Despite its heterogeneous symptomatology, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is currently conceptualized as a unitary diagnostic entity. Recent factor-analytic studies have identified several OCD symptom dimensions that are associated with different demographic variables, comorbidity, patterns of genetic transmission, and treatment response. Functional abnormalities in neural systems important for emotion perception, including the orbitofrontal cortex, lateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate gyrus, and limbic regions, have been reported in OCD. In this review, we discuss the extent to which neurobiological markers may distinguish these different symptom dimensions and whether specific symptom dimensions, such as contamination/washing, are associated with abnormalities in emotion and, in particular, disgust, perception in OCD. Also discussed are findings that indicate that anxiety can be induced in healthy volunteers in response to OCD symptom-related material, and that associated increases in activity within neural systems important for emotion perception occur to washing- and hoarding-related material in particular in these subjects. Further examination of neural responses during provocation of different symptom dimensions in OCD patients will help determine the extent to which specific abnormalities in neural systems underlying emotion perception are associated with different symptom dimensions and predict treatment response in OCD.