrell, J, Ferri, MJ, Recasens, M and Ricart, W 2006. Burden of infection and insulin resistance in healthy middle-aged men. Diabetes Care 29(5):1058–64.
Fernandez-Twinn, DS, Wayman, A, Ekizoglou, S, Martin, MS, Hales, CN and Ozanne, SE 2005. Maternal protein restriction leads to hyperinsulinemia and reduced insulin-signaling protein expression in 21-mo-old female rat offspring. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 288(2):R368–73.
Fernandez-Armesto, F 2001. Food – A History. London: Macmillan.
Ferreira, FHG and Schady, N 2008. Aggregate economic shocks, child schooling and child health. Washington: World Bank Development Research Group.
Ferrie, JE, Langenberg, C, Shipley, MJ and Marmot, MG 2006. Birth weight, components of height and coronary heart disease: evidence from the Whitehall II study. Int J Epidemiol 35(6):1532–42.
Fillol, F, Cournil, A, Cames, C, Sokhna, C and Simondon, KB 2010. Active malaria morbidity management has limited impact on height status of preschool Senegalese children. J Nutr 140(3):625–9.
Finch, CE 2012. Evolution of the human lifespan, past, present, and future: phases in the evolution of human life expectancy in relation to the inflammatory load. Proc Am Philosoph Soc 156(1):944.
Finch, CE and Crimmins, EM 2004. Inflammatory exposure and historical changes in human life-spans. Science 305(5691):1736–9.
Finkel, T and Holbrook, NJ 2000. Oxidants, oxidative stress and the biology of ageing. Nature 408(6809):239–47.
Fisher, MO, Nager, RG and Monaghan, P 2006. Compensatory growth impairs adult cognitive performance. PLoS Biol 4(8):e251.
Fisher, RA 1930. The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection. London: Oxford University Press.
Flak, JN, Jankord, R, Solomon, MB, Krause, EG and Herman, JP 2011. Opposing effects of chronic stress and weight restriction on cardiovascular, neuroendocrine and metabolic function. Physiol Behav 104(2):228–34.
Flanagan, JG 1989. Hierarchy in simple ‘egalitarian’ societies. Ann Rev Anthropol 18:245–66.
Flannery, K and Marcus, J 2012. The Creation of Inequality: How our Prehistoric Ancestors Set the Stage for Monarchy, Slavery, and Empire. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Fleagle, JG 1999. Primate Adaptation and Evolution (2nd edition). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Fleischer, NL, Diez Roux, AV, Alazraqui, M and Spinelli, H 2008. Social patterning of chronic disease risk factors in a Latin American city. J Urban Health 85(6):923–37.
Fleischmann, F, Phalet, K, Neels, K and Deboosere, P 2011. Contextualizing ethnic educational inequality: the role of stability and quality of neighborhoods and ethnic density in second-generation attainment. Int Migration Rev 45(2):386425.
Fletcher, JM, Frisvold, D and Tefft, N 2010. Can Soft Drink Taxes Reduce Population Weight? Contemp Econ Pol 28(1):2335.
Florencio, TM, Ferreira, HS, de Franca, AP, Cavalcante, JC and Sawaya, AL 2001. Obesity and undernutrition in a very-low-income population in the city of Maceio, northeastern Brazil. Br J Nutr 86(2):277–84.
Floud, R 2002. The dimensions of inequality: weight and height variation in Britain, 1700–2000. Contemp Br Hist 16:1326.
Floud, R, Fogel, RW, Harris, B and Hong, SC 2011. The Changing Body: Health, Nutrition, and Human Development in the Western World Since 1700. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Floud, R and Harris, B 1997. Health, height, and welfare: Britain, 1700–1980. In Steckel, RH and Floud, R, editors. Health and Welfare During Industrialization. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 91126.
Floud, R, Wachter, K and Gregory, A 1990. Height, Health and History: Nutritional Status in the United Kingdom 1750–1980. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Floud, R and Wachter, KW 1982. Poverty and physical stature: evidence on the standard of living of London boys, 1770–870. Soc Sci Hist 6:422452.
Foley, R 1987. Another Unique Species. Patterns in Human Evolutionary Ecology. Somerset, NJ: John Wiley and Sons.
Foley, RA 1993. The influence of seasonality on human evolution. In Ulijaszek, SJ, Strickland, SS, editors. Seasonality and Human Ecology. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. 1737.
Foley, R 2001. The evolutionary consequences of increased carnivory in humans. In Stanford, CB, and Bunn, HT, editors. Meat-Eating and Human Evolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 305–31.
Foley, RA 1994. Speciation, extinction and climatic change in hominind evolution. J Hum Evol 26:275–89.
Fontaine, KR, Redden, DT, Wang, C, Westfall, AO and Allison, DB 2003. Years of life lost due to obesity. JAMA 289(2):187–93.
Food and Agriculture Organization and the World Food Programme (FAO/WFP) 1997. Food Supply and Nutrition Assessment Mission to Iraq (TCP/IRQ/6713). Rome: FAO.
Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations 1996. Rome Declaration on World Food Security and World Food Summit Plan of Action. Rome: World Food Summit, 13–17 November.
Food and Agriculture Organization 2009. Women and Rural Employment: Fighting Poverty by Redefining Gender Role. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization.
Food and Agriculture Organization 2000. The State of Food and Agriculture, 2000. Rome: Food and Agricultural Organization.
Food and Agriculture Organization 2011a. Global Food Losses and Food Waste. Rome: Food and Agricultural Organization.
Food and Agriculture Organization 2011b. World Livestock 2011: Livestock in Food Security. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organisation.
Ford, ES, Ajani, UA, Croft, JB, Critchley, JA, Labarthe, DR, Kottke, TE, Giles, WH and Capewell, S 2007. Explaining the decrease in U.S. deaths from coronary disease, 1980–2000. N Engl J Med 356(23):2388–98.
Ford, ES, Merritt, RK, Heath, GW, Powell, KE, Washburn, RA, Kriska, A and Haile, G 1991. Physical activity behaviors in lower and higher socioeconomic status populations. Am J Epidemiol 133(12):1246–56.
Forrest, D 1973. Tea for the British: The Social and Economic History of a Famous Trade. London: Chatto and Windus.
Forsdahl, A 1977. Are poor living conditions in childhood and adolescence an important risk factor for arteriosclerotic heart disease? Br J Prev Soc Med 31(2):91–5.
Forsdahl, A 1978. Living conditions in childhood and subsequent development of risk factors for arteriosclerotic heart disease. The cardiovascular survey in Finnmark 1974–75. J Epidemiol Community Health 32(1):34–7.
Forsen, T, Eriksson, J, Qiao, Q, Tervahauta, M, Nissinen, A and Tuomilehto, J 2000a. Short stature and coronary heart disease: a 35-year follow-up of the Finnish cohorts of The Seven Countries Study. J Intern Med 248(4):326–32.
Forsen, T, Eriksson, J, Tuomilehto, J, Reunanen, A, Osmond, C and Barker, D 2000b. The fetal and childhood growth of persons who develop type 2 diabetes. Ann Intern Med 133(3):176–82.
Forsen, T, Eriksson, JG, Tuomilehto, J, Osmond, C and Barker, DJ 1999. Growth in utero and during childhood among women who develop coronary heart disease: longitudinal study. BMJ 319(7222):1403–7.
Fotbolcu, H, Yakar, T, Duman, D, Ozden, K, Karaahmet, T, Tigen, K, Kurtoglu, U and Dindar, I 2010. Aortic elastic properties in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Blood Press Monit 15(3):139–45.
Foucault, M 1975/1977. Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison. London: Allen Lane.
Fouts, HN, Hewlett, BS and Lamb, ME 2005. Parent-offspring weaning conflicts among the Bofi farmers and foragers of central Africa. Curr Anthropol 46(1):2950.
Fowler, C 2008. The Svalbard Global Seed Vault: Securing the Future of Agriculture. CropTrust.
Fowler, C and Mooney, P 1990. The Threatened Gene: Food, Politics and the Loss of Genetic Diversity. Cambridge: Lutterworth.
Fowler, S 2014. Workhouse: The People, the Places, the Life Behind Doors. Barnsley: Pen and Sword.
Fraga, MF, Ballestar, E, Paz, MF, Ropero, S, Setien, F, Ballestar, ML, Heine-Suner, D, Cigudosa, JC, Urioste, M, Benitez, J et al. 2005. Epigenetic differences arise during the lifetime of monozygotic twins. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102(30):10604–9.
Franceschi, C, Capri, M, Monti, D, Giunta, S, Olivieri, F, Sevini, F, Panourgia, MP, Invidia, L, Celani, L, Scurti, M et al. 2007. Inflammaging and anti-inflammaging: a systemic perspective on aging and longevity emerged from studies in humans. Mech Ageing Dev 128(1):92105.
Frankel, S, Elwood, P, Sweetnam, P, Yarnell, J and Smith, GD 1996. Birthweight, body-mass index in middle age, and incident coronary heart disease. Lancet 348(9040):1478–80.
Fraser, A, Ebrahim, S, Davey Smith, G and Lawlor, DA 2008. The associations between height components (leg and trunk length) and adult levels of liver enzymes. J Epidemiol Community Health 62(1):4853.
Fredriks, AM, van Buuren, S, Burgmeijer, RJ, Verloove-Vanhorik, SP and Wit, JM 1998. Nederlandse groeidiagrammen 1997 in historisch perspectief. In Wit, JM, editor. De vierde Landelijke Groeistudie (1997) Presenatie niewe groeidiagrammen. Leiden: TNO Preventie en Gezondheit. 113.
Freedman, DS, Khan, LK, Serdula, MK, Ogden, CL and Dietz, WH 2006. Racial and ethnic differences in secular trends for childhood BMI, weight, and height. Obesity 14(2):301–8.
Freedman, P 1999. Images of the Medieval Peasant. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Freeman, JV, Cole, TJ, Chinn, S, Jones, PR, White, EM and Preece, MA 1995. Cross sectional stature and weight reference curves for the UK, 1990. Arch Dis Child 73(1):1724.
Freidberg, S 2009. Fresh: A Perishable History. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.
Freitak, D, Ots, I, Vanatoa, A and Horak, P 2003. Immune response is energetically costly in white cabbage butterfly pupae. Proc Biol Sci 270 Suppl 2:S220–2.
Fretwell, SD 1972. Populations in a Seasonal Environment. Pinceton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Fretwell, SD and Lucas, HL 1970. On territorial behaviour and other factors influencing habitat distribution in birds. I. Theoretical development. Acta Biotheoretica 19:1636.
Freuchen, P 1961. Book of the Eskimos. New York: Fawcett World.
Friedman, M 1962. Capitalism and Freedom. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Friedman, M 1970. The social responsibility of business is to increase its profits. New York Times Magazine September 13.
Frier, B 1983. Roman life expectancy: Ulpian’s evidence. Harvard Stud Classical Philol 86:213–51.
Frisancho, AR, Cole, PE and Klayman, JE 1977. Greater contribution to secular trend among offspring of short parents. Hum Biol 49(1):5160.
Fry, DP and Soderberg, P 2013. Lethal aggression in mobile forager bands and implications for the origins of war. Science 341(6143):270–3.
Fryer, P 1988. Black People in the British Empire: An Introduction. London: Pluto Press.
Fukuyama, F 1992. The End of History and the Last Man. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Fukuyama, F 2012. The future of history: can liberal democracy survive the decline of the middle classes? Foreign Affairs 91(1):5361.
Fulker, DW 1970. Maternal buffering of rodent genotypic responses to stress: a complex genotype-environment interaction. Behav Genet 1(2):119–24.
Fuller, JFC 1958. The Generalship of Alexander the Great. London: Eyre and Spottiswoode.
Fumagalli, M, Cagliani, R, Pozzoli, U, Riva, S, Comi, GP, Menozzi, G, Bresolin, N and Sironi, M 2009a. Widespread balancing selection and pathogen-driven selection at blood group antigen genes. Genom Res 19(2):199212.
Fumagalli, M, Pozzoli, U, Cagliani, R, Comi, GP, Riva, S, Clerici, M, Bresolin, N and Sironi, M 2009b. Parasites represent a major selective force for interleukin genes and shape the genetic predisposition to autoimmune conditions. J Exp Med 206(6):1395–408.
Furuichi, T 1997. Agonistic interactions and matrifocal dominance rank of wild bonobos (Pan paniscus) at Wamba. Int J Primatol 18:855–75.
Gabriel, W, Luttbeg, B, Sih, A and Tollrian, R 2005. Environmental tolerance, heterogeneity, and the evolution of reversible plastic responses. Am Nat 166(3):339–53.
Gabrielsson, BG, Johansson, JM, Lonn, M, Jernas, M, Olbers, T, Peltonen, M, Larsson, I, Lonn, L, Sjostrom, L, Carlsson, B et al. 2003. High expression of complement components in omental adipose tissue in obese men. Obes Res 11(6):699708.
Gagnon, A, Smith, KR, Tremblay, M, Vezina, H, Pare, PP and Desjardins, B 2009. Is there a trade-off between fertility and longevity? A comparative study of women from three large historical databases accounting for mortality selection. Am J Hum Biol 21(4):533–40.
Gaillard, T, Schuster, D and Osei, K 2009. Metabolic syndrome in Black people of the African diaspora: the paradox of current classification, definition and criteria. Ethn Dis 19(2 Suppl 2):S2–1–7.
Gaillard, T, Schuster, D and Osei, K 2010. Differential impact of serum glucose, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol on cardiovascular risk factor burden in nondiabetic, obese African American women: implications for the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Metab 59(8):1115–23.
