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In view of the increasing complexity of both cardiovascular implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) and patients in the current era, practice guidelines, by necessity, have become increasingly specific. This document is an expert consensus statement that has been developed to update and further delineate indications and management of CIEDs in pediatric patients, defined as ≤21 years of age, and is intended to focus primarily on the indications for CIEDs in the setting of specific disease categories. The document also highlights variations between previously published adult and pediatric CIED recommendations and provides rationale for underlying important differences. The document addresses some of the deterrents to CIED access in low- and middle-income countries and strategies to circumvent them. The document sections were divided up and drafted by the writing committee members according to their expertise. The recommendations represent the consensus opinion of the entire writing committee, graded by class of recommendation and level of evidence. Several questions addressed in this document either do not lend themselves to clinical trials or are rare disease entities, and in these instances recommendations are based on consenus expert opinion. Furthermore, specific recommendations, even when supported by substantial data, do not replace the need for clinical judgment and patient-specific decision-making. The recommendations were opened for public comment to Pediatric and Congenital Electrophysiology Society (PACES) members and underwent external review by the scientific and clinical document committee of the Heart Rhythm Society (HRS), the science advisory and coordinating committee of the American Heart Association (AHA), the American College of Cardiology, (ACC) and the Association for European Paediatric and Congenital Cardiology (AEPC). The document received endorsement by all the collaborators and the Asia Pacific Heart Rhythm Society (APHRS), the Indian Heart Rhythm Society (IHRS), and the Latin American Heart Rhythm Society (LAHRS). This document is expected to provide support for clinicians and patients to allow for appropriate CIED use, appropriate CIED management, and appropriate follow-up in pediatric patients.
A multi-disciplinary expert group met to discuss vitamin D deficiency in the UK and strategies for improving population intakes and status. Changes to UK Government advice since the 1st Rank Forum on Vitamin D (2009) were discussed, including rationale for setting a reference nutrient intake (10 µg/d; 400 IU/d) for adults and children (4+ years). Current UK data show inadequate intakes among all age groups and high prevalence of low vitamin D status among specific groups (e.g. pregnant women and adolescent males/females). Evidence of widespread deficiency within some minority ethnic groups, resulting in nutritional rickets (particularly among Black and South Asian infants), raised particular concern. Latest data indicate that UK population vitamin D intakes and status reamain relatively unchanged since Government recommendations changed in 2016. Vitamin D food fortification was discussed as a potential strategy to increase population intakes. Data from dose–response and dietary modelling studies indicate dairy products, bread, hens’ eggs and some meats as potential fortification vehicles. Vitamin D3 appears more effective than vitamin D2 for raising serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration, which has implications for choice of fortificant. Other considerations for successful fortification strategies include: (i) need for ‘real-world’ cost information for use in modelling work; (ii) supportive food legislation; (iii) improved consumer and health professional understanding of vitamin D’s importance; (iv) clinical consequences of inadequate vitamin D status and (v) consistent communication of Government advice across health/social care professions, and via the food industry. These areas urgently require further research to enable universal improvement in vitamin D intakes and status in the UK population.
We compared survival in four cohorts of dementia patients– Lewy body (LBD), Parkinson's (PDD), Vascular (VD) and Alzheimer's dementia (AD) - in patients referred into Cambridge and Peterborough NHS Foundation Trust (CPFT) mental health services.
Additionally, we investigated reasons for variation in survival in the four cohorts.
Using electronic records we identified retrospective cohorts of patients referred into services from 2013 onwards. Cases of LBD and PDD were identified using text searches, and comparison cohorts with AD or VD identified using ICD10 diagnosis codes ((F00.*) or (F01.*) respectively).
We collected referral (date of referral and service referred into), demographic (date of birth and gender) and diagnosis data on the patients in the four cohorts. Dates of death were available, through central NHS reporting to Trusts.
We used date of first referral as start of the follow-up and end of follow-up, death or 31/12/19. We used Kaplan-Meier and Cox survival analysis to compare survival in the four cohorts.
