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To compare the accuracy of monitoring personal protective equipment (PPE) donning and doffing process between an artificial intelligent (AI) machine collaborated with remote human buddy support system and an onsite buddy, and to determine the degree of AI autonomy at the current development stage.
Design and setting:
We conducted a pilot simulation study with 30 procedural scenarios (15 donning and 15 doffing, performed by one individual) incorporating random errors in 55 steps. In total, 195 steps were assessed.
The human–AI machine system and the onsite buddy assessed the procedures independently. The human–AI machine system performed the assessment via a tablet device, which was positioned to allow full-body visualization of the donning and doffing person.
The overall accuracy of PPE monitoring using the human–AI machine system was 100% and the overall accuracy of the onsite buddy was 99%. There was a very good agreement between the 2 methods (κ coefficient, 0.97). The current version of the AI technology was able to perform autonomously, without the remote human buddy’s rectification in 173 (89%) of 195 steps. It identified 67.3% of all the errors independently.
This study provides preliminary evidence suggesting that a human–AI machine system may be able to serve as a substitute or enhancement to an onsite buddy performing the PPE monitoring task. It provides practical assistance using a combination of a computer mirror, visual prompts, and verbal commands. However, further studies are required to examine its clinical efficacy with a diverse range of individuals performing the donning and doffing procedures.
To describe the genomic analysis and epidemiologic response related to a slow and prolonged methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) outbreak.
Prospective observational study.
Neonatal intensive care unit (NICU).
We conducted an epidemiologic investigation of a NICU MRSA outbreak involving serial baby and staff screening to identify opportunities for decolonization. Whole-genome sequencing was performed on MRSA isolates.
A NICU with excellent hand hygiene compliance and longstanding minimal healthcare-associated infections experienced an MRSA outbreak involving 15 babies and 6 healthcare personnel (HCP). In total, 12 cases occurred slowly over a 1-year period (mean, 30.7 days apart) followed by 3 additional cases 7 months later. Multiple progressive infection prevention interventions were implemented, including contact precautions and cohorting of MRSA-positive babies, hand hygiene observers, enhanced environmental cleaning, screening of babies and staff, and decolonization of carriers. Only decolonization of HCP found to be persistent carriers of MRSA was successful in stopping transmission and ending the outbreak. Genomic analyses identified bidirectional transmission between babies and HCP during the outbreak.
In comparison to fast outbreaks, outbreaks that are “slow and sustained” may be more common to units with strong existing infection prevention practices such that a series of breaches have to align to result in a case. We identified a slow outbreak that persisted among staff and babies and was only stopped by identifying and decolonizing persistent MRSA carriage among staff. A repeated decolonization regimen was successful in allowing previously persistent carriers to safely continue work duties.
Poor research integrity is increasingly recognised as a serious problem in science. We outline some evidence for this claim and introduce the Royal College of Psychiatrists (RCPsych) journals’ Research Integrity Group, which has been created to address this problem.
Fetal and child development are shaped by early life exposures, including maternal health states, nutrition and educational and home environments. We aimed to determine if suboptimal pre-pregnancy maternal body mass index (BMI; underweight, overweight, obese) would associate with poorer cognitive outcomes in children, and whether early life nutritional, educational and home environments modify these relationships. Self-reported data were obtained from mother-infant dyads from the pan-Canadian prospective Maternal-Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals cohort. Relationships between potential risk factors (pre-pregnancy maternal BMI, breastfeeding practices and Home Observation Measurement of the Environment [HOME] score) and child cognitive development at age three (Weschler’s Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence, Third Edition scale and its subcategories) were each evaluated using analysis of variance, multivariable regression models and moderating analyses. Amongst the 528 mother−child dyads, increasing maternal pre-pregnancy BMI was negatively associated with scores for child full-scale IQ (β [95% CI]; −2.01 [−3.43, −0.59], p = 0.006), verbal composite (−1.93 [−3.33, −0.53], p = 0.007), and information scale (−0.41 [−0.70, −0.14], p = 0.003) scores. Higher maternal education level or HOME score attenuated the negative association between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and child cognitive outcome by 30%–41% and 7%–22%, respectively, and accounted for approximately 5%–10% greater variation in male children’s cognitive scores compared to females. Maternal education and higher quality home environment buffer the negative effect of elevated maternal pre-pregnancy BMI on child cognitive outcomes. Findings suggest that relationships between maternal, social and environmental factors must be considered to reveal pathways that shape risk for, and resiliency against, suboptimal cognitive outcomes in early life.