Galbraith, JK 1958. The Affluent Society. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Galdikas, BM and Wood, JW 1990. Birth spacing patterns in humans and apes. Am J Phys Anthropol 83(2):185–91.
Gale, EA 2013. Is type 2 diabetes a category error? Lancet 381(9881):1956–7.
Galeotti, G 1947. Lo sviluppo somatico degli alumni delle scuole communali di Roma in periodo di emergenza alimentare (1945). Rivista Antropol 35:285–95.
Galgani, JE, Moro, C and Ravussin, E 2008. Metabolic flexibility and insulin resistance. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 295(5):E1009–17.
Gallagher, A 2013. Stature, body mass, and brain size: a two-million-year odyssey. Econ Hum Biol 11(4):551–62.
Gallagher, J and Robinson, R 1953. The imperialism of free trade. Econ Hist Rev 6(1):115.
Galloway, JH 1977. The Mediterranean sugar industry. Geogr Rev 67(2):177–94.
Galloway, T, Chateau-Degat, ML, Egeland, GM and Young, TK 2011. Does sitting height ratio affect estimates of obesity prevalence among Canadian Inuit? Results from the 2007–2008 Inuit Health Survey. Am J Hum Biol 23(5):655–63.
Galobardes, B, Lynch, JW and Davey Smith, G 2004. Childhood socioeconomic circumstances and cause-specific mortality in adulthood: systematic review and interpretation. Epidemiol Rev 26:721.
Galvin, CA 1992. Nutritional ecology of pastoralists in dry tropical Africa. Am J Hum Biol 4:209–21.
Gamble, C 1993. Timewalkers: The Prehistory of Global Colonisation. Stroud: Alan Sutton.
Gamborg, M, Byberg, L, Rasmussen, F, Andersen, PK, Baker, JL, Bengtsson, C, Canoy, D, Droyvold, W, Eriksson, JG, Forsen, T et al. 2007. Birth weight and systolic blood pressure in adolescence and adulthood: meta-regression analysis of sex- and age-specific results from 20 Nordic studies. Am J Epidemiol 166(6):634–45.
Gamerro, C 2012. An Open Secret. London: Pushkin.
Gangestad, SW, Thornhill, R and Yeo, RA 1994. Facial attractiveness, developmental stability, and fluctuating asymmetry. Ethol Sociobiol 15:7385.
Ganguly, P 1979. A Study of Sixty Population Groups. In Stini, WA, editor. The Hague: Mouton Publishers. 315–37.
Ganong, WF 1999. Review of Medical Physiology (19th edition). Stamford, CT: Appleton and Lange.
Garber, AK and Lustig, RH 2011. Is fast food addictive? Curr Drug Abuse Rev 4(3):146–62.
Garcia, C, Lee, PC and Rosetta, L 2009. Growth in colony living anubis baboon infants and its relationship with maternal activity budgets and reproductive status. Am J Phys Anthropol 138(2):123–35.
Garcia Carrapato, MR 2003. The offspring of gestational diabetes. J Perinat Med 31(1):511.
Gardiner, R and Christensen, AE 1996. The Earliest Ships: The Evolution of Boats into Ships. London: Conway Maritime Press.
Gardner, MJ, Winter, PD and Barker, DJ 1984. Atlas of Mortality from Selected Diseases: In England and Wales 1968–1978. Chichester: John Wiley.
Garenne, M 2011. Trends in nutritional status in adult women in sub-Saharan Africa. DHS Comparative Reports 27. Calverton, MD: ICF Macro.
Garnham, PC 1949. Distribution of wild-rodent plague. Bull World Health Organ 2(2):271–8.
Garrigan, D and Hammer, MF 2006. Reconstructing human origins in the genomic era. Nat Rev Genet 7(9):669–80.
Garrison, RJ, Gold, RS, Wilson, PW and Kannel, WB 1993. Educational attainment and coronary heart disease risk: the Framingham Offspring Study. Prev Med 22(1):5464.
Garrow, JS and Webster, J 1985. Quetelet’s index (W/H2) as a measure of fatness. Int J Obes 9(2):147–53.
Gault, A, O’Dea, K, Rowley, KG, McLeay, T and Traianedes, K 1996. Abnormal glucose tolerance and other coronary heart disease risk factors in an isolated aboriginal community in central Australia. Diabetes Care 19(11):1269–73.
Gavin, JR 3rd, Fox, KM and Grandy, S 2011. Race/Ethnicity and gender differences in health intentions and behaviors regarding exercise and diet for adults with type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional analysis. BMC Public Health 11:533.
Gawlik, A, Walker, RS and Hochberg, Z 2011. Impact of infancy duration on adult size in 22 subsistence-based societies. Acta Paediatr 100(12):e248–52.
Gear, J and Davis, DH 1942. The susceptibility of the South African Gerbils (Genus tatera) to rickettsial diseases and their use in the preparation of anti-typhus vaccine. Trans Roy Soc Trop Med Hyg 36: 17.
Geiger, S, Le Vaillant, M, Lebard, T, Reichert, S, Stier, A, Lem, Y and Criscuolo, F 2012. Catching-up but telomere loss: half-opening the black box of growth and ageing trade-off in wild king penguin chicks. Mol Ecol 21(6):1500–10.
Geiss, LS, Wang, J, Cheng, YJ, Thompson, TJ, Barker, L, Li, Y, Albright, AL and Gregg, EW 2014. Prevalence and incidence trends for diagnosed diabetes among adults aged 20 to 79 years, United States, 1980–2012. JAMA 312(12):1218–26.
Geller, M 2009. Coca-Cola Aims to Double System Revenue by 2020. Atlanta: Reuters 16 November 2009.
Geneva Declaration Secretariat 2008. The Global Burden of Armed Violence. Geneva: Geneva Declaration Secretariat.
Gerbault, P, Liebert, A, Itan, Y, Powell, A, Currat, M, Burger, J, Swallow, DM and Thomas, MG 2011. Evolution of lactase persistence: an example of human niche construction. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 366(1566):863–77.
Gerhards, G 2005. Secular variations in the body stature of the inhabitants of Latvia (7th millennium BC – 20th c. AD). Acta Med Lituanica 12:33–9.
Geronimus, AT 1992. The weathering hypothesis and the health of African-American women and infants: evidence and speculations. Ethn Dis 2(3):207–21.
Geronimus, AT 1996. Black/white differences in the relationship of maternal age to birthweight: a population-based test of the weathering hypothesis. Soc Sci Med 42(4):589–97.
Gertler, MM, Garn, SM and White, PD 1951. Young candidates for coronary heart disease. J Am Med Ass 147(7):621–5.
Ghaffar, A, Reddy, KS and Singhi, M 2004. Burden of non-communicable diseases in South Asia. BMJ 328(7443):807–10.
Ghosh, JR and Bandyopadhyay, AR 2006. Income, birth order, siblings, and anthropometry. Hum Biol 78(6):733–41.
Ghosh, S and Malik, SL 2007. Parent-offspring correlations in body measurements, physique and physiological variables among Santhals of West Bengal. J Exerc Sci Physiother 3(1):2643.
Gibson, MA and Mace, R 2006. An energy-saving development initiative increases birth rate and childhood malnutrition in rural Ethiopia. PLoS Med 3(4):e87.
Giele, JZ and Elder, GH 1998. Life course research: development of a field. In Giele, JZ and Elder, GH, editors. Methods of Life Course Research: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc. 527.
Gielen, M, Lindsey, PJ, Derom, C, Smeets, HJ, Souren, NY, Paulussen, AD, Derom, R and Nijhuis, JG 2008. Modeling genetic and environmental factors to increase heritability and ease the identification of candidate genes for birth weight: a twin study. Behav Genet 38(1):4454.
Gill, CA 1921. The role of meteorology in malaria. Ind J Med Res 8:633–93.
Gill, JM, Celis-Morales, CA and Ghouri, N 2014. Physical activity, ethnicity and cardio-metabolic health: does one size fit all? Atherosclerosis 232(2):319–33.
Gill, RJ, Ramos-Rodriguez, O and Raine, NE 2012. Combined pesticide exposure severely affects individual- and colony-level traits in bees. Nature 491(7422):105–8.
Gimble, JM, Robinson, CE, Wu, X and Kelly, KA 1996. The function of adipocytes in the bone marrow stroma: an update. Bone 19(5):421–8.
Ginsberg, HN 2000. Insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease. J Clin Invest 106(4):453–8.
Giskes, K, van Lenthe, FJ, Turrell, G, Kamphuis, CB, Brug, J and Mackenbach, JP 2008. Socioeconomic position at different stages of the life course and its influence on body weight and weight gain in adulthood: a longitudinal study with 13-year follow-up. Obesity 16(6):1377–81.
Githeko, AK, Lindsay, SW, Confalonieri, UE and Patz, JA 2000. Climate change and vector-borne diseases: a regional analysis. Bull World Health Organ 78(9):1136–47.
Giunta, S 2006. Is inflammaging an auto[innate]immunity subclinical syndrome? Immun Ageing: I & A 3:12.
Gladwin, T 1967. Poverty U.S.A. Boston, MA: Little, Brown.
Glaeser, B 1987. Agriculture between the Green Revolution and ecodevelopment: which way to go? In Glaeser, B, editor. The Green Revolution Revisited: Critique and Alternatives. London: Allen & Unwin. 19.
Glantz, M 2001. Currents of Change: Impacts of El Niño and La Niña on Climate and Society (2nd). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Glasgow, D 1981. The Black Underclass: Poverty, Unemployment and Entrapment of Ghetto Youth. New York: Vintage Books.
Global Slavery Index 2014. Global Slavery Index 2014. Walk Free Foundation.
Gluckman, P, Godfrey, K, Hanson, M and Kuzawa, C 2009. Developmental aspects of diseases of modern environments. Evol Med Rev October 28 (
Gluckman, P and Hanson, M 2004. The Fetal Matrix: Evolution, Development and Disease. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Gluckman, PD, Hanson, MA, Cooper, C and Thornburg, KL 2008. Effect of in utero and early-life conditions on adult health and disease. N Engl J Med 359(1):6173.
Godfray, HC, Beddington, JR, Crute, IR, Haddad, L, Lawrence, D, Muir, JF, Pretty, J, Robinson, S, Thomas, SM and Toulmin, C 2010. Food security: the challenge of feeding 9 billion people. Science 327(5967):812–18.
Godfrey, KM, Redman, CW, Barker, DJ and Osmond, C 1991. The effect of maternal anaemia and iron deficiency on the ratio of fetal weight to placental weight. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 98(9):886–91.
Goldstein, DB 2009. Common genetic variation and human traits. N Engl J Med 360(17):1696–8.
Golden, M 1988. The effects of malnutrition in the metabolism of children. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 82: 36.
Goodey, J, Kennedy, J and Milmo, C 2014. Councils paid to cut smoking, but have £2bn of tobacco shares. Independent on Sunday 09 November 2014.
Gopalan, C 1958. Studies on lactation in poor Indian communities. J Trop Pediatr 4(3):8797.
Gopinath, N, Chadha, SL, Jain, P, Shekhawat, S and Tandon, R 1994. An epidemiological study of obesity in adults in the urban population of Delhi. J Assoc Physicians India 42(3):212–15.
Gordon-Larsen, P, McMurray, RG and Popkin, BM 1999. Adolescent physical activity and inactivity vary by ethnicity: The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. J Pediatr 135(3):301–6.
Gorgias, N, Maidatsi, P, Tsolaki, M, Alvanou, A, Kiriazis, G, Kaidoglou, K and Giala, M 1996. Hypoxic pretreatment protects against neuronal damage of the rat hippocampus induced by severe hypoxia. Brain Res 714(1–2):215–25.
Gosden, C 1989. Debt, production, and prehistory. J Anthropol Archaeol 8:355–87.
Goss, PE, Strasser-Weippl, K, Lee-Bychkovsky, BL, Fan, L, Li, J, Chavarri-Guerra, Y, Liedke, PE, Pramesh, CS, Badovinac-Crnjevic, T, Sheikine, Y et al. 2014. Challenges to effective cancer control in China, India, and Russia. Lancet Oncol 15(5):489538.
Goto, C, Higashi, Y, Kimura, M, Noma, K, Hara, K, Nakagawa, K, Kawamura, M, Chayama, K, Yoshizumi, M and Nara, I 2003. Effect of different intensities of exercise on endothelium-dependent vasodilation in humans: role of endothelium-dependent nitric oxide and oxidative stress. Circulation 108(5):530–5.
Grady, SC 2006. Racial disparities in low birthweight and the contribution of residential segregation: a multilevel analysis. Soc Sci Med 63(12):3013–29.
Graeber, D 2011. Debt: The First 5,000 Years. London: Melville House.
Grafen, A 1988. On the uses of data on lifetime reproductive success. In Clutton-Brock, T, editor. Reproductive Success. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. 454–71.
GRAIN 2014. Hungry for land: small farmers feed the world with less than a quarter of all farmland.
Grandi, C and Dipierri, JE 2008. [Secular trend of birth weight in Argentina (1992–2002): a population based study]. Arch Argent Pediatr 106(3):219–25.
Green, AS, Rozance, PJ, Limesand, SW 2010a. Consequences of a compromised intrauterine environment on islet function. J Endocrinol 205(3):211–24.
Green, RE, Krause, J, Briggs, AW, Maricic, T, Stenzel, U, Kircher, M, Patterson, N, Li, H, Zhai, W, Fritz, MH et al. 2010b. A draft sequence of the Neandertal genome. Science 328(5979):710–22.
Greene, G 1978. The Human Factor. London: Penguin. 35.
Greenfield, SM. 1977. Madeira and the beginnings of new world sugar cane cultivation and plantation slavery: a study in institution building. Ann N Y Acad Sci 292:536–52.