The cohorts were crossed with Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) data to extract hospital admission diagnoses. We extracted diagnoses of pneumonia due to aspiration and recurrent falls from hospital admissions data using ICD codes (J69.0 and R29.6 respectively). We calculated prevalence of these diagnoses in the dementia groups, in males and females separately.
In Cox analysis (controlling for age at referral, gender and service referred into), the hazard ratio (HR) for death was highest for the PDD group (HR 2.0 (95% CI 1.7–2.4)), followed by LBD (HR 1.4 (95% CI 1.3–1.6)), then VD (HR 1.2 (95% CI 1.0–1.3)), with the AD group as reference. In the same analysis repeated separately for males and females, the highest HR was found in males with PDD (HR 2.3 (95% CI 1.8–2.8)).
Referrals to liaison psychiatry were associated with reduced survival compared to other mental health services (HR 1.7 (95% CI 1.5–2.0)).
The AD cohort showed the lowest rates of pneumonia due to aspiration and recurrent falls in males and in females. The highest rate of pneumonia due to aspiration was found in the male PDD group (27%).
In patients with dementia referred into mental health services, those with AD survive longer compared to other dementia groups, with PDD patients at highest risk of death. Physical frailty including risk of aspiration, is likely to account for some of this difference in survival.
The novel coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) has spread worldwide threatening human health. To reduce transmission, a ‘lockdown’ was introduced in Ireland between March-May 2020. The aim of this study is to capture the experiences of Consultant Psychiatrists during lockdown and their perception of it’s impact on Mental Health Services.
A questionnaire designed by the Royal College of Psychiatrists was adapted and circulated to Consultant members of the College of Psychiatrists following the easing of restrictions. The questionnaire assessed the perceived impact on referral rates, mental health act provision, availability of Information Technology (IT), consultant well-being and availability of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE). Thematic analysis was employed to analyse free-text sections.
Response rate was 32% (N=197/623). Consultants reported an initial decrease/significant decrease in referrals in the first month of lockdown (68%, N=95/140) followed by an increase/significant increase in the second month for both new (83%, N=100/137) and previously attending patients (65%, N=88/136). Social isolation and reduced face-to-face mental health supports were among the main reasons identified. The needs of children and older adults were highlighted. Most consultants (76%, N=98/129) felt their working day was affected and their well-being reduced (52%, N=61/119). The majority felt IT equipment availability was inadequate (67%, N=88/132). Main themes identified from free-text sections were service management, relationship between patients and healthcare service and effects on consultants’ lives.
The COVID19 pandemic has placed increased pressure on service provision and consultant wellness. This further supports the longstanding need to increase mental health service investment in Ireland.
Emerson and colleagues (2020) provide new isotopic evidence on directly dated human bone from the Greater Cahokia region. They conclude that maize was not adopted in the region prior to AD 900. Placing this result within the larger context of maize histories in northeastern North America, they suggest that evidence from the lower Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River valley for earlier maize is “enigmatic” and “perplexing.” Here, we review that evidence, accumulated over the course of several decades, and question why Emerson and colleagues felt the need to offer opinions on that evidence without providing any new contradictory empirical evidence for the region.
Individuals with eating disorders who self-harm are a vulnerable group characterised by greater pathology and poorer outcomes.
To explore healthcare utilisation and mortality in those with a record of: self-harm only; eating disorders only; and both co-occurring.
We conducted a retrospective whole population e-cohort study of individuals aged 10–64 years from 2003 to 2016. Individuals were divided into: record of self-harm only; eating disorders only; both self-harm and eating disorders; and no record of self-harm or eating disorders. We used linked routinely collected healthcare data across primary care, emergency departments, hospital admissions and out-patient appointments to examine healthcare contacts and mortality.