To evaluate a relatively new half–face-piece powered air-purifying respirator (PAPR) device called the HALO (CleanSpace). We assessed its communication performance, its degree of respiratory protection, and its usability and comfort level.
Design and setting:
This simulation study was conducted at the simulation center of the Royal Melbourne Hospital.
In total, 8 voluntary healthcare workers participated in the study: 4 women and 4 men comprising 3 nursing staff and 5 medical staff.
We performed the modified rhyme test, outlined by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), for the communication assessment. We conducted quantitative fit test and simulated workplace protection factor studies to assess the degree of respiratory protection for participants at rest, during, and immediately after performing chest compression. We also invited the participants to complete a usability and comfort survey.
The HALO PAPR met the NIOSH minimum standard for speech intelligibility, which was significantly improved with the addition of wireless communication headsets. The HALO provided consistent and adequate level of respiratory protection at rest, during and after chest compression regardless of the device power mode. It was rated favorably for its usability and comfort. However, participants criticized doffing difficulty and perceived communication interference.
The HALO device can be considered as an alternative to a filtering face-piece respirator. Thorough doffing training and mitigation planning to improve the device communication performance are recommended. Further research is required to examine its clinical outcomes and barriers that may potentially affect patient or healthcare worker safety.
There are many structural problems facing the UK at present, from a weakened National Health Service to deeply ingrained inequality. These challenges extend through society to clinical practice and have an impact on current mental health research, which was in a perilous state even before the coronavirus pandemic hit. In this editorial, a group of psychiatric researchers who currently sit on the Academic Faculty of the Royal College of Psychiatrists and represent the breadth of research in mental health from across the UK discuss the challenges faced in academic mental health research. They reflect on the need for additional investment in the specialty and ask whether this is a turning point for the future of mental health research.
Contrasting the well-described effects of early intervention (EI) services for youth-onset psychosis, the potential benefits of the intervention for adult-onset psychosis are uncertain. This paper aims to examine the effectiveness of EI on functioning and symptomatic improvement in adult-onset psychosis, and the optimal duration of the intervention.
360 psychosis patients aged 26–55 years were randomized to receive either standard care (SC, n = 120), or case management for two (2-year EI, n = 120) or 4 years (4-year EI, n = 120) in a 4-year rater-masked, parallel-group, superiority, randomized controlled trial of treatment effectiveness (Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00919620). Primary (i.e. social and occupational functioning) and secondary outcomes (i.e. positive and negative symptoms, and quality of life) were assessed at baseline, 6-month, and yearly for 4 years.
Compared with SC, patients with 4-year EI had better Role Functioning Scale (RFS) immediate [interaction estimate = 0.008, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.001–0.014, p = 0.02] and extended social network (interaction estimate = 0.011, 95% CI = 0.004–0.018, p = 0.003) scores. Specifically, these improvements were observed in the first 2 years. Compared with the 2-year EI group, the 4-year EI group had better RFS total (p = 0.01), immediate (p = 0.01), and extended social network (p = 0.05) scores at the fourth year. Meanwhile, the 4-year (p = 0.02) and 2-year EI (p = 0.004) group had less severe symptoms than the SC group at the first year.
Specialized EI treatment for psychosis patients aged 26–55 should be provided for at least the initial 2 years of illness. Further treatment up to 4 years confers little benefits in this age range over the course of the study.
Little is known about the effects of physical exercise on sleep-dependent consolidation of procedural memory in individuals with schizophrenia. We conducted a randomized controlled trial (RCT) to assess the effectiveness of physical exercise in improving this cognitive function in schizophrenia.
A three-arm parallel open-labeled RCT took place in a university hospital. Participants were randomized and allocated into either the high-intensity-interval-training group (HIIT), aerobic-endurance exercise group (AE), or psychoeducation group for 12 weeks, with three sessions per week. Seventy-nine individuals with schizophrenia spectrum disorder were contacted and screened for their eligibility. A total of 51 were successfully recruited in the study. The primary outcome was sleep-dependent procedural memory consolidation performance as measured by the finger-tapping motor sequence task (MST). Assessments were conducted during baseline and follow-up on week 12.
