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The Power and the People
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  • Cited by 7
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    This book has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Capasso, Matteo 2018. Guest Editor’s Introduction: Sketches of the Everyday. Middle East Critique, Vol. 27, Issue. 3, p. 221.

    Gourlay, William 2018. Oppression, Solidarity, Resistance: The Forging of Kurdish Identity in Turkey. Ethnopolitics, Vol. 17, Issue. 2, p. 130.

    O’Brien, Thomas 2018. Urban movements in neoliberal Europe. Social Movement Studies, Vol. 17, Issue. 1, p. 119.

    Issa, Sadam 2016. Ibrahim Qashoush’s Revolutionary Popular Songs: Resistance Music in the 2011 Syrian Revolution. Popular Music and Society, p. 1.

    Shahghasemi, Ehsan 2016. Human Rights against Human Rights: Sexism in Human Rights Discourse for Sakineh Mohammadi. Society, Vol. 53, Issue. 6, p. 614.

    Abbott, Lucy M 2016. The conceptual public sphere and its problems: Habermas, political action and the Arab states. Journal of International Political Theory, Vol. 12, Issue. 3, p. 365.

    Patierno, Nicole 2015. Palestinian Liberation Theology: Creative Resistance to Occupation. Islam and Christian–Muslim Relations, Vol. 26, Issue. 4, p. 443.

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Book description

This book is about power. The power wielded over others – by absolute monarchs, tyrannical totalitarian regimes and military occupiers – and the power of the people who resist and deny their rulers' claims to that authority by whatever means. The extraordinary events in the Middle East in 2011 offered a vivid example of how non-violent demonstration can topple seemingly invincible rulers. This book considers the ways in which the people have united to unseat their oppressors and fight against the status quo and probes the relationship between power and forms of resistance. It also examines how common experiences of violence and repression create new collective identities. This brilliant, yet unsettling book affords a panoramic view of the twentieth and twenty-first century Middle East through occupation, oppression and political resistance.

Reviews

'This spirited account carries conviction and by telling it Tripp has made an important contribution in supplementing the record of national liberation struggles.'

Source: Morning Star

'This important and erudite book is written with clarity and illuminated with a commanding knowledge of the Middle East and its complexities. It should be read by anyone hoping to calibrate their moral and political bearings in this difficult and problematic region.'

Source: The Times Literary Supplement

'Charles Tripp has written a remarkable book that provides historical depth and rigorous insight into the long arcs of protest in the Middle East and North Africa. Ranging from Morocco to Iran and from the nineteenth century to the ‘Arab Spring’, Tripp dissects the pathways of popular resistance to authoritarian power. Mixing country case-studies with reflections on the nature of violence, authority and symbolism, he demonstrates how they have for decades undermined the edifice of autocracy in often surprising and effective ways. At a time of profound regional upheaval and great uncertainty over the general ‘direction of travel’, the book provides a timely and highly original insight into power and politics in the modern Middle East.'

Kristian Coates Ulrichsen Source: International Affairs

'In this book, Tripp looks at recent movements across the Middle East for those hidden causes and underlying motivations that often remain unseen and ignored by both scholars and policy makers, much to their analytical detriment … Tripp gives readers the opportunity to understand the issue of civil unrest and potential uprising regardless of geography or specific case study … This insightful work is organized in a comprehensive, probing manner likely to maintain its significance well into the future. It makes sense and is accessible to all: a much-needed addition to the literature. Summing up: highly recommended. All readership levels.'

M. D. Crosston Source: Choice

'… incredibly useful as a core text for a course on resistance movements in the Middle East, and scholars already familiar with the topic and historical context should gain something from Tripp's ability to weave these seemingly diverse and unconnected events together in a single book.'

