Skip to main content Accessibility help
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 3
  • Print publication year: 2017
  • Online publication date: July 2017

13 - Atmospheric Photochemistry

Related content

Powered by UNSILO
Altieri, F., Zasova, L., D’Aversa, E., et al. (2009) O2 1.27 µm emission maps as derived from OMEGA/MEx data, Icarus, 204, 499511.
Anbar, A. D., Allen, M., and Nair, H. A. (1993a) Photodissociation in the atmosphere of Mars: impact of high-resolution temperature-dependent CO2 cross-section measurements, J. Geophys. Res., 98, 1092510931.
Anbar, A. D., Leu, M. T., Nair, H. A., et al. (1993b) Adsorption of HOx on aerosol surfaces: implications for the atmosphere of Mars, J. Geophys. Res., 98, 1093310940.
Anderson, D. E. (1974) Mariner 6, 7, and 9 ultraviolet spectrometer experiment: analysis of hydrogen Lyman-alpha data, J. Geophys. Res., 79, 15131518.
Anderson, D. E., and Hord, C. W. (1971) Mariner 6 and 7 ultraviolet spectrometer experiment: analysis of hydrogen Lyman alpha data, J. Geophys. Res., 76, 66666671.
Atreya, S. K., Wong, A.-S., Rennó, N. O., et al. (2006) Oxidant enhancement in Martian dust devils and storms: implications for life and habitability, Astrobiology, 6, 439450.
Atreya, S. K., Mahaffy, P. R., and Wong, A. S. (2007) Methane and related trace species on Mars: origin, loss, implications for life and habitability, Planet. Space Sci., 55, 358–69.
Atreya, S. K., Witasse, O., Chevrier, V. F., et al. (2011) Methane on Mars: current observations, interpretation, and future plans, Planet. Space Sci., 59. 133136.
Barker, E. S. (1972) Detection of molecular oxygen in the Martian atmosphere, Nature, 238, 447448.
Barth, C. A., and Hord, C. W. (1971) Mariner 6 and 7 ultraviolet spectrometer experiment: topography and polar cap, Science, 173, 197201.
Barth, C. A., Hord, C. W., Stewart, A. I., et al. (1973) Mariner 9 ultraviolet spectrometer experiment: seasonal variation of ozone on Mars, Science, 179, 795796.
Bates, D. R., and Nicolet, M. (1950) The photochemistry of atmospheric water vapor, J. Geophys. Res., 55, 301327.
Belton, M. J. S., and Hunten, D. M. (1966) The abundance and temperature of CO2 in the Martian atmosphere, Astrophys. J., 145, 454467.
Bertaux, J. L., Leblanc, F., Perrier, S., et al. (2005) Nightglow in the upper atmosphere of Mars and implications for atmospheric transport, Science, 307, 567569.
Bertaux, J. L., Gondet, B., Lefèvre, F., et al. (2012) First detection of O2 1.27 µm nightglow emission at Mars with OMEGA/MEX and comparison with general circulation model predictions, J. Geophys. Res., 117, doi:10.1029/2011JE003890.
Biemann, K., Owen, T., Rushneck, D. R., et al. (1976) Search for organic and volatile inorganic components in two surface samples from the Chryse Planitia region of Mars, J. Geophys. Res., 82, 46414658.
Billebaud, F., Brillet, J., Lellouch, E., et al. (2009) Observations of CO in the atmosphere of Mars with PFS onboard Mars Express, Planet. Space Sci., 57, 14461457.
Blamont, J. E., and Chassefière, E. (1993) First detection of ozone in the middle atmosphere of Mars from solar occultation measurements, Icarus, 104, 324336.
Bogard, D. D., Clayton, R. N., Marti, K., et al. (2001) Martian volatiles: isotopic composition, origin, and evolution, Space Sci. Rev., 96, 425–58.
Bougher, S. W., Roble, R. G., Ridley, E. C., et al. (1990) The Mars thermosphere 2. General circulation with coupled dynamics and composition, J. Geophys. Res., 95, 1481114827.
Carleton, N. P., and Traub, W. A. (1972) Detection of molecular oxygen on Mars, Science, 177, 988992.