We identified 82 627 individuals: n = 75 165 with self-harm only; n = 5786 with eating disorders only; n = 1676 with both combined. Across all groups and settings significantly more individuals attended with significantly more contacts than the rest of the population. The combined group had the highest number of contacts per person (general practitioner, incident rate ratio IRR = 3.3, 95% CI 3.1–3.5; emergency department, IRR = 5.2, 95% CI 4.7–5.8; hospital admission, IRR = 5.2, 95% CI 4.5–6.0; out-patients, IRR = 3.9, 95% CI 3.5–4.4). Standardised mortality ratios showed the highest excess mortality overall in the self-harm only group (SMR = 3.2, 95% CI 3.1–3.3), particularly for unnatural causes of death (SMR = 17.1, 95% CI 16.3–17.9). SMRs and years of life lost showed an increased risk of mortality in younger age groups in the combined group. Adjusted hazard ratios showed increased mortality across all groups (self-harm only, HR = 5.3, 95% CI 5.2–5.5; eating disorders only, HR = 4.1, 95% CI 3.4–4.9; combined group, HR = 6.8, 95% CI 5.4–8.6).
Individuals in all groups had higher healthcare service utilisation than the general population. The increased mortality risk in young people with a record of both eating disorders and self-harm highlights the need for early specialist intervention and enhanced support.
High dietary phosphorus (P), particularly soluble salts, may contribute to chronic kidney disease development in cats. The aim of the present study was to assess the safety of P supplied at 1 g/1000 kcal (4184kJ) from a highly soluble P salt in P-rich dry format feline diets. Seventy-five healthy adult cats (n 25/group) were fed either a low P control (1·4 g/1000 kcal [4184kJ]; Ca:P ratio 0·97) or one of two test diets with 4 g/1000 kcal (4184 kJ); Ca:P 1·04 or 5 g/1000 kcal (4184kJ); Ca:P 1·27, both incorporating 1 g/1000 kcal (4184 kJ) sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) – for a period of 30 weeks in a randomised parallel-group study. Health markers in blood and urine, glomerular filtration rate, renal ultrasound and bone density were assessed at baseline and at regular time points. At the end of the test period, responses following transition to a commercial diet (total P – 2·34 g/1000 kcal [4184kJ], Ca:P 1·3) for a 4-week washout period were also assessed. No adverse effects on general, kidney or bone (skeletal) function and health were observed. P and Ca balance, some serum biochemistry parameters and regulatory hormones were increased in cats fed test diets from week 2 onwards (P ≤ 0·05). Data from the washout period suggest that increased serum creatinine and urea values observed in the two test diet groups were influenced by dietary differences during the test period, and not indicative of changes in renal function. The present data suggest no observed adverse effect level for feline diets containing 1 g P/1000 kcal (4184 kJ) from STPP and total P level of up to 5 g/1000 kcal (4184 kJ) when fed for 30 weeks.
Surface energy-balance models are commonly used in conjunction with satellite thermal imagery to estimate supraglacial debris thickness. Removing the need for local meteorological data in the debris thickness estimation workflow could improve the versatility and spatiotemporal application of debris thickness estimation. We evaluate the use of regional reanalysis data to derive debris thickness for two mountain glaciers using a surface energy-balance model. Results forced using ERA-5 agree with AWS-derived estimates to within 0.01 ± 0.05 m for Miage Glacier, Italy, and 0.01 ± 0.02 m for Khumbu Glacier, Nepal. ERA-5 data were then used to estimate spatiotemporal changes in debris thickness over a ~20-year period for Miage Glacier, Khumbu Glacier and Haut Glacier d'Arolla, Switzerland. We observe significant increases in debris thickness at the terminus for Haut Glacier d'Arolla and at the margins of the expanding debris cover at all glaciers. While simulated debris thickness was underestimated compared to point measurements in areas of thick debris, our approach can reconstruct glacier-scale debris thickness distribution and its temporal evolution over multiple decades. We find significant changes in debris thickness over areas of thin debris, areas susceptible to high ablation rates, where current knowledge of debris evolution is limited.
