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Although no drugs are licensed for the treatment of personality disorder, pharmacological treatment in clinical practice remains common.
This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of psychotropic drug use and associations with psychological service use among people with personality disorder.
Using data from a large, anonymised mental healthcare database, we identified all adult patients with a diagnosis of personality disorder and ascertained psychotropic medication use between 1 August 2015 and 1 February 2016. Multivariable logistic regression models were constructed, adjusting for sociodemographic, clinical and service use factors, to examine the association between psychological services use and psychotropic medication prescribing.
Of 3366 identified patients, 2029 (60.3%) were prescribed some form of psychotropic medication. Patients using psychological services were significantly less likely to be prescribed psychotropic medication (adjusted odds ratio 0.48, 95% CI 0.39–0.59, P<0.001) such as antipsychotics, benzodiazepines and antidepressants. This effect was maintained following several sensitivity analyses. We found no difference in the risk for mood stabiliser (adjusted odds ratio 0.79, 95% CI 0.57–1.10, P = 0.169) and multi-class psychotropic use (adjusted odds ratio 0.80, 95% CI 0.60–1.07, P = 0.133) between patients who did and did not use psychological services.
Psychotropic medication prescribing is common in patients with personality disorder, but significantly less likely in those who have used psychological services. This does not appear to be explained by differences in demographic, clinical and service use characteristics. There is a need to develop clear prescribing guidelines and conduct research in clinical settings to examine medication effectiveness for this population.
Symptoms may be more useful prognostic markers for mental illness than diagnoses. We sought to investigate symptom domains in women with pre-existing severe mental illness (SMI; psychotic and bipolar disorder) as predictors of relapse risk during the perinatal period.
Data were obtained from electronic health records of 399 pregnant women with SMI diagnoses from a large south London mental healthcare provider. Symptoms within six domains characteristically associated with SMI (positive, negative, disorganization, mania, depression, and catatonia) recorded in clinical notes 2 years before pregnancy were identified with natural language processing algorithms to extract data from text, and associations investigated with hospitalization during pregnancy and 3 months postpartum.
Seventy-six women (19%) relapsed during pregnancy and 107 (27%) relapsed postpartum. After adjusting for covariates, disorganization symptoms showed a positive association at borderline significance with relapse during pregnancy (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.36; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.99–1.87 per unit increase in number of symptoms) and depressive symptoms negatively with relapse postpartum (0.78; 0.62–0.98). Restricting the sample to women with at least one recorded symptom in any given domain, higher disorganization (1.84; 1.22–2.76), positive (1.50; 1.07–2.11), and manic (1.48; 1.03–2.11) symptoms were associated with relapse during pregnancy, and disorganization (1.54; 1.08–2.20) symptom domains were associated with relapse postpartum.
Positive, disorganization, and manic symptoms recorded in the 2 years before pregnancy were associated with increased risk of relapse during pregnancy and postpartum. The characterization of routine health records from text fields is relatively transferrable and could help inform predictive risk modelling.
Patients with depression are more susceptible to cardiovascular illness including vascular surgeries. However, health outcomes after vascular surgery among patients with depression is unknown. This study aimed to investigate associations of depression with post-operative health outcomes for vascular surgical patients.
A retrospective observational study was conducted using data from a large mental healthcare provider and linked national hospitalization data for the same south London geographic catchment. OPCS-4 codes were used to identify vascular procedures. Health outcomes were compared between those with/without depression including length of hospital stay (LOS), inpatient mortality, and 30 day emergency hospital readmissions. Predictors of these health outcomes were also assessed.
Vascular surgery was received by 9,267 patients, including 446 diagnosed with depression. Patients with depression had a higher risk of emergency admission for vascular surgery (odds ratio [OR] 1.28; 1.03, 1.59), longer index LOS (IRR 1.38; 1.33–1.42), and a higher risk of 30-day emergency readmission (OR 1.82; 1.35–2.47). Patients with depression had higher inpatient mortality after adjustment for sociodemographic status (1.51; 1.03, 2.23) but not on full adjustment, and had longer emergency readmission LOS (1.13; 1.04, 1.22) after adjustment for sociodemographic factors and cardiovascular disease. Correlates of vascular surgery hospitalization among patients with depression included admission through emergency route for longer LOS, inpatient mortality, and 30-day hospital readmission.
Patients with depression undergoing vascular surgery have substantially poorer health outcomes. Screening for depression prior to surgery might be indicated to target preventative measures.
Accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment of tardive dyskinesia (TD) are imperative, as its symptoms can be highly disruptive to both patients and their caregivers. Misdiagnosis can lead to incorrect interventions with suboptimal or even deleterious results. To aid in the identification and differentiation of TD in the psychiatric practice setting, we review its clinical features and movement phenomenology, as well as those of other antipsychotic-induced movement disorders, with accompanying links to illustrative videos. Exposure to dopamine receptor blocking agents (DRBAs) such as antipsychotics or antiemetics is associated with a spectrum of movement disorders including TD. The differential diagnosis of TD is based on history of DRBA exposure, recent discontinuation or dose reduction of a DRBA, and movement phenomenology. Common diagnostic challenges are the abnormal behaviors and dyskinesias associated with advanced age or chronic mental illness, and other movement disorders associated with DRBA therapy, such as akathisia, parkinsonian tremor, and tremor related to use of mood stabilizing agents (eg, lithium, divalproex). Duration of exposure may help rule out acute drug-induced syndromes such as acute dystonia or acute/subacute akathisia. Another important consideration is the potential for TD to present together with other drug-induced movement disorders (eg, parkinsonism, parkinsonian tremor, and postural tremor from mood stabilizers) in the same patient, which can complicate both diagnosis and management. After documentation of the phenomenology, severity, and distribution of TD movements, treatment options should be reviewed with the patient and caregivers.
Depression is associated with lower educational attainment, but there has been little investigation of long-term educational trajectories in large cohorts with diagnosed depression.
To describe the educational attainment trajectories of children with a depression diagnosis in secondary care, and to investigate whether these trajectories vary by sociodemographic characteristics.
We identified new referrals to South London and Maudsley's NHS Foundation Trust between 2007 and 2013 who received a depression diagnosis at under 18 years old. Linking their health records to the National Pupil Database, we standardised their performance on three assessments (typically undertaken at ages 6–7 years (school Year 2), 10–11 (Year 6) and 15–16 (Year 11)) relative to the local reference population in each academic year. We used mixed models for repeated measures to estimate attainment trajectories.
In our sample of 1492 children, the median age at depression diagnosis was 15 years (interquartile range = 14–16). Their attainment showed a decline between school Years 6 and 11. Attainment was consistently lower among males and those eligible for free school meals. Black ethnic groups also showed lower attainment than White ethnic groups between Years 2 and 6, but showed a less pronounced drop in attainment at Year 11.
Those who receive a depression diagnosis during their school career show a drop in attainment in Year 11. Although this pattern was seen among multiple sociodemographic groups, gender, ethnicity and socioeconomic status predict more vulnerable subgroups within this clinical population who might benefit from additional educational support or more intensive treatment.
The emphasis on team science in clinical and translational research increases the importance of collaborative biostatisticians (CBs) in healthcare. Adequate training and development of CBs ensure appropriate conduct of robust and meaningful research and, therefore, should be considered as a high-priority focus for biostatistics groups. Comprehensive training enhances clinical and translational research by facilitating more productive and efficient collaborations. While many graduate programs in Biostatistics and Epidemiology include training in research collaboration, it is often limited in scope and duration. Therefore, additional training is often required once a CB is hired into a full-time position. This article presents a comprehensive CB training strategy that can be adapted to any collaborative biostatistics group. This strategy follows a roadmap of the biostatistics collaboration process, which is also presented. A TIE approach (Teach the necessary skills, monitor the Implementation of these skills, and Evaluate the proficiency of these skills) was developed to support the adoption of key principles. The training strategy also incorporates a “train the trainer” approach to enable CBs who have successfully completed training to train new staff or faculty.
How neighbourhood characteristics affect the physical safety of people with mental illness is unclear.
To examine neighbourhood effects on physical victimisation towards people using mental health services.
We developed and evaluated a machine-learning-derived free-text-based natural language processing (NLP) algorithm to ascertain clinical text referring to physical victimisation. This was applied to records on all patients attending National Health Service mental health services in Southeast London. Sociodemographic and clinical data, and diagnostic information on use of acute hospital care (from Hospital Episode Statistics, linked to Clinical Record Interactive Search), were collected in this group, defined as ‘cases’ and concurrently sampled controls. Multilevel logistic regression models estimated associations (odds ratios, ORs) between neighbourhood-level fragmentation, crime, income deprivation, and population density and physical victimisation.
