Skip to main content
The Metabolic Ghetto
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 1
  • Cited by
    This book has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Wells, Jonathan C. K. Pomeroy, Emma Walimbe, Subhash R. Popkin, Barry M. and Yajnik, Chittaranjan S. 2016. The Elevated Susceptibility to Diabetes in India: An Evolutionary Perspective. Frontiers in Public Health, Vol. 4,

  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Recommend this book

    Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

    The Metabolic Ghetto
    • Online ISBN: 9780511972959
    • Book DOI:
    Please enter your name
    Please enter a valid email address
    Who would you like to send this to? *
  • Buy the print book

Book description

Chronic diseases have rapidly become the leading global cause of morbidity and mortality, yet there is poor understanding of this transition, or why particular social and ethnic groups are especially susceptible. In this book, Wells adopts a multidisciplinary approach to human nutrition, emphasising how power relations shape the physiological pathways to obesity, diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Part I reviews the physiological basis of chronic diseases, presenting a 'capacity-load' model that integrates the nutritional contributions of developmental experience and adult lifestyle. Part II presents an evolutionary perspective on the sensitivity of human metabolism to ecological stresses, highlighting how social hierarchy impacts metabolism on an intergenerational timescale. Part III reviews how nutrition has changed over time, as societies evolved and coalesced towards a single global economic system. Part IV integrates these physiological, evolutionary and politico-economic perspectives in a unifying framework, to deepen our understanding of the societal basis of metabolic ill-health.


'Is it really possible to bring together philosophy, economics, history, evolutionary biology, epidemiology, nutrition and metabolism to understand obesity and chronic disease? Jonathan Wells has done it in an immensely readable and insightful way. A wonderful book.'

Michael Marmot - University College London

'No other book before has provided such a sophisticated and eloquent argument integrating knowledge about foetal and childhood environment and nutrition, with impacts of social, economic and historical factors. Jonathan Wells persuasively argues that a broad scope and an evolutionary framework are necessary to build our understanding of chronic and globally important diseases. Consequently, [he] succeeds in achieving a true consilience of very disparate perspectives on our health.'

Grazyna Jasienska - Jagiellonian University, Poland

    • Aa
    • Aa
Refine List
Actions for selected content:
Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive
  • Send content to

    To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to .

    To send content to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

    Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

    Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

    Please be advised that item(s) you selected are not available.
    You are about to send:

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.

Page 1 of 2

Page 1 of 2

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

WH Helm 2002. Tuberculosis and the Bronte family. Bronte Studies 27(2):157167.

Z Abdeen , PG Greenough , A Chandran and R Qasrawi 2007. Assessment of the nutritional status of preschool-age children during the second Intifada in Palestine. Food Nutr Bull 28(3):274–82.

I Mert , AS Oruc , S Yuksel , ES Cakar , U Buyukkagnici , A Karaer and N Danisman 2012. Role of oxidative stress in preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction. J Obstet Gynaecol Res 38(4):658–64.

A Singhal , K Kennedy , J Lanigan , M Fewtrell , TJ Cole , T Stephenson , A Elias-Jones , LT Weaver , S Ibhanesebhor , PD MacDonald , J Bindels , A Lucas 2010a. Nutrition in infancy and long-term risk of obesity: evidence from 2 randomized controlled trials. Am J Clin Nutr 92(5):1133–44.

KK Ong , CJ Petry , PM Emmett , MS Sandhu , W Kiess , CN Hales , AR Ness , DB Dunger ; ALSPAC study team 2004. Insulin sensitivity and secretion in normal children related to size at birth, postnatal growth, and plasma insulin-like growth factor-I levels. Diabetologia 47(6):1064–70.

594 JC Wells , PC Hallal , JT Manning , CG Victora 2006. A trade-off between early growth rate and fluctuating asymmetry in Brazilian boys. Ann Hum Biol 33(1):112–24.

GS Thomas , LS Wann , AH Allam , RC Thompson , DE Michalik , ML Sutherland , et al 2014. Why did ancient people have atherosclerosis?: from autopsies to computed tomography to potential causes. Glob Heart 9(2):229–37.

DO Abegunde , CD Mathers , T Adam , M Ortegon and K Strong 2007. The burden and costs of chronic diseases in low-income and middle-income countries. Lancet 370(9603):1929–38.

CA Monteiro , WL Conde , B Lu , BM Popkin 2004a. Obesity and inequities in health in the developing world. Int J Obes 28(9):1181–6.

JC Wells , P Yao , JE Williams , R Gayner 2016. Maternal investment, life-history strategy of the offspring and adult chronic disease risk in South Asian women in the UK. Evol Med Public Health 2016(1):133–45.

J Abraham , PS Rao , SG Inbaraj , G Shetty and CJ Jose 1970. An epidemiological study of hemiplegia due to stroke in South India. Stroke 1(6):477–81.

ET Abrams and SR Meshnick 2009. Malaria during pregnancy in endemic areas: a lens for examining maternal-fetal conflict. Am J Hum Biol 21(5):643–50.

G Accardi , C Caruso , G Colonna-Romano , C Camarda , R Monastero and G Candore 2012. Can Alzheimer disease be a form of type 3 diabetes? Rejuv Res 15(2):217–21.

D Acevedo-Garcia 2000. Residential segregation and the epidemiology of infectious diseases. Soc Sci Med 51(8):1143–61.

A Adaikalakoteswari , M Balasubramanyam and V Mohan 2005. Telomere shortening occurs in Asian Indian Type 2 diabetic patients. Diabet Med 22(9):1151–6.

A Adaikalakoteswari , M Balasubramanyam , R Ravikumar , R Deepa and V Mohan 2007. Association of telomere shortening with impaired glucose tolerance and diabetic macroangiopathy. Atherosclerosis 195(1):83–9.

LS Adair and TJ Cole 2003. Rapid child growth raises blood pressure in adolescent boys who were thin at birth. Hypertension 41(3):451–6.

T Adali and I Koc 2011. Menarcheal age in Turkey: secular trend and socio-demographic correlates. Ann Hum Biol 38(3):345–53.

RS Ahima 2006. Adipose tissue as an endocrine organ. Obes 14 Suppl 5:242S249S.

LC Aiello and P Wheeler 1995. The expensive-tissue hypothesis – the brain and the digestive-system in human and primate evolution. Curr Anthropol 36(2):199221.

Y Akachi and D Canning 2007. The height of women in Sub-Saharan Africa: the role of health, nutrition, and income in childhood. Ann Hum Biol 34(4):397410.

483 A Akkad , R Hastings , JC Konje , SC Bell , H Thurston and B Williams 2006. Telomere length in small-for-gestational-age babies. Br J Obstet Gynecol 113(3):318–23.

CA Aktipis , L Cronk and R de Aguiar 2011. Risk-pooling and herd survival: an agent-based model of a Maasai gift-giving system. Hum Ecol 39:131–40.

DS Alam , JM Van Raaij , JG Hautvast , M Yunus and GJ Fuchs 2003. Energy stress during pregnancy and lactation: consequences for maternal nutrition in rural Bangladesh. Eur J Clin Nutr 57(1):151–6.

KG Alberti , P Zimmet , J Shaw and Group IDFETFC 2005. The metabolic syndrome–a new worldwide definition. Lancet 366(9491):1059–62.

H Alderman , J Hoddinott and BH Kinsey 2006. Long term consequences of early childhood malnutrition. Oxford Economic Papers 58(3):450–74.

GR Alexander , M Kogan , J Martin and E Papiernik 1998. What are the fetal growth patterns of singletons, twins, and triplets in the United States? Clin Obstet Gynecol 41(1):114–25.

MM Ali and IH Shah 2000. Sanctions and childhood mortality in Iraq. Lancet 355(9218):1851–7.

AH Allam , RC Thompson , LS Wann , MI Miyamoto and GS Thomas 2009. Computed tomographic assessment of atherosclerosis in ancient Egyptian mummies. JAMA 302(19):2091–4.

AB Alquati , D Rubolini , M Romano , G Boncoraglio , M Fasola and N Saino 2007. Effects of egg albumen removal on yellow-legged gull chick phenotype. Funct Ecol 21:310–16.

M Alsan , DE Bloom and D Canning 2006. The effect of population health on foreign direct investment inflows to low- and middle-income countries. World Dev 34(4):613–30.

S Altizer , A Dobson , P Hosseini , P Hudson , M Pascual and P Rohani 2006. Seasonality and the dynamics of infectious diseases. Ecol Lett 9(4):467–84.

D Alvarez , NB Metcalfe 2007. The tradeoff between catch-up growth and escape speed: variation between habitats in the cost of compensation. Oikos 116:1144–51.

SH Alwasel , Z Abotalib , JS Aljarallah , C Osmond , SM Alkharaz , IM Alhazza , G Badr and DJ Barker 2010. Changes in placental size during Ramadan. Placenta 31(7):607–10.

SH Alwasel , Z Abotalib , JS Aljarallah , C Osmond , SM Alkharaz , IM Alhazza , A Harrath , K Thornburg and DJ Barker 2011. Sex differences in birth size and intergenerational effects of intrauterine exposure to Ramadan in Saudi Arabia. Am J Hum Biol 23(5):651–4.

SH Alwasel , A Harrath , JS Aljarallah , Z Abotalib , C Osmond , SY Al Omar , I Khaled and DJ Barker 2013. Intergenerational effects of in utero exposure to Ramadan in Tunisia. Am J Hum Biol 25(3):341–3.

KH Ames 1994. The Northwest coast: complex hunter-gatheres, ecology, and social evolution. Ann Rev Anthropol 23:209–29.

KH Ames 2010. On the evolution of the human capacity for inequality and/or egalitarianism In GM Feinman and TD Price , editors. Pathways to Power: New Perspectives on the Emergence of Social Inequality. New York: Springer. 1544.

H Amigo , S Vasquez , P Bustos , G Ortiz and M Lara 2012. Socioeconomic status and age at menarche in indigenous and non-indigenous Chilean adolescents. Cad Saude Publica 28(5):977–83.

V Amsellem , G Gary-Bobo , E Marcos , B Maitre , V Chaar , P Validire et al. 2011. Telomere dysfunction causes sustained inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 184(12):1358–66.

