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Consumption of certain berries appears to slow postprandial glucose absorption, attributable to polyphenols, which may benefit exercise and cognition, reduce appetite and/or oxidative stress. This randomised, crossover, placebo-controlled study determined whether polyphenol-rich fruits added to carbohydrate-based foods produce a dose-dependent moderation of postprandial glycaemic, glucoregulatory hormone, appetite and ex vivo oxidative stress responses. Twenty participants (eighteen males/two females; 24 (sd 5) years; BMI: 27 (sd 3) kg/m2) consumed one of five cereal bars (approximately 88 % carbohydrate) containing no fruit ingredients (reference), freeze-dried black raspberries (10 or 20 % total weight; LOW-Rasp and HIGH-Rasp, respectively) and cranberry extract (0·5 or 1 % total weight; LOW-Cran and HIGH-Cran), on trials separated by ≥5 d. Postprandial peak/nadir from baseline (Δmax) and incremental postprandial AUC over 60 and 180 min for glucose and other biochemistries were measured to examine the dose-dependent effects. Glucose AUC0–180 min trended towards being higher (43 %) after HIGH-Rasp v. LOW-Rasp (P=0·06), with no glucose differences between the raspberry and reference bars. Relative to reference, HIGH-Rasp resulted in a 17 % lower Δmax insulin, 3 % lower C-peptide (AUC0–60 min and 3 % lower glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (AUC0–180 min) P<0·05. No treatment effects were observed for the cranberry bars regarding glucose and glucoregulatory hormones, nor were there any treatment effects for either berry type regarding ex vivo oxidation, appetite-mediating hormones or appetite. Fortification with freeze-dried black raspberries (approximately 25 g, containing 1·2 g of polyphenols) seems to slightly improve the glucoregulatory hormone and glycaemic responses to a high-carbohydrate food item in young adults but did not affect appetite or oxidative stress responses at doses or with methods studied herein.
As described in Chernyak-Hai and Rabenu's (2018) focal article, the workplace has changed tremendously over the past few decades. These changes, undoubtedly, have affected how individuals interact and build relationships in the workplace. We live in a “networked society,” where the advances in technology and subsequent spread of communication and information have reorganized the way individuals are connected to one another (Castells, 2004; Wellman, 1999). In other words, we exist in complex networks, where underlying interconnections and interdependencies are the keys to scientific understanding. In their focal article, Chernyak-Hai and Rabenu highlight the need to adapt social exchange theories and research to incorporate the change in workplace relationships resulting from advances in technology and changes in the global market and workforce (e.g., freelancers, contract workers).
The rock art of Doria Gudaluk (Beswick Creek Cave) in the
Northern Territory of Australia has previously provided a valuable lesson in
the difficulties of definitive interpretation without local knowledge. Now,
newly recorded motifs at the site—some only visible with digital
enhancement—highlight the dangers of relating stylistic changes to the
replacement of different cultures. When considered in the context of local
history, developments in the rock art of Doria Gudaluk during the second
half of the twentieth century can be understood as the result of new
cultural collaborations between incoming groups and older, local
The use of underground geological repositories, such as in radioactive waste disposal (RWD) and in carbon capture (widely known as Carbon Capture and Storage; CCS), constitutes a key environmental priority for the 21st century. Based on the identification of key scientific questions relating to the geophysics, geochemistry and geobiology of geodisposal of wastes, this paper describes the possibility of technology transfer from high-technology areas of the space exploration sector, including astrobiology, planetary sciences, astronomy, and also particle and nuclear physics, into geodisposal. Synergies exist between high technology used in the space sector and in the characterization of underground environments such as repositories, because of common objectives with respect to instrument miniaturization, low power requirements, durability under extreme conditions (in temperature and mechanical loads) and operation in remote or otherwise difficult to access environments.