Based on a human-rated gold standard, the NLP algorithm had a positive predictive value of 0.92 and sensitivity of 0.98 for (clinically recorded) physical victimisation. A 1 s.d. increase in neighbourhood crime was accompanied by a 7% increase in odds of physical victimisation in women and an 13% increase in men (adjusted OR (aOR) for women: 1.07, 95% CI 1.01–1.14, aOR for men: 1.13, 95% CI 1.06–1.21, P for gender interaction, 0.218). Although small, adjusted associations for neighbourhood fragmentation appeared greater in magnitude for women (aOR = 1.05, 95% CI 1.01–1.11) than men, where this association was not statistically significant (aOR = 1.00, 95% CI 0.95–1.04, P for gender interaction, 0.096). Neighbourhood income deprivation was associated with victimisation in men and women with similar magnitudes of association.
Neighbourhood factors influencing safety, as well as individual characteristics including gender, may be relevant to understanding pathways to physical victimisation towards people with mental illness.
Little is known about methylphenidate (MPH) use and mortality outcomes.
To investigate the association between MPH use and mortality among children with an attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis.
This population-based cohort study analysed data from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). A total of 68 096 children and adolescents aged 4–17 years with an ADHD diagnosis and prescribed MPH between 2000 and 2010 were compared with 68 096 without an MPH prescription, matched on age, gender and year of first ADHD diagnosis. All participants were followed to death, migration, withdrawal from the National Health Insurance programme or 31 December 2013. MPH prescriptions were measured on a yearly basis during the study period, and the association between MPH use and mortality was analysed using a repeated-measures time-dependent Cox regression model. The outcome measures included all-cause, unnatural-cause (including suicide, accident and homicide) and natural-cause mortality, obtained from linkage to the National Mortality Register in Taiwan.
The MPH group had lower unadjusted all-cause, natural-, unnatural- and accident-cause mortality than the comparison group. After controlling for potential confounders, MPH use was associated with a significantly lower all-cause mortality (adjusted hazard ratio AHR = 0.81, 95% CI 0.67–0.98, P = 0.027), delayed use of MPH was associated with higher mortality (AHR = 1.05, 95% CI 1.01–1.09) and longer MPH use was associated with lower mortality (AHR = 0.83, 95% CI 0.70–0.98).
MPH use is associated with a reduced overall mortality in children with ADHD in this cohort study, but unmeasured confounding cannot be excluded absolutely.
The link between schizophrenia and cigarette smoking has been well established through observational studies. However, the cause–effect relationship remains unclear.
We conducted Mendelian randomisation analyses to assess any causal relationship between genetic variants related to four smoking-related traits and the risk of schizophrenia.
We performed a two-sample Mendelian randomisation using summary statistics from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of smoking-related traits and schizophrenia (7711 cases, 18 327 controls) in East Asian populations. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) correlated with smoking behaviours (smoking initiation, smoking cessation, age at smoking initiation and quantity of smoking) were investigated in relation to schizophrenia using the inverse-variance weighted (IVW) method. Further sensitivity analyses, including Mendelian randomisation-Egger (MR-Egger), weighted median estimates and leave-one-out analysis, were used to test the consistency of the results.
The associated SNPs for the four smoking behaviours were not significantly associated with schizophrenia status. Pleiotropy did not inappropriately affect the results.
Cigarette smoking is a complex behaviour in people with schizophrenia. Understanding factors underlying the observed association remains important; however, our findings do not support a causal role of smoking in influencing risk of schizophrenia.
Despite widespread attention to the recent past as an archaeological topic, few archaeologists have attended to the particular social and ecological stakes of one of the most defining material features of contemporary life: the long-term effects of toxic industrial waste. Identifying the present era as the high Capitalocene, this article highlights the contemporary as a period caught between the boom-and-bust cycles of capitalist production and the persistence of industrial waste. Drawing on an archaeological case study from Edmonton, Alberta, we outline how the working-class shanty town community of Ross Acreage (occupied 1900–1950) was formed in relation to the industrial waste that suffused its landscape. Drawing on data from both archaeological excavation and environmental testing, this article argues that the community of Ross Acreage was defined materially by its long-term relationship with industrial waste, what we term a ‘fence-line community’.
Across international contexts, people with serious mental illnesses (SMI) experience marked reductions in life expectancy at birth. The intersection of ethnicity and social deprivation on life expectancy in SMI is unclear. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of ethnicity and area-level deprivation on life expectancy at birth in SMI, defined as schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, bipolar disorders and depression, using data from London, UK.