Chassefière, E. (2009) Metastable methane clathrate particles as a source of methane to the Martian atmosphere, Icarus, 204, 137144.
Chastain, B. K., and Chevrier, V. (2007) Methane clathrate hydrates as a potential source for Martian atmospheric methane, Planet. Space Sci., 55, 12461256.
Chaufray, J. Y., Bertaux, J. L., Leblanc, F., et al. (2008) Observation of the hydrogen corona with SPICAM on Mars Express, Icarus, 195, 598613.
Chaufray, J. Y., Leblanc, F., Quémerais, E., et al. (2009) Martian oxygen density at the exobase deduced from O I 130.4-nm observations by Spectroscopy for the Investigation of the Characteristics of the Atmosphere of Mars on Mars Express, J. Geophys. Res., 114, E02006.
Christensen, P. R., Bandfield, J. L., Bell, J. F., et al. (2003) Morphology and composition of the surface of Mars: Mars Odyssey THEMIS results, Science, 300, 20562061.
Chung, C. Y., Chew, E. P., Cheng, B. M., et al. (2001) Temperature dependence of absorption cross-section of H2O, HDO, and D2O in the spectral region 140–193 nm, Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. A, 467, 15721576.
Ciais, P., Sabine, C., Bala, G., et al. (2013) Carbon and other biogeochemical cycles. In Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, eds Stocker, T. F., Qin, D., Plattner, G.-K., et al. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Clancy, R. T., and Nair, H. (1996) Annual (aphelion–perihelion) cycles in the photochemical behavior of the global Mars atmosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 1278512790.
Clancy, R. T., Grossman, A. W., Wolff, M. J., et al. (1996) Water vapor saturation at low altitudes around Mars aphelion: a key to Mars climate?, Icarus, 122, 3662.
Clancy, R. T., Wolff, M. J., and James, P. B. (1999) Minimal aerosol loading and global increases in atmospheric ozone during the 1996–1997 Martian northern spring season, Icarus, 138, 4963.
Clancy, R. T., Sandor, B. J., and Moriarty-Schieven, G. H. (2004) A measurement of the 362 GHz absorption line of Mars atmospheric H2O2, Icarus, 168, 116121.
Clancy, R. T., Sandor, B. J., Wolff, M. J., et al. (2012) Extensive MRO CRISM observations of 1.27 µm O2 airglow in Mars polar night and their comparison to MRO MCS temperature profiles and LMD GCM simulations, J. Geophys. Res., 117, doi:10.1029/2011JE004018.
Clancy, R. T., Sandor, B. J., García-Muñoz, A., et al. (2013a) First detection of Mars atmospheric hydroxyl: CRISM near-IR measurement versus LMD GCM simulation of OH Meinel band emission in the Mars polar winter stratosphere, Icarus, 226, 272281.
Clancy, R. T., Sandor, B. J., Wolff, M. J., et al. (2013b) Correction to “Extensive MRO CRISM observations of 1.27 µm O2 airglow in Mars polar night and their comparison to MRO MCS temperature profiles and LMD GCM simulations”, J. Geophys. Res., 118, doi:10.1002/jgre.20073.
Clancy, R. T., Wolff, M. J., Lefèvre, F., et al. (2016) Daily global mapping of Mars ozone column abundances with MARCI UV band imaging, Icarus, 266, 112133.
Connes, P., Noxon, J. F., Traub, W. A., and Carleton, N. P. (1979) O2(1Δ) emission in the day and night airglow of Venus, Astrophys. J., 233, 2932, doi:10.1086/183070.
Cooper, P. L., and Abbatt, J. P. D. (1996) Heterogeneous interactions of OH and HO2 radicals with surfaces characteristic of atmospheric particulate matter, J. Phys. Chem., 100, 22492254.
Cox, C., Saglam, A., Gérard, J. C., et al. (2008) Distribution of the ultraviolet nitric oxide Martian night airglow: observations from Mars Express anc comparisons with a one-dimensional model, J. Geophys. Res., 113, doi:10.1029/2007JE003037.
Crisp, D., Meadows, V. S., Bézard, B., et al. (1996) Ground-based near-infrared observations of the Venus nightside: 1.27 µm O2(1Δg) airglow from the upper atmosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 45774593.