The MST performance scored significantly higher in the HIIT (n = 17) compared to the psychoeducation group (n = 18) after the week 12 intervention (p < 0.001). The performance differences between the AE (n = 16) and the psychoeducation (p = 0.057), and between the AE and the HIIT (p = 0.999) were not significant. Yet, both HIIT (p < 0.0001) and AE (p < 0.05) showed significant within-group post-intervention improvement.
Our results show that HIIT and AE were effective at reverting the defective sleep-dependent procedural memory consolidation in individuals with schizophrenia. Moreover, HIIT had a more distinctive effect compared to the control group. These findings suggest that HIIT may be a more effective treatment to improve sleep-dependent memory functions in individuals with schizophrenia than AE alone.
We aimed to describe the demographic and clinical profile, and management of frequent attenders to a psychiatric liaison service.
Frequent Attenders to emergency departments contribute significantly to the burden on health services and by definition are subjectively highly stressed. It is therefore important that mental health services develop effective responses to this group of patients. A systematic literature search indicated a paucity of information on this group of patients.
We conducted a case series of 49 frequently attending patients to the Psychiatric Liaison service in Tower Hamlets, East London NHS Foundation Trust.
We defined frequent attenders as seeing the Psychiatric Liaison Service 5 or more times in 2018. We excluded 4 patients aged <18 years or >65 years.
For each patient we collected data regarding their demographics; the details of each attendance to the Psychiatric Liaison Service; and their use of other psychiatric services.
We then conducted a multivariate analysis, including stratification of patients based on number of attendances to identify correlation between frequency of attendance and the other information.
Demographic: The 45 patients reviewed had a mean age of 37 and a mean of 7 attendances during the study period.
Clinical: 89% had a history of emotional trauma, 71% of substance misuse, and 49% of any personality disorder. Only 9% of the patients were under the care of the locality Personality Disorder Service.
73% of the patients were under the care of any other psychiatric service. There was no correlation between being under other services and the frequency of attendance.
Only 31% had contact with the locality Frequent Attenders Service during the study period, as this was established recently.
Psychiatric Frequent Attenders have complex needs, which do not fit neatly into existing psychiatric diagnoses and services.
The high frequency of emotional trauma, substance misuse and personality disorder indicates a need for training of clinicians in these services to manage these patients, as well as planning for referral pathways for this group of patients who provide services with major challenges in appropriate pathways to care and follow-up
The aim of this paper is to describe key findings and recommendations of SUI reports regarding patients with a diagnosis of PD in East London NHS Foundation Trust (ELFT). Patients with a diagnosis of PD are often involved in SUIs with regards to risk to themselves or others. Contributing factors might be the nature of their disorder in terms of mood instability and impulsivity, self-harming or antisocial behaviour, and the difficulties posed to assessing clinicians in predicting risk.
Patients with PD present severe challenges to services. SUI findings thus serve as a lightning rod for issues in their management. With the emergence of NICE guidelines for borderline PD  and antisocial PD  regarding risk assessments, there has been greater optimism for management of PDs.
A case series of 50 SUI reports of patients with a diagnosis of PD were identified from the governance and risk management team of ELFT. Themes were categorized as positive practice, contributory factors, and recommendations. Findings are related to guidelines in NICE and RCPsychiatry. Any patient with a diagnosis of PD (of any sub-type) that was involved in a SUI in ELFT met the inclusion criteria. There were no exclusion criteria.
The most frequent themes in positive practice were ‘continuity of care’ and ‘clinical practice’. The most frequent subthemes in clinical practice were ‘assessments’ and ‘follow-up’. ‘Continuity of care’ included examples of collaborative working between various teams, as in joint assessments, good communication, and timely referrals. In contributory factors ‘poor documentation’ was the most frequent theme. 14 reports found no contributory factors. In recommendations the most frequent theme was the need for development and implementation of PD policies and for improved risk management.
NICE guidelines stress the importance of continuity of care and good clinical care and it is commendable that these were findings in positive practice. The importance of documentation being accurate and timely needs underlining in hard pressed time poor clinicians. Services would do well to review PD policies specifically regarding risk management at a wider Trust and local service level. Our findings point to the ongoing need for workforce development as recommended in the RCPSych position statement on PD published in January 2020.