The Internet Archive curated a 90-terabyte sub-collection of captures from the US government's public website domain (‘.gov’). Such archives provide largely untapped resources for measuring attributes, behaviors and outcomes relevant to political science research. This study leverages this archive to measure a novel dimension of federal legislators' religiosity: their proportional use of religious rhetoric on official congressional websites (2006–2012). This scalable, time-variant measure improves upon more costly, time-invariant conventional approaches to measuring legislator attributes. The authors demonstrate the validity of this method for measuring legislators' public-facing religiosity and discuss the contributions and limitations of using archived Internet data for scientific analysis. This research makes three applied methodological contributions: (1) it develops a new measure for legislator religiosity, (2) it models an improved, more comprehensive approach to analyzing congressional communications and (3) it demonstrates the unprecedented potential that archived Internet data offer to researchers seeking to develop meaningful, cost-effective approaches to analyzing political phenomena.
We aimed to evaluate the prevalence, clinical determinants, and consequences (falls and hospitalization) of frailty in older adults with mental illness.
Retrospective clinical cohort study.
We collected the data in a specialized psychogeriatric ward, in Boston, USA, between July 2018 and June 2019.
Two hundred and fourty-four inpatients aged 65 years old and over.
Psychiatric diagnosis was based on a multi-professional consensus meeting according to DSM-5 criteria. Frailty was assessed according to two common instruments, that is, the FRAIL questionnaire and the deficit accumulation model (aka Frailty Index [FI]). Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to evaluate the association between frailty and sample demographics (age, female sex, and non-Caucasian ethnicity) and clinical characteristics (dementia, number of clinical diseases, current infection, number of psychotropic, and non-psychotropic medications in use). Multiple regression between frailty assessments and either falls or number of hospital admissions in the last 6 and 12 months, respectively, were analyzed and adjusted for covariates.
Prevalence of frailty was high, that is, 83.6% according to the FI and 55.3% according to the FRAIL questionnaire. Age, the number of clinical (somatic) diseases, and the number of non-psychotropic medications were independently associated with frailty identified by the FRAIL. Dementia, current infection, the number of clinical (somatic) diseases, and the number of non-psychotropic medications were independently associated with frailty according to the FI. Falls were significantly associated with both frailty instruments. However, we found only a significant association for the number of hospital admissions with the FI.
Frailty is highly prevalent among geriatric psychiatry inpatients. The FRAIL questionnaire and the FI may capture different forms of frailty dimensions, being the former probably more associated with the phenotype model and the latter more associated with multimorbidity.
Individuals with schizophrenia are at higher risk of physical illnesses, which are a major contributor to their 20-year reduced life expectancy. It is currently unknown what causes the increased risk of physical illness in schizophrenia.
To link genetic data from a clinically ascertained sample of individuals with schizophrenia to anonymised National Health Service (NHS) records. To assess (a) rates of physical illness in those with schizophrenia, and (b) whether physical illness in schizophrenia is associated with genetic liability.
We linked genetic data from a clinically ascertained sample of individuals with schizophrenia (Cardiff Cognition in Schizophrenia participants, n = 896) to anonymised NHS records held in the Secure Anonymised Information Linkage (SAIL) databank. Physical illnesses were defined from the General Practice Database and Patient Episode Database for Wales. Genetic liability for schizophrenia was indexed by (a) rare copy number variants (CNVs), and (b) polygenic risk scores.
Individuals with schizophrenia in SAIL had increased rates of epilepsy (standardised rate ratio (SRR) = 5.34), intellectual disability (SRR = 3.11), type 2 diabetes (SRR = 2.45), congenital disorders (SRR = 1.77), ischaemic heart disease (SRR = 1.57) and smoking (SRR = 1.44) in comparison with the general SAIL population. In those with schizophrenia, carrier status for schizophrenia-associated CNVs and neurodevelopmental disorder-associated CNVs was associated with height (P = 0.015–0.017), with carriers being 7.5–7.7 cm shorter than non-carriers. We did not find evidence that the increased rates of poor physical health outcomes in schizophrenia were associated with genetic liability for the disorder.
This study demonstrates the value of and potential for linking genetic data from clinically ascertained research studies to anonymised health records. The increased risk for physical illness in schizophrenia is not caused by genetic liability for the disorder.
