To ascertain whether aromatase (CYP19A1) expression is linked to sperm fertility of pigs, the present study determined the expression of the CYP19A1 gene in porcine sperm and its relationship with fertilization in vitro. First, to investigate its role in fertility, the presence of CYP19A1 of mRNA and protein expression in porcine sperm were confirmed by real-time (RT) or quantitative polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR) and by western blots. The expression levels were determined quantitatively using two sperm groups recovered by a Percoll gradient, which revealed that the sperm group with a low density had a higher penetration rate than that of the high-density group (P < 0.05). However, the expression level of CYP19A1 was not significantly different between the two groups. Secondly, to examine the effect of aromatase activity on fertilization, fresh semen was treated with a steroidal inhibitor, exemestane (50 μM for 0.5 h), followed by the dose- and time-dependent viability test. Our results clearly showed that an exemestane treatment effect (P < 0.05) was found for both the sperm-penetration rate and the oocyte cleavage rate. These results indicated that CYP19A1 could be involved in sperm fertility and its expression in sperm plays an important role in fertilization.