Greenwood, A 1913. The Health and Physique of School Children. London: P.S. King & Son.
Gregory, CA 1982. Gifts and Commodities. New York: Academic Press.
Grey, C, Wells, S, Riddell, T, Kerr, A, Gentles, D, Pylypchuk, R, Marshall, R, Ameratunga, S, Drury, P, Elley, CR et al. 2010. A comparative analysis of the cardiovascular disease risk factor profiles of Pacific peoples and Europeans living in New Zealand assessed in routine primary care: PREDICT CVD-11. N Z Med J 123(1309):6275.
Grier, PT 1996. The End of History and the Return of History. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press.
Griffiths, PL and Bentley, ME 2001. The nutrition transition is underway in India. J Nutr 131(10):2692–700.
Grigg, DB 1975. The world’s agricultural labour force 1800–1970. Geogr 60(3):194202.
Grigg, DB 1992. Agriculture in the world economy: an historical geography of decline. Geogr 77(3):210–22.
Grijalva-Eternod, CS, Lawlor, DA and Wells, JC 2013. Testing a capacity-load model for hypertension: disentangling early and late growth effects on childhood blood pressure in a prospective birth cohort. PLoS One 8(2):e56078.
Grijalva-Eternod, CS, Wells, JC, Cortina-Borja, M, Salse-Ubach, N, Tondeur, MC, Dolan, C, Meziani, C, Wilkinson, C, Spiegel, P and Seal, AJ 2012. The double burden of obesity and malnutrition in a protracted emergency setting: a cross-sectional study of Western sahara refugees. PLoS Med 9(10):e1001320.
Grinnell, J 1917. The niche-relationship of the California Thrasher. Auk 34:427–33.
Grinnell, J 1924. Geography and evolution. Ecol 5:225–9.
Grousset, R 1970. The Empire of the Steppes: A History of Central Asia New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
Grube, K and Burkle, A 1992. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activity in mononuclear leukocytes of 13 mammalian species correlates with species-specific life span. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 89(24):11759–63.
Gruber, T, Potts, KB, Krupenye, C, Byrne, MR, Mackworth-Young, C, McGrew, WC, Reynolds, V and Zuberbuhler, K 2012. The influence of ecology on chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) cultural behavior: a case study of five Ugandan chimpanzee communities. J Comp Psychol 126(4):446–57.
Grzeskowiak, L, Collado, MC, Mangani, C, Maleta, K, Laitinen, K, Ashorn, P, Isolauri, E and Salminen, S 2012. Distinct gut microbiota in southeastern African and northern European infants. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 54(6):812–16.
Guenard, F, Deshaies, Y, Cianflone, K, Kral, JG, Marceau, P and Vohl, MC 2013. Differential methylation in glucoregulatory genes of offspring born before vs. after maternal gastrointestinal bypass surgery. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 110(28):11439–44.
Guernier, V, Hochberg, ME and Guegan, JF 2004. Ecology drives the worldwide distribution of human diseases. PLoS Biol 2(6):e141.
Guidici, A, Navarro, J, Juste, C and González-Solís, J 2010. Physiological ecology of breeders and sabbaticals in a pelagic seabird. J Exp Marine Biol Ecol 389:1317.
Gunnell, D, Rogers, J and Dieppe, P 2001. Height and health: predicting longevity from bone length in archaeological remains. J Epidemiol Community Health 55(7):505–7.
Gunnell, D, Smith, GD, McConnachie, A, Greenwood, R, Upton, M and Frankel, S 1999. Separating in-utero and postnatal influences on later disease. Lancet 354(9189):1526–7.
Gunnell, D, Whitley, E, Upton, MN, McConnachie, A, Smith, GD and Watt, GC 2003. Associations of height, leg length, and lung function with cardiovascular risk factors in the Midspan Family Study. J Epidemiol Community Health 57(2):141–6.
Gunnell, DJ, Smith, GD, Frankel, SJ, Kemp, M and Peters, TJ 1998. Socio-economic and dietary influences on leg length and trunk length in childhood: a reanalysis of the Carnegie (Boyd Orr) survey of diet and health in prewar Britain (1937–39). Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 12 Suppl 1:96113.
Guntupalli, AM and Baten, J 2006. The development and inequality of heights in North, West, and East India 1915–1944. Explor Econ Hist 43:578608.
Guntupalli, AM and Moradi, A 2008. What does gender dimorphism in stature tell us about discrimination in rural India, 1930 – 1975? In Pal, MB, Ghosh, B and Vasulu, TS, editors. Gender and Discrimination: Health, Nutritional Status, and Role of Women in India. New Delhi, India: Oxford University Press. 258–77.
Gupta, DK, Shah, P, Misra, A, Bharadwaj, S, Gulati, S, Gupta, N, Sharma, R, Pandey, RM and Goel, K 2011. Secular trends in prevalence of overweight and obesity from 2006 to 2009 in urban Asian Indian adolescents aged 14–17 years. PLoS One 6(2):e17221.
Gupta, P and Dutta, PC 1966. Anthropometry in India (1868–1961): A Reference Manual of Somatological Studies. In Anthropological Survey, Calcutta.
Gupta, R, Joshi, P, Mohan, V, Reddy, KS and Yusuf, S 2008. Epidemiology and causation of coronary heart disease and stroke in India. Heart 94(1):1626.
Gupta, R, Kaul, V, Bhagat, N, Agrawal, M, Gupta, VP, Misra, A and Vikram, NK 2007. Trends in prevalence of coronary risk factors in an urban Indian population: Jaipur Heart Watch-4. Indian Heart J 59(4):346–53.
Gupta, R and Majumdar, S 1994. Correlation of waist-hip ratio with coronary heart disease and risk factor prevalence in a rural male population. Indian Heart J 46(4):145–8.
Gupta, R, Misra, A, Vikram, NK, Kondal, D, Gupta, SS, Agrawal, A and Pandey, RM 2009. Younger age of escalation of cardiovascular risk factors in Asian Indian subjects. BMC Cardiovasc Disord 9:28.
Guriev, S and Rachinsky, A 2005. The role of oligarchs in Russian capitalism. J Econ Perspect 19(1):131–50.
Gurven, M, Borgerhoof Mulder, M, Hooper, PL, Kaplan, H, Quinlan, R, Sear, R, Schniter, E, von Rueden, C, Bowles, S, Hertz, T et al. 2010. Domestication alone does not lead to inequality: intergenerational wealth transmission among horticulturalists. Curr Anthropol 51:4964.
Gurven, M and Kaplan, H 2007. Longevity among hunter‐gatherers: a cross‐cultural examination. Pop Dev Rev 33:321–65.
Gurven, M and Walker, R 2006. Energetic demand of multiple dependents and the evolution of slow human growth. Proc Biol Sci 273(1588):835–41.
Gustafsson, L and Sutherland, WJ 1988. The costs of reproduction in the collared flycatcher Ficedula albicollis. Nature 335:813–15.
Guyatt, HL and Snow, RW 2004. Impact of malaria during pregnancy on low birth weight in sub-Saharan Africa. Clin Microbiol Rev 17(4):760–9, table of contents.
Gwassa, GC and Iliffe, J 1968. Records of the Maji Maji Rising. Nairobi: East African Publishing House.
Haas, J and Piscitelli, M 2013. The prehistory of warfare: misled by ethnography. In Fry, DP, editor. War, Peace, and Human Nature: The Convergence of Evolutionary and Cultural Views. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 168–90.
Habermas, J 1968/1970. Towards a Rational Society. Boston, MA: Beacon Press.
Habu, J 1996. Jomon sedentism and intersite variability: collectors of the Early Jomon Moroiso Phase in Japan. Arctic Anthropol 33(2):3849.
Hacker, AG, Collins, R and Jacobson, MS 1987. Marketing Booze to Blacks. Washington, DC: Center for Science in the Public Interest.
Hackett, JA, Sengupta, R, Zylicz, JJ, Murakami, K, Lee, C, Down, TA and Surani, MA 2013. Germline DNA demethylation dynamics and imprint erasure through 5-hydroxymethylcytosine. Science 339(6118):448–52.
Hackett, JA and Surani, MA 2013. DNA methylation dynamics during the mammalian life cycle. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 368(1609):20110328.
Hadzihalilovic, J, Halilovic, SH, Brahimaj, F, Begic, A, Tupkusic, R and Mesalic, L 2009. Secular changes of anthropometric parameters in newborns from Gracanica area in the period from 1998 to 2008. Medicinski Arhiv 63(5):267–70.
Hagger, MS, Wood, C, Stiff, C and Chatzisarantis, NL 2010. Ego depletion and the strength model of self-control: a meta-analysis. Psychol Bull 136(4):495525.
Haig, D 1993. Genetic conflicts in human pregnancy. Q Rev Biol 68(4):495532.
Haig, D 1996. Placental hormones, genomic imprinting, and maternal-fetal communication. J Evol Biol 9:357–80.
Haig, D 1997. Parental antagonism, relatedness asymmetries, and genomic imprinting. Proc Biol Sci 264(1388):1657–62.
Haig, D 1999. Genetic conflicts of pregnancy and childhood. In Stearns, SC, editor. Evolution in Health and Disease. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 7790.
Hajkova, Z, Streda, A and Skrha, F 1965. Hyperostotic spondylosis and diabetes mellitus. Ann Rheum Dis 24(6):536–43.
Hales, CN and Barker, DJ 1992. Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus: the thrifty phenotype hypothesis. Diabetologia 35(7):595601.
Hales, CN, Barker, DJ, Clark, PM, Cox, LJ, Fall, C, Osmond, C and Winter, PD 1991. Fetal and infant growth and impaired glucose tolerance at age 64. BMJ 303(6809):1019–22.
Hall, V, Thomsen, RW, Henriksen, O and Lohse, N 2011. Diabetes in Sub Saharan Africa 1999–2011: epidemiology and public health implications. A systematic review. BMC Public Health 11:564.
Hallal, PC, Andersen, LB, Bull, FC, Guthold, R, Haskell, W, Ekelund, U and Lancet Physical Activity Series Working G. 2012. Global physical activity levels: surveillance progress, pitfalls, and prospects. Lancet 380(9838):247–57.
Hallal, PC, Victora, CG, Wells, JC and Lima, RC 2003. Physical inactivity: prevalence and associated variables in Brazilian adults. Med Sci Sports Exerc 35(11):1894–900.
Halpern, SD, French, B, Small, DS, Saulsgiver, K, Harhay, MO, Audrain-McGovern, J, Loewenstein, G, Brennan, TA, Asch, DA and Volpp, KG 2015. Randomized trial of four financial-incentive programs for smoking cessation. N Engl J Med 372(22):2108–17.
Halvorsen, CP, Andolf, E, Hu, J, Pilo, C, Winbladh, B and Norman, M 2006. Discordant twin growth in utero and differences in blood pressure and endothelial function at 8 years of age. J Intern Med 259(2):155–63.
Hamburg, MA and Collins, FS 2010. The path to personalized medicine. N Engl J Med 363(4):301–4.
Hamel, S, Craine, JM and Towne, EG 2012. Maternal allocation in bison: co-occurrence of senescence, cost of reproduction, and individual quality. Ecol Appl 22(5):1628–39.
Hamilton, MT, Hamilton, DG and Zderic, TW 2007. Role of low energy expenditure and sitting in obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Diabetes 56(11):2655–67.
Hamilton, MT, Healy, GN, Dunstan, DW, Zderic, TW and Owen, N 2008. Too Little Exercise and Too Much Sitting: Inactivity Physiology and the Need for New Recommendations on Sedentary Behavior. Curr Cardiovasc Risk Rep 2(4):292–8.
Hamilton, WD 1964a. The genetical evolution of social behaviour. I. J Theor Biol 7(1):116.
Hamilton, WD 1964b. The genetical evolution of social behaviour. II. J Theor Biol 7(1):1752.
Hammerstein, P and GHagen, EH 2005. The second wave of evolutionary economics in biology. Trends Ecol Evol 20:604–9.
Hammond, EC and Garfinkel, L 1969. Coronary heart disease, roke, and aortic aneurysm. Factors in the etiology. Arch Env Health 19(2):167–82.
Hancock, AM, Alkorta-Aranburu, G, Witonsky, DB and Di Rienzo, A 2010a. Adaptations to new environments in humans: the role of subtle allele frequency shifts. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 365(1552):2459–68.
Hancock, AM, Witonsky, DB, Ehler, E, Alkorta-Aranburu, G, Beall, C, Gebremedhin, A, Sukernik, R, Utermann, G, Pritchard, J, Coop, G et al. 2010b. Human adaptations to diet, subsistence, and ecoregion are due to subtle shifts in allele frequency. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107 Suppl 2:8924–30.
Hancock, AM, Witonsky, DB, Gordon, AS, Eshel, G, Pritchard, JK, Coop, G and Di Rienzo, A 2008. Adaptations to climate in candidate genes for common metabolic disorders. PLoS Genet 4:e32.
Hann, C and Hart, K 2011. Economic Anthropology. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Hansen, AJ 1986. Fighting behavior in Bald Eagles: a test of game theory. Ecol 67:787–97.
Hansen, J, Sato, M and Ruedy, R 2012. Perception of climate change. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA vol 109(37): E2415E2423.
Hanson, JD and Kysar, DA 1999. Taking behavioralism seriously: some evidence of market manipulation. Harvard Law Rev 112(7):1420–572.
Hanway, J 1757. A Journal of Eight Days Journey: From Portsmouth to Kingston upon Thames; Through Southampton, Wiltshire, &c. with Miscellaneous Thoughts,… By a Gentleman of the Partie. London: H. Woodfall.