Source: H-Net Reviews

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Bibliography and Further Reading
Introduction
Asprey, Robert B., War in the shadows: the guerrilla in history (London, 1976).
Bayat, Asef, Life as politics: how ordinary people change the Middle East (Stanford, CA, 2010).
Beinin, Joel, and Vairel, Frédéric (eds.), Social movements, mobilization, and contestation in the Middle East and North Africa (Stanford, CA, 2011).
Bourdieu, Pierre, Acts of resistance – against the new myths of our time (Cambridge, 1998).
Chalcraft, John, and Nourani, Yaseen (eds.), Counterhegemony in the colony and the postcolony (Basingstoke, England, 2007).
Crooke, Alistair, Resistance: the essence of the Islamist revolution (London, 2009).
Darnton, Robert, The great cat massacre and other episodes in French cultural history (New York, 1985).
Forgacs, David (ed.), The Antonio Gramsci reader – selected writings 1916–1935 (New York, 2000).
Foucault, Michel, Power/knowledge: selected interviews and other writings 1972–1977 (tr. and ed. Gordon, Colin) (Brighton, England, 1980).
Foucault, Michel, Histoire de la sexualité, Vol 1, La volonté de savoir (Paris, 1976) (English translation by Robert Hurley, The history of sexuality Vol 1 [London, 1981]).
Gills, Barry K. (ed.), Globalization and the politics of resistance (Basingstoke, England, 2000).
Goldman, Emma, Anarchism and other essays (Minneapolis, MN, 2005).
Harb, Mona, Le Hezbollah à Beyrouth (1985–2005): de la banlieu à la ville (Beirut, Lebanon, 2010).
Hollander, Jocelyn A., and Einwohner, Rachel L., ‘Conceptualizing resistance’, Sociological Forum 19/4 (2004) pp. 533–54.
Karatzogianni, Athina, and Robinson, Andrew, Power, resistance and conflict in the contemporary world (London, 2008).
Lukács, Georg, History and class consciousness (Cambridge, MA, 1999).
Miller, Daniel, Rowlands, Michael, and Tilley, Chris, Domination and resistance (London, 1989).
Mitchell, Timothy, ‘Everyday metaphors of power’, Theory and Society 19/5 (1990) pp. 545–77.
Mutran, Khalil, Diwan al-Khalil (Beirut, Lebanon, 1967) 3 Volumes.
O’Brien, Kevin J., ‘Rightful resistance’, World Politics 49/1 (1996) pp. 31–55.
Pickett, Brent L., ‘Foucault and the politics of resistance’, Polity 28/4 (1996) pp. 445–66.
Polet, François (ed.), The state of resistance: popular struggles in the global south (London, 2007).
Scott, James C., Weapons of the weak: everyday forms of peasant resistance (New Haven, CT, 1987).
Scott, James C., Domination and the arts of resistance: hidden transcripts (New Haven, CT, 1990).
Selbin, Eric, Revolution, rebellion, resistance (London, 2010).
Thompson, Kevin, ‘Forms of resistance: Foucault on tactical reversal and self formation’, Continental Philosophy Review 36/2 (2003) pp. 113–38.
Wedeen, Lisa, Ambiguities of domination – politics, rhetoric, and symbols in contemporary Syria (Chicago, 1999).
Woodcock, George, Anarchism (Harmondsworth, England, 1971).
Chapter 1
Abbas, Ferhat, Autopsie d’une guerre: l’aurore (Paris, 1980).
Abd Allah, Umar, The Islamic struggle in Syria (Berkeley, CA, 1983).
Ageron, Charles-Robert, Modern Algeria: a history from 1830 to the present (London, 1991).
Amnesty International, Israel/Gaza – Operation ‘Cast Lead’: 22 days of death and destruction (London, 2009).
Amnesty International, New order, same abuses – unlawful detentions and torture in Iraq (London, 2010).
Bar, Neta, and Ben-Ari, Eyal, ‘Israeli snipers in the al-Aqsa intifada: killing, humanity and lived experience’, Third World Quarterly 26/1 (2005) pp. 133–52.
Betts, Richard K., ‘The soft underbelly of American primacy: tactical advantages of terror’, Political Science Quarterly 117/1 (2002) pp. 19–36.
Bloom, Mia, Dying to kill – the allure of suicide terror (New York, 2007).
Brower, Benjamin C., A desert named peace – the violence of France’s empire in the Algerian Sahara 1844–1902 (New York, 2009).
Bulloch, John, and Morris, Harvey, No friends but the mountains (London, 1992).
Chaliand, Gérard, The Palestinian resistance (London, 1972).
Chandrasekaran, Rajiv, Imperial life in the emerald city: inside Iraq’s green zone (New York, 2006).
Clancy-Smith, Julia, Rebel and saint: Muslim notables, popular protest, colonial encounters – Algeria and Tunisia (Berkeley, CA, 1994).
Cockburn, Patrick, The occupation: war and resistance in Iraq (London, 2006).
Cockburn, Patrick, Muqtada al-Sadr and the fall of Iraq (London, 2008).
Cook, Michael, Commanding the right and forbidding the wrong in Islamic thought (Cambridge, 2000).
Cordesman, Anthony H., Iraq’s insurgency and the road to civil conflict (Washington, DC, 2007).
Crenshaw, Martha, ‘The causes of terrorism’, Comparative Politics 13/4 (1981) pp. 379–99.
Etherington, Mark, Revolt on the Tigris: the al-Sadr uprising and the governing of Iraq (Ithaca, NY, 2005).
Fanon, Frantz, The wretched of the earth (London, 2001).
Gambetta, Diego (ed.), Making sense of suicide missions (Oxford, 2005).
Ghandour, Zeina B., A discourse on domination (London, 2010).