CV Ananth and SW Wen 2002. Trends in fetal growth among singleton gestations in the United States and Canada, 1985 through 1998. Semin Perinatol 26:260–7.

GS Andersen , T Girma , JC Wells , P Kaestel , KF Michaelsen and H Friis 2011. Fat and fat-free mass at birth: air displacement plethysmography measurements on 350 Ethiopian newborns. Pediatr Res 70(5):501–6.

KK Andersen , N Azuma , JM Barnola , M Bigler , P Biscaye , N Caillon et al. 2004. High-resolution record of Northern Hemisphere climate extending into the last interglacial period. Nature 431(7005):147–51.

LB Andersen , M Harro , LB Sardinha , K Froberg , U Ekelund , S Brage and SA Anderssen 2006. Physical activity and clustered cardiovascular risk in children: a cross-sectional study (The European Youth Heart Study). Lancet 368(9532):299304.

RM Anderson and RM May 1991. Infectious Disease of Humans: Dynamics and Control. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

S Andersson , T Uller , M Lohmus and F Sundstrom 2004. Effects of egg yolk testosterone on growth and immunity in a precocial bird. J Evol Biol 17(3):501–5.

V Andreo , C Provensal , S Levis , N Pini , D Enria and J Polop 2012. Summer-autumn distribution and abundance of the hantavirus host, Oligoryzomys longicaudatus, in northwestern Chubut, Argentina. J Mammal 93:1559–68.

TD Anekwe and S Kumar 2012. The effect of a vaccination program on child anthropometry: evidence from India’s Universal Immunization Program. J Public Health 34(4):489–97.

JL Angel 1975. Paleoecology, paleodemography and health. In S Polgar , editor. Population, Ecology, and Social Evolution. The Hague: Moulton Publishers. 167–90.

A Angell 1993. Chile since 1958. In L Bethell , editor. Chile Since Independence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 129202.

M Anjana , S Sandeep , R Deepa , KS Vimaleswaran , S Farooq and V Mohan 2004. Visceral and central abdominal fat and anthropometry in relation to diabetes in Asian Indians. Diabetes Care 27(12):2948–53.

GJ Annas 1995. Hunger strikes. BMJ 311(7013):1114–15.

485 AN Antonov 1947. Children born during the siege of Leningrad in 1942. J Pediatr 30(3):250–9.

A Antonovsky 1967. Social class, life expectancy and overall mortality. Milbank Mem Fund Q 45(2):3173.

A Antonovsky 1968. Social class and the major cardiovascular diseases. J Chronic Dis 21(2):65106.

A Appadurai 1986. Introduction: commodities and the politics of value. In A Appadurai , editor. The Social Life of Things: Commodities in Cultural Perspective. Cambridge: University Press. 363.

FA Araghi 1995. Global depeasantization, 1945–1990. Sociol Q 36(2):337–68.

DR Ardia , KA Schat and DW Winkler 2003. Reproductive effort reduces longterm immune function in breeding tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor). Proc R Soc Lond B 270:1679–83.

GJ Armelagos , AH Goodman and KH Jacobs 1991. The origins of agriculture: population growth during a period of declining health. Pop Env 13(1):922.

K Asao , WH Kao , K Baptiste-Roberts , K Bandeen-Roche , TP Erlinger and FL Brancati 2006. Short stature and the risk of adiposity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes in middle age: the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988–1994. Diabetes Care 29(7):1632–7.

M Asghar , D Hasselquist , B Hansson , P Zehtindjiev , H Westerdahl and S Bensch 2015. Chronic infection. Hidden costs of infection: chronic malaria accelerates telomere degradation and senescence in wild birds. Science 347(6220):436–8.

K Ashok , Z Guan and T Yamagata 2001. Impact of the Indian Ocean Dipole on the relationship between the Indian Monsoon rainfall and ENSO. Geo Res Lett 28:44994502.

A Astrup 2006. The trans fatty acid story in Denmark. Atheroscler Suppl 7(2):43–6.

PJ Atkins 2005. Fattening children or fattening farmers? School milk in Britain, 1921–1941. Econ Hist Rev 58(1):5778.

BM Auerbach 2011. Reaching great heights: changes in indigenous stature, body size and body shape with agricultural intensification in North America. In R Pinhasi and JT Stock , editors. Human Bioarchaeology of the Transition to Agriculture. Chichester, UK: John Wiley and Sons Ltd. 203–33.

SN Austad 1993. Retarded senescence in an insular population of Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana). J Zool 229(4):695708.

NM Avena , P Rada and BG Hoebel 2008. Evidence for sugar addiction: behavioral and neurochemical effects of intermittent, excessive sugar intake. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 32(1):2039.

PB Bach , HH Pham , D Schrag , RC Tate and JL Hargraves 2004. Primary care physicians who treat blacks and whites. N Engl J Med 351(6):575–84.

U Baig , P Belsare , M Watve and M Jog 2011. Can thrifty gene(s) or predictive fetal programming for thriftiness lead to obesity? J Obes 2011:861049.

S Baird , J Friedman and N Schady 2011. Aggregate income shocks and infant mortality in the developing world. Rev Econ Stat 93(3):847–56.

MA Bakewell , P Shi and J Zhang 2007. More genes underwent positive selection in chimpanzee evolution than in human evolution. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104(18):7489–94.

M Balter 2010. Archaeology: of two minds about Toba’s impact. Science 327(5970):1187–8.

C Bambra 2007. Going beyond the three worlds of welfare capitalism: regime theory and public health research. J Epidemiol Community Health 61(12):1098–102.

EB Barbier 2014. Economics: account for depreciation of natural capital. Nature 515:32–3.

G Barbujani , A Magagni , E Minch and LL Cavalli-Sforza 1997. An apportionment of human DNA diversity. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 94(9):4516–9.

DJ Barker 1981. Geographical variations in disease in Britain. BMJ 283(6288):398400.

DJ Barker , AR Bull , C Osmond and SJ Simmonds 1990. Fetal and placental size and risk of hypertension in adult life. BMJ 301(6746):259–62.

DJ Barker , T Forsen , JG Eriksson and C Osmond 2002. Growth and living conditions in childhood and hypertension in adult life: a longitudinal study. J Hypertens 20(10):1951–6.

DJ Barker , KM Godfrey , C Osmond and A Bull 1992. The relation of fetal length, ponderal index and head circumference to blood pressure and the risk of hypertension in adult life. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 6(1):3544.

487 DJ Barker , CN Hales , CH Fall , C Osmond , K Phipps and PM Clark 1993a. Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus, hypertension and hyperlipidaemia (syndrome X): relation to reduced fetal growth. Diabetologia 36(1):62–7.

DJ Barker , CN Martyn , C Osmond , CN Hales and CH Fall 1993b. Growth in utero and serum cholesterol concentrations in adult life. BMJ 307(6918):1524–7.

DJ Barker and C Osmond 1986a. Childhood respiratory infection and adult chronic bronchitis in England and Wales. BMJ 293(6557):1271–5.

DJ Barker and C Osmond 1986b. Diet and coronary heart disease in England and Wales during and after the second world war. J Epidemiol Community Health 40(1):3744.

DJ Barker and C Osmond 1987. Death rates from stroke in England and Wales predicted from past maternal mortality. BMJ 295(6590):83–6.

DJ Barker , C Osmond , TJ Forsen , E Kajantie and JG Eriksson 2005. Trajectories of growth among children who have coronary events as adults. N Engl J Med 353(17):1802–9.

DJ Barker , C Osmond , SJ Simmonds and GA Wield 1993c. The relation of small head circumference and thinness at birth to death from cardiovascular disease in adult life. BMJ 306(6875):422–6.

CJ Barnard and RM Sibly 1981. Producers and scroungers: a general model and its application to captive flocks of house sparrows. Anim Behav 29:543–50.

F Barone-Adesi , A Gasparrini , L Vizzini , F Merletti and L Richiardi 2011. Effects of Italian smoking regulation on rates of hospital admission for acute coronary events: a country-wide study. PLoS One 6(3):e17419.

DP Barr , EM Russ and HA Eder 1951. Protein-lipid relationships in human plasma. II. In atherosclerosis and related conditions. Am J Med 11(4):480–93.

LB Barreiro and L Quintana-Murci 2010. From evolutionary genetics to human immunology: how selection shapes host defence genes. Nat Rev Genet 11(1):1730.

AJ Barros , CG Victora , BL Horta , HD Goncalves , RC Lima and J Lynch 2006. Effects of socioeconomic change from birth to early adulthood on height and overweight. Int J Epidemiol 35(5):1233–8.

Z Barta and L-A Giraldeau 1998. The effect of dominance hierarchy on the use of alternative foraging tactics: a phenotype-limited producing-scrounging game. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 42:217–23.

Z Barta and L-A Giraldeau 2000. Daily patterns of optimal producer and scrounger use under predation hazard: a state-dependent dynamic game analysis. Am Nat 155(4):570–82.

M Bartley 1985. Coronary heart disease and the public health 1850–1983. Sociol Health Illness 7:289312.

S Bartz , A Mody , C Hornik , J Bain , M Muehlbauer , T Kiyimba , E Kiboneka , R Stevens , J Bartlett , St JV Peter et al. 2014. Severe acute malnutrition in childhood: hormonal and metabolic status at presentation, response to treatment, and predictors of mortality. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 99(6):2128–37.

488 H Basciano , L Federico and K Adeli 2005. Fructose, insulin resistance, and metabolic dyslipidemia. Nutr Metab 2(1):5.

S Basu , M McKee , G Galea and D Stuckler 2013a. Relationship of soft drink consumption to global overweight, obesity, and diabetes: a cross-national analysis of 75 countries. Am J Public Health 103(11):2071–7.

S Basu , D Stuckler , M McKee and G Galea 2013b. Nutritional determinants of worldwide diabetes: an econometric study of food markets and diabetes prevalence in 173 countries. Public Health Nutr 16(1):179–86.

S Basu , P Yoffe , N Hills and RH Lustig 2013c. The relationship of sugar to population-level diabetes prevalence: an econometric analysis of repeated cross-sectional data. PLoS One 8(2):e57873.