Harder, T, Rodekamp, E, Schellong, K, Dudenhausen, JW and Plagemann, A 2007. Birth weight and subsequent risk of type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis. Am J Epidemiol 165(8):849–57.
Hardy, R, Kuh, D, Whincup, PH and Wadsworth, ME 2006. Age at puberty and adult blood pressure and body size in a British birth cohort study. J Hypertens 24(1):5966.
Harley, CB 1991. Telomere loss: mitotic clock or genetic time bomb? Mutat Res 256(2–6):271–82.
Harman, D 1956. Aging: a theory based on free radical and radiation chemistry. J Gerontol 11(3):298300.
Harmand, S, Lewis, JE, Feibel, CS, Lepre, CJ, Prat, S, Lenoble, A, Boes, X, Quinn, RL, Brenet, M, Arroyo, A et al. 2015. 3.3-million-year-old stone tools from Lomekwi 3, West Turkana, Kenya. Nature 521(7552):310–15.
Haroun, D, Taylor, SJ, Viner, RM, Hayward, RS, Darch, TS, Eaton, S, Cole, TJ and Wells, JC 2010. Validation of bioelectrical impedance analysis in adolescents across different ethnic groups. Obesity 18(6):1252–9.
Harrer, H 1959. The White Spider: The History of the Eiger’s North Face. London: Hart-Davis.
Harrington, TA, Thomas, EL, Frost, G, Modi, N and Bell, JD 2004. Distribution of adipose tissue in the newborn. Pediatr Res 55(3):437–41.
Harris, JL, Bargh, JA and Brownell, KD 2009. Priming effects of television food advertising on eating behavior. Health Psychol 28(4):404–13.
Harrison, ME and Chivers, DJ 2007. The orang-utan mating system and the unflanged male: A product of increased food stress during the late Miocene and Pliocene? J Hum Evol 52:275–93.
Harshman, LG and Zera, AJ 2007. The cost of reproduction: the devil in the details. Trends Ecol Evol 22:80–6.
Hart, K 2002. World society as an old regime. In Shore, C and Nugent, S, editors. Elite Cultures: Anthropological Perspectives. London: Routledge. 2236.
Hart, K 2013. State, Region and Revolution in African Development. The Memory Bank.
Hart, K and Sperling, L 1987. Cattle as capital. Ethnos 52:324–38.
Hart, N 1993. Famine, maternal nutrition and infant mortality: a re-examination of the Dutch hunger winter. Popul Stud 47(1):2746.
Harvey, B 1993. Living and Dying in England 1100–1540: The Monastic Experience. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Hatton, TJ 2011. Infant mortality and the health of survivors: Britain, 1910–50. Econ Hist Rev 64(3):951–72.
Hatton, TJ and Bray, BE 2010. Long run trends in the heights of European men, 19th–20th centuries. Econ Hum Biol 8(3):405–13.
Hau, M 2001. Timing of breeding in variable environments: tropical birds as model systems. Horm Behav 40(2):281–90.
Haugaard, LK, Ajslev, TA, Zimmermann, E, Angquist, L and Sorensen, TI 2013. Being an only or last-born child increases later risk of obesity. PLoS One 8(2):e56357.
Hauspie, RC, Vercauteren, M and Susanne, C 1997. Secular changes in growth and maturation: an update. Acta Paediatr Suppl 423:20–7.
Haviaras, S 1986. The Heroic Age. Harmondsworth: King Penguin. 310.
Haviland, WA 1967. Stature at Tikal, Guatemala: implications for ancient Maya demography and social organization. Am Antiq 32:316–25.
Hawkes, K 2006. Life History Theory and Human Evolution. In Hawkes, K and Paine, RR, editors. Oxford: James Currey. 4593.
Hawkes, K, O’Connell, JF and Blurton Jones, NG 1989. Hardworking hadza grandmothers. In Standen, V and Foley, RA, editors. Comparative Socioecology. Oxford: Blackwell. 341–66.
Hawkes, K, O’Connell, JF, Jones, NG, Alvarez, H and Charnov, EL 1998. Grandmothering, menopause, and the evolution of human life histories. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 95(3):1336–9.
Hawkesworth, S 2009. Exploiting dietary supplementation trials to assess the impact of the prenatal environment on CVD risk. Proc Nutr Soc 68(1):7888.
Hawkesworth, S, Moore, SE, Fulford, AJ, Barclay, GR, Darboe, AA, Mark, H, Nyan, OA and Prentice, AM 2013. Evidence for metabolic endotoxemia in obese and diabetic Gambian women. Nutr Diabetes 3:e83.
Hawkesworth, S, Prentice, AM, Fulford, AJ and Moore, SE 2009. Maternal protein-energy supplementation does not affect adolescent blood pressure in The Gambia. Int J Epidemiol 38(1):119–27.
Hawkesworth, S, Sawo, Y, Fulford, AJ, Goldberg, GR, Jarjou, LM, Prentice, A and Moore, SE 2010. Effect of maternal calcium supplementation on offspring blood pressure in 5- to 10-y-old rural Gambian children. Am J Clin Nutr 92(4):741–7.
Hawkesworth, S, Walker, CG, Sawo, Y, Fulford, AJ, Jarjou, LM, Goldberg, GR, Prentice, A, Prentice, AM and Moore, SE 2011. Nutritional supplementation during pregnancy and offspring cardiovascular disease risk in The Gambia. Am J Clin Nutr 94(6 Suppl):1853S1860S.
Hay, J, Maximova, K, Durksen, A, Carson, V, Rinaldi, RL, Torrance, B, Ball, GD, Majumdar, SR, Plotnikoff, RC, Veugelers, P et al. 2012. Physical activity intensity and cardiometabolic risk in youth. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 166(11):1022–9.
Hayakawa, T, Culleton, R, Otani, H, Horii, T and Tanabe, K 2008. Big bang in the evolution of extant malaria parasites. Mol Biol Evol 25(10):2233–9.
Hayden, B 1997. The Pithouses of Keatley Creek. New York: Harcourt Brace College.
Hayden, B 2001. Richman, poorman, beggarman, chief: the dynamics of social inequality. In Feinman, G and Price, TD, editors. Archaeology at the Millennium: A Sourcebook. New York: Springer. 231–72.
Hayek, FA 1944. The Road to Serfdom. Abingdon: George Routledge and Sons.
Hays, JD, Imbrie, J and Shackleton, NJ 1976. Variations in the Earth’s Orbit: Pacemaker of the Ice Ages. Science 194(4270):1121–32.
Hayward, AD, Holopainen, J, Pettay, JE and Lummaa, V 2012. Food and fitness: associations between crop yields and life-history traits in a longitudinally monitored pre-industrial human population. Proc Biol Sci 279(1745):4165–73.
Hayward, AD, Rickard, IJ and Lummaa, V 2013. Influence of early-life nutrition on mortality and reproductive success during a subsequent famine in a preindustrial population. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 110(34):13886–91.
Hayward, LS and Wingfield, JC 2004. Maternal corticosterone is transferred to avian yolk and may alter offspring growth and adult phenotype. Gen Comp Endocrinol 135(3):365–71.
He, FJ, Pombo-Rodrigues, S and MacGregor, GA 2014. Salt reduction in England from 2003 to 2011: its relationship to blood pressure, stroke and ischaemic heart disease mortality. BMJ Open 4:e004549.
He, J, Klag, MJ, Whelton, PK, Chen, JY, Mo, JP, Qian, MC, Mo, PS and He, GQ 1991a. Migration, blood pressure pattern, and hypertension: the Yi Migrant Study. Am J Epidemiol 134(10):1085–101.
He, J, Tell, GS, Tang, YC, Mo, PS and He, GQ 1991b. Effect of migration on blood pressure: the Yi People Study. Epidemiol 2(2):8897.
Hedrick, PW, Whittam, TS and Parham, P 1991. Heterozygosity at individual amino acid sites: extremely high levels for HLA-A and -B genes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 88(13):5897–901.
Hegaard, HK, Pedersen, BK, Nielsen, BB and Damm, P 2007. Leisure time physical activity during pregnancy and impact on gestational diabetes mellitus, pre-eclampsia, preterm delivery and birth weight: a review. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 86(11):1290–6.
Heidinger, BJ, Blount, JD, Boner, W, Griffiths, K, Metcalfe, NB and Monaghan, P 2012. Telomere length in early life predicts lifespan. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 109(5):1743–8.
Heijmans, BT, Tobi, EW, Stein, AD, Putter, H, Blauw, GJ, Susser, ES, Slagboom, PE and Lumey, LH 2008. Persistent epigenetic differences associated with prenatal exposure to famine in humans. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 105(44):17046–9.
Heim, S 2003. Kalorien, Kautschuk, Karrieren. Planzenzüchtung und landwirtschaftliche Forschung in Kaiser-Wilhelm-Instituten 1933–1945. Göttingen: Wallstein.
Hein, W and Wehrberger, K 2010. Löwenmensch 2. Nachbildung der Elfenbeinstatuette aus der Höhlenstein-Stadel Hohle mit authentischen Werzeugen. Exp Arch Eur 9:4753.
Helle, S, Lummaa, V and Jokela, J 2004. Accelerated immunosenescence in preindustrial twin mothers. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101(33):12391–6.
Helm, WH 2002. Tuberculosis and the Bronte family. Bronte Studies 27(2):157167.
Helmerhorst, HJ, Wijndaele, K, Brage, S, Wareham, NJ and Ekelund, U 2009. Objectively measured sedentary time may predict insulin resistance independent of moderate- and vigorous-intensity physical activity. Diabetes 58(8):1776–9.
Hemachandra, AH and Klebanoff, MA 2006. Use of serial ultrasound to identify periods of fetal growth restriction in relation to neonatal anthropometry. Am J Hum Biol 18(6):791–7.
Hendrickson, D, Mearns, R and Armon, J 1996. Livestock raiding among the pastoral Turkana of Kenya: redistribution, predation and the links to faming. Inst Dev Studies Bull 27(3):1730.
Henneberg, M 1998. Evolution of the human brain: is bigger better? Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 25:745–9.
Hennessy, MB 1986. Multiple, brief maternal separations in the squirrel monkey: changes in hormonal and behavioral responsiveness. Physiol Behav 36(2):245–50.
Hennessy, MB, O’Leary, SK, Hawke, JL and Wilson, SE 2002. Social influences on cortisol and behavioral responses of preweaning, periadolescent, and adult guinea pigs. Physiol Behav 76(2):305–14.
Hermanussen, M, Hermanussen, B and Burmeister, J 1988. The association between birth order and adult stature. Ann Hum Biol 15(2):161–5.
Hernandez, RD, Kelley, JL, Elyashiv, E, Melton, SC, Auton, A, McVean, G, Genomes, P, Sella, G and Przeworski, M 2011. Classic selective sweeps were rare in recent human evolution. Science 331(6019):920–4.
Herrera, MG, Mora, JO, De Paredes, B and Wagner, M 1980. Maternal Weight/Height and the Effect of Food Supplementation During Pregnancy and Lactation. Bern: Hans Huber.
Hewlett, B 1988. Sexual selection and parental investment among Aka pygmies. In Betzig, L, Borgerhoff-Mulder, M and Turke, P, editors. Human Reproductive Behavior. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 263–76.
Hewlett, BS and Winn, S 2014. Allomaternal nursing in humans. Curr Anthropol 55(2):200–29.
Hey, J 2010. The divergence of chimpanzee species and subspecies as revealed in multipopulation isolation-with-migration analyses. Mol Biol Evol 27(4):921–33.
Hicks, J and Allen, G 1999. A Century of Change: Trends in UK Statistics Since 1990. London: House of Commons Library.
Hiernaux, J 1968. La diversite humaine en Afrique Sub-Saharienne. Recherches biologiques. Bruxelles: Editions de l’Institute de Sociology de l’Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
Hiernaux, J and Froment, A 1976. The correlations between anthropobiological and climatic variables in sub-Saharan Africa: revised estimates. Hum Biol 48(4):757–67.
Hietakangas, V and Cohen, SM 2009. Regulation of tissue growth through nutrient sensing. Ann Rev Genet 43:389410.
Higgs, E 1995. Occupational censuses and the agricultural workforce in Victorian England and Wales. Econ Hist Rev 48(4):700–16.
Hikmet, N 1970. Selected Poems of Nazim Hikmet, trans. Baybars, T. London: Jonathan Cape.
Hill, JC 1984. Prestige and reproductive success in man. Ethol Sociobiol 5:7795.
Hill, K 1993. Life history theory and evolutionary anthropology. Evol Anthropol 2:7889.
Hill, K, Boesch, C, Goodall, J, Pusey, A, Williams, J and Wrangham, R 2001. Mortality rates among wild chimpanzees. J Hum Evol 40(5):437–50.
Hill, K and Kaplan, H 1999. Life history traits in humans: theory and empirical studies. Ann Rev Anthropol 28:387430.
Himmelfarb, G 1984. The Idea of Poverty: England in the Early Industrial Age. London: Faber and Faber.
Himmelmann, A, Svensson, A and Hansson, L 1994. Relation of maternal blood pressure during pregnancy to birth weight and blood pressure in children. The Hypertension in Pregnancy Offspring Study. J Intern Med 235(4):347–52.
Hinchliffe, SA, Lynch, MR, Sargent, PH, Howard, CV and Van Velzen, D 1992. The effect of intrauterine growth retardation on the development of renal nephrons. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 99(4):296301.
Hingorani, A and Humphries, S 2005. Nature’s randomised trials. Lancet 366(9501):1906–8.
Hiraiwa-Hasegawa, M 1988. Adaptive significance of infanticide in primates. Trends Ecol Evol 3:102–15.
Hirsch, D and Zukowska, Z 2012. NPY and stress 30 years later: the peripheral view. Cell Mol Neurobiol 32(5):645–59.