Gibson, Nigel C., Fanon: the postcolonial imagination (Cambridge, 2003).
Hannoum, Abdelmajid, Violent modernity: France in Algeria (Cambridge, MA, 2010).
Harb, Zahera, Channels of resistance in Lebanon: liberation propaganda, Hezbullah and the media (London, 2011).
Hashim, Ahmed S., Insurgency and counter-insurgency in Iraq (London, 2006).
Hasso, Frances, ‘Discursive and political deployments by/of the 2002 Palestinian women suicide bombers/martyrs’, Feminist Review 81 (2005) pp. 23–51.
Heiberg, Marianne, O’Leary, Brendan, and Tirman, John (eds.), Terror, insurgency and the state (Philadelphia, PA, 2007).
Herring, Eric, and Rangwala, Glen, Iraq in fragments (London, 2006).
Hirst, David, The gun and the olive branch (London, 1977).
Hirst, David, Beware of small states: Lebanon, battleground of the Middle East (London, 2010).
Hoffman, Bruce, Inside terrorism (New York, 2006).
Hughes, Matthew, ‘The banality of brutality: British armed forces and the repression of the Arab Revolt in Palestine, 1936–39’, English Historical Review 124 (2009) 313–54.
Hughes, Matthew, ‘From law and order to pacification: Britain’s suppression of the Arab revolt in Palestine, 1936–39’, Journal of Palestine Studies 39/2 (2010) pp. 1–17.
Human Rights Watch/Middle East, Iraq’s crime of genocide: the Anfal campaign against the Kurds (New Haven, CT, 1995).
Kadi, Leila, Basic political documents of the armed Palestinian resistance movement (Beirut, Lebanon, 1969).
Kalyvas, Stathis, ‘The ontology of “political violence”: action and identity in civil wars’, Perspectives on Politics 1/3 (2003) pp. 475–94.
Khader, Bishara, and Khader, Naim (tr. and eds.), Textes de la révolution palestinienne 1968/74 (Paris, 1975).
Khalidi, Rashid, ‘The Palestinians and 1948: the underlying causes of failure’, in Rogan, Eugene and Shlaim, Avi (eds.), The war for Palestine (Cambridge, 2007).
Khalidi, Walid (ed.), From haven to conquest: readings in Zionism and the Palestine problem until 1948 (Washington, DC, 1971).
Klein, Menachem, The Jerusalem problem: the struggle for permanent status (Gainesville, FL, 2003).
Lia, Brynjar, Architect of the global jihad: life of al-Qaida strategist Abu Mus’ab al-Suri (London, 2007).
Mayer, Thomas, ‘The Islamic opposition in Syria, 1961–1982’, Orient 4 (1983) pp. 589–609.
McDougall, James, ‘Savage wars? Codes of violence in Algeria, 1830s–1990s’, Third World Quarterly 26/1 (2005) pp. 117–31.
Metzler, Jacob, The divided economy of mandatory Palestine (Cambridge, 1998).
Milton-Edwards, Beverley, and Farrell, Stephen, Hamas (Cambridge, 2010).
Napoleoni, Loretta, Insurgent Iraq: Al Zarqawi and the new generation (London, 2005).
Naylor, Philip C., France and Algeria: a history of decolonization and transformation (Gainesville, FL, 2000).
Neep, Dan, Syria insurgent: occupation, space and violence under the French mandate (Cambridge, 2012).
Packer, George, The assassins’ gate: America in Iraq (New York, 2006).
Pape, Robert A., Dying to win – the strategic logic of suicide terrorism (New York, 2005).
Ricks, Thomas, The gamble: General David Petraeus and the American military adventure in Iraq 2006–2008 (New York, 2009).
Rosen, Nir, In the belly of the green bird – the triumph of the martyrs in Iraq (New York, 2006).
Rosen, Nir, Aftermath (New York, 2010).
Ruedy, John, Modern Algeria: the origins and development of a nation (Bloomington, IN, 2005).
Sayigh, Yezid, Armed struggle and the search for state: the Palestinian national movement 1949–1993 (Oxford, 1997).
Shlaim, Avi, Lion of Jordan – the life of King Hussein in war and peace (London, 2007).
Shultz, Richard H., Insurgents, terrorists and militias: the warriors of contemporary combat (New York, 2006).
Stein, Leonard, The Balfour Declaration (New York, 1961).
Streatfield, Dominic, A history of the world since 9/11 (London, 2011).
Todenhöfer, Jürgen, Why do you kill? (New York, 2009).
Townshend, Charles, ‘The defence of Palestine: insurrection and public security, 1936–1939’, The English Historical Review 103 (1988) 917–49.
Tripp, Charles, A history of Iraq (Cambridge, 2007).
Ullman, Harlan K., and Wade, James P. et al. Shock and awe: achieving rapid dominance (Washington, DC, 1996).
Weinstein, Jeremy M., Inside rebellion: the politics of insurgent violence (Cambridge, 2007).
Young, Robert, Postcolonialism: an historical introduction (Oxford, 2001).
Research and Further Reading
Algeria
Abbas, Farhat, Guerre et révolution d’Algérie (Paris, 1962).
Ait Ahmed, Hocine, La guerre et l’après-guerre (Paris, 1964).
al-Hajj, Ben, Sa`di, `Uthman, Mudhakkirat (Algiers, Algeria, 2000).
Bu`aziz, Yahya, Thawrat al-jaza’ir fi al-qarnayn al-tasi` `ashar wa-l-`ishrin, Vol. 3, Min watha’iq jabahat al-tahrir al-watani al-jaza’iriyya 1954–1962 (Wahran, Algeria, 2004).
Centre des Archives d’Outre Mer, Aix-en-Provence, France. References to the relevant series dealing with Algeria from the 19th to the mid-20th century can be found in McDougall, James, History and the culture of nationalism in Algeria (Cambridge, 2006) pp. 239–40.