To examine current dietary fat intakes and compliance in Irish children and to examine changes in intakes from 2005 to 2019.
Analyses were based on data from the Irish National Children’s Food Survey (NCFS) and the NSFS II, two cross-sectional studies that collected detailed food and beverage intake data through 7-day and 4-day weighed food diaries, respectively.
NCFS and NCFS II, Republic of Ireland.
A nationally representative sample of 594 (NCFS) and 600 (NCFS II) children aged 5–12 years. Current intakes from the NCFS II were compared with those previously reported in the NCFS (www.iuna.net).
Current intakes of total fat, SFA, MUFA, PUFA and trans fat as a percentage of total energy are 33·3, 14·0, 13·6, 5·6 and 0·5 %, respectively. Total fat, SFA and trans fat intakes since 2005 remained largely stable over time with all displaying minor decreases of <1 %. Adherence to SFA recommendations remains inadequate, with only 7 % of the population complying. Insufficient compliance with PUFA (71 %) and EPA and DHA (DHA; 16 %) recommendations was also noted.
Children in Ireland continue to meet the total fat and trans fat target goals. Adherence to MUFA and PUFA recommendations has also significantly improved. However, deviations for some fats remain, in particular SFA. These findings are useful for the development of dietary strategies to improve compliance with current recommendations.
Impairment in reciprocal social behavior (RSB), an essential component of early social competence, clinically defines autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, the behavioral and genetic architecture of RSB in toddlerhood, when ASD first emerges, has not been fully characterized. We analyzed data from a quantitative video-referenced rating of RSB (vrRSB) in two toddler samples: a community-based volunteer research registry (n = 1,563) and an ethnically diverse, longitudinal twin sample ascertained from two state birth registries (n = 714). Variation in RSB was continuously distributed, temporally stable, significantly associated with ASD risk at age 18 months, and only modestly explained by sociodemographic and medical factors (r2 = 9.4%). Five latent RSB factors were identified and corresponded to aspects of social communication or restricted repetitive behaviors, the two core ASD symptom domains. Quantitative genetic analyses indicated substantial heritability for all factors at age 24 months (h2 ≥ .61). Genetic influences strongly overlapped across all factors, with a social motivation factor showing evidence of newly-emerging genetic influences between the ages of 18 and 24 months. RSB constitutes a heritable, trait-like competency whose factorial and genetic structure is generalized across diverse populations, demonstrating its role as an early, enduring dimension of inherited variation in human social behavior. Substantially overlapping RSB domains, measurable when core ASD features arise and consolidate, may serve as markers of specific pathways to autism and anchors to inform determinants of autism's heterogeneity.
There is growing interest globally in using real-world data (RWD) and real-world evidence (RWE) for health technology assessment (HTA). Optimal collection, analysis, and use of RWD/RWE to inform HTA requires a conceptual framework to standardize processes and ensure consistency. However, such framework is currently lacking in Asia, a region that is likely to benefit from RWD/RWE for at least two reasons. First, there is often limited Asian representation in clinical trials unless specifically conducted in Asian populations, and RWD may help to fill the evidence gap. Second, in a few Asian health systems, reimbursement decisions are not made at market entry; thus, allowing RWD/RWE to be collected to give more certainty about the effectiveness of technologies in the local setting and inform their appropriate use. Furthermore, an alignment of RWD/RWE policies across Asia would equip decision makers with context-relevant evidence, and improve timely patient access to new technologies. Using data collected from eleven health systems in Asia, this paper provides a review of the current landscape of RWD/RWE in Asia to inform HTA and explores a way forward to align policies within the region. This paper concludes with a proposal to establish an international collaboration among academics and HTA agencies in the region: the REAL World Data In ASia for HEalth Technology Assessment in Reimbursement (REALISE) working group, which seeks to develop a non-binding guidance document on the use of RWD/RWE to inform HTA for decision making in Asia.