Hirschman, AO 1977. The Passions and the Interests: Political Arguments for Capitalism Before Its Triumph. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Hirschman, AO 1991. The Rhetoric of Reaction: Perversity, Futility, Jeopardy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Hitze, B, Hubold, C, van Dyken, R, Schlichting, K, Lehnert, H, Entringer, S and Peters, A 2010. How the selfish brain organizes its supply and demand. Frontiers Neuroenerget 2:7.
Hobbes, T 1651/1909. Leviathan: reprinted from the edition of 1651. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Hobsbawm, E 1968. Industry and Empire. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books.
Hobsbawm, E 2000. The New Century. London: Abacus.
Hochberg, Z and Albertsson-Wikland, K 2008. Evo-devo of infantile and childhood growth. Pediatr Res 64(1):27.
Hochschild, A 1998. King Leopold’s Ghost: A Story of Greed, Terror, and Heroism in Colonial Africa. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.
Hoddinott, J and Kinsey, B 2001. Child growth in the time of drought. Oxford Bull Econ Stat 63(4):409–36.
Hodge, AM, Maple-Brown, L, Cunningham, J, Boyle, J, Dunbar, T, Weeramanthri, T, Shaw, J and O’Dea, K 2010. Abdominal obesity and other risk factors largely explain the high CRP in indigenous Australians relative to the general population, but not gender differences: a cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health 10:700.
Hoehn, KL, Salmon, AB, Hohnen-Behrens, C, Turner, N, Hoy, AJ, Maghzal, GJ, Stocker, R, Van Remmen, H, Kraegen, EW, Cooney, GJ et al. 2009. Insulin resistance is a cellular antioxidant defense mechanism. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 106(42):17787–92.
Hoffman, DJ, Sawaya, AL, Verreschi, I, Tucker, KL and Roberts, SB 2000. Why are nutritionally stunted children at increased risk of obesity? Studies of metabolic rate and fat oxidation in shantytown children from Sao Paulo, Brazil. Am J Clin Nutr 72(3):702–7.
Hogstad, O 1987. It is expensive to be dominant. Auk 104:333–6.
Hogue, CJ, Buehler, JW, Strauss, LT and Smith, JC 1987. Overview of the National Infant Mortality Surveillance (NIMS) project–design, methods, results. Public Health Rep 102(2):126–38.
Hold-Cavell, B 1996. The ethological bases of status hierarchies. In Wiessner, P and Schiefenhovel, W, editors. Food and the Status Quest: An Interdisciplinary Perspective. Providence, RI: Bergahn Books. 1931.
Hollis, AC 1905. The Masai. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Holloszy, JO 1967. Biochemical adaptations in muscle. Effects of exercise on mitochondrial oxygen uptake and respiratory enzyme activity in skeletal muscle. J Biol Chem 242(9):2278–82.
Holscher, C 2011. Diabetes as a risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease: insulin signalling impairment in the brain as an alternative model of Alzheimer’s disease. Biochem Soc Trans 39(4):891–7.
Holt, BM 2003. Mobility in Upper Paleolithic and Mesolithic Europe: evidence from the lower limb. Am J Phys Anthropol 122(3):200–15.
Homer 1965–67. The Odyssey, edited Stanford, WB. London: Macmillan.
Honda, G 1997. Differential structure, differential health: Industrialization in Japan, 1868–1940. In Steckel, RH and Floud, R, editors. Health and Welfare During Industrialization. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 251–84.
Honjo, K, Iso, H, Inoue, M and Tsugane, S 2011. Adult height and the risk of cardiovascular disease among middle aged men and women in Japan. Eur J Epidemiol 26(1):1321.
Hop le, T 2003. Secular trend in size at birth of Vietnamese newborns during the last 2 decades (1980–2000). Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 12(3):266270.
Hopkirk, P 1984. Setting the East Ablaze: Lenin’s Dream of an Empire in Asia. London: John Murray.
Hopkirk, P 1991. The Great Game: On Secret Service in High Asia. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Hoppe, C, Molgaard, C, Thomsen, BL, Juul, A and Michaelsen, KF 2004a. Protein intake at 9 mo of age is associated with body size but not with body fat in 10-y-old Danish children. Am J Clin Nutr 79(3):494501.
Hoppe, C, Udam, TR, Lauritzen, L, Molgaard, C, Juul, A and Michaelsen, KF 2004b. Animal protein intake, serum insulin-like growth factor I, and growth in healthy 2.5-y-old Danish children. Am J Clin Nutr 80(2):447–52.
Horikoshi, M, Yaghootkar, H, Mook-Kanamori, DO, Sovio, U, Taal, HR, Hennig, BJ, Bradfield, JP, St Pourcain, B, Evans, DM, Charoen, P et al. 2013. New loci associated with birth weight identify genetic links between intrauterine growth and adult height and metabolism. Nat Genet 45(1):7682.
Horn, HS 1978. Optimal tactics of reproduction and life-history. In Krebs, JR and Davies, NB, editors. Behavioural Ecology: An Evolutionary Approach. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates. 411–29.
Horrell, S and Humphries, J 1995. ‘The exploitation of little children’: child labour and the family economy in the industrial revolution. Explor EconHist 32:485516.
Horton, TH 1984. Growth and reproductive development of male Microtus montanus is affected by the prenatal photoperiod. Biol Reprod 31(3):499504.
Hosseinpoor, AR, Parker, LA, Tursan d’Espaignet, E and Chatterji, S 2012. Socioeconomic inequality in smoking in low-income and middle-income countries: results from the World Health Survey. PLoS One 7(8):e42843.
Houstis, N, Rosen, ED and Lander, ES 2006. Reactive oxygen species have a causal role in multiple forms of insulin resistance. Nature 440(7086):944–8.
Houston, M 2000. Chinese climate, history, and state stability in AD 536. In Gunn, JD, editor. The Years Without Summer: Tracing AD 536 and Its Aftermath. Oxford: BAR International Series 872. Archaeopress. 71–7.
Howarth, WJ 1905. The influence of feeding on the mortality of infants. Lancet 22 July:210–13.
Howell, N 2010. Life Histories of the Dobe!Kung: Food, Fatness, and Well-Being over the Life-Span. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Hoy, WE and Nicol, JL 2010. Birthweight and natural deaths in a remote Australian Aboriginal community. Med J Austr 192(1):1419.
Hozawa, A, Murakami, Y, Okamura, T, Kadowaki, T, Nakamura, K, Hayakawa, T, Kita, Y, Nakamura, Y, Okayama, A and Ueshima, H 2007. Relation of adult height with stroke mortality in Japan: NIPPON DATA80. Stroke 38(1):22–6.
Hrdy, SB 2005. Cooperative breeders with an ace in the hole. In Voland, E, Chasiotis, A and Schiefenhovel, W, editors. Grandmotherhood: The Evolutionary Significance of the Second half of the Female Life. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press. 295317.
Hrdy, SB 2009. Mothers and Others: The Evolutionary Origins of Mutual Understanding. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press.
Hruschka, DJ and Brewis, AA 2013. Absolute wealth and world region strongly predict overweight among women (ages 18–49) in 360 populations across 36 developing countries. Econ Hum Biol 11(3):337–44.
Hruschka, DJ, Hadley, C, Brewis, AA and Stojanowski, CM 2015. Genetic population structure accounts for contemporary ecogeographic patterns in tropic and subtropic-dwelling humans. PLoS One 10(3):e0122301.
Hu, FB 2011. Globalization of diabetes: the role of diet, lifestyle, and genes. Diabetes Care 34(6):1249–57.
Hu, FB, Manson, JE, Stampfer, MJ, Colditz, G, Liu, S, Solomon, CG and Willett, WC 2001. Diet, lifestyle, and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in women. N Engl J Med 345(11):790–7.
Hu, FB, Stampfer, MJ, Manson, JE, Rimm, E, Colditz, GA, Rosner, BA, Hennekens, CH and Willett, WC 1997. Dietary fat intake and the risk of coronary heart disease in women. N Engl J Med 337(21):1491–9.
Huang, C, Li, Z, Wang, M and Martorell, R 2010. Early life exposure to the 1959–1961 Chinese famine has long-term health consequences. J Nutr 140(10):1874–8.
Hubbard, LE 1939. The Economics of Soviet Agriculture. London: Macmillan and Co.
Huber, J 2007. On the Origins of Gender Inequality. Boulder, CO: Paradigm Publishers.
Huda, MS, Wilding, JP and Pinkney, JH 2006. Gut peptides and the regulation of appetite. Obes Rev 7(2):163–82.
Hudson, M 2002. Reconstructing the origins of interest-bearing debt and the logic of clean slates. In Hudson, M and Van de Mieroop, M, editors. Debt and Economic Renewal in the Ancient Near East. Bethesda: CDL Press. 758.
Huffman, SL, Piwoz, EG, Vosti, SA and Dewey, KG 2014. Babies, soft drinks and snacks: a concern in low- and middle-income countries? Matern Child Nutr 10(4):562574.
Hughes, AL 2002. Natural selection and the diversification of vertebrate immune effectors. Immunol Rev 190:161–8.
Hughes, SM and Gallup, GG 2003. Sex differences in morphological predictors of sexual behavior: shoulder to hip and waist to hip ratios. Evol Hum Behav 24:173–8.
Huizinga, J 1972. Casual blood pressure in populations. In Vorster, DJM, editor. Human Biology of Environmental Change. London: International Biological Programme. 164–9.
Hulsegge, G, Picavet, HS, Blokstra, A, Nooyens, AC, Spijkerman, AM, van der Schouw, YT, Smit, HA and Verschuren, WM 2014. Today’s adult generations are less healthy than their predecessors: generation shifts in metabolic risk factors: the Doetinchem Cohort Study. Eur J Prev Cardiol 21(9):1134–44.
Hulsey, TC, Levkoff, AH and Alexander, GR 1991. Birth weights of infants of black and white mothers without pregnancy complications. Am J Obstet Gynecol 164(5 Pt 1):1299–302.
Hult, M, Tornhammar, P, Ueda, P, Chima, C, Bonamy, AK, Ozumba, B and Norman, M 2010. Hypertension, diabetes and overweight: looming legacies of the Biafran famine. PLoS One 5(10):e13582.
Humphrey, N 1986. The Inner Eye. London: Faber and Faber.
Hung, LQ, de Vries, PJ, Giao, PT, Binh, TQ, Nam, NV, Chong, MT and Kager, PA 2005. Nutritional status following malaria control in a Vietnamese ethnic minority commune. Eur J Clin Nutr 59(8):891–9.
Hurrell, JW, Kushnir, Y, Ottersen, G and Visbeck, M 2003. The North Atlantic Oscillation: Climatic Significance and Environmental Impact. Washington, DC: American Geophysical Union.
Husseini, A, Abu-Rmeileh, NM, Mikki, N, Ramahi, TM, Ghosh, HA, Barghuthi, N, Khalili, M, Bjertness, E, Holmboe-Ottesen, G and Jervell, J 2009. Cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, and cancer in the occupied Palestinian territory. Lancet 373(9668):1041–9.
Hutchinson, GE 1944. Limnological studies in Connecticut. VII. A critical examination of the supposed relationship between phytoplankton periodicity and chemical changes in later waters. Ecol Appl 25:36.
Huxley, A 1932. Brave New World. London: Chatto and Windus.
Huxley, R, Owen, CG, Whincup, PH, Cook, DG, Colman, S and Collins, R 2004. Birth weight and subsequent cholesterol levels: exploration of the ‘fetal origins’ hypothesis. JAMA 292(22):2755–64.
Huxley, R, Owen, CG, Whincup, PH, Cook, DG, Rich-Edwards, J, Smith, GD and Collins, R 2007. Is birth weight a risk factor for ischemic heart disease in later life? Am J Clin Nutr 85(5):1244–50.
Huxley, RR, Lloyd, BB, Goldacre, M and Neil, HA 2000a. Nutritional research in World War 2: the Oxford Nutrition Survey and its research potential 50 years later. Br J Nutr 84(2):247–51.
Huxley, RR, Shiell, AW and Law, CM 2000b. The role of size at birth and postnatal catch-up growth in determining systolic blood pressure: a systematic review of the literature. J Hypertens 18(7):815–31.
Hwang, JY, Shin, C, Frongillo, EA, Shin, KR and Jo, I 2003. Secular trend in age at menarche for South Korean women born between 1920 and 1986: the Ansan Study. Ann Hum Biol 30(4):434–42.
Hypponen, E, Power, C and Smith, GD 2004. Parental growth at different life stages and offspring birthweight: an intergenerational cohort study. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 18(3):168–77.
Iakovleva, L 2003. Les habitats en os de mammouths du plaéolithique superieur d’Europe orientale: les données et leurs interpretations. In Vasil’ev, SA, Soffer, O and Kozlowski, J, editors. Perceived Landscapes and Built Environments: The Cultural Geography of Late Paleolithic Eurasia BAR International Series 1122. Oxford: Archaeopress. 4757.
Iannitti, T and Palmieri, B 2011. Inflammation and genetics: an insight in the centenarian model. Hum Biol 83(4):531–59.
Ibanez, L, Lopez-Bermejo, A, Diaz, M, Marcos, MV, Casano, P and de Zegher, F 2009. Abdominal fat partitioning and high-molecular-weight adiponectin in short children born small for gestational age. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 94(3):1049–52.
Ibanez, L, Lopez-Bermejo, A, Suarez, L, Marcos, MV, Diaz, M and De, ZF 2008a. Visceral adiposity Without overweight in children born small-for-gestational-age. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 93:2079–83.
Ibanez, L, Ong, K, Dunger, DB and De, ZF 2006. Early development of adiposity and insulin resistance after catch-up weight gain in small-for-gestational-age children. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 91(6):2153–8.