Darrar, Anisa Barakat, Adab al-nidal fi al-jaza’ir min sana 1945 hatta al-istiqlal (Algiers, Algeria, 1984).
Dusgate, Richard H., O.A.S. – A report on the origins, formation, organization and operations of the OAS in Algeria, France and Spain 1961–1962 (Cheltenham, England, 2004).
Fanon, Frantz, L’An V de la révolution algérienne (Paris, 1959).
Le Front de Libération Nationale, La plateforme de la révolution algérienne (n.p., 1956).
Le Front de Libération Nationale, La programme de Tripoli (Tripoli, Libya, 1962).
Le Front de Libération Nationale, La Charte d’Alger (Algiers, Algeria, 1964).
Harbi, Mohammed, Les archives de la révolution algérienne (Tunis, Tunisia, 1981).
Harbi, Mohammed, L’Algérie et son destin (Paris, 1992).
Kafi, `Ali, Mudhakkirat al-ra’is `Ali Kafi – min munadil al-siyasi ila al-qa’id al-`askari 1946–1962 (Algiers, Algeria, 1999).
Khudayr, Idris, Al-bahth fi ta’rikh al-jaza’ir al-hadith 1830–1962 (Algiers, Algeria, 2006).
Musée d’Histoire Contemporaine – BDIC, La France en guerre d’Algérie (Paris, 1992).
Ouzegane, Amer, Le meilleur combat (Paris, 1962).
Sa`idani, al-Tahir, Mudhakkirat – al-qa`ida al-sharqiyya, qalb al-thawra al-nabid (Algiers, Algeria, 2001).
Service Historique de l’Armée de Terre, La guerre d’Algérie par les documents, Vol. 1, L’avertissement 1943–1946 (Vincennes, France, 1990).
Service Historique de l’Armée de Terre, La guerre d’Algérie par les documents, Vol. 2, Les portes de la guerre 1946–1954 (Vincennes, France, 1998).
Palestine
Pre-1948
Al-Kayyali, `Abd al-Wahhab, Watha’iq al-muqawama al-filastiniyya al-`arabiyya didda al-ihtilal al-britani wa-l-sahiyuni 1918–1939 (Beirut, Lebanon, 1968).
Al-Qawuqji, Fawzi, Filastin fi mudhakkirat al-Qawuqji 1936–1948 (Beirut, Lebanon, 1975).
Al-Sakakini, Khalil, Kadha ana ya dunya (Jerusalem, Israel, 1955).
Qadri, Ahmad, Mudhakkirati `an al-thawra al-`arabiyya al-kubra (Damascus, Syria, 1956).
Sirhan, Nimr, and Kabaha, Mustafa, `Abd al-Rahim al-Hajj Muhammad – al-qa’id al-`am li-thawra 1936–1939 (Ramallah, West Bank, 2000).
Zu`ayter, Akram, Yawmiyyat: al-haraka al-wataniyya al-filastiniyya 1935–1939 (Beirut, Lebanon, 1980).
Post-1948
Hammam, Abu, Al-muqawama `askariyyan (Beirut, Lebanon, 1971).
Al-`Azm, Sadiq Jalal, Dirasa naqdiyya li-fikr al-muqawama al-filastiniyya (Beirut, Lebanon, 1973).
Dajani, Ahmad Sidqi, Min al-muqawama ila al-thawra al-sha`biyya fi Filastin (Cairo, Egypt, 1969).
Filastin, Maktab al-Siyasi li-l-Jabha al-Dimuqratiyya li-Tahrir, Al-muqawama al-Filastiniyya 1970 fi zill izdiwaj al-sulta (Damascus, Syria, 2007).
al-Islami, Markaz Dirasat al-Mukhtar, Hamas wa-l-jihad: janiha al-muqawama al-islamiyya fi Filastin al-muhtalla: al-judhur, al-`amaliyyat, al-ib`ad (Cairo, Egypt, 1993).
al-Awsat, Markaz Dirasat al-Sharq, Mafhum al-irhab wa-haqq al-sha`b al-Filastini fi al-muqawama (Amman, Jordan, 2003).
Muhsin, Hashim `Ali, Intifada hatta al-nasr (Damascus, Syria, 1983).
al-Shaghghila, Rabitat [Workers’ League], Azmat al-muqawama al-Filastiniyya (Beirut, Lebanon, 1984).
Samarah, `Adil, Musahama fi al-irhab: al-irhab tab`a min al-harb al-rasmiyya, wa-tab`a min al-muqawama al-sha`biyya (Ramallah, West Bank, 2006).
Yasin, `Abd al-Qadir, Hamas: harakat al-muqawama al-islamiyya fi Filastin (Cairo, Egypt, 1990).
Iraq Post-2003
Ahmad, Rif`at Sayyid, `Ala madhbah al-ihtilal fi al-`Iraq: dirasa watha’iqiyya fi milaffat, al-Islam, al-muqawama, al-ihtilal (Cairo, Egypt, 2007).
Al-Baghdadi, Ahmad al-Hasani, Hakadha takallama Ahmad al-Hasani al-Baghdadi: al-muqawama mustamirra wa-l-ihtilal ila al-zawal wa-sha`buna lan yamut (Beirut, Lebanon, 2005).
Al-Dulaymi, `Abd al-Nasir, Lamahat min al-muqawama al-i`lamiyya al-`Iraqiyya fi muwajaha al-ihtilal wa-l-dam-qratiyya (Beirut, Lebanon, 2009).
Kubaysi, Muhammad `Ayyash Mutalli, Min fiqh al-muqawama (Amman, Jordan, 2005).
Islamist Insurgency in Syria
Al-Ikhwan, al-Muslimun, Haut commandement de la révolution islamique en Syrie, Déclaration et programme de la révolution islamique en Syrie (n.p., 1980).
Rizq, Jabir, Al-ikhwan al-muslimun wa-l-mu’amara `ala Suriya (Cairo, Egypt, 1980).
Kurdish Iraq
Badi, `Arif Mivan `Abd al-Rahman, Al-haraka al-qawmiyya al-kurdiyya al-taharuriyya fi Kurdistan al-`Iraq (Dohuk, Iraq, 2005).
`Issa, Hamid Mahmud, Al-qadiyya al-kurdiyya fi al-`Iraq – min al-ihtilal al-britani ila al-ghazw al-amriki 1914–2003 (Cairo, Egypt, 2003).
Kurdish Democratic Party, Taqyim masirat al-haraka al-thawriyya al-kurdiyya wa-inhiyaraha (n.p., 1977).
Patriotic Union of Kurdistan, Hawl al-haraka al-tahririyya li-l-sha`b al-kurdi fi Kurdistan al-`Iraq (n.p., 1977).
Chapter 2
Abrahamian, Ervand, Iran between two revolutions (Princeton, NJ, 1983).
Al Aswany, Alaa, On the state of Egypt: what caused the revolution (Edinburgh, Scotland, 2011).
Alexander, Jeffrey C., Perfomative revolution in Egypt – an essay in cultural power (London, 2011).
Anderson, Lisa, ‘Demystifying the Arab Spring: parsing the differences between Tunisia, Egypt, and Libya’, Foreign Affairs 90/3 (2011) pp. 2–7.