Crowley, J. N., Ammann, M., Cox, R. A., et al. (2010) Evaluated kinetic and photochemical data for atmospheric chemistry: Volume V – Heterogeneous reactions on solid substrates, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 90599223.
Delory, G. T., Farrell, W. M., Atreya, S. K., et al. (2006) Oxidant enhancement in Martian dust devils and storms: storm electric fields and electron dissociative attachment, Astrobiology, 6, 451462.
Encrenaz, T., Greathouse, T. K., Bézard, B., et al. (2002) A stringent upper limit of the H2O2 abundance in the Martian atmosphere, Astron. Astrophys., 396, 10371044.
Encrenaz, T., Bézard, B., Greathouse, T. K., et al. (2004) Hydrogen peroxide on Mars: evidence for spatial and seasonal variations, Icarus, 170, 424429.
Encrenaz, T., Fouchet, T., Melchiorri, R., et al. (2006) Seasonal variations of the Martian CO over Hellas as observed by OMEGA/Mars Express, Astron. Astrophys., 459, 265270.
Encrenaz, T., Greathouse, T. K., Richter, M. J., et al. (2008) Simultaneous mapping of H2O and H2O2 on Mars from high-resolution imaging spectroscopy, Icarus, 195, 547555.
Encrenaz, T., Greathouse, T. K., Richter, M. J., et al. (2011) A stringent upper limit to SO2 in the Martian atmosphere, Astron. Astrophys., 530, A37.
Encrenaz, T., Greathouse, T. K., Lefèvre, F., and Atreya, S. K. (2012) Hydrogen peroxide on Mars: observations, interpretation, and future plans, Planet. Space. Sci., 68, 317.
Espenak, F., Mumma, M. J., Kostiuk, T., et al. (1991) Ground-based infrared measurements of the global distribution of ozone in the atmosphere of Mars, Icarus, 92, 252262.
Farrell, W. M., Marshall, J. R., Cummer, S. A., Delory, G. T., and Desch, M. D. (2006) A model of the ULF magnetic and electric field generated from a dust devil, J. Geophys. Res., 111, E11, E11004, doi:10.1029/2006JE002689.
Fast, K., Kostiuk, T., Espenak, F., et al. (2006) Ozone abundance on Mars from infrared heterodyne spectra. I. Acquisition, retrieval, and anticorrelation with water vapor, Icarus, 181, 419431.
Fast, K., Kostiuk, T., Lefèvre, F., et al. (2009) Comparison of HIPWAC and Mars Express SPICAM observations of ozone on Mars 2006–2008 and variation from 1993 IRHS observations, Icarus, 203, 2027.
Fedorova, A., Korablev, O., Perrier, S., et al. (2006a) Observations of O2 1.27 µm dayglow by SPICAM IR: seasonal distribution for the first Martian year of Mars Express, J. Geophys. Res., 111, doi:10.1029/2006JE002694.
Fedorova, A., Korablev, O., Bertaux, J. L., et al. (2006b) Mars water vapor abundance from SPICAM IR spectrometer: seasonal and geographic distributions, J. Geophys. Res., 111, doi:10.1029/2006JE002695.
Fedorova, A., Lefèvre, F., Guslyakova, S., et al. (2012) The O2 nightglow in the Martian atmosphere by SPICAM onboard of Mars-Express, Icarus, 219, 596608.
Fonti, S., and Marzo, G. A. (2010) Mapping the methane on Mars, Astron. Astrophys, 512, A51.
Formisano, V., Atreya, S. K., Encrenaz, T., et al. (2004) Detection of methane in the atmosphere of Mars, Science, 306, 17581761.
Fouchet, T., Lellouch, E., Ignatiev, N. I., et al. (2007) Martian water vapor: Mars Express PFS/LW observations, Icarus, 190, 3249.
García Muñoz, A., McConnell, J. C., McDade, I. C., et al. (2005) Airglow on Mars: some model expectations for the OH Meinel bands and the O2 IR atmospheric band, Icarus, 176, 7595.
Geminale, A., Formisano, V., and Sindoni, G. (2011) Mapping methane in Martian atmosphere with PFS-MEX data, Planet. Space Sci., 59, 137148.