Liaison psychiatry services (LPSs) provide psychiatric care to general medical patients. This paper aims to evaluate LPS provision for children and young people In England.
The annual Liaison Psychiatry Surveys of England (LPSEs) included questions on paediatric services from 2015 (LPSE-2). Questions were developed in consultation with NHS England and the Liaison Faculty of the Royal College of Psychiatrists. We analysed data from LPSE-2 and three subsequent surveys.
LPSs were systematically identified by contacting all acute hospitals with Type 1 emergency departments listed by NHS England. All identified LPSs were emailed a copy of the questionnaire, with follow-up emails and telephone contact for non-responders. Responses by email, post or telephone were accepted.
The number of acute hospitals with access to paediatric LPSs increased from 29 (16%) in 2015 to 46 (27%) in 2019; all of these hospitals had access to adult LPSs. The number of paediatric LPSs with at least 11 full time equivalent (FTE) mental health practitioners (MHPs) has increased from 6% to 24% and from none to 16% with 13 FTE or more MHPs. For both LPSE-4 and LPSE-5, there were only two acute hospitals where both 8 FTE MHPs and 1.5 FTE consultants were present. For LPSE-4, only one site met the Core 24 criteria (for adults - there are no criteria for paediatric LPSs) of 11 FTE MHPs and 1.5 FTE consultants, and for LPSE-5, both these sites exceeded them. Other paediatric services did not meet the adult core 24 criteria for a LPS.
Acute hospitals with access to 24/7 paediatric LPSs increased from 12% to 19% between LPSE-4 and LPSE-5. In LPSE-5 68% of paediatric LPS worked to a one-hour response time target to the ED. This is an increase from 42% (14/33) in LPSE-4.
There are still far fewer paediatric than adult LPSs, but the provision of paediatric LPSs improved from 2015 to 2019, with more services, more staffing, and faster response times. Services need to continue to improve as few services match the adult core 24 criteria for an LPS.
The rapid transmissibility of the severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 causing coronavirus disease-2019, requires timely dissemination of information and public health responses, with all 47 countries of the WHO African Region simultaneously facing significant risk, in contrast to the usual highly localised infectious disease outbreaks. This demanded a different approach to information management and an adaptive information strategy was implemented, focusing on data collection and management, reporting and analysis at the national and regional levels. This approach used frugal innovation, building on tools and technologies that are commonly used, and well understood; as well as developing simple, practical, highly functional and agile solutions that could be rapidly and remotely implemented, and flexible enough to be recalibrated and adapted as required. While the approach was successful in its aim of allowing the WHO Regional Office for Africa (WHO AFRO) to gather surveillance and epidemiological data, several challenges were encountered that affected timeliness and quality of data captured and reported by the member states, showing that strengthening data systems and digital capacity, and encouraging openness and data sharing are an important component of health system strengthening.
Epidemic intelligence activities are undertaken by the WHO Regional Office for Africa to support member states in early detection and response to outbreaks to prevent the international spread of diseases. We reviewed epidemic intelligence activities conducted by the organisation from 2017 to 2020, processes used, key results and how lessons learned can be used to strengthen preparedness, early detection and rapid response to outbreaks that may constitute a public health event of international concern. A total of 415 outbreaks were detected and notified to WHO, using both indicator-based and event-based surveillance. Media monitoring contributed to the initial detection of a quarter of all events reported. The most frequent outbreaks detected were vaccine-preventable diseases, followed by food-and-water-borne diseases, vector-borne diseases and viral haemorrhagic fevers. Rapid risk assessments generated evidence and provided the basis for WHO to trigger operational processes to provide rapid support to member states to respond to outbreaks with a potential for international spread. This is crucial in assisting member states in their obligations under the International Health Regulations (IHR) (2005). Member states in the region require scaled-up support, particularly in preventing recurrent outbreaks of infectious diseases and enhancing their event-based surveillance capacities with automated tools and processes.
People with CHD are at increased risk for executive functioning deficits. Meta-analyses of these measures in CHD patients compared to healthy controls have not been reported.