Andrain, Charles F., and Apter, David E., Political protest and social change: analyzing politics (New York, 1995).
Ansari, Ali (ed.) with Berman, Daniel and Rintoul, Thomas, Preliminary analysis of the voting figures in Iran’s 2009 presidential election, Chatham House and Institute of Iranian Studies, University of St Andrews, 21 June 2009.
Ansari, Ali, Crisis of authority: Iran’s 2009 presidential election (London, 2010).
Azar, George Baramki, Palestine: a photographic journey (Berkeley, CA, 1991).
Baramki, Gabi, Peaceful resistance: building a Palestinian university under occupation (London, 2010).
Barghouti, Omar, Boycott, divestment and sanctions (Chicago, 2011).
Batatu, Hanna, ‘Iraq’s underground Shi`i movements’, MERIP 12/1 (1982) p. 6.
Bayat, Asef, ‘The “street” and the politics of dissent in the Arab world’, Middle East Report 226 (2003) pp. 10–17.
Bayat, Asef, Life as politics: how ordinary people change the Middle East (Stanford, CA, 2010).
Beinin, Joel, and Vairel, Frédéric (eds.), Social movements, moblilization and contestation in the Middle East and North Africa (Stanford, CA, 2011).
Dahi, Omar S., ‘Understanding the political economy of the Arab revolts’, Middle East Report 259 (2011) pp. 47–53.
Denoeux, Guilain, Urban unrest in the Middle East: a comparative study of informal networks in Egypt, Iran and Lebanon (Albany, NY, 1993).
Gelvin, James, The Israel–Palestine conflict: one hundred years of war (Cambridge, 2007).
el-Ghobashy, Mona, ‘The praxis of the Egyptian revolution’, Middle East Report 258 (2011) pp. 2–13.
Hashemi, Nader, and Postel, Danny (eds.), The people reloaded: the green movement and the struggle for Iran’s future (Brooklyn, NY, 2010).
Hunter, F. Robert, The Palestinian uprising: a war by other means (Berkeley, CA, 1993).
Ismail, Salwa, ‘Authoritarian government, neoliberalism and everyday civilities in Egypt’, Third World Quarterly 32/5 (2011) pp. 845–62.
Ismail, Salwa, ‘Epilogue’, Third World Quarterly 32/5 (2011) pp. 989–95.
Jabar, Faleh, ‘Le leviathan et le sacré: le Baas et les chiites’, in Kutschera, C. (ed.), Le livre noir de Saddam Hussein (Paris, 2005).
Johnston, Hank, and Noakes, John A., Frames of protest: social movements and the framing perspective (Lanham, MD, 2005).
Kennedy, R. Scott, ‘The Druze of the Golan: a case of non-violent resistance’, Journal of Palestine Studies 13/2 (1984) pp. 48–64.
Keshavarzian, Arang, Bazaar and state in Iran – the politics of the Tehran marketplace (Cambridge, 2007).
Khamis, Sahar, and Vaughn, Katherine, ‘Cyberactivism in the Egyptian Revolution: how civic engagement and citizen journalism tilted the balance’, Arab Media and Society 13 (2011)
King, Mary, A quiet revolution – the first Palestinian intifada and nonviolent resistance (New York, 2007).
Kurzman, Charles, ‘The Qum protests and the coming of the Iranian revolution, 1975 and 1978’, Social Science History 27/3 (2003) pp. 287–325.
Kurzman, Charles, The unthinkable revolution in Iran (Cambridge, MA, 2004).
Marzouki, Nadia, ‘From people to citizens in Tunisia’, Middle East Report 259 (2011) pp. 16–19.
Milani, Mohsen A., The making of Iran’s Islamic revolution (Boulder, CO, 1994).
Moaddel, Mansour, Class, politics and ideology in the Iranian revolution (New York, 1993).
Osman, Tarek, Egypt on the brink (New Haven, CT, 2010).
Peteet, Julie, ‘Male gender and rituals of resistance in the Palestinian intifada: a cultural politics of violence’, American Ethnologist 21/1 (1994) pp. 31–49.
Polletta, Francesca, It was like a fever: storytelling in protest and politics (Chicago, 2006).
Poulson, Stephen C., Social movements in twentieth-century Iran: culture, ideology, and mobilizing frameworks (Lanham, MD, 2005).
Qubain, Fahim I., ‘Social class and tensions in Bahrain’, The Middle East Journal 9/3 (Summer 1955) pp. 269–71.
Qumsiyeh, Mazin, Popular resistance in Palestine – a history of hope and empowerment (London, 2011).
Randle, Michael, Civil resistance (London, 1994).
Roberts, Adam, and Ash, Timothy Garton (eds.), Civil resistance and power politics: the experience of non-violent action from Gandhi to the present (Oxford, 2009).
Sadiki, Larbi, ‘Popular Uprisings and Arab Democratization’, International Journal of Middle East Studies 32/1 (2000) pp. 71–95.
Sadiki, Larbi, Rethinking Arab democratization: elections without democracy (Oxford, 2009).
Schock, Kurt, Unarmed insurrections: people power movements in nondemocracies (Minneapolis, MN, 2006).
Shami, Seteney (ed.), Publics, politics and participation: locating the public sphere in the Middle East and North Africa (New York, 2009).
Sharp, Gene, The politics of nonviolent action (Cambridge, MA, 1973–1985) 3 Volumes.
Sharp, Gene, ‘The intifadah and nonviolent struggle’, Journal of Palestine Studies 19/1 (1989) pp. 3–13.
Sharp, Gene, with Paulson, J., Waging nonviolent struggle: 20th century practice and 21st century potential (Manchester, NH, 2005).