Gérard, J.-C., Cox, C., Soret, L., et al. (2009) Concurrent observations of the ultraviolet nitric oxide and infrared O2 nightglow emissions with Venus Express, J. Geophys. Res., 114, doi:10.1029/2009JE003371.
Glavin, D. P., Freissinet, C., Miller, K. E., et al. (2013) Evidence for perchlorates and the origin of chlorinated hydrocarbons detected by SAM at the Rocknest aeolian deposit in Gale Crater, J. Geophys. Res., 118, 19551973.
Gough, R. V., Turley, J. J., Ferrell, G. R., et al. (2011) Can rapid loss and high variability of Martian methane be explained by surface H2O2?, Planet. Space Sci., 59, 238246.
Hartogh, P., Jarchow, C., Lellouch, E., et al. (2010a) Herschel/HIFI observations of HCl, H2O2, and O2 in the Martian atmosphere – initial results, Astron. Astrophys., 521, doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201015160.
Hartogh, P., Blecka, M. I., Jarchow, C., et al. (2010b) First results on Martian carbon monoxide from Herschel/HIFI observations, Astron. Astrophys., 521, doi:10.1051/201015159.
Haywood, J., and Boucher, O. (2000) Estimates of the direct and indirect radiative forcing due to tropospheric aerosols: a review, Rev. Geophys., 38, 513543.
Hecht, M. H., Kounaves, S. P., Quinn, R. C., et al. (2009) Detection of Perchlorate and the Soluble Chemistry of Martian Soil at the Phoenix Lander Site, Science, 325, 6467.
Kaplan, L. D., Connes, J., and Connes, P. (1969) Carbon monoxide in the Martian atmosphere, Astrophys. J., 157, 187192.
Keppler, F., Vigano, I., McLeod, A., et al. (2012) Ultraviolet-radiation-induced methane emissions from meteorites and the Martian atmosphere, Nature, 486, 9396.
Kliore, A. J., Cain, D. L., Levy, G. S., et al. (1965) Occultation experiment: result of the first direct measurement of Mars’ atmosphere and ionosphere, Science, 149, 12431245.
Kliore, A. J., Fjeldbo, G., Seidel, B. L., et al. (1973) S band radio occultation measurements of the atmosphere and topography of Mars with Mariner 9: extended mission coverage of polar and intermediate latitudes, J. Geophys. Res., 78, 43314351.
Knak Jensen, S. J., Skibsted, J., Jakobsen, H. J., et al. (2014) A sink for methane on Mars? The answer is blowing in the wind, Icarus, 236, 2427.
Kong, T. Y., and McElroy, M. B. (1977a) Photochemistry of the Martian atmosphere, Icarus, 32, 168189.
Kong, T. Y., and McElroy, M. B. (1977b) The global distribution of O3 on Mars, Planet. Space Sci., 25, 839857.
Krasitski, O. P. (1978) A model for the diurnal variations of the composition of the Martian atmosphere, Cosmic Res., 16, 434442.
Krasnopolsky, V. A. (1993) Photochemistry of the Martian atmosphere (mean conditions), Icarus, 101, 313332.
Krasnopolsky, V. A. (1995) Uniqueness of a solution of a steady state photochemical problem: applications to Mars, J. Geophys. Res., 100, 32633276.
Krasnopolsky, V. A. (1997) Photochemical mapping of Mars, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 1331313320.
Krasnopolsky, V. A. (2003a) Spectroscopic mapping of Mars CO mixing ratio: detection of north–south asymmetry, J. Geophys. Res., 108, doi:10.1029/2002JE001926.
Krasnopolsky, V. A. (2003b) Spectroscopy of Mars O2 1.27 µm dayglow at four seasonal points, Icarus, 165, 315325.
Krasnopolsky, V. A. (2005) A sensitive search for SO2 in the Martian atmosphere: implications for seepage and origin of methane, Icarus, 178, 487492.
Krasnopolsky, V. A. (2006a) Photochemistry of the Martian atmosphere: seasonal, latitudinal, and diurnal variations, Icarus, 185, 153170.