Ibanez, L, Suarez, L, Lopez-Bermejo, A, Diaz, M, Valls, C and De, ZF 2008b. Early development of visceral fat excess after spontaneous catch-up growth in children with low birth weight. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 93(3):925–8.
Iglehart, JK 1999. The American health care system–expenditures. N Engl J Med 340(1):70–6.
Illsley, R 1966. Preventive medicine in the perinatal period. Early prediction of perinatal risk. Proc R Soc Med 59:181–4.
Ilmonen, P, Kotrschal, A and Penn, DJ 2008. Telomere attrition due to infection. PLoS One 3(5):e2143.
Imai, CM, Halldorsson, TI, Gunnarsdottir, I, Gudnason, V, Aspelund, T, Jonsson, G, Birgisdottir, BE and Thorsdottir, I 2012. Effect of birth year on birth weight and obesity in adulthood: comparison between subjects born prior to and during the great depression in Iceland. PLoS One 7(9):e44551.
Ingham, G 2004. The Nature of Money. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Iniguez, G, Gonzalez, CA, Argandona, F, Kakarieka, E, Johnson, MC and Cassorla, F 2010. Expression and protein content of IGF-I and IGF-I receptor in placentas from small, adequate and large for gestational age newborns. Horm Res Paediatr 73(5):320–7.
Innes, AM 1913. What is money? Bank Law J (May):377408.
International Diabetes Federation 2009. Diabetes Atlas (4th edition). Brussels: International Diabetes Federation.
International Diabetes Federation 2013. IDF Diabetes Atlas, (6th edition). Brussels: International Diabetes Federation.
International Institute for Population Sciences 1995. National Family Health Survey (MCH and Family Planning), India 1992–93. Bombay: International Institute for Population Sciences.
International Institute for Population Sciences and Macrointernational 2007. National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3), 2005–6: India. Mumbai: International Institute for Population Sciences.
International Institute for Population Sciences and ORC Macro 2000. National Family Health Survey (NFHS-2), 1988–99: India. Mumbai: International Institute for Population Sciences.
Ioannidis, JP, Ntzani, EE and Trikalinos, TA 2004. ‘Racial’ differences in genetic effects for complex diseases. Nat Genet 36(12):1312–18.
Isaacson, M, Taylor, P and Arntzen, L 1983. Ecology of plague in Africa: response of indigenous wild rodents to experimental plague infection. Bull World Health Organ 61(2):339–44.
Isler, K and van Shaik, CP 2012. How our ancestors broke through the grey ceiling: comparative evidence for cooperative breeding in early Homo. Curr Anthropol 53 Suppl 6:S453S465.
Isomaa, B, Almgren, P, Tuomi, T, Forsen, B, Lahti, K, Nissen, M, Taskinen, MR and Groop, L 2001. Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality associated with the metabolic syndrome. Diabetes Care 24(4):683–9.
Ivanova, M, Ruiqing, J, Kawai, S, Matsushita, M, Ochiai, N, Maruya, E and Saji, H 2011. IL-6 SNP diversity among four ethnic groups as revealed by bead-based liquid array profiling. Int J Immunogenet 38(1):1720.
Jacobs, JD and Wingfield, JC 2000. Endocrine control of life-cycle stages: a constraint on response to the environment? Condor 102(1):3551.
Jacobson, MF and Brownell, KD 2000. Small taxes on soft drinks and snack foods to promote health. Am J Public Health 90(6):854–7.
Jagger, C, Gillies, C, Moscone, F, Cambois, E, Van Oyen, H, Nusselder, W, Robine, JM and team, E 2008. Inequalities in healthy life years in the 25 countries of the European Union in 2005: a cross-national meta-regression analysis. Lancet 372(9656):2124–31.
James, C 2014. Brief 46: Global Status of Commercialized Biotech/GM Crops: 2013. Ithaca, NY: International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-biotech Applications.
James, J, Thomas, P, Cavan, D and Kerr, D 2004. Preventing childhood obesity by reducing consumption of carbonated drinks: cluster randomised controlled trial. BMJ 328(7450):1237.
James, WP, Nelson, M, Ralph, A and Leather, S 1997. Socioeconomic determinants of health. The contribution of nutrition to inequalities in health. BMJ 314(7093):1545–9.
James-Todd, T, Tehranifar, P, Rich-Edwards, J, Titievsky, L and Terry, MB 2010. The impact of socioeconomic status across early life on age at menarche among a racially diverse population of girls. Ann Epidemiol 20(11):836–42.
Jang, HC, Min, HK, Lee, HK, Cho, NH and Metzger, BE 1998. Short stature in Korean women: a contribution to the multifactorial predisposition to gestational diabetes mellitus. Diabetologia 41(7):778–3.
Janghorbani, M, Mansourian, M and Hosseini, E 2014. Systematic review and meta-analysis of age at menarche and risk of type 2 diabetes. Acta Diabetol 51(4):519–28.
Jankauskas, R and Kozlovskaya, M 1999. Biosocial differentiation in Lithuanian Iron Age. Anthropol 37:177–85.
Jantz, LM and Jantz, RL 1999. Secular change in long bone length and proportion in the United States, 18001970. Am J Phys Anthropol 110(1):5767.
Jaquet, D, Vidal, H, Hankard, R, Czernichow, P and Levy-Marchal, C 2001. Impaired regulation of glucose transporter 4 gene expression in insulin resistance associated with in utero undernutrition. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 86(7):3266–71.
Jaruratanasirikul, S and Sriplung, H 2015. Secular trends of growth and pubertal maturation of school children in Southern Thailand. Ann Hum Biol:1–8 42(5): 447454.
Jasienska, G 2009. Low birth weight of contemporary African Americans: an intergenerational effect of slavery? Am J Hum Biol 21(1):1624.
Jasienska, G 2013. The Fragile Wisdom: An Evolutionary View of Women’s Biology and Health. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Jasienska, G, Thune, I and Ellison, PT 2006. Fatness at birth predicts adult susceptibility to ovarian suppression: an empirical test of the Predictive Adaptive Response hypothesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103(34):12759–62.
Jaskelioff, M, Muller, FL, Paik, JH, Thomas, E, Jiang, S, Adams, AC, Sahin, E, Kost-Alimova, M, Protopopov, A, Cadinanos, J et al. 2011. Telomerase reactivation reverses tissue degeneration in aged telomerase-deficient mice. Nature 469(7328):102–6.
Jelliffe, DB and Jelliffe, EF 1978. The volume and composition of human milk in poorly nourished communities. A review. Am J ClinNutr 31(3):492515.
Jennings, BJ, Ozanne, SE, Dorling, MW and Hales, CN 1999. Early growth determines longevity in male rats and may be related to telomere shortening in the kidney. FEBS Lett 448(1):48.
Jensen, R 2000. Agricultural volatility and investments in children. Am Econ Rev 90(2):399404.
Jetz, W and Rubenstein, DR 2011. Environmental uncertainty and the global biogeography of cooperative breeding in birds. Curr Biol 21(1):72–8.
Joglekar, CV, Fall, CH, Deshpande, VU, Joshi, N, Bhalerao, A, Solat, V, Deokar, TM, Chougule, SD, Leary, SD, Osmond, C et al. 2007. Newborn size, infant and childhood growth, and body composition and cardiovascular disease risk factors at the age of 6 years: the Pune Maternal Nutrition Study. Int J Obes 31(10):1534–44.
Johnson, JD 1981. The regional and ethnic distribution of lactose malabsorption. Adaptive and genetic hypotheses. In Paige, DM and Bayless, TM, editors. Lactose Digestion: Clinical and Nutritional Implications. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. 1122.
Johnson, MC, Owen, D and Blackburn, C 2000. Black and Ethnic Minority Groups in England: The Second Health and Lifestyles Survey. London: Health Education Authority.
Johnson, RC 2008. Gene banks pay big dividends to agriculture, the environment, and human welfare. PLoS Biol 6(6):e148.
Johnson, RK, Appel, LJ, Brands, M, Howard, BV, Lefevre, M, Lustig, RH, Sacks, F, Steffen, LM, Wylie-Rosett, J, American Heart Association Nutrition Committee of the Council on Nutrition PA et al. 2009. Dietary sugars intake and cardiovascular health: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation 120(11):1011–20.
Johnson, SE 2003. Life history and the competitive environment: trajectories of growth, maturation, and reproductive output among chacma baboons. Am J Phys Anthropol 120(1):8398.
Johnsson, JI and Bohlin, T 2006. The cost of catching up: increased winter mortality following structural growth compensation in the wild. Proc Biol Sci 273(1591):1281–6.
Johnston, SE, Gratten, J, Berenos, C, Pilkington, JG, Clutton-Brock, TH, Pemberton, JM and Slate, J 2013. Life history trade-offs at a single locus maintain sexually selected genetic variation. Nature. 502:9395.
Jones, COH and White, NG 1994. Adiposity in Aboriginal people from Arnhem Land, Australia: variation in degree and distribution associated with age, sex and lifestyle. Ann Hum Biol 21:207–27.
Jones, LL, Griffiths, PL, Norris, SA, Pettifor, JM and Cameron, N 2009. Age at menarche and the evidence for a positive secular trend in urban South Africa. Am J Hum Biol 21(1):130–2.
Jones, M 2007. Feast: Why Humans Share Food. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Jones-Smith, JC, Gordon-Larsen, P, Siddiqi, A and Popkin, BM 2011. Cross-national comparisons of time trends in overweight inequality by socioeconomic status among women using repeated cross-sectional surveys from 37 developing countries, 1989–2007. Am J Epidemiol 173(6):667–75.
Jones-Smith, JC, Gordon-Larsen, P, Siddiqi, A and Popkin, BM 2012. Is the burden of overweight shifting to the poor across the globe? Time trends among women in 39 low- and middle-income countries (1991–2008). Int J Obes 36(8):1114–20.
Jönsson, KI 1997. Capital and income breeding as alternative tactics of resource use in reproduction. Oikos 78:5766.
Joordens, JC, Vonhof, HB, Feibel, CS, Lourens, LJ, Dupont-Nivet, G, van de Lubbe, JH, Sier, MJ, Davies, GR and Kroon, D 2011. An astronomically-tuned climate framework for hominins in the Turkana basin. Earth Planet Sci Lett 80:18.
Jordan, TE 2007. Sir William Petty, 1623–1687: The Genius Entrepreneur of Seventeenth-Century Ireland Lewiston, NY Edwin Mellen Press.
Jose, S 2011. Adult undernutrition in India: is there a huge gender gap? Economic and Political Weekly 46(29):95102.
Joseph, A, Ackerman, D, Talley, JD, Johnstone, J and Kupersmith, J 1993. Manifestations of coronary atherosclerosis in young trauma victims–an autopsy study. J Am Coll Cardiol 22(2):459–67.
Joseph, JG, Prior, IA, Salmond, CE and Stanley, D 1983. Elevation of systolic and diastolic blood pressure associated with migration: the Tokelau island migrant study. J Chronic Dis 36(7):507–16.
Jovanovic-Peterson, L, Fuhrmann, K, Hedden, K, Walker, L and Peterson, CM 1989. Maternal milk and plasma glucose and insulin levels: studies in normal and diabetic subjects. J Am Coll Nutr 8(2):125–31.
Julkunen, H, Karava, R and Viljanen, V 1966. Hyperostosis of the spine in diabetes mellitus and acromegaly. Diabetologia 2(2):123–6.
Kaati, G, Bygren, LO, Pembrey, M and Sjostrom, M 2007. Transgenerational response to nutrition, early life circumstances and longevity. Eur J Hum Genet 15(7):784–90.
Kac, G, Auxiliadora de Santa Cruz, C and Velasquez-Melendez, G 2000. Secular trend in age at menarche for women born between 1920 and 1979 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Ann Hum Biol 27(4):423–8.
Kadyrov, M, Kosanke, G, Kingdom, J and Kaufmann, P 1998. Increased fetoplacental angiogenesis during first trimester in anaemic women. Lancet 352(9142):1747–9.
Kagawa, Y, Yanagisawa, Y, Hasegawa, K, Suzuki, H, Yasuda, K, Kudo, H, Abe, M, Matsuda, S, Ishikawa, Y, Tsuchiya, N et al. 2002. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of thrifty genes for energy metabolism: evolutionary origins and prospects for intervention to prevent obesity-related diseases. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 295(2):207–22.
Kalichman, L, Malkin, I and Kobyliansky, E 2007. Time-related trends of age at menopause and reproductive period of women in a Chuvashian rural population. Menopause 14(1):135–40.
Kalk, WJ, Felix, M, Snoey, ER and Veriawa, Y 1993. Voluntary total fasting in political prisoners–clinical and biochemical observations. South Afr Med J 83(6):391–4.
Kant, I 1784/1824. Idea of a universal history on a cosmopolitical plan. London Magazine:385–93.
Kapahi, P, Boulton, ME and Kirkwood, TB 1999. Positive correlation between mammalian life span and cellular resistance to stress. Free Radic Biol Med 26(5–6):495500.
Kaplan, GA and Keil, JE 1993. Socioeconomic factors and cardiovascular disease: a review of the literature. Circulation 88(4 Pt 1):1973–98.
Kaplan, H and Hill, K 1985. Hunting ability and reproductive success among male Ache foragers. Curr Anthropol 26:131–3.
Kaplan, H, Hill, K, Lancaster, J and Hurtado, AM 2000. A theory of human life history evolution: Diet, intelligence, and longevity. Evol Anthropol 9:156–84.
Kaplan, H, Lancaster, J and Robson, A 2003. Embodied capital and the evolutionary economics of the human life span. In Carey, JR and Tuljapurkar, S, editors. Life Span: Evolutionary, Ecological, and Demographic Perspectives. New York: Population Council. 152–82.