Abridged life tables to calculate life expectancy at birth, in a cohort with clinician-ascribed ICD-10 schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, bipolar disorders or depression, managed in secondary mental healthcare. Life expectancy in the study population with SMI was compared with life expectancy in the general population and with those residing in the most deprived areas in England.
Irrespective of ethnicity, people with SMI experienced marked reductions in life expectancy at birth compared with the general population; from 14.5 years loss in men with schizophrenia-spectrum and bipolar disorders, to 13.2 years in women. Similar reductions were noted for people with depression. Across all diagnoses, life expectancy at birth in people with SMI was lower than the general population residing in the most deprived areas in England.
Irrespective of ethnicity, reductions in life expectancy at birth among people with SMI are worse than the general population residing in the most deprived areas in England. This trend in people with SMI is similar to groups who experience extreme social exclusion and marginalisation. Evidence-based interventions to tackle this mortality gap need to take this into account.
Africa is a diverse and changing continent with a rapidly growing population, and the mental health of mothers is a key health priority. Recent studies have shown that: perinatal common mental disorders (depression and anxiety) are at least as prevalent in Africa as in high-income and other low- and middle-income regions; key risk factors include intimate partner violence, food insecurity and physical illness; and poor maternal mental health is associated with impairment of infant health and development. Psychological interventions can be integrated into routine maternal and child healthcare in the African context, although the optimal model and intensity of intervention remain unclear and are likely to vary across settings. Future priorities include: extension of research to include neglected psychiatric conditions; large-scale mixed-method studies of the causes and consequences of perinatal common mental disorders; scaling up of locally appropriate evidence-based interventions, including prevention; and advocacy for the right of all women in Africa to safe holistic maternity care.
Smoking is reported to be associated with depression and anxiety. The present study (a) examines these associations taking comorbidity into account, (b) investigates possible confounders, (c) examines how former smokers compared to current and never-smokers in terms of anxiety and depression, and if anxiety and depression decline by time since cessation. Participants (66%) aged 20–89 years in a population-based health survey (N = 60,814) were screened employing the HADS. (a) The association with smoking was strongest in comorbid anxiety depression, followed by anxiety, and only marginal in depression. Associations were stronger in females and younger participants. (b) Variables partly accounting for the association comprised somatic symptoms, socio-demographics, alcohol problems, and low physical activity. (c) Anxiety and depression were most common in current smokers, followed by quitters, and then never-smokers. No decline in anxiety or depression was found with time since cessation. Previous studies of associations between depression and smoking might have overestimated the association when ignoring comorbid anxiety.
This collection comes out of a one day symposium held at Queen Margaret University, Edinburgh, in June 2017. Broadly speaking, the symposium brought together scholars working in the area of adaptation and nationhood. The film and television texts examined during the day were produced in France, Belgium, the Netherlands, UK, South Korea, Spain, USA and Colombia – though even this attempt to begin to fix the texts’ national status could easily be undone. Various prefixes (trans, inter, post) and adjectives are used by contributors to this volume – which we’re delighted to say includes two new colleagues who weren't able to attend the symposium: Yvonne Griggs and Jonathan Evans. On a sadder note, while the symposium benefited from the participation of a well-kent and highly regarded figure in the field, we were very sorry to hear of the passing away of Laurence Raw in 2018. Laurence’s chapter would have considered a particular period and type of UK film production, the significance of these films (e.g. I Know Where I’m Going! (Powell and Pressburger 1945) and Whisky Galore! (Mackendrick 1949)) as adaptations, and their continued meaning and resonance in contemporary cultures. While the collection, regrettably, doesn't contain Laurence's chapter, his interests (and enthusiasm!) endure across all the chapters here, most specifically in the work of Munro, Lowe, McNaughton and Galpin. For example, Vicky Lowe also looks at films from a distinctive moment in UK filmmaking. In so doing, she revisits questions of history and nationhood. A key part of Lowe's argument is that the historical, aesthetic, and to some extent social impact of films like The Entertainer (Richardson 1960) cannot be grasped outside of their close relations with their theatrical counterparts; and, moreover, that this has been a neglected part of the study of these films. In this respect, Lowe's chapter supports the argument of Della Coletta that texts must be examined within their ‘ own historical, institutional and cultural environments’ (2012: 24, Della Coletta's emphasis) if their ‘density’ (2012: 16) is to be restored. What scholars have tended to overlook, Lowe argues, is the deeply inter-medial and geographically local nature of these texts’ cultural formation. By being faithful to these films’ historical complexity, Lowe helps us to look not only at these 1960s films in new ways, but also to reconsider what really characterised their theatrical progenitors.