J Baten and M Blum 2012a. Growing tall but unequal: New findings and new background evidence on anthropometric welfare in 156 countries, 1810–1989. Econ Hist Dev Regions 27 Suppl 1:S66S85.

P Bateson 1994. The dynamics of parent-offspring relationships in mammals. Trends Ecol Evol 9(10):399403.

P Bateson 2001. Fetal experience and good adult design. Int J Epidemiol 30(5):928–34.

P Bateson , D Barker , T Clutton-Brock , D Deb , B D’Udine , RA Foley , P Gluckman , K Godfrey , T Kirkwood , MM Lahr et al. 2004. Developmental plasticity and human health. Nature 430(6998):419–21.

P Bateson and P Gluckman 2011. Plasticity, Robustness, Development and Evolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

R Bathula , AD Hughes , RB Panerai , JF Potter , GTSA Mc , T Tillin , AC Shore , R Hale , J Chambers , J Kooner et al. 2011. South Asians have adverse cerebrovascular haemodynamics, despite equivalent blood pressure, compared with Europeans. This is due to their greater hyperglycaemia. Int J Epidemiol 40(6):1490–8.

R Batniji , Y Rabaia , V Nguyen-Gillham , R Giacaman , E Sarraj , RL Punamaki , H Saab and W Boyce 2009. Health as human security in the occupied Palestinian territory. Lancet 373(9669):1133–43.

RF Baumeister and TF Heatherton 1996. Self-regulation failure: an overview. Psychol Inquiry 7:115.

A Bavdekar , CS Yajnik , CHD Fall , S Bapat , AN Pandit , V Deshpande , S Bhave , SD Kellingray and C Joglekar 1999. Insulin resistance syndrome in 8-year-old Indian children – small at birth, big at 8 years, or both? Diabetes 48(12):2422–9.

C Beauchamp 2006. Phenotypic correlates of scrounging behavior in zebra finches: role of foraging efficiency and dominance. Ethol 112:873–8.

HJ Beaumont , J Gallie , C Kost , GC Ferguson and PB Rainey 2009. Experimental evolution of bet hedging. Nature 462(7269):90–3.

C Becquet and M Przeworski 2007. A new approach to estimate parameters of speciation models with application to apes. Genom Res 17(10):1505–19.

489 AK Behrensmeyer 2006. Atmosphere. Climate change and human evolution. Science 311(5760):476–8.

PV Belsare , MG Watve , SS Ghaskadbi , DS Bhat , CS Yajnik and M Jog 2010. Metabolic syndrome: aggression control mechanisms gone out of control. Med Hyp 74(3):578–89.

J Belsky , LD Steinberg , RM Houts , SL Friedman , G DeHart , E Cauffman , GI Roisman , BL Halpern-Felsher and E Susman 2007. Family rearing antecedents of pubertal timing. Child Dev 78(4):1302–21.

Y Ben-Shlomo and GD Smith 1991. Deprivation in infancy or in adult life: which is more important for mortality risk? Lancet 337(8740):530–4.

A Benetos , K Okuda , M Lajemi , M Kimura , F Thomas , J Skurnick , C Labat , K Bean and A Aviv 2001. Telomere length as an indicator of biological aging: the gender effect and relation with pulse pressure and pulse wave velocity. Hypertension 37(2 Part 2):381–5.

M Benhariz , O Goulet , J Salas , V Colomb and C Ricour 1997. Energy cost of fever in children on total parenteral nutrition. Clin Nutr 16(5):251–5.

A Bennett , LD Epstein , RH Gilman , V Cama , C Bern , L Cabrera , AG Lescano , J Patz , C Carcamo , CR Sterling et al. 2012. Effects of the 1997–1998 El Nino episode on community rates of diarrhea. Am J Public Health 102(7):e6369.

SC Benoit , DJ Clegg , RJ Seeley and SC Woods 2004. Insulin and leptin as adiposity signals. Recent Prog Horm Res 59:267–85.

A Bentley , S Das , G Alcock , N Shah More , S Pantvaidya and D Osrin 2015. Malnutrition and infant and young child feeding in informal settlements in Mumbai, India: findings from a census. Food Sci Nutr 3(3):257–71.

GR Bentley , T Goldberg and G Jasienska 1993. The fertility of agricultural and non-agricultural traditional societies. Popul Stud 47(2):269–81.

DC Benyshek , CS Johnston and JF Martin 2004. Post-natal diet determines insulin resistance in fetally malnourished, low birthweight rats (F1) but diet does not modify the insulin resistance of their offspring (F2). Life Sci 74(24):3033–41.

DC Benyshek and JT Watson 2006. Exploring the thrifty genotype’s food-shortage assumptions: a cross-cultural comparison of ethnographic accounts of food security among foraging and agricultural societies. Am J Phys Anthropol 131(1):120–6.

JC Berbesque , FW Marlowe , P Shaw and P Thompson 2014. Hunter-gatherers have less famine than agriculturalists. Biol Lett 10(1):20130853.

C Berg , A Rosengren , N Aires , G Lappas , K Toren , D Thelle and L Lissner 2005. Trends in overweight and obesity from 1985 to 2002 in Goteborg, West Sweden. Int J Obes 29(8):916–24.

P Berger and N Negus 1992. Offspring growth and development responses to maternal transfer of 6-MBOA information in Microtus montanus. Can J Zool 70:518–22.

490 BC Bergman , MA Cornier , TJ Horton and DH Bessesen 2007. Effects of fasting on insulin action and glucose kinetics in lean and obese men and women. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 293(4):E11031111.

RN Bergman , M Ader , K Huecking and CG Van 2002. Accurate assessment of beta-cell function: the hyperbolic correction. Diabetes 51 Suppl 1:S212S220.

N Bergvall , A Iliadou , S Johansson , U de Faire , MS Kramer , Y Pawitan , NL Pedersen , P Lichtenstein and S Cnattingius 2007. Genetic and shared environmental factors do not confound the association between birth weight and hypertension: a study among Swedish twins. Circulation 115(23):2931–8.

CS Berkey , GA Colditz , HR Rockett , AL Frazier and WC Willett 2009. Dairy consumption and female height growth: prospective cohort study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 18(6):1881–7.

SA Berson and RS Yalow 1965. Some current controversies in diabetes research. Diabetes 14(9):549–72.

K Bettenhausen and JK Murnighan 1985. The emergence of norms in competitive decision-making groups. Admin Sci Quart 30:350–72.

CJ Beuret , F Zirulnik , MS Giménez 2005. Effect of the herbicide glyphosate on liver lipoperoxidation in pregnant rats and their fetuses. Reprod Toxicol 19(4):501–4.

S Bhardwaj , A Misra , R Misra , K Goel , SP Bhatt , K Rastogi , NK Vikram and S Gulati 2011. High prevalence of abdominal, intra-abdominal and subcutaneous adiposity and clustering of risk factors among urban Asian Indians in North India. PLoS One 6(9):e24362.

SK Bhargava , HS Sachdev , CH Fall , C Osmond , R Lakshmy , DJ Barker , SK Biswas , S Ramji , D Prabhakaran and KS Reddy 2004. Relation of serial changes in childhood body-mass index to impaired glucose tolerance in young adulthood. N Engl J Med 350(9):865–75.

LS Bhatia , NP Curzen , PC Calder and CD Byrne 2012. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a new and important cardiovascular risk factor? Eur Heart J 33(10):1190–200.

R Bhopal , T Rahemtulla and A Sheikh 2005. Persistent high stroke mortality in Bangladeshi populations. BMJ 331(7525):1096–97.

AR Bhuiyan , SR Srinivasan , W Chen , MJ Azevedo and GS Berenson 2011. Influence of low birth weight on C-reactive protein in asymptomatic younger adults: the bogalusa heart study. BMC Res Notes 4:71.

ZA Bhutta , FA Bawany , A Feroze , A Rizvi , SJ Thapa and M Patel 2009. Effects of the crises on child nutrition and health in East Asia and the Pacific. Global Social Policy 9:119–43.

491 F Bianchini , R Kaaks and H Vainio 2002. Overweight, obesity, and cancer risk. Lancet Oncol 3(9):565–74.

JC Bicca-Marques and PA Garber 2005. Use of social and ecological information in tamarin foraging decisions. Int J Primatol 26:1321–44.

T Bielicki , A Waliszko , B Hulanicka and K Kotlarz 1986. Social-class gradients in menarcheal age in Poland. Ann Hum Biol 13(1):111.

JR Bindon and PT Baker 1985. Modernization, migration and obesity among Samoan adults. Ann Hum Biol 12(1):6776.

B Bingham , K McFadden , X Zhang , S Bhatnagar , S Beck and R Valentino 2011. Early adolescence as a critical window during which social stress distinctly alters behavior and brain norepinephrine activity. Neuropsychopharmacol 36(4):896909.

F Biondi , A Gershunov and DR Cayan 2001. North Pacific Decadal Climate Variability Since 1661. J Climate 14:510.

T Biron-Shental , R Sukenik Halevy , L Goldberg-Bittman , D Kidron , MD Fejgin and A Amiel 2010a. Telomeres are shorter in placental trophoblasts of pregnancies complicated with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Early Hum Dev 86(7):451–6.

T Biron-Shental , R Sukenik-Halevy , Y Sharon , L Goldberg-Bittman , D Kidron , MD Fejgin and A Amiel 2010b. Short telomeres may play a role in placental dysfunction in preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction. Am J Obstet Gynecol 202(4):e381–7.

LL Bischoff , B Tschirren and H Richner 2009. Long-term effects of early parasite exposure on song duration and singing strategy in great tits. Behav Ecol 20:265–70.

P Bjorntorp and R Rosmond 2000. The metabolic syndrome–a neuroendocrine disorder? Br J Nutr 83 Suppl 1:S4957.

PH Black and LD Garbutt 2002. Stress, inflammation and cardiovascular disease. J Psychosomat Res 52(1):123.

RE Black , CG Victora , SP Walker , ZA Bhutta , P Christian , M de Onis , M Ezzati , S Grantham-McGregor , J Katz , R Martorell et al. 2013. Maternal and child undernutrition and overweight in low-income and middle-income countries. Lancet 382(9890):427–51.