To examine differences in executive functions in individuals with CHD compared to healthy controls.
We performed a systematic review of publications from 1 January, 1986 to 15 June, 2020 indexed in PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, PsycInfo, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library.
Inclusion criteria were (1) studies containing at least one executive function measure; (2) participants were over the age of three.
Data extraction and quality assessment were performed independently by two authors. We used a shifting unit-of-analysis approach and pooled data using a random effects model.
The search yielded 61,217 results. Twenty-eight studies met criteria. A total of 7789 people with CHD were compared with 8187 healthy controls. We found the following standardised mean differences: −0.628 (−0.726, −0.531) for cognitive flexibility and set shifting, −0.469 (−0.606, −0.333) for inhibition, −0.369 (−0.466, −0.273) for working memory, −0.334 (−0.546, −0.121) for planning/problem solving, −0.361 (−0.576, −0.147) for summary measures, and −0.444 (−0.614, −0.274) for reporter-based measures (p < 0.001).
Our analysis consisted of cross-sectional and observational studies. We could not quantify the effect of collinearity.
Individuals with CHD appear to have at least moderate deficits in executive functions. Given the growing population of people with CHD, more attention should be devoted to identifying executive dysfunction in this vulnerable group.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: Identifying factors associated with opioid overdoses will enable better resource allocation in communities most impacted by the overdose epidemic. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Opioid overdoses often occur in hotspots identified by geographic and temporal trends. This study uses principles of community engaged research to identify neighborhood and community-level factors associated with opioid overdose within overdose hotspots which can be targets for novel intervention design. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We conducted an environmental scan in three overdose hotspots’‘ two in an urban center and one in a small city’‘ identified by the Rhode Island Department of Health as having the highest opioid overdose burden in Rhode Island. We engaged hotspot community stakeholders to identify neighborhood factors to map within each hotspot. Locations of addiction treatment, public transportation, harm reduction programs, public facilities (i.e., libraries, parks), first responders, and social services agencies were converted to latitude and longitude and mapped in ArcGIS. Using Esri Service Areas, we will evaluate the service areas of stationary services. We will overlay overdose events and use logistic regression identify neighborhood factors associated with overdose by comparing hotspot and non-hotspot neighborhoods. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We anticipate that there will be differing neighborhood characteristics associated with overdose events in the densely populated urban area and those in the smaller city. The urban area hotspots will have overlapping social services, addiction treatment, and transportation service areas, while the small city will have fewer community resources without overlapping service areas and reduced public transportation access. We anticipate that overdoses will occur during times of the day when services are not available. Overall, overdose hotspots will be associated with increased census block level unemployment, homelessness, vacant housing, and low food security. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: Identifying factors associated with opioid overdoses will enable better resource allocation in communities most impacted by the overdose epidemic. Study results will be used for novel intervention design to prevent opioid overdose deaths in communities with high burden of opioid overdose.
Loeys–Dietz syndrome is a connective tissue disorder known to cause aggressive aortopathy in paediatric patients, but it is extremely rare for cardiovascular events to present during infancy. We report the first successful aortic repair in a neonate with LDS presenting in extremis with an early onset, massive aortic aneurysm.
Social and economic changes associated with new roads can bring about rapid nutritional transitions. To study this process, we: (1) describe trends in adult overweight and obesity (OW/OB) among rural Afro-Ecuadorians over time and across a gradient of community remoteness from the nearest commercial centre; (2) examine the relationship between male and female adult OW/OB and factors associated with market integration such as changing livelihoods and (3) examine the co-occurrence of adult OW/OB and under-five stunting and anaemia.
Adult anthropometry was collected through serial case–control studies repeated over a decade across twenty-eight communities. At the same time, anthropometry and Hb were measured for all children under 5 years of age in every community.
Northern coastal Ecuador.
Adults (n 1665) and children under 5 years of age (n 2618).
From 2003 and 2013, OW/OB increased from 25·1 % to 44·8 % among men and 59·9 % to 70·2 % among women. The inverse relationship between remoteness and OW/OB in men was attenuated when adjusting for urban employment, suggesting that livelihoods mediated the remoteness–OW/OB relationship. No such relationship was observed among women. Communities with a higher prevalence of male OW/OB also had a greater prevalence of stunting, but not anaemia, in children under 5 years of age.