A limited number of studies have examined associations between nut consumption and nutrient intakes or diet quality. None has investigated these associations in the Southern Hemisphere. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between nut consumption and nutrient intakes among adult New Zealanders. Data from the 24-h recalls of 4721 participants from the cross-sectional 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey (2008/09 NZANS) were used to determine whole nut intake and total nut intake from all sources as well as nutrient intakes. Regression models, both unadjusted and adjusted for potential confounders, were used to estimate differences in nutrient intakes between those consuming and those not consuming nuts. From adjusted models, compared with non-whole nut consumers, whole nut consumers had higher intakes of energy and percentage of energy from total fat, MUFA and PUFA, whereas percentage of energy from SFA and carbohydrate was lower (all P≤0·025). After the additional adjustment for energy intake, whole nut consumers had higher intakes of dietary fibre, vitamin E, folate, Cu, Mg, K, P and Zn (all P≤0·044), whereas cholesterol and vitamin B12 intakes were significantly lower (both P≤0·013). Total nut consumption was associated with similar nutrient profiles as observed in whole nut consumers, albeit less pronounced. Nut consumption was associated with better nutrient profiles, especially a lower intake of SFA and higher intakes of unsaturated fats and a number of vitamins and minerals that could collectively reduce the risk for chronic disease, in particular for CVD.
Lithium was associated with significantly reduced non-suicide mortality in the intent-to-treat cohort over 0–90 days (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.67, 95% CI 0.51–0.87) but not longer. In secondary analyses, a sizeable reduction in mortality was observed during active treatment with lithium across all time periods studied (for example 365-day HR = 0.62, 95% CI 0.45–0.84), but significantly increased risks were observed among patients discontinuing lithium by 180 days (HR = 1.54, 95% CI 1.01–2.37).
Patients initiating lithium had lower non-suicide mortality over 0–90 days than patients initiating valproate and consistently lower non-suicide mortality among patients maintaining treatment, but elevated risk among patients discontinuing treatment by 180 days. Although residual confounding or selection effects cannot be excluded, this study suggests potential benefits to enhancing lithium treatment persistence and the monitoring of patients discontinuing lithium. There is a need for further research.
(i) To determine the Na content of commonly consumed fast foods in New Zealand and (ii) to estimate Na intake from savoury fast foods for the New Zealand adult population.
Commonly consumed fast foods were identified from the 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey. Na values from all savoury fast foods from chain restaurants (n 471) were obtained from nutrition information on company websites, while the twelve most popular fast-food types from independent outlets (n 52) were determined using laboratory analysis. Results were compared with the UK Food Standards Agency 2012 sodium targets. Nutrient analysis was completed to estimate Na intake from savoury fast foods for the New Zealand population using the 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey.
Adults aged 15 years and above.
From chain restaurants, sauces/salad dressings and fried chicken had the highest Na content (per 100 g) and from independent outlets, sausage rolls, battered hotdogs and mince and cheese pies were highest in Na (per 100 g). The majority of fast foods exceeded the UK Food Standards Agency 2012 sodium targets. The mean daily Na intake from savoury fast foods was 283 mg/d for the total adult population and 1229 mg/d for fast-food consumers.
Taking into account the Na content and frequency of consumption, potato dishes, filled rolls, hamburgers and battered fish contributed substantially to Na intake for fast-food consumers in New Zealand. These foods should be targeted for Na reduction reformulation.
To examine changes in the food choices of New Zealand (NZ) adults, between the 1997 National Nutrition Survey (NNS97) and the 2008/09 NZ Adult Nutrition Survey (2008/09 NZANS).
The 2008/09 NZANS and the NNS97 were cross-sectional surveys of NZ adults (aged 15 years and over). Dietary intake data were collected using a computer-based 24 h diet recall. Logistic regression models were used to examine changes over time in the percentage reporting each food group, with survey year, sex and age group (19–30 years, 31–50 years, 51–70 years, ≥71 years) as the variables.
Adults aged 19 years and over (NNS97, n 4339; 2008/09 NZANS, n 3995).