MJ Blaser and S Falkow 2009. What are the consequences of the disappearing human microbiota? Nature Rev Microbiol 7(12):887–94.

F Block and M Somers 2003. In the shadow of Speenhamland: social policy and the old poor law. Polit Soc 31:283321.

JP Block , RA Scribner and KB DeSalvo 2004. Fast food, race/ethnicity, and income: a geographic analysis. Am J Prev Med 27(3):211–17.

DE Bloom , D Canning , L Hu , Y Liu , A Mahal and W Yip 2010. The contribution of population health and demographic change to economic growth in China and India. J Comp Econ 38(1):1733.

DE Bloom , D Canning and J Sevilla 2004. The effect of health on economic growth: a production function approach. World Dev 32(1):113.

K Blum , PK Thanos and MS Gold 2014. Dopamine and glucose, obesity, and reward deficiency syndrome. Frontiers Psychol 5:919.

492 C Boehm 1993. Egalitarian behavior and reverse dominance hierarchy. Curr Anthropol 34:227254.

C Boesch , G Kohou , H Nene and L Vigilant 2006. Male competition and paternity in wild chimpanzees of the Tai forest. Am J Phys Anthropol 130(1):103–15.

B Bogin 2009. Childhood, adolescence, and longevity: a multilevel model of the evolution of reserve capacity in human life history. Am J Hum Biol 21(4):567–77.

B Bogin and J Baker 2012. Low birth weight does not predict the ontogeny of relative leg length of infants and children: an allometric analysis of the NHANES III sample. Am J Phys Anthropol 148(4):487–94.

B Bogin , P Smith , AB Orden , MI Varela Silva and J Loucky 2002. Rapid change in height and body proportions of Maya American children. Am J Hum Biol 14(6):753–61.

B Bogin and MI Varela-Silva 2010. Leg length, body proportion, and health: a review with a note on beauty. Int J Env Res Public Health 7(3):1047–75.

N Boivin 2007. Anthropological, historical, archaeological and genetic perspectives on the origins of caste in South Asia. In MD Petraglia and B Allchin , editors. The Evolution and History of Human Populations in South Asia. Dordrecht: Springer. 341–61.

C Bolduan and L Weiner 1933. Causes of death among Jews of N. Y. city. New Engl J Med 208:407–16.

DR Bonds , SG Gabbe , S Kumar and T Taylor 1984. Fetal weight/placental weight ratio and perinatal outcome. Am J Obstet Gynecol 149(2):195200.

R Bonnefille , R Potts , F Chalie , D Jolly and O Peyron 2004. High-resolution vegetation and climate change associated with Pliocene Australopithecus afarensis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101(33):12125–9.

M Borgerhoff Mulder , I Fazzio , W Irons , RL McElreath , S Bowles , AC Bell , T Hertz and L Hazzah 2010. Pastoralism and wealth inequality: revisiting an old question. Curr Anthropol 51:3548.

N Borghol , M Suderman , W McArdle , A Racine , M Hallett , M Pembrey , C Hertzman , C Power and M Szyf 2012. Associations with early-life socio-economic position in adult DNA methylation. Int J Epidemiol 41(1):6274.

SA Borinskaya , AS Gureev , AA Orlova , ED Sanina , AA Kim , F Gasemianrodsari , VI Shirmanov , OP Balanovsky , DV Rebrikov , AV Koshechkin et al. 2013. Allele frequency distributions of −174G/C polymorphism in regulatory region of interleukin 6 gene (IL6) in Russian and worldwide populations. Russian J Genet 49:90109.

493 JM Born , SG Lemmens , F Rutters , AG Nieuwenhuizen , E Formisano , R Goebel and MS Westeterp-Plantenga 2010. Acute stress and food-related reward activation in the brain during food choice during eating in the absence of hunger. Int J Obes 34(1):172–81.

PA Bos , D Terburg and J van Honk 2010. Testosterone decreases trust in socially naive humans. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107(22):9991–5.

L Bouwens and I Rooman 2005. Regulation of pancreatic beta-cell mass. Physiol Rev 85(4):1255–70.

I Bove , T Miranda , C Campoy , R Uauy and M Napol 2012. Stunting, overweight and child development impairment go hand in hand as key problems of early infancy: Uruguayan case. Early Hum Dev 88(9):747–51.

L Bowen , S Ebrahim , B De Stavola , A Ness , S Kinra , AV Bharathi , D Prabhakaran and KS Reddy 2011. Dietary intake and rural-urban migration in India: a cross-sectional study. PLoS One 6(6):e14822.

RS Bowen , J Moodley , MF Dutton and AJ Theron 2001. Oxidative stress in pre-eclampsia. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 80(8):719–25.

S Bowles , EA Smith and M Borgerhoff Mulder 2010. The emergence and persistence of inequality in premodern societies. Curr Anthropol 51:717.

M Bowling , N Burch , M Johanson and O Tammelin 2015. Computer science. Heads-up limit hold’em poker is solved. Science 347(6218):145–9.

AJ Bradley , IR McDonald and AK Lee 1980. Stress and mortality in a small marsupial (Antechinus stuartii, Macleay). Gen Comp Endocrinol 40:188200.

PJ Bradshaw , HS Alfonso , J Finn , J Owen and PL Thompson 2011. A comparison of coronary heart disease event rates among urban Australian Aboriginal people and a matched non-Aboriginal population. J Epidemiol Community Health 65(4):315–19.

J Brambila-Macias , B Shankar , S Capacci , M Mazzocchi , FJ Perez-Cueto , W Verbeke and WB Traill 2011. Policy interventions to promote healthy eating: a review of what works, what does not, and what is promising. Food Nutr Bull 32(4):365–75.

T Brass 2015. Peasants, academics, populists: Forward to the past? Critique in Anthropology 35(2):187204

AA Bremer , M Mietus-Snyder and RH Lustig 2012. Toward a unifying hypothesis of metabolic syndrome. Pediatr 129(3):557–70.

ES Brezis 2001. Social classes, demographic transition and economic growth. Eur Econ Rev 45(6):707–17.

RG Bribiescas and SF Anestis 2010. Leptin associations with age, weight, and sex among chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). J Med Primatol 39(5):347–55.

GM Brieger , MS Rogers , AW Rushton and M Mongelli 1997. Are Hong Kong babies getting bigger? Int J Gynaecol Obstet 57(3):267–71.

E Brinda , A Rajkumar , U Enemark 2015. Association between gender inequality index and child mortality rates: a cross-national study of 138 countries. BMC Public Health 15:97.

NH Brodersen , A Steptoe , DR Boniface and J Wardle 2007. Trends in physical activity and sedentary behaviour in adolescence: ethnic and socioeconomic differences. Br J Sport Med 41(3):140–4.

WS Broecker 1997. Thermohaline circulation, the achilles heel of our climate system: will man-made CO2 upset the current balance? Science 278(5343):1582–8.

SF Brosnan 2006. Nonhuman species’ reactions to inequity and their implications for fairness. Soc Justice Res 19(2):153–85.

SF Brosnan and FB De Waal 2003. Monkeys reject unequal pay. Nature 425(6955):297–9.

SW Brouilette , JS Moore , AD McMahon , JR Thompson , I Ford , J Shepherd , CJ Packard and NJ Samani 2007. Telomere length, risk of coronary heart disease, and statin treatment in the West of Scotland Primary Prevention Study: a nested case-control study. Lancet 369(9556):107–14.

EA Brown 2012. Genetic explorations of recent human metabolic adaptations: hypotheses and evidence. Biol Rev 87(4):838–55.

IJ Brown , J Stamler , L Van Horn , CE Robertson , Q Chan , AR Dyer , CC Huang , BL Rodriguez , L Zhao , ML Daviglus et al. 2011. Sugar-sweetened beverage, sugar intake of individuals, and their blood pressure: international study of macro/micronutrients and blood pressure. Hypertension 57(4):695701.

KH Brown , SE Wuehler and JM Peerson 2001. The importance of zinc in human nutrition and estimation of the global prevalence of zinc deficiency. Food Nutr Bull 22(2):113–25.

P Brown , T Sutikna , MJ Morwood , RP Soejono , Jatmiko , EW Saptomo and RA Due 2004. A new small-bodied hominin from the Late Pleistocene of Flores, Indonesia. Nature 431(7012):1055–61.

PJ Brown 1987. Microparasites and macroparasites. Cult Anthropol 2(1):155–71.

PJ Brown and M Konner 1987. An anthropological perspective on obesity. Ann NY Acad Sci 499:2946.

WM Brown , L Cronk , K Grochow , A Jacobson , CK Liu , Z Popovic and R Trivers 2005. Dance reveals symmetry especially in young men. Nature 438(7071):1148–50.

KD Brownell and TR Frieden 2009. Ounces of prevention–the public policy case for taxes on sugared beverages. N Engl J Med 360(18):1805–8.

KD Brownell and KE Warner 2009. The perils of ignoring history: Big Tobacco played dirty and millions died. How similar is Big Food? Milbank Q 87(1):259–94.

JE Brudevoll , K Liestol and L Walloe 1979. Menarcheal age in Oslo during the last 140 years. Ann Hum Biol 6(5):407–16.

MW Bruford , DG Bradley and G Luikart 2003. DNA markers reveal the complexity of livestock domestication. Nat Rev Genet 4(11):900–10.

GH Brundtland , K Liestol and L Walloe 1980. Height, weight and menarcheal age of Oslo schoolchildren during the last 60 years. Ann Hum Biol 7(4):307–22.

EJ Brunner , H Hemingway , BR Walker , M Page , P Clarke , M Juneja , MJ Shipley , M Kumari , R Andrew , JR Seckl et al. 2002. 495Adrenocortical, autonomic, and inflammatory causes of the metabolic syndrome: nested case-control study. Circulation 106(21):2659–65.

MB Bruss , JR Morris , LL Dannison , MP Orbe , JA Quitugua and RT Palacios 2005. Food, culture, and family: exploring the coordinated management of meaning regarding childhood obesity. Health Commun 18(2):155–75.