Krasnopolsky, V. A. (2006b) A sensitive search for nitric oxide in the lower atmospheres of Venus and Mars: detection on Venus and upper limit for Mars, Icarus, 182, 8091.
Krasnopolsky, V. A. (2006c) Some problems related to the origin of methane on Mars, Icarus, 180, 359367.
Krasnopolsky, V. A. (2007) Long-term spectroscopic observations of Mars using IRTF/CSHELL: mapping of O2 dayglow, CO, and search for CH4, Icarus, 190, 93102.
Krasnopolsky, V. A. (2009) Seasonal variations of photochemical tracers at low and middle latitudes on Mars: observations and models, Icarus, 201, 564569.
Krasnopolsky, V. A. (2010) Solar activity variations of thermospheric temperatures on Mars and a problem of CO in the lower atmosphere, Icarus, 207, 638647.
Krasnopolsky, V. A. (2011) Excitation of the oxygen nightglow on the terrestrial planets, Planet. Space Sci., 59, 754766.
Krasnopolsky, V. A. (2012) Search for methane and upper limits to ethane and SO2 on Mars, Icarus, 217, 144152.
Krasnopolsky, V. A. (2013) Night and day airglow of oxygen at 1.27 µm on Mars, Planet. Space Sci., 85, 243249, 2013.
Krasnopolsky, V. A., and Bjoraker, G. L. (2000) Mapping of Mars O2(1Δ) dayglow, J. Geophys. Res., 105, 2017920188, 2000.
Krasnopolsky, V. A., and Feldman, P. D. (2001) Detection of molecular hydrogen in the atmosphere of Mars, Science, 294, 19141917.
Krasnopolsky, V. A., and Gladstone, G. R. (2005) Helium on Mars and Venus: EUVE observations and modeling, Icarus, 176, 395407.
Krasnopolsky, V. A., and Parshev, V. A. (1979) Ozone photochemistry of the Martian lower atmosphere, Planet. Space Sci., 27, 113120.
Krasnopolsky, V. A., Bowyer, S., Chakrabarti, S., et al. (1994) First measurement of helium on Mars: implications for the problem of radiogenic gases on the terrestrial planets, Icarus, 109, 337351.
Krasnopolsky, V. A., Bjoraker, G. L., Mumma, M. J., et al. (1997) High-resolution spectroscopy of Mars at 3.7 and 8 µm: a sensitive search for H2O2, H2CO, HCl, and CH4, and detection of HDO, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 65256534.
Krasnopolsky, V. A., Maillard, J. P., and Owen, T. C. (2004) Detection of methane in the Martian atmosphere: evidence for life?, Icarus, 172, 537547.
Kuiper, G. P. (1949) Survey of planetary atmospheres, in The Atmospheres of the Earth and Planets (Kuiper, G. P. Ed), Chicago Press, Chicago.
Lane, A. L., Barth, C. A., Hord, C. W., et al. (1973) Mariner 9 ultraviolet spectrometer experiment: observations of ozone on Mars, Icarus, 18, 102108.
Lebonnois, S., Quémerais, E., Montmessin, F., et al. (2006) Vertical distribution of ozone on Mars as measured by SPICAM/Mars Express using stellar occultations, J. Geophys. Res., 111, E09S05, doi:10.1029/2005JE002643.
Lefèvre, F., and Forget, F. (2009) Observed variations of methane on Mars unexplained by known atmospheric chemistry and physics, Nature, 460, 720723.
Lefèvre, F., Lebonnois, S., Montmessin, F., et al. (2004) Three-dimensional modeling of ozone on Mars, J. Geophys. Res., 109, E07004, doi:10.1029/2004JE002268.
Lefèvre, F., Bertaux, J. L., Clancy, R. T. (2008) et al., Heterogeneous chemistry in the atmosphere of Mars, Nature, 454, 971975.
Lewis, J. S., and Carver, J. H. (1983) Temperature dependence of the carbon dioxide photoabsorption cross section between 1200 and 170 Angstroms, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer, 30, 297309.
Lindner, B. L. (1988) Ozone on Mars: the effects of clouds and airborne dust, Planet. Space Sci., 36, 125144.