Sowers, Jeannie, and Toensing, Chris (eds.), The journey to Tahrir – revolution, protest and social change in Egypt (London, 2012)
Stein, Kenneth, ‘The intifadah and the 1936–39 uprising: a comparison’, Journal of Palestine Studies 19/4 (1990) pp. 64–85.
Stork, Joe, Routine abuse, routine denial: civil rights and the political crisis in Bahrain (New York, 1997).
Tilly, Charles, Contentious performances (Cambridge, 2008).
Volpi, Frédéric, ‘Framing civility in the Middle East: alternative perspectives on the state and civil society’, Third World Quarterly 32/5 (2011) pp. 801–6.
Wiktorowicz, Quintan (ed.), Islamic activism: a social movement theory approach (Bloomington, IN, 2003).
Workman, W. Thom, The social origins of the Iran–Iraq war (Boulder, CO, 1994).
York, Steve, Bringing down a dictator [DVD] (York Zimmerman, Washington DC, 2002).
Young, Michael, The ghosts of Martyrs’ Square: an eyewitness account of Lebanon’s life struggle (New York, 2010).
Zunes, Stephen, Kurtz, Lester R., and Asher, Sarah Beth (eds.), Nonviolent social movements: a geographical perspective (Malden, MA, 1999).
Research and Further Reading
`Adnani, Samirah, Thawra hadi’a min mudawwanat al-ahwal al-shakhsiyya ila mudawwanat al-usra: majmu`a min al-ikhtisasin (Rabat, Morocco, 2004).
Dizeyi, Shahbal Ma`ruf, Al-`unf didda al-mar’a bayna al-nazariyya wa-l-tatbiq (Irbil, Iraq, 2007).
Kurdish Women’s Rights Watch,
Palestinian Women’s Research and Documentation Center,
La Revue Marocaine d’Administration Locale et de Développement, Le Nouveau Code de la Famille: avec les textes d’application/al-Mudawwanah jadidah li-l-usrah (Rabat, Morocco, 2006).
Wizarat al-`Adl (Morocco), Al-ayyam al-dirasiyya hawla al-mudawwana da`ama li-l-usra al-Maghribiyya al-mutawazina (Rabat, Morocco, 2006).
Women Against Violence,
Zaki, Ahmad, Sulayman, Nifin, and al-Rifa`i, Huwayda (eds.), Al-`unf didda al-mar’a fi Misr (Cairo, Egypt, 2007).
Zalzal, Marie Rose, Al-`unf al-qanuni didda al-mar’a fi Lubnan (Beirut, Lebanon, 2008).
Chapter 5
Abu-Lughod, Lila, and Sa`idi, Ahmad (eds.), Nakba: Palestine, 1948 and the claims of memory (New York, 2007).
Arkoun, Mohammed, ‘Langues, société et religion dans le Maghreb indépendant’, in Roque, Marial-Angels (ed.), Les cultures du Maghreb (Paris, 1996) pp. 83–109.
Benrabah, Mohamad, ‘Language in education planning in Algeria: historical development and current issues’, Language Policy 6 (2007) pp. 225–52.
Ben-Raphael, Eliezer, ‘Critical vs non-critical sociology: an evaluation’, Israel Studies 2/1 (1997) pp. 175–89.
Chaker, Salem, ‘Langue et identité berbères (Algérie/émigration): un enjeu de société’, in Henry, Jean-Robert (ed.), Nouveaux enjeux culturels au Maghreb (Paris, 1986) pp. 173–80.
Chaker, Salem, Berbères aujourd’hui (Paris, 1989).
Finkelstein, Norman, ‘Myths, old and new’, Journal of Palestine Studies 21/1 (1991) pp. 66–89.
Flapan, Simha, The birth of Israel – myths and realities (New York, 1987).
Gelber, Yoav, Palestine 1948: war, escape and the emergence of the Palestinian refugee problem (Brighton, England, 2001).
Goodman, Jane E., ‘Imazighen on trial: human rights and Berber identity in Algeria, 1985’, in Hoffman, Katherina E. and Miller, Susan Gibson (eds.), Berbers and others: beyond tribe and nation in the Maghrib (Bloomington, IN, 2010) pp. 103–25.
Gouméziane, Smaïl, Algérie, l’histoire en héritage (Paris, 2000).
Gutwein, Daniel, ‘Left and right post-Zionism and the privatization of Israeli collective memory’, Journal of Israeli History 20/2 (2001) pp. 9–42.
Harkabi, Yehoshafat, Arab attitudes to Israel (London, 1972).
Harkabi, Yehoshafat, The Bar Kochba syndrome (Chappaqua, NY, 1983).
Harkabi, Yehoshafat, Israel’s fateful decisions (London, 1988).
Hill, Jonathan, ‘Identity and instability in postcolonial Algeria’, Journal of North African Studies 11/1 (2006) pp. 1–16.
Hoffman, Katherine E., and Miller, Susan Gilson (eds.), Berbers and others: beyond tribe and nation in the Maghrib (Bloomington, IN, 2010).
International Crisis Group, Algeria: unrest and impasse in Kabylia, Report 15, 10 June 2003.
Karsh, Efraim, Fabricating Israeli history: the ‘new historians’ (London, 2001).
Khalili, Laleh, Heroes and martyrs of Palestine: the politics of national commemoration (Cambridge, 2007).
Likhovski, Assaf, ‘Post-post-Zionist historiography’, Israel Studies 15/2 (2010) pp. 1–23.
Lissak, Moshe, ‘“Critical” sociology and “Establishment” sociology in the Israeli academic community: ideological struggles or academic discourse’, Israel Studies 1/1 (1996) pp. 247–94.
Lowi, Miriam R., Oil wealth and the poverty of politics (Cambridge, 2009).
Maddy-Weitzman, Bruce, The Berber identity movement and the challenge to North African states (Austin, TX, 2011).
Maddy-Weitzman, Bruce, and Zisenwine, Daniel, The Maghrib in the new century: identity, religion and politics (Gainesville, FL, 2007).
Martinez, Luis, The Algerian civil war 1990–1998 (London, 2000).
McDougall, James, History and the culture of nationalism in Algeria (Cambridge, 2006).
Morris, Benny, The birth of the Palestinian refugee problem (Cambridge, 1987).