KL Buchanan , S Leitner , KA Spencer , AR Goldsmith and CK Catchpole 2004. Developmental stress selectively affects the song control nucleus HVC in the zebra finch. Proc Biol Sci 271(1555):2381–6.

KL Buchanan , KA Spencer , AR Goldsmith and CK Catchpole 2003. Song as an honest signal of past developmental stress in the European starling (Sturnus vulgaris). Proc Biol Sci 270(1520):1149–56.

HC Bucher , P Hengstler , C Schindler and G Meier 2002. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in coronary heart disease: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J Med 112(4):298304.

H Buchwald , R Estok , K Fahrbach , D Banel , MD Jensen , WJ Pories , JP Bantle and I Sledge 2009. Weight and type 2 diabetes after bariatric surgery: systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Med 122(3):248–56 e245.

C Buck and H Simpson 1982. Infant diarrhoea and subsequent mortality from heart disease and cancer. J Epidemiol Community Health 36(1):2730.

JM Burkart , O Allon , F Amici , C Fichtel , C Finkenwirth , A Heschl , J Huber , K Isler , ZK Kosonen , E Martins et al. 2014. The evolutionary origin of human hyper-cooperation. Nature Commun 5:4747.

D Burman , A Mente , RA Hegele , S Islam , S Yusuf and SS Anand 2009. Relationship of the ApoE polymorphism to plasma lipid traits among South Asians, Chinese, and Europeans living in Canada. Atherosclerosis 203(1):192200.

CD Bustamante , A Fledel-Alon , S Williamson , R Nielsen , MT Hubisz , S Glanowski , DM Tanenbaum , TJ White , JJ Sninsky , RD Hernandez et al. 2005. Natural selection on protein-coding genes in the human genome. Nature 437(7062):1153–7.

HZ Butt , G Atturu , NJ London , RD Sayers and MJ Bown 2010. Telomere length dynamics in vascular disease: a review. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 40(1):1726.

AE Caballero 2003. Endothelial dysfunction in obesity and insulin resistance: a road to diabetes and heart disease. Obes Res 11(11):1278–89.

A Cabanes , N Ascunce , E Vidal , M Ederra , A Barcos , N Erdozain , V Lope and M Pollan 2009. Decline in age at menarche among Spanish women born from 1925 to 1962. BMC Public Health 9:449.

H Cabral , LE Fried , S Levenson , H Amaro and B Zuckerman 1990. Foreign-born and US-born black women: differences in health behaviors and birth outcomes. Am J Public Health 80(1):70–2.

N Cameron , J Pettifor , WT De and S Norris 2003. The relationship of rapid weight gain in infancy to obesity and skeletal maturity in childhood. Obes Res 11(3):457–60.

N Cameron , MM Wright , PL Griffiths , SA Norris and JM Pettifor 2005. Stunting at 2 years in relation to body composition at 9 years in African urban children. Obes Res 13(1):131–6.

WI Cameron , PS Moffitt and DR Williams 1986. Diabetes mellitus in the Australian aborigines of Bourke, New South Wales. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2(5):307–14.

DI Campbell , PG Lunn and M Elia 2002. Age-related association of small intestinal mucosal enteropathy with nutritional status in rural Gambian children. Br J Nutr 88(5):499505.

DI Campbell , G McPhail , PG Lunn , M Elia and DJ Jeffries 2004. Intestinal inflammation measured by fecal neopterin in Gambian children with enteropathy: association with growth failure, Giardia lamblia, and intestinal permeability. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 39(2):153–7.

RL Cann , M Stoneking and AC Wilson 1987. Mitochondrial-DNA and human-evolution. Nature 325(6099):31–6.

S Capacci and M Mazzocchi 2011. Five-a-day, a price to pay: an evaluation of the UK program impact accounting for market forces. J Health Econ 30(1):8798.

S Capacci , M Mazzocchi , B Shankar , JB Macias , W Verbeke , FJ Perez-Cueto , A Koziol-Kozakowska , B Piorecka , B Niedzwiedzka , D D’Addesa et al. 2012. Policies to promote healthy eating in Europe: a structured review of policies and their effectiveness. Nutr Rev 70(3):188200.

S Capewell , R Beaglehole , M Seddon and J McMurray 2000. Explanation for the decline in coronary heart disease mortality rates in Auckland, New Zealand, between 1982 and 1993. Circulation 102(13):1511–16.

LA Carlson 1960. Serum lipids in men with myocardial infarction. Acta Med Scand 167:399413.

JF Carroll , AL Chiapa , M Rodriquez , DR Phelps , KM Cardarelli , JK Vishwanatha , S Bae and R Cardarelli 2008. Visceral fat, waist circumference, and BMI: impact of race/ethnicity. Obesity 16(3):600–7.

C Caruso , G Candore , G Colonna-Romano , D Lio and C Franceschi 2005. Inflammation and life-span. Science 307(5707):208–9.

JE Castro 2008. Neoliberal water and sanitation policies as a failed development strategy lessons from developing countries. Prog Dev Stud 8(1):6383.

PM Catalano , A Thomas , L Huston-Presley and SB Amini 2003. Increased fetal adiposity: a very sensitive marker of abnormal in utero development. Am J Obstet Gynecol 189(6):1698–704.

AE Cavelaars , AE Kunst , JJ Geurts , R Crialesi , L Grotvedt , U Helmert , E Lahelma , O Lundberg , A Mielck , NK Rasmussen et al. 2000. Persistent variations in average height between countries and between 497socio-economic groups: an overview of 10 European countries. Ann Hum Biol 27(4):407–21.

RM Cawthon , KR Smith , E O’Brien , A Sivatchenko and RA Kerber 2003. Association between telomere length in blood and mortality in people aged 60 years or older. Lancet 361(9355):393–5.

SM Ceesay , AM Prentice , TJ Cole , F Foord , LT Weaver , EM Poskitt and RG Whitehead 1997. Effects on birth weight and perinatal mortality of maternal dietary supplements in rural Gambia: 5 year randomised controlled trial. BMJ 315(7111):786–90.

PS Chain , E Carniel , FW Larimer , J Lamerdin , PO Stoutland , WM Regala , AM Georgescu , LM Vergez , ML Land , VL Motin et al. 2004. Insights into the evolution of Yersinia pestis through whole-genome comparison with Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101(38):13826–31.

T Chandola , A Britton , E Brunner , H Hemingway , M Malik , M Kumari , E Badrick , M Kivimaki and M Marmot 2008. Work stress and coronary heart disease: what are the mechanisms? Eur Heart J 29(5):640–8.

T Chandola , E Brunner and M Marmot 2006. Chronic stress at work and the metabolic syndrome: prospective study. BMJ 332(7540):521–5.

VW Chang 2006. Racial residential segregation and weight status among US adults. Soc Sci Med 63(5):1289–303.

YL Chang , SD Chang , AS Chao , PC Hsieh , CN Wang and LH Tseng 2008. The individual fetal weight/estimated placental weight ratios in monochorionic twins with selective intrauterine growth restriction. Prenat Diagn 28(3):217–21.

CR Chapman 2012. ‘Oh that you were like a brother to me, one who had nursed at my mother’s breasts.’ Breast milk as a kinship-forging substance. Journal of Hebrew Scriptures 12:Article 7 DOI:10.5508/jhs.2012.v5512.a5507.

JP Chaput 2011. Do active video games increase food intake? Am J Clin Nutr 94(4):1155; author reply 1156.

JP Chaput , V Drapeau , P Poirier , N Teasdale and A Tremblay 2008. Glycemic instability and spontaneous energy intake: association with knowledge-based work. Psychosom Med 70(7):797804.

JP Chaput and A Tremblay 2007. Acute effects of knowledge-based work on feeding behavior and energy intake. Physiol Behav 90(1):6672.

JP Chaput , T Visby , S Nyby , L Klingenberg , NT Gregersen , A Tremblay , A Astrup and A Sjodin 2011. Video game playing increases food intake in adolescents: a randomized crossover study. Am J Clin Nutr 93(6):1196–203.

G Charbonneau-Roberts , H Saudny-Unterberger , HV Kuhnlein and GM Egeland 2005. Body mass index may overestimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity among the Inuit. Int J Circumpolar Health 64(2):163–9.

N Chaturvedi , R Bathula , AC Shore , R Panerai , J Potter , J Kooner , J Chambers and AD Hughes 2012. South Asians have elevated postexercise blood pressure and myocardial oxygen consumption compared to Europeans despite equivalent resting pressure. J Am Heart Assoc 1(5):e000281.

J Chavarro , E Villamor , J Narvaez and A Hoyos 2004. Socio-demographic predictors of age at menarche in a group of Colombian university women. Ann Hum Biol 31(2):245–57.

CM Chen 2008. Overview of obesity in Mainland China. Obes Rev 9 Suppl 1:1421.

FF Chen , YF Wang and J Mi 2014. Timing and secular trend of pubertal development in Beijing girls. World J Pediatr 10(1):74–9.

L Chen , B Caballero , DC Mitchell , C Loria , PH Lin , CM Champagne , PJ Elmer , JD Ard , BC Batch , CA Anderson et al. 2010. Reducing consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages is associated with reduced blood pressure: a prospective study among United States adults. Circulation 121(22):2398–406.

R Chen , E Corona , M Sikora , JT Dudley , AA Morgan , A Moreno-Estrada , GB Nilsen , D Ruau , SE Lincoln , CD Bustamante et al. 2012a. Type 2 diabetes risk alleles demonstrate extreme directional differentiation among human populations, compared to other diseases. PLoS Genet 8(4):e1002621.

X Chen , ZX Zhang , LK George , ZS Wang , ZJ Fan , T Xu , XL Zhou , SM Han , HB Wen and Y Zeng 2012b. Birth measurements, family history, and environmental factors associated with later-life hypertensive status. Am J Hypertens 25(4):464–71.

Z Chen , G Yang , A Offer , M Zhou , M Smith , R Peto , H Ge , L Yang and G Whitlock 2012c. Body mass index and mortality in China: a 15-year prospective study of 220 000 men. Int J Epidemiol 41(2):472–81.