Liu, S. C., and Donahue, T. M. (1976) The regulation of hydrogen and oxygen escape from Mars, Icarus, 28, 231246.
Maguire, W. C. (1977) Martian isotopic ratios and upper limits for possible minor constituents as derived from Mariner 9 infrared spectrometer data, Icarus, 32, 8597.
Mahaffy, P. R., Webster, C. R., Atreya, S. K., et al. (2013) Abundance and isotopic composition of gases in the Martian atmosphere from the Curiosity Rover, Science, 341, 263266.
Maltagliati, L., Montmessin, F., Fedorova, A., et al. (2011) Evidence of water vapor in excess of saturation in the atmosphere of Mars, Science, 333, 18681870.
Maltagliati, L., Montmessin, F., Korablev, O., et al. (2013) Annual survey of water vapor vertical distribution and water-aerosol coupling in the Martian atmosphere observed by SPICAM/Mex solar occultations, Icarus, 223, 942962.
McElroy, M. B., and Donahue, T. M. (1972) Stability of the Martian atmosphere, Science, 177, 986988.
Melchiorri, R., Encrenaz, T., Fouchet, T., et al. (2007) Water vapor mapping on Mars using OMEGA/Mars Express, Planet. Space Sci., 55, 333342.
Montmessin, F., and Lefèvre, F. (2013) Transport-driven formation of a polar ozone layer on Mars, Nature Geo., 6, 930933.
Montmessin, F., Forget, F., Rannou, P., et al. (2004) Origin and role of water ice clouds in the Martian water cycle as inferred from a general circulation model, J. Geophys. Res., 109, E10004, doi:10.1029/2004JE002284.
Moreau, D., Esposito, L. W., and Brasseur, G. (1991) The chemical composition of the dust-free Martian atmosphere: preliminary results of a two-dimensional model, J. Geophys. Res., 96, 79337945.
Moudden, Y. (2007) Simulated seasonal variations of hydrogen peroxide in the atmosphere of Mars, Planet. Space Sci., 55, 21372143.
Moudden, Y., and McConnell, J. C. (2007) Three-dimensional on-line modeling in a Mars general circulation model, Icarus, 188, 1834.
Mumma, M. J., Villanueva, G. L., Novak, R. E., et al. (2009) Strong release of methane on Mars in northern summer 2003, Science, 323, 10411045.
Nair, H., Allen, M., Anbar, A. D., et al. (1994) A photochemical model of the Martian atmosphere, Icarus, 111, 124150.
Nier, A. O., and McElroy, M. B. (1977) Composition and structure of Mars’ upper atmosphere: results from the neutral mass spectrometers on Viking 1 and 2, J. Geophys. Res., 82, 43414348.
Nier, A. O., Hanson, W. B., Seiff, A., et al. (1976) Composition of the Martian atmosphere: preliminary results from Viking 1, Science, 193, 786788.
Novak, R., Mumma, M. J., DiSanti, M. D., et al. (2002) Mapping of ozone and water in the atmosphere of Mars near the 1997 aphelion, Icarus, 158, 1423.
Noxon, J. F., Traub, W. A., Carleton, N. P., et al. (1976) Detection of O2 dayglow emission from Mars and the Martian ozone abundance, Astrophys. J., 207, 10251030.
Owen, T., Biemann, K., Rushnek, D. R., et al. (1977) The composition of the atmosphere at the surface of Mars, J. Geophys. Res., 82, 46354639.
Parkinson, T. D., and Hunten, D. M. (1972) Spectroscopy and aeronomy of O2 on Mars, J. Atmos. Sci., 29, 13801390.
Perrier, S., Bertaux, J. L., Lefèvre, F., et al. (2006) Global distribution of total ozone on Mars from SPICAM/MEX UV measurements, J. Geophys. Res., 111, E09S06, doi:10.1029/2006JE002681.
Quinn, R. C., and Zent, A. P. (1999) Peroxide-modified titanium dioxide: a chemical analog of putative Martian soil oxidants, Origins Life Evol. Biosphere, 29, 5972.
Sander, S. P., Abbatt, J. P. D., Barker, J. R., et al. (2011) Chemical Kinetics and Photochemical Data for Use in Atmospheric Studies, Evaluation Number 17, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena.
