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Secondary mathematics teachers working in the Australian education sector are required to plan lessons that engage with students of different genders, cultures and levels of literacy and numeracy. Teaching Secondary Mathematics engages directly with the Australian Curriculum: Mathematics and the Australian Professional Standards for Teachers to help preservice teachers develop lesson plans that resonate with students. This edition has been thoroughly revised and features a new chapter on supporting Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students by incorporating Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander cultures and ways of knowing into lessons. Chapter content is supported by new features including short-answer questions, opportunities for reflection and in-class activities. Further resources, additional activities, and audio and visual recordings of mathematical problems are also available for students on the book's companion website. Teaching Secondary Mathematics is the essential guide for preservice mathematics teachers who want to understand the complex and ever-changing Australian education landscape.
We present the data and initial results from the first pilot survey of the Evolutionary Map of the Universe (EMU), observed at 944 MHz with the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) telescope. The survey covers
of an area covered by the Dark Energy Survey, reaching a depth of 25–30
rms at a spatial resolution of
11–18 arcsec, resulting in a catalogue of
220 000 sources, of which
180 000 are single-component sources. Here we present the catalogue of single-component sources, together with (where available) optical and infrared cross-identifications, classifications, and redshifts. This survey explores a new region of parameter space compared to previous surveys. Specifically, the EMU Pilot Survey has a high density of sources, and also a high sensitivity to low surface brightness emission. These properties result in the detection of types of sources that were rarely seen in or absent from previous surveys. We present some of these new results here.
Studying phenotypic and genetic characteristics of age at onset (AAO) and polarity at onset (PAO) in bipolar disorder can provide new insights into disease pathology and facilitate the development of screening tools.
To examine the genetic architecture of AAO and PAO and their association with bipolar disorder disease characteristics.
Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) and polygenic score (PGS) analyses of AAO (n = 12 977) and PAO (n = 6773) were conducted in patients with bipolar disorder from 34 cohorts and a replication sample (n = 2237). The association of onset with disease characteristics was investigated in two of these cohorts.
Earlier AAO was associated with a higher probability of psychotic symptoms, suicidality, lower educational attainment, not living together and fewer episodes. Depressive onset correlated with suicidality and manic onset correlated with delusions and manic episodes. Systematic differences in AAO between cohorts and continents of origin were observed. This was also reflected in single-nucleotide variant-based heritability estimates, with higher heritabilities for stricter onset definitions. Increased PGS for autism spectrum disorder (β = −0.34 years, s.e. = 0.08), major depression (β = −0.34 years, s.e. = 0.08), schizophrenia (β = −0.39 years, s.e. = 0.08), and educational attainment (β = −0.31 years, s.e. = 0.08) were associated with an earlier AAO. The AAO GWAS identified one significant locus, but this finding did not replicate. Neither GWAS nor PGS analyses yielded significant associations with PAO.
AAO and PAO are associated with indicators of bipolar disorder severity. Individuals with an earlier onset show an increased polygenic liability for a broad spectrum of psychiatric traits. Systematic differences in AAO across cohorts, continents and phenotype definitions introduce significant heterogeneity, affecting analyses.
Group Name: Duke Center for Antimicrobial Stewardship and Infection Prevention
Background: Blood cultures are an essential diagnostic test, but over- and underutilization may cause harm. Methods: We analyzed blood culture utilization at 6 hospitals in the southeastern United States including 1 academic hospital (A) and 5 community hospitals (B–F) from May 2019 to April 2020. We measured blood culture utilization rate (BCUR) per 1,000 patient days and blood cultures per encounter. We counted blood cultures by laboratory accession number and measured utilization per 1,000 patient days and encounter. A likely contaminant was defined as 1 of 2 blood cultures collected in the same calendar day positive for a common skin commensal (CSC), as defined by the NHSN, and not identified from subsequent cultures. A likely pathogen was defined as a culture with a pathogen not on the CSC list or a CSC not meeting the contaminant definition. Hospital-level BCUR included samples for culture collected in the emergency department (ED) and inpatient areas divided by inpatient days. Results: The analysis included 117,897 blood cultures and 662,723 patient days with a median BCUR of 209.7 per hospital and median blood culture per encounter of 2 (Table 1). One community hospital (C) demonstrated a substantially higher BCUR than others. Cultures were frequently collected in the ED (54%; range, 36%–78%); most encounters with cultures in the ED were subsequently admitted to an inpatient unit (84%; range, 73%–89%). Higher BCURs were observed in intensive care and oncology units. The proportion of first blood cultures drawn after initiation of antibiotics was 6% (range, 3%–9%. Mondays had higher BCURs than other days of the week (Figure 1). The average BCUR by month was 176.1 (range, 164.3–181.4) with no seasonal patterns observed. Overall, 7.7% (range, 4.5%–9.1%) of blood cultures identified a likely pathogen and 2.1% (range, 1.3%–3.2%) identified a likely contaminant. The 3 hospitals with BCURs >200 also had contaminant rates >2% and >60% ED cultures. Conclusions: Blood culture utilization varied by hospital, unit, and day of the week. We observed higher rates of likely contaminants among hospitals with higher BCURs and ED culture rates. Comparisons may assist in identifying opportunities to optimize practice around blood-culture ordering and collection.