Morris, Benny, ‘Review: refabricating 1948’, Journal of Palestine Studies 27/2 (1998) pp. 81–95.
Morris, Benny, The birth of the Palestinian refugee problem revisited (Cambridge, 2004).
Olick, Jeffrey K., States of memory: continuities, conflicts and transformations in national retrospection (Durham, NC, 2003).
Pappé, Ilan, The making of the Arab–Israeli conflict (London, 1994).
Pappé, Ilan, ‘Post-Zionist critique on Israel and the Palestinians: part I: the academic debate’, Journal of Palestine Studies 26/2 (1997) pp. 29–41.
Pappé, Ilan, ‘Post-Zionist critique on Israel and the Palestinians: part III: popular culture’, Journal of Palestine Studies 26/4 (1997) pp. 60–9.
Pappé, Ilan, ‘The Tantura case in Israel: the Katz research and trial’, Journal of Palestine Studies 30/3 (2001) pp. 19–39.
Pappé, Ilan, The ethnic cleansing of Palestine (Oxford, 2006).
Pappé, Ilan, ‘Histories and historians in Israel and Palestine’, Transforming Cultures 1/1 (2006)
Podeh, Elie, The Arab–Israeli conflict in Israeli history textbooks, 1948–2000 (Westport, CT, 2002).
Ram, Uri, The changing agenda of Israeli sociology (New York, 1995).
Ram, Uri, ‘Postnationalist pasts: the case of Israel’, in Olick, Jeffrey K. (ed.), States of memory (Durham, NC, 2003) pp. 236–50.
Raz-Krakotzkin, Amnon, ‘History textbooks and the limits of Israeli consciousness’, JIH 20/2 (2001) pp. 155–65.
Renan, Ernest, ‘What is a Nation?’, in Eley, Geoff and Suny, Ronald (eds.), Becoming national: a reader (Oxford, 1996) pp. 41–55.
Rogan, Eugene, and Shlaim, Avi (eds.), The war for Palestine: rewriting the history of 1948 (Cambridge, 2001).
Sands, Shlomo, The invention of the Jewish people (London, 2009).
Sayigh, Rosemary, ‘Palestinian camp women as tellers of history’, Journal of Palestine Studies 27/2 (1998) pp. 42–58.
Seliktar, Ofira, ‘“Tenured radicals” in Israel: from New Zionism to Political Activism’, Israel Affairs 11/4 (2005) pp. 717–36.
Shafir, Gershon, ‘Israeli Society: a counterview’, Israel Studies 1/2 (1996) pp. 189–213.
Shapira, Anita, ‘Politics and collective memory: the debate over the “new historians” in Israel’, History and Memory 7/1 (1995) pp. 9–40.
Shapira, Anita, ‘The strategies of historical revisionism’, The Journal of Israeli History 20/2 (2001) pp. 62–76.
Sheffer, Gabriel (ed.), Dynamics of a conflict: a re-examination of the Arab–Israeli conflict (Atlantic Highlands, NJ, 1975).
Shenhav, Yehuda, ‘Jews from Arab countries and the Palestinian right of return: an ethnic community in the realms of national memory’, British Journal of Middle East Studies 29/1 (2002) pp. 27–56.
Shlaim, Avi, The politics of partition: King Abdullah, the Zionists and Palestine (Oxford, 1990).
Shlaim, Avi, ‘The debate about 1948’, International Journal of Middle East Studies, 27/3 (1995) pp. 287–304.
Shlaim, Avi, The iron wall: Israel and the Arab world (London, 2001).
Shlaim, Avi, ‘La guerre des historiens israéliens’, Annales 59/1 (2004) pp. 161–9.
Silberstein, Laurence, The postzionism debates: knowledge and power in Israeli culture (London, 1999).
Slyomovics, Susan, The object of memory – Arab and Jew narrate the Palestinian village (Philadelphia, PA, 1998).
Smith, Rogers, Stories of peoplehood: the politics and morals of political membership (Cambridge, 2003).
Tahi, Mohand Salah, ‘The struggle for linguistic rights and democratic pluralism: the case of the Kabyle Berbers in Algeria’, in Isaksson, Bo and Laanatza, Marianne (eds.), About the Berbers: history, language, culture and socio-economic conditions (Uppsala, Sweden, 2004) pp. 207–26.
Troen, Selwyn K., ‘De-judaizing the homeland: academic politics in rewriting the history of Palestine’, Israel Affairs 13/4 (2007) pp. 872–84.
Trouillot, Michel-Rolph, Silencing the past – power and the production of history (Boston, MA, 1995).
Waxman, Chaim I., ‘Critical sociology and the end of ideology in Israel’, Israel Studies 2/1 (1997) pp. 194–210.
Weingrod, Alex, ‘How Israeli culture was constructed: memory, history and the Israeli past’, Israel Studies 2/1 (1997) pp. 228–37.
Zertal, Idit, Israel’s holocaust and the politics of nationhood (Cambridge, 2005).
Zerubavel, Yael, Recovered roots: collective memory and the making of Israeli national tradition (Chicago, 1995).
Chapter 6
Al-Ali, Naji, A child in Palestine – the cartoons of Naji al-Ali (London, 2009).
Baker, Raymond, ‘Combative cultural politics: film art and political spaces in Egypt’, Alif: Journal of Comparative Poetics 15 (1995) pp. 6–38.
Balaghi, Shiva, and Gumpert, Lynn (eds.), Picturing Iran: art, society and revolution (London, 2002).
Baron, Beth, Egypt as a woman: nationalism, gender and politics (Berkeley, CA, 2005).
Becker, Cynthia, ‘Exile, memory and healing in Algeria’, African Arts 42/2 (2009) pp. 24–31.
Berger, John, The sense of sight (New York, 1985).
Boullata, Kamal, ‘Artists re-member Palestine in Beirut’, Journal of Palestine Studies 32/4 (2003) pp. 22–38.
Boullata, Kamal, ‘Art under siegeJournal of Palestine Studies 33/4 (2004) pp. 70–84.