The association between male OW/OB and child stunting at the community level, but not the household level, suggests that changing food environments, rather than household- or individual-level factors, drove these trends. A closer examination of changing socio-economic structures and food environments in communities undergoing rapid development could help mitigate future public health burdens.
This is the first report on the association between trauma exposure and depression from the Advancing Understanding of RecOvery afteR traumA(AURORA) multisite longitudinal study of adverse post-traumatic neuropsychiatric sequelae (APNS) among participants seeking emergency department (ED) treatment in the aftermath of a traumatic life experience.
We focus on participants presenting at EDs after a motor vehicle collision (MVC), which characterizes most AURORA participants, and examine associations of participant socio-demographics and MVC characteristics with 8-week depression as mediated through peritraumatic symptoms and 2-week depression.
Eight-week depression prevalence was relatively high (27.8%) and associated with several MVC characteristics (being passenger v. driver; injuries to other people). Peritraumatic distress was associated with 2-week but not 8-week depression. Most of these associations held when controlling for peritraumatic symptoms and, to a lesser degree, depressive symptoms at 2-weeks post-trauma.
These observations, coupled with substantial variation in the relative strength of the mediating pathways across predictors, raises the possibility of diverse and potentially complex underlying biological and psychological processes that remain to be elucidated in more in-depth analyses of the rich and evolving AURORA database to find new targets for intervention and new tools for risk-based stratification following trauma exposure.
Background: Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are endemic in the Chicago region. We assessed the regional impact of a CRE control intervention targeting high-prevalence facilities; that is, long-term acute-care hospitals (LTACHs) and ventilator-capable skilled nursing facilities (vSNFs). Methods: In July 2017, an academic–public health partnership launched a regional CRE prevention bundle: (1) identifying patient CRE status by querying Illinois’ XDRO registry and periodic point-prevalence surveys reported to public health, (2) cohorting or private rooms with contact precautions for CRE patients, (3) combining hand hygiene adherence, monitoring with general infection control education, and guidance by project coordinators and public health, and (4) daily chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) bathing. Informed by epidemiology and modeling, we targeted LTACHs and vSNFs in a 13-mile radius from the coordinating center. Illinois mandates CRE reporting to the XDRO registry, which can also be manually queried or generate automated alerts to facilitate interfacility communication. The regional intervention promoted increased automation of alerts to hospitals. The prespecified primary outcome was incident clinical CRE culture reported to the XDRO registry in Cook County by month, analyzed by segmented regression modeling. A secondary outcome was colonization prevalence measured by serial point-prevalence surveys for carbapenemase-producing organism colonization in LTACHs and vSNFs. Results: All eligible LTACHs (n = 6) and vSNFs (n = 9) participated in the intervention. One vSNF declined CHG bathing. vSNFs that implemented CHG bathing typically bathed residents 2–3 times per week instead of daily. Overall, there were significant gaps in infection control practices, especially in vSNFs. Also, 75 Illinois hospitals adopted automated alerts (56 during the intervention period). Mean CRE incidence in Cook County decreased from 59.0 cases per month during baseline to 40.6 cases per month during intervention (P < .001). In a segmented regression model, there was an average reduction of 10.56 cases per month during the 24-month intervention period (P = .02) (Fig. 1), and an estimated 253 incident CRE cases were averted. Mean CRE incidence also decreased among the stratum of vSNF/LTACH intervention facilities (P = .03). However, evidence of ongoing CRE transmission, particularly in vSNFs, persisted, and CRE colonization prevalence remained high at intervention facilities (Table 1). Conclusions: A resource-intensive public health regional CRE intervention was implemented that included enhanced interfacility communication and targeted infection prevention. There was a significant decline in incident CRE clinical cases in Cook County, despite high persistent CRE colonization prevalence in intervention facilities. vSNFs, where understaffing or underresourcing were common and lengths of stay range from months to years, had a major prevalence challenge, underscoring the need for aggressive infection control improvements in these facilities.
Funding: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (SHEPheRD Contract No. 200-2011-42037)
Disclosures: M.Y.L. has received research support in the form of contributed product from OpGen and Sage Products (now part of Stryker Corporation), and has received an investigator-initiated grant from CareFusion Foundation (now part of BD).