Brazil ranks second in the number of confirmed cases of COVID-19 worldwide. In spite of this, coping measures differ throughout the national territory, as does the disease's impact on the population. This cross-sectional observational study, with 59 695 cases of COVID-19 registered in the state of Alagoas between March and August 2020, analysed clinical-epidemiological variables, incidence rate, mortality rate, case fatality rate (CFR) and the social indicators municipal human development index (MHDI) and social vulnerability index (SVI). Moran statistics and regression models were applied. Logistic regression analysis was applied to determine the predictors of death. The incidence rate was 1788.7/100 000 inhabitants; mortality rate was 48.0/100 000 and CFR was 2.7%. The highest incidence rates were observed in municipalities with better human development (overall MHDI (I = 0.1668; p = 0.002), education MHDI (I = 0.1649; p = 0.002) and income MHDI (I = 0.1880; p = 0.005)) and higher social vulnerability (overall SVI (I = 0.0599; p = 0.033)). CFR was associated with higher social vulnerability (SVI human capital (I = 0.0858; p = 0.004) and SVI urban infrastructure (I = 0.0985; p = 0.040)). Of the analysed cases, 55.4% were female; 2/3 were Black or Brown and the median age was 41 years. Among deaths, most were male (919; 57.4%) and elderly (1171; 73.1%). The predictors of death were male sex, advanced age and the presence of comorbidities. In Alagoas, Brazil, the disease has undergone a process of interiorisation and caused more deaths in poorer municipalities. The presence of comorbidities and advanced age were predictors of death.
We describe the frequency of pediatric healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) identified through prospective surveillance in community hospitals participating in an infection control network. Over a 6-year period, 84 HAIs were identified. Of these 51 (61%) were pediatric central-line–associated bloodstream infections, and they often occurred in children <1 year of age.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: Interdisciplinary networks represent critical components of translational science and learning system development. Our work impacts translational research by presenting an evidence-based approach to developing interdisciplinary networks in response to the COVID-19 pandemic; the approach presented may have broad applications within other academic institutions and medical centers. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: As a local response to the COVID-19 pandemic, we established the University of Alabama at Birmingham COVID-19 Collaborative Outcomes Research Enterprise (CORE) as an interdisciplinary learning health system (LHS) to achieve an integrated health services and outcomes research response amid the pandemic. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We adapted a learning system framework, based upon a scoping review of the literature and the Knowledge to Action Framework for implementation science. Leveraging this framework, we developed an institutional-level collaborative network of extant expertise and resources to rapidly develop an interdisciplinary response to COVID-19. The network was designed to quickly collect newly published or clinical information related to COVID-19, to evaluate potential usefulness of this information, and to disseminate the new knowledge throughout the interdisciplinary network; we strove to engage a wide variety of expertise and skills in the network. Thus, we subsequently used social network analysis to examine the emergence of informal work patterns and diversified network capabilities based on the LHS framework. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We identified three principal characteristics of institutional LHS development including: 1.) identifying network components; 2.) building the institutional collaborative network; and 3.) diversifying network capabilities. Seven critical components of LHS were identified including: 1.) collaborative and executive leadership, 2.) research coordinating committee, 3.) oversight and ethics committee, 4.) thematic scientific working groups, 5.) programmatic working groups, 6.) informatics capabilities, and 7.) patient advisory groups. Evolving from the topical interests of the initial CORE participants, three scientific working groups (health disparities, neurocognition, and critical care) were developed to support the learning network. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: Interdisciplinary collaborative networks are critical to the development of LHS. The COVID-19 CORE LHS framework served as a foundational resource that may support further institutional-level efforts to develop responsive learning networks. The LHS approach presented may have broad applications within other academic institutions and centers.
Experimental studies suggest that abnormal levels of Ca, Mg and phosphorus are implicated in pancreatic carcinogenesis. We investigated the associations between intakes of these minerals and the risk of pancreatic cancer in a case-control study conducted in 1994–1998. Cases of pancreatic cancer (n 150) were recruited from all hospitals in the metropolitan area of the Twin Cities and Mayo Clinic, Minnesota. Controls (n 459) were randomly selected from the general population and frequency matched to cases by age, sex and race. All dietary variables were adjusted for energy intake using the residual method prior to data analysis. Logistic regression was performed to evaluate the associations between intake of three nutrients examined and the risk of pancreatic cancer. Total intake of Ca (936 v. 1026 mg/d) and dietary intake of Mg (315 v. 331 mg/d) and phosphorus (1350 v. 1402 mg/d) were significantly lower in cases than in controls. After adjustment for confounders, there were not significant associations of total and dietary intakes of Ca, Mg and phosphorus with the risk of pancreatic cancer. In addition, no significant interactions exist between intakes of these minerals and total fat on pancreatic cancer risk. In conclusion, the present study does not suggest that intakes of Ca, Mg and phosphorus were significantly associated with the risk of pancreatic cancer.