H Cherif , JL Tarry , SE Ozanne and CN Hales 2003. Ageing and telomeres: a study into organ- and gender-specific telomere shortening. Nucleic Acids Research 31(5):1576–83.

BM Cheung , KL Ong , AW Tso , RY Leung , A Xu , SS Cherny , PC Sham , TH Lam and KS Lam 2012. C-reactive protein as a predictor of hypertension in the Hong Kong Cardiovascular Risk Factor Prevalence Study (CRISPS) cohort. J Hum Hypertens 26(2):108–16.

F Chiappelli , P Prolo and OS Cajulis 2005. Evidence-based research in complementary and alternative medicine I: history. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2(4):453–8.

U Chike-Obi , RJ David , R Coutinho and SY Wu 1996. Birth weight has increased over a generation. Am J Epidemiol 144(6):563–9.

VG Childe 1950. The urban revolution. Town Plan Rev 21(1):317.

JS Chisholm , JA Quinlivan , RW Peterson and DA Coall 2005. Early stress predicts age at menarche and first birth, adult attachment, and expected lifespan. Hum Nature 16(3):233–65.

ML Chiswick 1985. Intrauterine growth retardation. Br Med J 291(6499):845–8.

NA Christakis and JH Fowler 2007. The spread of obesity in a large social network over 32 years. NEngl J Med 357(4):370–9.

K Christensen , JW Vaupel , NV Holm and AI Yashin 1995. Mortality among twins after age 6: fetal origins hypothesis versus twin method. BMJ 310(6977):432–6.

H Christopoulou-Aletra and N Papavramidou 2004. Methods used by the hippocratic physicians for weight reduction. World J Surg 28(5):513–17.

D Churchill , IJ Perry and DG Beevers 1997. Ambulatory blood pressure in pregnancy and fetal growth. Lancet 349(9044):710.

F Cinnirella 2008. Optimists or pessimists? A reconsideration of nutritional status in Britain, 1740–1865. Eur Rev Econ Hist 12:325–54.

S Cinti , G Mitchell , G Barbatelli , I Murano , E Ceresi , E Faloia , S Wang , M Fortier , AS Greenberg and MS Obin 2005. Adipocyte death defines macrophage localization and function in adipose tissue of obese mice and humans. J Lipid Res 46(11):2347–55.

BF Clark and R York 2005. Carbon metabolism: global capitalism, climate change, and the biospheric rift. Theor Soc 34:391428.

EM Clements 1953. Changes in the mean stature and weight of British children over the past seventy years. BMJ 2(4842):897902.

S Cnattingius , E Villamor , YT Lagerros , AK Wikstrom and F Granath 2012. High birth weight and obesity-a vicious circle across generations. Int J Obes 36(10):1320–4.

A Coale 1974. History of the human population. Sci Am 231(3):4151.

A Cockburn and AF Russell 2011. Cooperative breeding: a question of climate? Curr Biol 21(5):R195–7.

TA Cockburn 1971. Infectious diseases in ancient populations. Curr Anthropol 12:4562.

PR Coelho and RA McGuire 2000 Diets versus diseases: the anthropometrics of slave children. J Econ Hist 60:232–46.

AS Cohen , JR Stone , KR Beuning , LE Park , PN Reinthal , D Dettman , CA Scholz , TC Johnson , JW King , MR Talbot et al. 2007. Ecological consequences of early Late Pleistocene megadroughts in tropical Africa. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104(42):16422–7.

DA Cohen 2008. Obesity and the built environment: changes in environmental cues cause energy imbalances. Int J Obes 32 Suppl 7:S137–42.

JC Cohen , RS Kiss , A Pertsemlidis , YL Marcel , R McPherson and HH Hobbs 2004. Multiple rare alleles contribute to low plasma levels of HDL cholesterol. Science 305(5685):869–72.

500 JC Cohen , A Pertsemlidis , S Fahmi , S Esmail , GL Vega , SM Grundy and HH Hobbs 2006. Multiple rare variants in NPC1L1 associated with reduced sterol absorption and plasma low-density lipoprotein levels. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103(6):1810–15.

C Colantuoni , P Rada , J McCarthy , C Patten , NM Avena , A Chadeayne and BG Hoebel 2002. Evidence that intermittent, excessive sugar intake causes endogenous opioid dependence. Obes Res 10(6):478–88.

TJ Cole 2000. Secular trends in growth. Proc Nutr Soc 59(2):317–24.

TJ Cole , JV Freeman and MA Preece 1995. Body mass index reference curves for the UK, 1990. Arch Dis Child 73(1):25–9.

JW Collins Jr., RJ David , KM Rankin and JR Desireddi 2009. Transgenerational effect of neighborhood poverty on low birth weight among African Americans in Cook County, Illinois. Am J Epidemiol 169(6):712–17.

JW Collins Jr., SY Wu and RJ David 2002. Differing intergenerational birth weights among the descendants of US-born and foreign-born Whites and African Americans in Illinois. Am J Epidemiol 155(3):210–16.

M Collins , S-I An , W Cai , A Ganachaud , E Guilyardi , F-F Jin , M Jochum , M Lengaigne , S Power , A Timmermann et al. 2010. The impact of global warming on the tropical Pacific Ocean and El Niño. Nature Geosci 3:391–7.

VR Collins , GK Dowse , WE Plehwe , TT Imo , PM Toelupe , HR Taylor and PZ Zimmet 1995. High prevalence of diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy in Polynesians of Western Samoa. Diabetes Care 18(8):1140–9.

A Conde-Agudelo and JM Belizan 2000. Maternal morbidity and mortality associated with interpregnancy interval: cross sectional study. BMJ 321(7271):1255–9.

AL Cooper , RB Fitzgeorge , A Baskerville , RA Little and NJ Rothwell 1989. Bacterial infection (Legionella pneumophila) stimulates fever, metabolic rate and brown adipose tissue activity in the guinea pig. Life Sci 45(9):843–7.

R Cooper and C Power 2008. Sex differences in the associations between birthweight and lipid levels in middle-age: findings from the 1958 British birth cohort. Atherosclerosis 200(1):141–9.

501 WN Cooper , B Khulan , S Owens , CE Elks , V Seidel , AM Prentice , G Belteki , KK Ong , NA Affara , M Constancia et al. 2012. DNA methylation profiling at imprinted loci after periconceptional micronutrient supplementation in humans: results of a pilot randomized controlled trial. FASEB J 26(5):1782–90.

E Corpeleijn , WH Saris and EE Blaak 2009. Metabolic flexibility in the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes: effects of lifestyle. Obes Rev 10(2):178–93.

DL Costa 2000. Understanding the twentieth-century decline in chronic conditions among older men. Demogr 37(1):5372.

DL Costa 2004. Race and pregnancy outcomes in the twentieth century: a long-term comparison. J Econ Hist 64(4):1056–86.

MJ Costa , DA Monteiro , AL Oliveira-Neto , FT Rantin , AL Kalinin 2008. Oxidative stress biomarkers and heart function in bullfrog tadpoles exposed to Roundup Original. Ecotoxicol 17(3):153–63.

A Cournil , R Defay , A Lacroux , S Barny and A Fontbonne 2007. Paradoxical relationships between anthropometric variables and phenotypic expression of the metabolic syndrome in nondiabetic Polynesians of New Caledonia. Diabetes Care 30(7):1909–11.

MM Covelli , CE Wood and HN Yarandi 2007. The association of low birth weight and physiological risk factors of hypertension in African American adolescents. J Cardiovasc Nurs 22(6):440–7; quiz 448–9.

CC Cowie , KF Rust , ES Ford , MS Eberhardt , DD Byrd-Holt , C Li , DE Williams , EW Gregg , KE Bainbridge , SH Saydah et al. 2009. Full accounting of diabetes and pre-diabetes in the U.S. population in 1988–1994 and 2005–2006. Diabetes Care 32(2):287–94.

G Cowlishaw and RIM Dunbar 1991. Dominance rank and mating success in male primates. Anim Behav 41(6):1045–56.

P Craig , V Halavatau , E Comino and I Caterson 2001. Differences in body composition between Tongans and Australians: time to rethink the healthy weight ranges? Int J Obes 25(12):1806–14.

WY Craig , GE Palomaki and JE Haddow 1989. Cigarette smoking and serum lipid and lipoprotein concentrations: an analysis of published data. BMJ 298(6676):784–8.

F Crews , J He and C Hodge 2007. Adolescent cortical development: a critical period of vulnerability for addiction. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 86(2):189–99.

KS Crider , LB Bailey and RJ Berry 2011. Folic acid food fortification-its history, effect, concerns, and future directions. Nutrients 3(3):370–84.

EM Crimmins and Y Saito 2001. Trends in healthy life expectancy in the United States, 1970–1990: gender, racial, and educational differences. Soc Sci Med 52(11):1629–41.

J Critchley , J Liu , D Zhao , W Wei and S Capewell 2004. Explaining the increase in coronary heart disease mortality in Beijing between 1984 and 1999. Circulation 110(10):1236–44.

E Crognier 1981. Climate and anthropometric variations in Europe and the Mediterranean area. Ann Hum Biol 8:99107.

JE Cropley , CM Suter , KB Beckman and DI Martin 2006. Germ-line epigenetic modification of the murine A vy allele by nutritional supplementation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103(46):17308–12.

JH Cross , J Eminson and BA Wharton 1990. Ramadan and birth weight at full term in Asian Moslem pregnant women in Birmingham. Arch Dis Child 65(10 Spec No):1053–6.

JK Cruickshank , F Mzayek , L Liu , L Kieltyka , R Sherwin , LS Webber , SR Srinavasan and GS Berenson 2005. Origins of the ‘black/white’ difference in blood pressure: roles of birth weight, postnatal growth, early blood pressure, and adolescent body size: the Bogalusa heart study. Circulation 111(15):1932–7.

G Cuco , V Arija , R Iranzo , J Vila , MT Prieto and J Fernandez-Ballart 2006. Association of maternal protein intake before conception and throughout pregnancy with birth weight. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 85(4):413–21.

MC Cunha , ML Zanetti and VJ Hass 2008. Sleep quality in type 2 diabetics. Rev Lat Am Enfermagem 16(5):850–5.