Longitudinal studies of patterns of healthcare contacts in those who die by suicide to identify those at risk are scarce.
To examine type and timing of healthcare contacts in those who die by suicide.
A population-based electronic case–control study of all who died by suicide in Wales, 2001–2017, linking individuals’ electronic healthcare records from general practices, emergency departments and hospitals. We used conditional logistic regression to calculate odds ratios, adjusted for deprivation. We performed a retrospective continuous longitudinal analysis comparing cases’ and controls’ contacts with health services.
We matched 5130 cases with 25 650 controls (5 per case). A representative cohort of 1721 cases (8605 controls) were eligible for the fully linked analysis. In the week before their death, 31.4% of cases and 15.6% of controls contacted health services. The last point of contact was most commonly associated with mental health and most often occurred in general practices. In the month before their death, 16.6 and 13.0% of cases had an emergency department contact and a hospital admission respectively, compared with 5.5 and 4.2% of controls. At any week in the year before their death, cases were more likely to contact healthcare services than controls. Self-harm, mental health and substance misuse contacts were strongly linked with suicide risk, more so when they occurred in emergency departments or as emergency admissions.
Help-seeking occurs in those at risk of suicide and escalates in the weeks before their death. There is an opportunity to identify and intervene through these contacts.
The present study aimed to examine the temporal prevalence of overweight and obesity in Irish children through different methodologies and evaluate the change in rates between 1990 and 2019.
Anthropometric data from three Irish national food consumption surveys were used to examine the change in the prevalence of BMI and waist circumference-derived overweight and obesity levels.
Three cross-sectional food consumption surveys from the Republic of Ireland: the Irish National Nutrition Survey (1990), the National Children’s Food Survey (2005) and The Second National Children’s Food Survey (2019).
A demographically representative sample of Irish children aged 5–12 years: 1990 (n 148), 2005 (n 594) and 2019 (n 596).
Twelve percentage of children had overweight/obesity in 1990, which was significantly higher in 2005 at 25 % and significantly lower in 2019 at 16 % (P = 0·003). In 2019, more girls had overweight/obesity in comparison with boys (19 v. 14 %), whilst children from the lowest social class group had the highest levels of overweight/obesity (P = 0·019). Overall, the proportion of children with abdominal overweight/obesity was significantly lower in 2019 in comparison with 2005 (P ≤ 0·001).
Evidence from the most recent national survey suggests that overweight and obesity levels are plateauing and in some cases reducing in children in Ireland. Despite this, rates remain high, with the highest prevalence in 2019 observed in girls and in those from the lowest social class group. Thus, overweight/obesity prevention and intervention policies are necessary and should be continued.
To examine the temporal trends in ambulatory antibiotic prescription fill rates and to determine the influences of age, gender, and location.
Population-based cohort study.
Ambulatory setting in South Carolina.
Patients ≤64 years of age from January 2012 to December 2017.
Aggregated pharmacy claims data for oral antibiotic prescriptions were utilized to estimate community antibiotic prescription rates. Poisson regression or Student t tests were used to examine overall temporal trend in antibiotic prescription rates, seasonal variation, and the trends across age group, gender, and rural versus urban location.
Overall antibiotic prescription rates decrease from 1,127 to 897 per 1,000 person years (P < .001). The decrease was more noticeable in persons aged <18 years (26%) and 18–39 years (20%) than in those aged 40–64 years (5%; P < .001 for all). Prescription rates were higher among females than males in all age groups, although this finding was the most pronounced in group aged 18–39 years (1,232 vs 585 per 1,000 person years; P < .0001). Annualized antibiotic prescription rates were higher during the winter months (December–March) than the rest of the year (1,145 vs 885 per 1,000 person years; P < .0001), and rates were higher in rural areas than in urban areas (1,032 vs 941 per 1,000 person years; P < .0001).
The decline in ambulatory antibiotic prescription rates is encouraging. Ongoing ambulatory antibiotic stewardship efforts across South Carolina should focus on older adults, rural areas, and during the winter season when antibiotic prescriptions peak.