Shimazaki, T. (1981) A model of temporal variations in ozone density in the Martian atmosphere, Planet. Space Sci., 29, 2133.
Shimazaki, T., and Shimizu, M. (1979) The seasonal variation of ozone density in the Martian atmosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 84, 12691276.
Sindoni, G., Formisano, V., and Geminale, A. (2011) Observations of water vapour and carbon monoxide in the Martian atmosphere with the SWC of PFS/MEX, Planet. Space Sci., 59, 149162.
Smith, M. D. (2004) Interannual variability in TES atmospheric observations of Mars during 1999–2003, Icarus, 167, 148165.
Smith, M. D., Wolff, M. J., Clancy, R. T., et al. (2009) Compact Reconnaissance imaging spectrometer observations of water vapor and carbon monoxide, J. Geophys. Res., 114, doi:10.1029/2008JE003288.
Spinrad, H., Münch, G., and Kaplan, L. D. (1963) The detection of water vapor on Mars, Astrophys. J., 137, 13191321.
Sprague, A. L., Boynton, W. V., Kerry, K. E., et al. (2004) Mars’ south polar Ar enhancement: a tracer for south polar seasonal meridional mixing, Science, 306, 13641367.
Strickland, D.J., Thomas, G. E., and Sparks, P. R. (1972) Mariner 6 and 7 ultraviolet spectrometer experiment: analysis of the O I 1304 and 1356 Å emissions, J. Geophys. Res., 77, 40524058.
Stewart, A. I. F., Alexander, M. J., Meier, R. R., et al. (1992) Atomic oxygen in the Martian thermosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 97, 21102.
Summers, M. E., Lieb, B. J., Chapman, E., et al. (2002) Atmospheric biomarkers of subsurface life on Mars, Geophys. Res. Lett., 29, doi:10.1029/2002GL015377.
Trainer, M. G., Tolbert, M. A., McKay, C. P. and Toon, O. B. (2010) Limits on the trapping of atmospheric CH4 in Martian polar ice analogs, Icarus, 208, 192197.
Traub, W. A., Carleton, N. P., Connes, P., et al. (1979) The latitude variation of O2 dayglow and O3 abundance on Mars, Astrophys. J., 229, 846850.
Trauger, J. T., and Lunine, J. I. (1983) Spectroscopy of molecular oxygen in the atmosphere of Venus and Mars, Icarus, 55, 272281.
Tschimmel, M., Ignatiev, N. I., Titov, D. V., et al. (2008) Investigation of water vapor on Mars with PFS/SW of Mars Express, Icarus, 195, 557575.
Villanueva, G. L., Mumma, M. J., Novak, R. E., et al. (2013) A sensitive search for organics (CH4, CH3OH, H2CO, C2H6, C2H2, C2H4), hydroperoxyl, nitrogen compounds (N2O, NH3, HCN) and chlorine species on Mars using ground-based high-resolution infrared spectroscopy, Icarus, 223, 1127.
Webster, C. R., Mahaffy, P. R., Atreya, S. K., et al. (2013) Low upper limit to methane abundance on Mars, Science, 342, 355357.
Webster, C. R., Mahaffy, P. R., Atreya, S. K., et al. (2015) Mars methane detection and variability at Gale Crater, Science, 347, 415427.
Wong, A. S., Atreya, S. K., and Encrenaz, T. (2003) Chemical markers of possible hot spots on Mars, J. Geophys. Res., 108, E4, 5026, doi:10.1029/2002JE002003.
Yung, Y. L., and DeMore, W. B. (1999) Photochemistry of Planetary Atmospheres, Oxford University Press, Oxford/New York.
Yung, Y. L., Strobel, D. F., Kong, T. Y., et al. (1977) Photochemistry of nitrogen in the Martian atmosphere, Icarus, 30, 2641.
Zahnle, K., Haberle, R. M., Catling, D. C., et al. (2008) Photochemical instability of the ancient Martian atmosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 113, E11004, doi:10.1029/2008JE003160.
Zahnle, K., Freedman, R. S., and Catling, D. C. (2011) Is there methane on Mars?, Icarus, 212, 493503.