MJ Cunningham , DK Clifton and RA Steiner 1999. Leptin’s actions on the reproductive axis: perspectives and mechanisms. Biol Reprod 60(2):216–22.

DM Cutler , F Knaul , R Lozano , O Méndez and B Zurita 2002. Financial crisis health outcomes, and ageing: Mexico in the 1980s and 1990s. J Public Econ 84(1):279303.

RG Cutler 1975. Evolution of human longevity and the genetic complexity governing aging rate. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 72(11):4664–8.

J Dahlgren 2006. Pregnancy and insulin resistance. Metab Syndr Relat Disord 4(2):149–52.

N Dahlmann and K Petersen 1977. Influences of environmental conditions during infancy on final body stature. Pediatr Res 11(5):695700.

DL Dahly and LS Adair 2010. Does lower birth order amplify the association between high socioeconomic status and central adiposity in young adult Filipino males? Int J Obes 34(4):751–9.

MF Dallman , N Pecoraro , SF Akana , SE La Fleur , F Gomez , H Houshyar , ME Bell , S Bhatnagar , KD Laugero and S Manalo 2003. Chronic stress and obesity: a new view of ‘comfort food’. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100(20):11696–701.

HE Danysh , RH Gilman , JC Wells , WK Pan , B Zaitchik , G Gonzálvez , M Alvarez and W Checkley 2014. El Niño adversely affected childhood stature and lean mass in northern Peru. Climate Change Responses 1:7.

C Darwin 1871. The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex. London: Murray.

SK Das and TK Banerjee 2008. Stroke: Indian scenario. Circulation 118(25):2719–24.

G Davey , A Ramachandran , C Snehalatha , GA Hitman and PM McKeigue 2000. Familial aggregation of central obesity in Southern Indians. Int J Obes 24(11):1523–7.

M David and LA Giraldeau 2012. Zebra finches in poor condition produce more and consume more food in a producer–scrounger game. Behav Ecol 23:174–80.

RJ David and JW Collins Jr. 1997. Differing birth weight among infants of U.S.-born blacks, African-born blacks, and U.S.-born whites. N Engl J Med 337(17):1209–14.

J Davies and D Davies 2010. Origins and evolution of antibiotic resistance. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 74(3):417–33.

AM Davis , LM Vinci , TM Okwuosa , AR Chase and ES Huang 2007. Cardiovascular health disparities: a systematic review of health care interventions. Med Care Res Rev 64(5 Suppl):29S100S.

M Davis 2006. Planet of Slums. London: Verso.

P Davy , M Nagata , P Bullard , NS Fogelson and R Allsopp 2009. Fetal growth restriction is associated with accelerated telomere shortening and increased expression of cell senescence markers in the placenta. Placenta 30(6):539–42.

TR Dawber , WB Kannel , N Revotskie , J Stokes 3rd, A Kagan and T Gordon 1959. Some factors associated with the development of coronary heart disease: six years’ follow-up experience in the Framingham study. Am J Public Health Nations Health 49:1349–56.

TR Dawber , GF Meadors and FE Moore Jr. 1951. Epidemiological approaches to heart disease: the Framingham study. Am J Public Health Nations Health 41(3):279–81.

R Dawkins and TR Carlisle 1976. Parental investment, mate desertion and a fallacy. Nature 262:131–3.

MJ De Blasio , KL Gatford , IC McMillen , JS Robinson and JA Owens 2007. Placental restriction of fetal growth increases insulin action, growth, and adiposity in the young lamb. Endocrinol 148(3):1350–8.

AJ de Craen , D Posthuma , EJ Remarque , AH van den Biggelaar , RG Westendorp and DI Boomsma 2005. Heritability estimates of innate immunity: an extended twin study. Genes Immun 6(2):167–70.

EJ de Geus , D Posthuma , RG Ijzerman and DI Boomsma 2001. Comparing blood pressure of twins and their singleton siblings: being a twin does not affect adult blood pressure. Twin Res 4(5):385–91.

GL de la Grandmaison , I Clairand and M Durigon 2001. Organ weight in 684 adult autopsies: new tables for a Caucasoid population. Forensic Sci Int 119(2):149–54.

JC de Ruyter , MR Olthof , JC Seidell and MB Katan 2012. A trial of sugar-free or sugar-sweetened beverages and body weight in children. N Engl J Med 367(15):1397–406.

NM De Silva and TM Frayling 2010. Novel biological insights emerging from genetic studies of type 2 diabetes and related metabolic traits. Curr Opinion Lipidol 21(1):4450.

JA de Wilde , S van Buuren and BJ Middelkoop 2013. Trends in birth weight and the prevalence of low birth weight and small-for-gestational-age in Surinamese South Asian babies since 1974: cross-sectional study of three birth cohorts. BMC Public Health 13:931.

A Deaton 2003. Health, inequality and economic development. J Econ Lit 41:113–58.

A Deaton 2007. Height, health, and development. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104(33):13232–7.

A Deaton 2008. Height, health, and inequality: the distribution of adult heights in India. Am Econ Review 98(2):468–74.

M Deepa , S Farooq , R Deepa , D Manjula and V Mohan 2009. Prevalence and significance of generalized and central body obesity in an urban Asian Indian population in Chennai, India (CURES: 47). Eur J Clin Nutr 63(2):259–67.

C Deerenberg , V Arpanius , S Daan and N Bos 1997. Reproductive effort decreases antibody responsiveness. Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 264:1021–9.

ES Deevey 1960. The human population. Sci Am 203(3):194204.

R Defay , I Jaussent , A Lacroux and A Fontbonne 2007. Relationships between glycaemic abnormalities, obesity and insulin resistance in nondiabetic Polynesians of New Caledonia. Int J Obes 31(1):109–13.

RA DeFronzo and E Ferrannini 1991. Insulin resistance. A multifaceted syndrome responsible for NIDDM, obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Diabetes Care 14(3):173–94.

M Degli Esposti and H McLennan 1998. Mitochondria and cells produce reactive oxygen species in virtual anaerobiosis: relevance to ceramide-induced apoptosis. FEBS Lett 430(3):338–42.

R Dehejia and A Lleras-Murray 2004. Booms, busts, and babies’ health. Q J Econ 119:1091–130.

C del Ninno and M Lundberg 2005. Treading water. The long-term impact of the 1998 flood on nutrition in Bangladesh. Econ Hum Biol 3(1):6796.

GE Demas 2004. The energetics of immunity: a neuroendocrine link between energy balance and immune function. Horm Behav 45(3):173–80.

EW Demerath , N Cameron , MW Gillman , B Towne and RM Siervogel 2004. Telomeres and telomerase in the fetal origins of cardiovascular disease: a review. Hum Biol 76(1):127–46.

S Demissie , D Levy , EJ Benjamin , LA Cupples , JP Gardner , A Herbert , M Kimura , MG Larson , JB Meigs , JF Keaney et al. 2006. Insulin resistance, oxidative stress, hypertension, and leukocyte telomere length in men from the Framingham Heart Study. Aging Cell 5(4):325–30.

S Denic and MM Agarwal 2007. Nutritional iron deficiency: an evolutionary perspective. Nutr 23(7–8):603–14.

DC Dennett 1993. Consciousness Explained. London: Penguin.

JP Despres 2001. Health consequences of visceral obesity. Ann Med 33(8):534–41.

P Deurenberg , M Deurenberg-Yap and S Guricci 2002. Asians are different from Caucasians and from each other in their body mass index/body fat per cent relationship. Obes Rev 3(3):141–6.

D Devakumar , M Birch , D Osrin , E Sondorp and JC Wells 2014. The intergenerational effects of war on the health of children. BMC Med 12:57.

S Devaraj , P Hemarajata and J Versalovic 2013. The human gut microbiome and body metabolism: implications for obesity and diabetes. Clin Chem 59(4):617–28.

KG Dewey and RJ Cohen 2007. Does birth spacing affect maternal or child nutritional status? A systematic literature review. Matern Child Nutr 3(3):151–73.

SN DeWitte and G Hughes-Morey 2012. Stature and frailty during the Black Death: the effect of stature on risks of epidemic mortality in London, A.D. 1348–1350. J Arch Sci 39:1412–9.

J Dgani and I Arad 1992. Measurement of systolic blood pressure in the follow-up of low birth weight infants. J Perinat Med 20(5):365–70.

L Di Lorenzo , G De Pergola , C Zocchetti , N L’Abbate , A Basso , N Pannacciulli , M Cignarelli , R Giorgino and L Soleo 2003. Effect of shift work on body mass index: results of a study performed in 319 glucose-tolerant men working in a Southern Italian industry. Int J Obes 27(11):1353–8.

N Diagne , C Rogier , CS Sokhna , A Tall , D Fontenille , C Roussilhon , A Spiegel and JF Trape 2000. Increased susceptibility to malaria during the early postpartum period. N Engl J Med 343(9):598603.

HF Diaz and GJ McCabe 1999. A possible connection between the 1878 yellow fever epidemic in the southern United States and the 1877078 El Nino episode. Bull Am Meteorol Soc 80:21–7.

JL Dickinson and BJ Hatchwell 2004. Fitness consequences of helping. In WD Koenig and JL Dickinson , editors. Ecology and Evolution of Cooperative Breeding in Birds. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 4866.

CJ Diers 1974. Historical trends in the age at menarche and menopause. Psychol Rep 34(3):931–7.

M Dietler 2006. Alcohol: anthropological/archaeological perspectives. Ann Rev Anthropol 35:229–49.

C Dijkstra , A Bult , S Bijlsma , S Daan , T Meijer and M Zijlstra 1990. Brood size manipulations in the Kestrel (Falco tinnunculus): effects on offspring and parent survival. J Anim Ecol 59:269–85.

R Dirks 1993. Starvation and famine: cross-cultural codes and some hypothesis tests. Cross Cult Res 27:2869.

S Dmitriev 2009. The rise and quick fall of the theory of ancient economic imperialism. Econ Hist Rev 62(4):785801.

T Dobzhansky 1974. Chance and creativity in evolution. In FJ Ayala and T Dobzhansky , editors. Studies in the Philosophy of Biology. London: Macmillan.