In the 2008/09 NZANS compared with NNS97, males and females were less likely to report consuming bread, potatoes, beef, vegetables, breakfast cereal, milk, cheese, butter, pies, biscuits, cakes and puddings, and sugar/confectionery (all P<0·001). In contrast, there was an increase in the percentage reporting rice and rice dishes (P<0·001), and among females a reported increase in snacks and snack bars (e.g. crisps, extruded snacks, muesli bars; P=0·007) and pasta and pasta dishes (P=0·017). Although food choices were associated with sex and age group, there were few differential changes between the surveys by sex or age group.
For all age groups there was a shift in the percentage who reported consuming the traditional NZ foods, namely bread, beef, potatoes and vegetables, towards more rice and rice dishes. Declines in the consumption of butter, pies, biscuits, cakes and puddings are congruent with current dietary guidelines.
Radical hypofractionated thoracic radiotherapy is the most commonly used radiotherapy schedule for inoperable non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in the United Kingdom, despite a lack of level I evidence to support its use.
To supplement existing published retrospective data with a mature data series and provide further evidence to support the use of this schedule in routine clinical practice.
Materials and methods
Retrospective analysis of all inoperable NSCLC cases treated with radical hypofractionated radiotherapy with or without induction chemotherapy in the North Wales Cancer Treatment Centre between 2001 and 2011.
Of the 222 patients, 209 (94%) received 55 Gy in 20 fractions (#) and 13 (6%) received 52·5 Gy in 20#. Induction chemotherapy was administered in 121 (55%) cases. The median survival of 28·6 months (95% confidence interval 24·2–32·5) is comparable with previously published survival outcomes for this patient group.
The growing body of evidence for this schedule, confirming survival outcomes comparable with internationally accepted results, is sufficient to support its future use in inoperable NSCLC.
Dietary assessment in older adults can be challenging. The Novel Assessment of Nutrition and Ageing (NANA) method is a touch-screen computer-based food record that enables older adults to record their dietary intakes. The objective of the present study was to assess the relative validity of the NANA method for dietary assessment in older adults. For this purpose, three studies were conducted in which a total of ninety-four older adults (aged 65–89 years) used the NANA method of dietary assessment. On a separate occasion, participants completed a 4 d estimated food diary. Blood and 24 h urine samples were also collected from seventy-six of the volunteers for the analysis of biomarkers of nutrient intake. The results from all the three studies were combined, and nutrient intake data collected using the NANA method were compared against the 4 d estimated food diary and biomarkers of nutrient intake. Bland–Altman analysis showed a reasonable agreement between the dietary assessment methods for energy and macronutrient intake; however, there were small, but significant, differences for energy and protein intake, reflecting the tendency for the NANA method to record marginally lower energy intakes. Significant positive correlations were observed between urinary urea and dietary protein intake using both the NANA and the 4 d estimated food diary methods, and between plasma ascorbic acid and dietary vitamin C intake using the NANA method. The results demonstrate the feasibility of computer-based dietary assessment in older adults, and suggest that the NANA method is comparable to the 4 d estimated food diary, and could be used as an alternative to the food diary for the short-term assessment of an individual's dietary intake.
Regular nut consumption is associated with reduced CVD risk. Insight into nut consumption patterns provides important information to help design strategies to encourage intake. The present study aimed to describe nut consumption in terms of the percentage of consumers, mean grams eaten among the population and nut consumers, and to identify the predictors of nut consumption. Data from the 24 h dietary recalls of the 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey (n 4721) were used to measure nut consumption. On the recall day, the percentages of consumers of whole nuts, nut butters and nuts from hidden sources were 6·9 % (n 240), 7·2 % (n 346) and 19·2 % (n 732), respectively (28·9 % (n 1167) combined (total)). The mean grams consumed by the population were relatively low for whole nuts (2·8 g/d), nut butters (0·9 g/d), nuts from hidden sources (1·5 g/d) and total nuts (5·2 g/d). Among consumers, the mean daily grams of whole nuts, nut butters, nuts from hidden sources and total nuts eaten were 40·3, 12·9, 7·8 and 17·9 g/d, respectively. Those aged 15–18 years had the lowest whole nut consumption, but had the highest nut butter consumption. The consumption of total nuts was positively associated with education and socio-economic status, while whole nut consumption was inversely associated with BMI. In conclusion, the low percentage of nut consumers is of concern and new strategies to increase nut consumption are required. Future public health initiatives should be mindful of these patterns and predictors. In particular, different forms of nuts may appeal to different age and socio-economic groups.