Kaplan, H, Lancaster, JB, Bock, J and Johnson, S 1995. Does observed fertility maximize fitness among New Mexican men? A test of an optimality model and a new theory of parental investment in the embodied capital of offspring. Hum Nat 6(4):325–60.
Kaplan, T 2014. Democracy: A World History. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Kaplan, RC, McGinn, AP, Baird, AE, Hendrix, SL, Kooperberg, C, Lynch, J, Rosenbaum, DM, Johnson, KC, Strickler, HD and Wassertheil-Smoller, S 2008. Inflammation and hemostasis biomarkers for predicting stroke in postmenopausal women: the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 17(6):344–55.
Kapoor, S, Kapoor, AK, Bhalla, R and Singh, IP 1985. Parent-offspring correlation for body measurements and subcutaneous fat distribution. Hum Biol 57(2):141–50.
Karamanou, M, Panayiotakopoulos, G, Tsoucalas, G, Kousoulis, AA and Androutsos, G 2012. From miasmas to germs: a historical approach to theories of infectious disease transmission. Infez Med 20(1):5862.
Kareiva, P, Watts, S, McDonald, R and Boucher, T 2007. Domesticated nature: shaping landscapes and ecosystems for human welfare. Science 316(5833):1866–9.
Karlsson, B, Knutsson, A and Lindahl, B 2001. Is there an association between shift work and having a metabolic syndrome? Results from a population based study of 27,485 people. Occup Environ Med 58(11):747–52.
Karlsson, BH, Knutsson, AK, Lindahl, BO and Alfredsson, LS 2003. Metabolic disturbances in male workers with rotating three-shift work. Results of the WOLF study. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 76(6):424–30.
Karlsson, F, Tremaroli, V, Nielsen, J and Backhed, F 2013. Assessing the human gut microbiota in metabolic diseases. Diabetes 62(10):3341–9.
Karn, MN and Penrose, LS 1951. Birth weight and gestation time in relation to maternal age, parity and infant survival. Ann Eugen 16(2):147–64.
Karnani, A 2007. The mirage of marketing to the bottom of the pyramid: how the private sector can help alleviate poverty. California Management Rev 49(4):90111.
Katz, AM and Katz, PB 1962. Diseases of the heart in the works of Hippocrates. Br Heart J 24:257–64.
Katzmarzyk, PT, Church, TS, Craig, CL and Bouchard, C 2009. Sitting time and mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Med Sci Sports Exerc 41(5):9981005.
Katzmarzyk, PT and Leonard, WR 1998. Climatic influences on human body size and proportions: ecological adaptations and secular trends. Am J Phys Anthropol 106(4):483503.
Kavehmanesh, Z and Abolghasemi, H 2004. Maternal Ramadan fasting and neonatal health. J Perinatol 24(12):748–50.
Kay, AJ 2006. Exploitation, Resettlement, Mass Murder. Political and Economic Planning for German Occupation Policy in the Soviet Union, 1940–1941. Oxford: Berghahn Books.
Keast, RS, Sayompark, D, Sacks, G, Swinburn, BA and Riddell, LJ 2011. The influence of caffeine on energy content of sugar-sweetened beverages: ‘the caffeine-calorie effect’. Eur J Clin Nutr 65(12):1338–44.
Keast, RS, Swinburn, BA, Sayompark, D, Whitelock, S and Riddell, LJ 2015. Caffeine increases sugar-sweetened beverage consumption in a free-living population: a randomised controlled trial. Br J Nutr:16.
Keeley, LH 1996. War Before Civilization: The Myth of the Peaceful Savage. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Keller, L and Genoud, M 1997. Extraordinary lifespans in ants: a test of evolutionary theories of ageing. Nature 389:958–60.
Kelly, RC 2000. Warless Societies and the Origins of War. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Kelly, RL 1995. The Foraging Spectrum. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press.
Kelly, Y, Panico, L, Bartley, M, Marmot, M, Nazroo, J and Sacker, A 2009. Why does birthweight vary among ethnic groups in the UK? Findings from the Millennium Cohort Study. J Public Health 31(1):131–7.
Kelsey, G and Feil, R 2013. New insights into establishment and maintenance of DNA methylation imprints in mammals. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 368(1609):20110336.
Kemkes-Grottenthaler, A 2005. The short die young: the interrelationship between stature and longevity-evidence from skeletal remains. Am J Phys Anthropol 128(2):340–7.
Kemnitz, JW, Sapolsky, RM, Altmann, J, Muruthi, P, Mott, GE and Stefanick, ML 2002. Effects of food availability on serum insulin and lipid concentrations in free-ranging baboons. Am J Primatol 57(1):1319.
Kemp, DM 2013. Does chronic low-grade endotoxemia define susceptibility of obese humans to insulin resistance via dietary effects on gut microbiota? Adipocyte 2(3):188–90.
Kenez, P 1999. A History of the Soviet Union from Beginning to End. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Kennedy, J and King, L 2014. The political economy of farmers’ suicides in India: indebted cash-crop farmers with marginal landholdings explain state-level variation in suicide rates. Global Health 10:16.
Kensara, OA, Wootton, SA, Phillips, DI, Patel, M, Jackson, AA and Elia, M 2005. Fetal programming of body composition: relation between birth weight and body composition measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and anthropometric methods in older Englishmen. Am J Clin Nutr 82(5):980–7.
Kentikelenis, A, Karanikolos, M, Reeves, A, McKee, M and Stuckler, D 2014. Greece’s health crisis: from austerity to denialism. Lancet 383(9918):748–53.
Kermack, WO, McKendrick, AG and McKinlay, PL 1934. Death-rates in Great Britain and Sweden: expression of specific mortality rates as products of two factors, and some consequences thereof. J Hyg 34(4):433–57.
Kershbaum, A, Bellet, S, Dickstein, ER and Feinbergl, J 1961. Effect of cigarette smoking and nicotine on serum free fatty acids based on a study in the human subject and the experimental animal. Circulation Res 9:631–8.
Kertzer, D 1991. Household and gender in a life-course perspective. In Masini, E and Stratigos, S, editors. Women, Households and Change. Tokyo, Japan: United Nations University Press. 1829.
Kessler, HS, Sisson, SB and Short, KR 2012. The potential for high-intensity interval training to reduce cardiometabolic disease risk. Sports Med 42(6):489509.
Keusch, GT 2003. The history of nutrition: malnutrition, infection and immunity. J Nutr 133(1):336S340S.
Keynes, JM 1926. The End of Laissez-Faire. London: Leonard and Virginia Woolf at the Hogarth Press.
Keys, A 1953. Atherosclerosis: a problem in newer public health. J Mount Sinai Hosp NY 20(2):118–39.
Keys, A 1957. Diet and the epidemiology of coronary heart disease. JAMA 164(17):1912–19.
Keys, A, Anderson, JT, Fidanza, F, Keys, MH and Swahn, B 1955. Effects of diet on blood lipids in man, particularly cholesterol and lipoproteins. Clin Chem 1(1):3452.
Keys, A, Anderson, JT and Grande, F 1957. Prediction of serum-cholesterol responses of man to changes in fats in the diet. Lancet 273(7003):959–66.
Keys, A, Brozek, J, Henschel, A, Mickelsen, O and Taylor, HL 1950. The Biology of Human Starvation. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Keys, A, Taylor, HL, Blackburn, H, Brozek, J, Anderson, JT and Simonson, E 1963. Coronary Heart Disease among Minnesota Business and Professional Men Followed Fifteen Years. Circulation 28:381–95.
Keys, D 1989. Catastophe: An Investigation into the Origins of the Modern World. London: Century.
Khachatourians, GG 1998. Agricultural use of antibiotics and the evolution and transfer of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. CMAJ 159(9):1129–36.
Khan, AI, Kabir, I, Ekstrom, EC, Asling-Monemi, K, Alam, DS, Frongillo, EA, Yunus, M, Arifeen, S and Persson, LA 2011. Effects of prenatal food and micronutrient supplementation on child growth from birth to 54 months of age: a randomized trial in Bangladesh. Nutr J 10:134.
Khan, AI, Kabir, I, Hawkesworth, S, Ekstrom, EC, Arifeen, S, Frongillo, EA and Persson, LA 2015. Early invitation to food and/or multiple micronutrient supplementation in pregnancy does not affect body composition in offspring at 54 months: follow-up of the MINIMat randomised trial, Bangladesh. Matern Child Nutr 11(3):385–97.
Khan, UI, Wang, D, Sowers, MR, Mancuso, P, Everson-Rose, SA, Scherer, PE and Wildman, RP 2012. Race-ethnic differences in adipokine levels: the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN). Metabolism 61(9):1261–9.
Khatib-Chahidi, J 1992. Milk kinship in Shi’ite Islamic Iran. In Maher, V, editor. The Anthropology of Breast-Feeding: Natural Law or Social Construct. Providence, RI: Berg Publishers Ltd.
Khorshid, A and Galal, OM 1995. Development of food consumption monitoring system for Egypt. National Agricultural Research Project, Final Report. Submitted to the US Department of Agriculture and Egyptian Ministry of Agriculture.
Khulan, B, Cooper, WN, Skinner, BM, Bauer, J, Owens, S, Prentice, AM, Belteki, G, Constancia, M, Dunger, D and Affara, NA 2012. Periconceptional maternal micronutrient supplementation is associated with widespread gender related changes in the epigenome: a study of a unique resource in the Gambia. Hum Mol Genet 21(9):2086–101.
Kidd, P 2003. Th1/Th2 balance: the hypothesis, its limitations, and implications for health and disease. Alt Med Rev 8(3):223–46.
Killawala, A 2007. Financial Inclusion of the Urban Poor: Issues and Options. Pune, Maharastra: College of Agricultural Banking.
Kim, CX, Bailey, KR, Klee, GG, Ellington, AA, Liu, G, Mosley, TH Jr., Rehman, H and Kullo, IJ 2010. Sex and ethnic differences in 47 candidate proteomic markers of cardiovascular disease: the Mayo Clinic proteomic markers of arteriosclerosis study. PLoS One 5(2):e9065.
Kim, SY, Lee, SP, Lee, JS, Yoon, SJ, Jun, G and Hwang, YJ 2006. Telomerase and apoptosis in the placental trophoblasts of growth discordant twins. Yonsei Med Jl 47(5):698705.
Kimura, C, Watanabe, K, Iwasaki, A, Mori, T, Matsushita, H, Shinohara, K and Wakatsuki, A 2013. The severity of hypoxic changes and oxidative DNA damage in the placenta of early-onset preeclamptic women and fetal growth restriction. J Maternal Fetal Neonat Med 26(5):491–6.
Kimura, K 1984. Studies on growth and development in Japan. Yearbk Phys Anthropol 27:179214.
Kin, CF, Shan, WS, Shun, LJ, Chung, LP and Jean, W 2007. Experience of famine and bone health in post-menopausal women. Int J Epidemiol 36(5):1143–50.
King, AJ, Isaac, NJ and Cowlishaw, G 2009. Ecological, social and reproductive factors shape producer-scrounger dynamics in baboons. Behav Ecol 20:1039–49.
King, JC 2006. Maternal obesity, metabolism, and pregnancy outcomes. Annu Rev Nutr 26:271–91.
King, JL and Duke, TH 1969. Non-Darwinian evolution. Science 164:788–98.
Kingston, JD 2007. Shifting adaptive landscapes: progress and challenges in reconstructing early hominid environments. Yearbk Phys Anthropol 45:2058.
Kingston, JD, Deino, AL, Edgar, RK and Hill, A 2007. Astronomically forced climate change in the Kenyan Rift Valley 2.7–2.55 Ma: implications for the evolution of early hominin ecosystems. J Hum Evol 53(5):487503.
Kinra, S, Andersen, E, Ben-Shlomo, Y, Bowen, L, Lyngdoh, T, Prabhakaran, D, Reddy, KS, Ramakrishnan, L, Bharathi, A, Vaz, M et al. 2011. Association between urban life-years and cardiometabolic risk: the Indian migration study. Am J Epidemiol 174(2):154–64.
Kinra, S, Rameshwar Sarma, KV, Ghafoorunissa, , Mendu, VV, Ravikumar, R, Mohan, V, Wilkinson, IB, Cockcroft, JR, Davey Smith, G and Ben-Shlomo, Y 2008. Effect of integration of supplemental nutrition with public health programmes in pregnancy and early childhood on cardiovascular risk in rural Indian adolescents: long term follow-up of Hyderabad nutrition trial. BMJ 337:a605.
Kirkwood, TB 1989. DNA, mutations and aging. Mutat Res 219(1):17.
Kirkwood, TB and Austad, SN 2000. Why do we age? Nature 408(6809):233–8.
Kirkwood, TB and Rose, MR 1991. Evolution of senescence. Phil Tran R Soc Lond B 332:1524.
Kivimaki, M, Leino-Arjas, P, Luukkonen, R, Riihimaki, H, Vahtera, J and Kirjonen, J 2002. Work stress and risk of cardiovascular mortality: prospective cohort study of industrial employees. BMJ 325(7369):857.
Kivipelto, M, Ngandu, T, Fratiglioni, L, Viitanen, M, Kareholt, I, Winblad, B, Helkala, EL, Tuomilehto, J, Soininen, H and Nissinen, A 2005. Obesity and vascular risk factors at midlife and the risk of dementia and Alzheimer disease. Arch Neurol 62(10):1556–60.
Klein, N 2007. The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism. London: Allen Lane.
