Several studies have failed to demonstrate an association between Fe status and intake of dietary Fe. However, in the long term, it Seems logical to presume that body Fe reserves are, fundamentally, dependent on the intake of bioavailpble dietary Fe. This discrepancy may depend on several factors(1)interindividual variation in biological availability of dietary Fe (differences in intestinal absorption),(2) interactions between dietary Fe and absorption enhancers and inbibitors, (3) variatiom in physiological (menstruation, childbirth) or unphysiological (blood donation) Fe losses, (4) the failure to adjust dietary intake data for Fe supplements, (5) uncertain food composition data (discrepancies between calculated and chemically measured Fe content inthe diet), and (6) diet reporting error (reported intake of dietary Fe may deviate considerably from the true intake). The present study examined associations between dietary intake of Fe (assessed by diet history interview) and Fe status (assessed by femtin status) among 167 Danish women aged 35–65 years, who were not blood donors, by taking into account diet reporting error (assessed from p-amino benzoic acid-validated urinary N), physiological blood losses (menstruation, Childbirth, abortions), and Fe supplementation. Our results indicate that the lack of a general association between Fe status and dietary Fe intake may, in part, be caused by selective dietreporting error.