The coevolutionary relationships between avian malaria parasites and their hosts influence the host specificity, geographical distribution and pathogenicity of these parasites. However, to understand fine scale coevolutionary host–parasite relationships, robust and widespread sampling from closely related hosts is needed. We thus sought to explore the coevolutionary history of avian Plasmodium and the widespread African sunbirds, family Nectariniidae. These birds are distributed throughout Africa and occupy a variety of habitats. Considering the role that habitat plays in influencing host-specificity and the role that host-specificity plays in coevolutionary relationships, African sunbirds provide an exceptional model system to study the processes that govern the distribution and diversity of avian malaria. Here we evaluated the coevolutionary histories using a multi-gene phylogeny for Nectariniidae and avian Plasmodium found in Nectariniidae. We then assessed the host–parasite biogeography and the structuring of parasite assemblages. We recovered Plasmodium lineages concurrently in East, West, South and Island regions of Africa. However, several Plasmodium lineages were recovered exclusively within one respective region, despite being found in widely distributed hosts. In addition, we inferred the biogeographic history of these parasites and provide evidence supporting a model of biotic diversification in avian Plasmodium of African sunbirds.
This study reports on the prevalence and severity of infections caused by the parasitic dinoflagellate, Hematodinium in juvenile edible crabs (Cancer pagurus) found in 2 intertidal survey sites (Mumbles Head and Oxwich Bay) in the Bristol Channel, UK. Crabs were assessed for the presence and severity of Hematodinium infections by the histological examination of infected tissues. Such infections were found to exhibit a seasonal trend in the 2 study areas with high numbers of animals (ca. 30%) infected in the spring to summer but with low severity. Conversely, in November only ca. 10% of crabs were infected but these animals had large numbers of parasites in their haemolymph and other tissues. At this time, the carapace and underlying tissues of infected crabs had the chalky, pinkish-orange appearance that is characteristic of this disease. Hematodinium-infected crabs ranged in size from 12 to 74 mm carapace width. Overall, it is concluded that the high prevalence of infection of juvenile crabs in this area may have implications for the sustainability of the edible crab fishery in the Bristol Channel.
To investigate similarities and differences in dietary habits, nutrient intakes and health outcomes of South Asians (SA) and East and South-East Asians (ESEA) and the New Zealand European and Other (NZEO) group, and to examine differences within ‘Asian’ subgroups according to duration of residence.
Nutrient intake data from 24 h diet recalls and data from the dietary habits questionnaire, anthropometry and biochemical analyses from the cross-sectional 2008/09 Adult National Nutrition Survey in New Zealand were compared for participants categorized as SA, ESEA and NZEO.
Adults aged 15 years and older (n 2995).
New Zealand households.
SA were more likely to ‘never’ eat red meat in comparison to NZEO (P<0·001) and among females also in comparison to ESEA (P<0·05). Intakes of fats and some micronutrients (riboflavin, vitamin B6, B12, Se) were lower among SA than NZEO (P<0·05). Lower intakes of Zn and vitamin B12 were reported by SA females compared with ESEA and NZEO females (P<0·05). A higher percentage of SA were obese using ethnic-specific cut-offs, had lower indices of Fe status and reported diagnosed diabetes compared with NZEO and ESEA. Recent SA male migrants had higher intakes of β-carotene, vitamin C and Ca compared with long-term migrants (P<0·05).
The results of the present study indicate that dietary habits, nutrient intakes, blood profile and body size differ significantly between Asian subgroups. It also provides some evidence for changes in dietary intakes according to duration of residence especially for SA males.