R Dodds , HJ Denison , G Ntani , R Cooper , C Cooper , AA Sayer and J Baird 2012. Birth weight and muscle strength: a systematic 507review and meta-analysis. J Nutr Health Aging 16(7):609–15.

DC Dolinoy , D Huang and RL Jirtle 2007. Maternal nutrient supplementation counteracts bisphenol A-induced DNA hypomethylation in early development. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104(32):13056–61.

DC Dolinoy , JR Weidman , RA Waterland and RL Jirtle 2006. Maternal genistein alters coat color and protects Avy mouse offspring from obesity by modifying the fetal epigenome. Environ Health Perspect 114(4):567–72.

R Doll , R Peto , K Wheatley , R Gray and I Sutherland 1994. Mortality in relation to smoking: 40 years’ observations on male British doctors. BMJ 309(6959):901–11.

P Dominguez-Salas , SE Cox , AM Prentice , BJ Hennig and SE Moore 2012. Maternal nutritional status, C(1) metabolism and offspring DNA methylation: a review of current evidence in human subjects. Proc Nutr Soc 71(1):154–65.

AS Donin , CM Nightingale , CG Owen , AR Rudnicka , MC McNamara , CJ Prynne , AM Stephen , DG Cook and PH Whincup 2010. Nutritional composition of the diets of South Asian, black African-Caribbean and white European children in the United Kingdom: the Child Heart and Health Study in England (CHASE). Br J Nutr 104(2):276–85.

AW Douglas 1969. Cotton textiles in England: The East India Company’s attempt to exploit developments in fashion 1660–1721. J Br Stud 8(2):2843.

MS Dove , DW Dockery , MA Mittleman , J Schwartz , EM Sullivan , L Keithly and T Land 2010. The impact of Massachusetts’ smoke-free workplace laws on acute myocardial infarction deaths. Am J Public Health 100(11):2206–12.

AJ Drake and L Liu 2010. Intergenerational transmission of programmed effects: public health consequences. Trends Endocrinol Metab 21(4):206–13.

AG Dulloo , J Jacquet , G Solinas , JP Montani and Y Schutz 2010. Body composition phenotypes in pathways to obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Int J Obes 34 Suppl 2:S417.

DW Dunstan , BA Kingwell , R Larsen , GN Healy , E Cerin , MT Hamilton , JE Shaw , DA Bertovic , PZ Zimmet , J Salmon et al. 2012. Breaking up prolonged sitting reduces 508postprandial glucose and insulin responses. Diabetes Care 35(5):976–83.

DW Dunstan , J Salmon , N Owen , T Armstrong , PZ Zimmet , TA Welborn , AJ Cameron , T Dwyer , D Jolley and JE Shaw 2004. Physical activity and television viewing in relation to risk of undiagnosed abnormal glucose metabolism in adults. Diabetes Care 27(11):2603–9.

SA Durrani , HA Khan , M Taj and C Renfrew 1971. Obsidian source identification by fission track analysis. Nature 233(5317):242–5.

SB Eaton and M Konner 1985. Paleolithic nutrition. a consideration of its nature and current implications. N Engl J Med 312(5):283–9.

SB Eaton , MC Pike , RV Short , NC Lee , J Trussell , RA Hatcher , JW Wood , CM Worthman , NG Blurton Jones , MJ Konner et al. 1994. Women’s reproductive cancers in evolutionary context. Q Rev Biol 69(3):353–67.

S Ebrahim , S Kinra , L Bowen , E Andersen , Y Ben-Shlomo , T Lyngdoh , L Ramakrishnan , RC Ahuja , P Joshi , SM Das et al. 2010. The effect of rural-to-urban migration on obesity and diabetes in India: a cross-sectional study. PLoS Med 7(4):e1000268.

DL Economides , KH Nicolaides and S Campbell 1991. Metabolic and endocrine findings in appropriate and small for gestational age fetuses. J Perinat Med 19(1–2):97105.

CJ Edwards , MA Suchard , P Lemey , JJ Welch , I Barnes , TL Fulton , R Barnett , TC O’Connell , P Coxon , N Monaghan et al. 2011. Ancient hybridization and an Irish origin for the modern polar bear matriline. Curr Biol 21(15):1251–8.

MJ Edwards 2012. Genetic selection of embryos that later develop the metabolic syndrome. Med Hyp 78(5):621–5.

CM Eising and TG Groothuis 2003. Yolk androgens and begging behaviour in black-headed gull chicks: an experimental field study. Anim Behav 66(6):1027–34.

U Ekelund , S Brage , PW Franks , S Hennings , S Emms and NJ Wareham 2005. Physical activity energy expenditure predicts progression toward the metabolic syndrome independently of aerobic fitness in middle-aged healthy Caucasians: the Medical Research Council Ely Study. Diabetes Care 28(5):1195–200.

U Ekelund , PW Franks , S Sharp , S Brage and NJ Wareham 2007. Increase in physical activity energy expenditure is associated with reduced metabolic risk independent of change in fatness and fitness. Diabetes Care 30(8):2101–6.

U Ekelund , J Luan , LB Sherar , DW Esliger , P Griew and A Cooper 2012. Moderate to vigorous physical activity and sedentary time 509and cardiometabolic risk factors in children and adolescents. JAMA 307(7):704–12.

NS El-Shenawy 2009. Oxidative stress responses of rats exposed to Roundup and its active ingredient glyphosate. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 28(3):379–85.

J Elford , AG Shaper and PH Whincup 1992. Early life experience and cardiovascular disease – ecological studies. J Epidemiol Comm Health 46:111.

MA Elgar 1989. Predator vigilance and group size in mammals and birds: a critical review of the empirical evidence. Biol Rev 64(1):1333.

CE Elks , RJ Loos , R Hardy , AK Wills , A Wong , NJ Wareham , D Kuh and KK Ong 2012. Adult obesity susceptibility variants are associated with greater childhood weight gain and a faster tempo of growth: the 1946 British Birth Cohort Study. Am J Clin Nutr 95(5):1150–6.

CE Elks , RJ Loos , SJ Sharp , C Langenberg , SM Ring , NJ Timpson , AR Ness , G Davey Smith , DB Dunger , NJ Wareham et al. 2010a. Genetic markers of adult obesity risk are associated with greater early infancy weight gain and growth. PLoS Med 7(5):e1000284.

CE Elks , JR Perry , P Sulem , DI Chasman , N Franceschini , C He , KL Lunetta , JA Visser , EM Byrne , DL Cousminer et al. 2010b. Thirty new loci for age at menarche identified by a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies. Nat Genet 42(12):1077–85.

BH Ellis , AJ Figueredo , BH Brumbach and GL Schlomer 2009. Fundamental dimensions of environmental risk: the impact of harsh versus unpredictable environments on the evolution and development of life history strategies. Hum Nat 20:204–68.

BJ Ellis 2004. Timing of pubertal maturation in girls: an integrated life history approach. Psychol Bull 130(6):920–58.

BJ Ellis and M Del Giudice 2014. Beyond allostatic load: rethinking the role of stress in regulating human development. Dev Psychopathol 26(1):120.

L Ellis 1995. Dominance and reproductive success among non-human animals: a systematic literature review. Ethol Sociobiol 16:257333.

RW Ellis 1945. Growth and health of Belgian children: during and after the German occupation (1940–1944). Arch Dis Child 20(103):97109.

GT Ellison and M Kelly 2005. Growth of Jersey schoolchildren during the 1940–1945 German occupation: comparison with schoolchildren on mainland Britain. Hum Biol 77(6):761–72.

PT Ellison 1990. Human ovarian function and reproductive ecology: new hypotheses. Am Anthropol 92:933–52.

I Emanuel 1986. Maternal health during childhood and later reproductive performance. Ann NY Acad Sci 477:2739.

I Emanuel , H Filakti , E Alberman and SJ Evans 1992. Intergenerational studies of human birthweight from the 1958 birth cohort. 1. Evidence for a multigenerational effect. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 99(1):6774.

I Emanuel , C Kimpo and V Moceri 2004a. The association of grandmaternal and maternal factors with maternal adult stature. Int J Epidemiol 33(6):1243–8.

I Emanuel , C Kimpo and V Moceri 2004b. The association of maternal growth and socio-economic measures with infant birthweight in four ethnic groups. Int J Epidemiol 33(6):1236–42.

JR Emberson , AG Shaper , SG Wannamethee , RW Morris and PH Whincup 2005. Alcohol intake in middle age and risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality: accounting for intake variation over time. Am J Epidemiol 161(9):856–63.

C Emiliani 1955. Pleistocene temperatures. J Geol 63:538–78.

K Endicott 2013. Peaceful foragers: the significance of the Batek and Moriori. In DP Fry , editor. War, Peace, and Human Nature: The Convergence of Evolutionary and Cultural Views. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 243–61.

WF Enos Jr., JC Beyer and RH Holmes 1955. Pathogenesis of coronary disease in American soldiers killed in Korea. J Am Med Ass 158(11):912–14.

S Entringer , ES Epel , R Kumsta , J Lin , DH Hellhammer , EH Blackburn , S Wust and PD Wadhwa 2011. Stress exposure in intrauterine life is associated with shorter telomere length in young adulthood. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 108(33):E513–18.

S Entringer , R Kumsta , DH Hellhammer , PD Wadhwa and S Wust 2009. Prenatal exposure to maternal psychosocial stress and HPA axis regulation in young adults. Horm Beh 55(2):292–8.

S Entringer , R Kumsta , EL Nelson , DH Hellhammer , PD Wadhwa and S Wust 2008a. Influence of prenatal psychosocial stress on cytokine production in adult women. Dev Psychobiol 50(6):579–87.

S Entringer , S Wust , R Kumsta , IM Layes , EL Nelson , DH Hellhammer and PD Wadhwa 2008b. Prenatal psychosocial stress exposure is associated with insulin resistance in young adults. Am J Obstet Gynecol 199(5):498, e491–7.

ES Epel , EH Blackburn , J Lin , FS Dhabhar , NE Adler , JD Morrow and RM Cawthon 2004. Accelerated telomere shortening in 511response to life stress. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101(