Klimentidis, YC, Abrams, M, Wang, J, Fernandez, JR and Allison, DB 2011. Natural selection at genomic regions associated with obesity and type-2 diabetes: East Asians and sub-Saharan Africans exhibit high levels of differentiation at type-2 diabetes regions. Hum Genet 129(4):407–18.
Knott, CD 1998. Changes in orangutan caloric intake, energy balance, and ketones in response to fluctuating fruit availability. Int J Primatol 19:1061–79.
Knowler, WC, Bennett, PH, Hamman, RF and Miller, M 1978. Diabetes incidence and prevalence in Pima Indians: a 19-fold greater incidence than in Rochester, Minnesota. Am J Epidemiol 108(6):497505.
Knutson, KL 2010. Sleep duration and cardiometabolic risk: a review of the epidemiologic evidence. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 24(5):731–43.
Koepke, N and Baten, J 2008. Agricultural specialization and height in ancient and medieval Europe. Explor Econ Hist 45:127–46.
Kohli, A and Aggarwal, NK 2006. Normal organ weights in Indian adults. Medico-Legal Update 6:36.
Koivula, M, Koskela, E, Mappes, T and Oksanen, TA 2003. Cost of reproduction in the wild: manipulation of reproductive effort in the bank vole. Ecol 84(2):398405.
Kok, J 2007. Principles and prospects of the life course paradigm. Ann Demogr Hist 113(1):203–30.
Komal, W, Jaipanesh, K and Seemal, M 2010. Association of leisure time physical activity, watching television, obesity & lipid profile among sedentary low-income south Indian population. East Afr J Public Health 7(3):225–8.
Komlos, J 1991. Anthropometric history: what is it? J Soc Biol Structures 14:353–6.
Komlos, J 1993. The secular trend in the biological standard of living in the United KIngdom, 1730–1860. Econ Hist Rev 46:115–44.
Komlos, J 1994. On the significance of anthropometric history. In Komlos, J, editor. Stature, Living Standards, and Economic Development. Chicago: Chicago University Press. 210–20.
Komlos, J 1998. Shrinking in a growing economy? The mystery of physical stature during the industrial revolution. J Econ Hist(58):779802.
Komlos, J 2008. On English pygmies and giants: the physical stature of English youth in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Res Econ Hist 25:149–68.
Komlos, J 2010. The recent decline in the height of African-American women. Econ Hum Biol 8(1):5866.
Komlos, J and Brabec, M 2010. The trend of mean BMI values of US adults, birth cohorts 1882–1986 indicates that the obesity epidemic began earlier than hitherto thought. Am J Hum Biol 22(5):631–8.
Komlos, J and Brabec, M 2011. The trend of BMI values of US adults by deciles, birth cohorts 1882–1986 stratified by gender and ethnicity. Econ Hum Biol 9(3):234250.
Komlos, J and Breitfelder, A 2008. Differences in the physical growth of US-born black and white children and adolescents ages 2–19, born 1942–2002. Ann Hum Biol 35(1):1121.
Komlos, J, Breitfelder, A and Sunder, M 2009. The transition to post-industrial BMI values among US children. Am J Hum Biol 21(2):151–60.
Komlos, J and Küchenhoff, H 2012. The diminution of the physical stature of the English male population in the eighteenth century. Cliometrica 6:4562.
Kondalsamy-Chennakesavan, S, Hoy, WE, Wang, Z, Briganti, E, Polkinghorne, K, Chadban, S and Shaw, J 2008a. Anthropometric measurements of Australian Aboriginal adults living in remote areas: comparison with nationally representative findings. Am J Hum Biol 20(3):317–24.
Kondalsamy-Chennakesavan, S, Hoy, WE, Wang, Z and Shaw, J 2008b. Quantifying the excess risk of type 2 diabetes by body habitus measurements among Australian aborigines living in remote areas. Diabetes Care 31(3):585–6.
Koppes, LL, Dekker, JM, Hendriks, HF, Bouter, LM and Heine, RJ 2005a. Moderate alcohol consumption lowers the risk of type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis of prospective observational studies. Diabetes Care 28(3):719–25.
Koppes, LL, Twisk, JW, Van Mechelen, W, Snel, J and Kemper, HC 2005b. Cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between alcohol consumption and lipids, blood pressure and body weight indices. J Stud Alcohol 66(6):713–21.
Kopytoff, I 1986. The cultural biography of things: commoditization as process. In Appadurai, A, editor. The Social life of Things: Commodities in Cultural Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 6491.
Korkeila, M, Kaprio, J, Rissanen, A, Koshenvuo, M and Sorensen, TI 1998. Predictors of major weight gain in adult Finns: stress, life satisfaction and personality traits. Int J Obes 22(10):949–57.
Kosecik, M, Erel, O, Sevinc, E and Selek, S 2005. Increased oxidative stress in children exposed to passive smoking. Int J Cardiol 100(1):61–4.
Kosfeld, M, Heinrichs, M, Zak, PJ, Fischbacher, U and Fehr, E 2005. Oxytocin increases trust in humans. Nature 435(7042):673–6.
Kotler, DP 2008. HIV and antiretroviral therapy: lipid abnormalities and associated cardiovascular risk in HIV-infected patients. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 49 Suppl 2:S79S85.
Kouris-Blazos, A 2002. Morbidity mortality paradox of 1st generation Greek Australians. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 11 Suppl 3:S569–75.
Kousta, E, Lawrence, NJ, Penny, A, Millauer, BA, Robinson, S, Johnston, DG and McCarthy, MI 2000. Women with a history of gestational diabetes of European and South Asian origin are shorter than women with normal glucose tolerance in pregnancy. Diabet Med 17(11):792–7.
Kovats, RS, Bouma, MJ, Hajat, S, Worrall, E and Haines, A 2003. El Nino and health. Lancet 362(9394):1481–9.
Koyanagi, A, Zhang, J, Dagvadorj, A, Hirayama, F, Shibuya, K, Souza, JP and Gulmezoglu, AM 2013. Macrosomia in 23 developing countries: an analysis of a multicountry, facility-based, cross-sectional survey. Lancet 381(9865):476–83.
Koziel, S and Kolodziej, H 2001. Birth order and BMI in teenage girls. Coll Antropol 25(2):555–60.
Kozlov, I and Samsonova, A 2005. The impact of the siege on the physical development of children. In Barber, J and Dzeniskevich, A, editors. Life and Death in Besieged Leningrad, 1941–44. London: Palgrave Macmillan. 174–96.
Kozuki, N, Lee, AC, Silveira, MF, Victora, CG, Adair, L, Humphrey, J, Ntozini, R, Black, RE, Katz, J Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group Small-for-Gestational-Age-Preterm Birth Working Group 2013. The associations of birth intervals with small-for-gestational-age, preterm, and neonatal and infant mortality: a meta-analysis. BMC Public Health 13 Suppl 3:S3.
Kozuki, N and Walker, N 2013. Exploring the association between short/long preceding birth intervals and child mortality: using reference birth interval children of the same mother as comparison. BMC Public Health 13 Suppl 3:S6.
Kramer, MS and Kakuma, R 2003. Energy and protein intake in pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev(4):CD000032.
Kramer, MS, Seguin, L, Lydon, J and Goulet, L 2000. Socio-economic disparities in pregnancy outcome: why do the poor fare so poorly? Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 14(3):194210.
Kramer, RC and Michalowski, RJ 2012. Is global warming a state-corporate crime? In White, R, editor. Climate Change from a Criminologist Perspective. New York: Springer. 7188.
Krause, J, Fu, Q, Good, JM, Viola, B, Shunkov, MV, Derevianko, AP and Paabo, S 2010. The complete mitochondrial DNA genome of an unknown hominin from southern Siberia. Nature 464(7290):894–7.
Kretchmer, N 1993. Lactose Tolerance and Malabsorption. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 813–17.
Krieger, N 2001. Theories for social epidemiology in the 21st century: an ecosocial perspective. Int J Epidemiol 30(4):668–77.
Krieger, N, Dorling, D and McCartney, G 2012. Mapping injustice, visualizing equity: why theory, metaphors and images matter in tackling inequalities. Public Health 126(3):256–8.
Kris-Etherton, PM, Harris, WS and Appel, LJ 2003a. Fish consumption, fish oil, omega-3 fatty acids, and cardiovascular disease. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 23(2):e2030.
Kris-Etherton, PM, Harris, WS and Appel, LJ 2003b. Omega-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular disease: new recommendations from the American Heart Association. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 23(2):151–2.
Kuh, D, Bassey, EJ, Butterworth, S, Hardy, R, Wadsworth, ME and Musculoskeletal Study T 2005. Grip strength, postural control, and functional leg power in a representative cohort of British men and women: associations with physical activity, health status, and socioeconomic conditions. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 60(2):224–31.
Kuh, D and Ben-Shlomo, Y 2004. A Life Course Approach to Chronic Disease Epidemiology (2nd edition). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Kuh, D and Davey Smith, G 1993. When is mortality risk determined? Historical insights into a current debate. Soc Hist Med 6:101–23.
Kuh, DL, Power, C and Rodgers, B 1991. Secular trends in social class and sex differences in adult height. Int J Epidemiol 20(4):1001–9.
Kuhlow, D, Florian, S, von Figura, G, Weimer, S, Schulz, N, Petzke, KJ, Zarse, K, Pfeiffer, AF, Rudolph, KL and Ristow, M 2010. Telomerase deficiency impairs glucose metabolism and insulin secretion. Aging 2(10):650–8.
Kuningas, M, May, L, Tamm, R, van Bodegom, D, van den Biggelaar, AH, Meij, JJ, Frolich, M, Ziem, JB, Suchiman, HE, Metspalu, A et al. 2009. Selection for genetic variation inducing pro-inflammatory responses under adverse environmental conditions in a Ghanaian population. PLoS One 4(11):e7795.
Kuniyasu, H, Kitadai, Y, Mieno, H and Yasui, W 2003. Helicobactor pylori infection is closely associated with telomere reduction in gastric mucosa. Oncol 65(3):275–82.
Kunz-Ebrecht, SR, Kirschbaum, C and Steptoe, A 2004. Work stress, socioeconomic status and neuroendocrine activation over the working day. Soc Sci Med 58(8):1523–30.
Kutsukake, N and Nunn, CL 2006. Comparative tests of reproductive skew in male primates: the roles of demographic factors and incomplete control. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 60:695706.
Kuzawa, CW, Hallal, PC, Adair, L, Bhargava, SK, Fall, CH, Lee, N, Norris, SA, Osmond, C, Ramirez-Zea, M, Sachdev, HS et al. 2012. Birth weight, postnatal weight gain, and adult body composition in five low and middle income countries. Am J Hum Biol 24(1):513.
Kuzawa, CW, Quinn, EA and Adair, LS 2007. Leptin in a lean population of Filipino adolescents. Am J Phys Anthropol 132(4):642–9.
Kuzawa, CW, Sweet, E 2009. Epigenetics and the embodiment of race: developmental origins of US racial disparities in cardiovascular health. Am J Hum Biol 21(1):215.
Kwate, NO, Yau, CY, Loh, JM and Williams, D 2009. Inequality in obesigenic environments: fast food density in New York City. Health & Place 15(1):364–73.
Kwiatkowski, DP 2005. How malaria has affected the human genome and what human genetics can teach us about malaria. Am J Hum Genet 77(2):171192.
Kwiterovich, PO Jr. 2000. The metabolic pathways of high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, and triglycerides: a current review. Am J Cardiol 86(12A):5L-10L.
Laatikainen, T, Critchley, J, Vartiainen, E, Salomaa, V, Ketonen, M and Capewell, S 2005. Explaining the decline in coronary heart disease mortality in Finland between 1982 and 1997. Am J Epidemiol 162(8):764–73.
Lacey, EP 1998. What is an adaptive environmentally induced parental effect? In Mousseau, TA and Fox, CW, editors. Maternal Effects as Adaptations. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 5466.
Lahmann, PH, Lissner, L, Gullberg, B and Berglund, G 2000. Sociodemographic factors associated with long-term weight gain, current body fatness and central adiposity in Swedish women. Int J Obes 24(6):685–94.
Lahmann, PH, Wills, RA and Coory, M 2009. Trends in birth size and macrosomia in Queensland, Australia, from 1988 to 2005. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 23(6):533–41.
Lakshman, R, Forouhi, NG, Sharp, SJ, Luben, R, Bingham, SA, Khaw, KT, Wareham, NJ and Ong, KK 2009. Early age at menarche associated with cardiovascular disease and mortality. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 94(12):4953–60.
Lakshmy, R, Fall, CH, Sachdev, HS, Osmond, C, Prabhakaran, D, Biswas, SD, Tandon, N, Ramji, S, Reddy, KS, Barker, DJ et al. 2011. Childhood body mass index and adult pro-inflammatory and pro-thrombotic risk factors: data from the New Delhi birth cohort. Int J Epidemiol 40(1):102–11.
Lamb, HH 1995. Climate, History and the Modern World (2nd edition). London: Routledge.
Lamberg-Karlovsky, CC 1972. Trade mechanisms in Indus-Mesopotamian interrelations. J Am Orient Soc 92(2):222–9.
di Lampedusa, G 1958. The Leopard, trans. Colquhoun, A. London: Fontana. 29.
Landrine, H and Corral, I 2009. Separate and unequal: residential segregation and black health disparities. Ethn Dis 19(2):179–84.
Lane, FC 1933. Venetian shipping during the commercial revolution. Am Hist Rev 38(2):219–39.
Lane, N 2005. Power, Sex and Suicide. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Langenberg, C, Hardy, R, Breeze, E, Kuh, D and Wadsworth, ME 2005. Influence of short stature on the change in pulse pressure, systolic and diastolic blood pressure from age 36 to 53 years: an analysis using multilevel models. Int J Epidemiol