Boullata, Kamal, Palestinian art – from 1850 to the present (London, 2009).
Bourdieu, Pierre, The field of cultural production (Cambridge, 1993).
Chelkowski, Peter, and Dabashi, Hamid, Staging a revolution: the art of persuasion in the Islamic Republic of Iran (London, 2000).
Clark, Toby, Art and propaganda in the twentieth century: the political image in the age of mass culture (London, 1997).
Egrikavuk, Isil, ‘Interview with Halil Altindere’, Boot Print 1/2 (2007) p. 22.
Fyfe, Gordon and Law, John (eds.), Picturing power: visual definition and social relations (London, 1988).
Gamboni, Dario, The destruction of art – iconoclasm and vandalism since the French revolution (London, 1997).
Gröndahl, Mia, Gaza graffiti – messages of love and politics (Cairo, Egypt, 2009).
Hallaj, Muhammad, ‘Palestine – the suppression of an idea’, The Link 15/1 (1982) pp. 1–16.
Held, Jutta, and Potts, Alex, ‘How do the political effects of pictures come about? The case of Picasso’s “Guernica”’, Oxford Art Journal 11/1 (1988) pp. 33–9.
Isaak, Jo Anna, Feminism and contemporary art: the revolutionary power of women’s laughter (London, 1996).
Issa, Rose, ‘Weapons of mass discussion’, in Reorientations – contemporary Arab representations (Brussels, 2008) pp. 10, 24–31.
Jowett, Garth, and O’Donnell, Victoria, Propaganda and persuasion (Thousand Oaks, CA, 2006).
Khalaf, Samir, Cultural resistance: global and local encounters in the Middle East (London, 2001).
Khalil, Karima (ed.), Messages from Tahrir – signs from Egypt’s revolution (Cairo, Egypt, 2011).
Kosova, Erden, ‘An extra struggle’, Bidoun (2005) pp. 70–1.
Laidi-Hanieh, Adila, ‘Arts, identity and survival: building cultural practices in Palestine’, Journal of Palestine Studies 35/4 (2006) pp. 28–43.
Maasri, Zeina, Off the wall – political posters of the Lebanese civil war (London, 2009).
Massad, Joseph, ‘Permission to paint: Palestinian art and the colonial encounter’, Art Journal 66/3 (2007) pp. 126–33.
Mir-Hosseini, Ziba, ‘Iranian cinema: art, society and the state’, Middle East Report 219 (2001) pp. 26–9.
Mitter, Partha, Art and nationalism in colonial India 1850–1922 (Cambridge, 1994).
Mouffe, Chantal, Deutsche, Rosalyn, Joseph, Branden W., and Keenan, Thomas, ‘Every form of art has a political dimension’, Grey Room 2 (2001) pp. 99–125.
Parry, William, Against the wall – the art of resistance in Palestine (London, 2010).
Peteet, Julie, ‘The writing on the walls: the graffiti of the intifada’, Cultural Anthropology 11/2 (1996) pp. 139–59.
Porter, Venetia, Word into art – artists of the modern Middle East (London, 2006).
Porter, Venetia, Word into art – artists of the modern Middle East – Dubai 2008 (Dubai, 2008).
Ram, Haggai, ‘Multiple iconographies: political posters in the Iranian revolution’, in Balaghi, Shiva and Gumpert, Lynn (eds.), Picturing Iran (London, 2003) pp. 89–101.
Safawi, Azarmi D., Revolution and creativity: a survey of Iranian literature, films and art in the post-revolutionary era (New Delhi, 2006).
Schnapp, Jeffrey T., Revolutionary tides: the art of the revolutionary poster 1914–1989 (Milan, 2005).
Shammout, Ismail, and al-Akhal, Tamam, Jadariyyat al-sira wa-l-masira al-filastiniyya/Palestine: the Exodus and the Odyssey (Amman, Jordan, 2000).
Silem, Ali, ‘Mouvement Aouchem: signes et résistance’, in Sraieb, Noureddine (ed.), Pratiques et résistance culturelles au Maghreb (Paris, 1992) pp. 197–202.
Weber, Samuel, ‘War, terrorism, and spectacle, or: on towers and caves’, Grey Room 7, On 9/11 (2002) pp. 15–23.
Further Reading
Abu Rashid, `Abd Allah, Fann al-taswir al-Filastini: hiwariyat al-ard, al-turath, al-Quds, al-muqawama, al-intifada, namadhij mukhtara (Damascus, Syria, 2007).
Altindere, Halil, ‘When ideas become crime’ exhibition Depo Istanbul,
Bidoun – arts and culture from the Middle East (magazine published in New York since 2004)
‘Egypt’s Protest Art’, Foreign Policy, 4 August 2011, ,0 [accessed 25 August 2011]
Jadaliyya, Culture page,
Nashashibi, Salwa Mikdadi, Forces of change – artists of the Arab world (Washington, DC, 1994).
Zoghbi, Pascal, and Stone, Don Karl, Arabic graffiti (Berlin, 2011).
Conclusion
Hannoum, Abdelmajid, Violent modernity: France in Algeria (Cambridge, MA, 2010).
Levi, Primo, The drowned and the saved (tr. Bailey, P.) (London, 1988).
Neep, Dan, Syria insurgent: occupation, space and violence under the French mandate (Cambridge, 2012).
Reno, William, Corruption and state politics in Sierra Leone (Cambridge, 1995).
Tripp, Charles, A History of Iraq (Cambridge, 2007).
Tripp, Charles, ‘“In the name of the people”: the “people’s court” and the Iraqi revolution (1958–1960)’, in Strauss, Julia C. and O’Brien, Donal Cruise (eds.), Staging politics: power and performance in Asia and Africa (London, 2007) pp. 31–48.
Yablonka, Hannah, ‘Holocaust survivors in the Israeli army during the 1948 war: documents and memory’, Israel Affairs 12/3 (2006) pp. 462–83.

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