To determine risk factors for carbapenemase-producing organisms (CPOs) and to determine the prognostic impact of CPOs.
A retrospective matched case–control study.
Inpatients across Scotland in 2010–2016 were included. Patients with a CPO were matched with 2 control groups by hospital, admission date, specimen type, and bacteria. One group comprised patients either infected or colonized with a non-CPO and the other group were general inpatients.
Conditional logistic regression models were used to identify risk factors for CPO infection and colonization, respectively. Mortality rates and length of postisolation hospitalization were compared between CPO and non-CPO patients.
In total, 70 CPO infection cases (with 210 general inpatient controls and 121 non-CPO controls) and 34 CPO colonization cases (with 102 general inpatient controls and 60 non-CPO controls) were identified. Risk factors for CPO infection versus general inpatients were prior hospital stay (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 4.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.52–10.78; P = .005), longer hospitalization (aOR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.04–1.10; P < .001), longer intensive care unit (ICU) stay (aOR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.01–1.98; P = .045), and immunodeficiency (aOR, 3.68; 95% CI, 1.16–11.66; P = .027). Risk factors for CPO colonization were prior high-dependency unit (HDU) stay (aOR, 11.46; 95% CI, 1.27–103.09; P = .030) and endocrine, nutritional, and metabolic (ENM) diseases (aOR, 3.41; 95% CI, 1.02–11.33; P = .046). Risk factors for CPO infection versus non-CPO infection were prolonged hospitalization (aOR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.00–1.03; P = .038) and HDU stay (aOR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.02–1.26; P = .024). No differences in mortality rates were detected between CPO and non-CPO patients. CPO infection was associated with longer hospital stay than non-CPO infection (P = .041).
A history of (prolonged) hospitalization, prolonged ICU or HDU stay; ENM diseases; and being immunocompromised increased risk for CPO. CPO infection was not associated with increased mortality but was associated with prolonged hospital stay.
Background: Quantitative evaluation of antibiotic spectrum is an important, underutilized metric in measuring antibiotic use (AU) and may assist antimicrobial stewards in identifying targets and strategy for intervention. We evaluated the spectrum of initial antibiotic choices by hospital location, day of the week, and time of day to determine whether these factors may be associated with broad-spectrum antibiotic choices. Methods: We identified all admissions with antibiotic exposure in medical and surgical wards and critical care units in a tertiary academic medical center between July 1, 2014, and July 1, 2019. The antibiotic spectrum index (ASI), proposed by Gerber et al, is a numeric score based on the number of pathogens covered by a particular agent. We defined ASI for initial antibiotic choice as follows: ASI for each unique antibiotic administered within 24 hours of the first antibiotic administration was summed and assigned to the administration time of the first dose. We categorized time into 4 distinct categories: weekday days (Monday–Friday, 7 a.m.–7 p.m.), weekday nights, weekend days, and weekend nights. Weekend time began 7 p.m. Friday and ended 7 a.m. Monday. We constructed heatmaps stratified by hospital location. Mann-Whitney U tests were applied to evaluate differences in the distributions of ASI using weekday days as a reference. Results: Data included 90,455 unique antibiotic admissions with initial antibiotic starts in medical and surgical wards and critical care units. Patterns of ASI for initial antibiotic choice varied between unit locations and time (Figs. 1 and 2). Mean and median ASIs for initial antibiotic choices were higher for medical ward and medical ICUs than for surgical wards and surgical ICUs. Initial antibiotic choices had higher ASIs during overnight hours for all units except the surgical ICU. Notable differences in ASIs were identified between weekday and weekend prescribing for surgical units, whereas medical units demonstrated less extreme differences. Conclusion: We observed a “weekend effect” across hospital units; the most extreme occurred in surgical wards. This observation may be due to differences in patient volume and rounding patterns. For example, hospitalist and critical care units have 7-day schedules, whereas surgical wards are highly influenced by operating room schedules. Antimicrobial stewardship teams may use these data to identify strategies targeting the most opportune time and place to intervene on the spectrum of initial antibiotic choice.
Background: In the state of Wisconsin, 3%–4% of bats submitted for rabies testing are positive. Inpatient bat encounters at 2 affiliated healthcare facilities at nearly the same time were brought to the attention of the infection prevention and control (IPC) team. The first bat was captured in a patient room and was submitted for testing. Postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) was initiated for 1 patient before the bat testing results came back negative. The second bat was found in a transplant unit hallway and was released before we could request testing. We observed significant variations in responses, including decision to administer PEP and submission of bats for rabies testing. The IPC team developed a protocol to minimize unnecessary PEP, to prevent nosocomial rabies infection from bat exposure, and to limit associated panic. Methods: A systematic literature review of multiple databases was performed. A search of nonscientific articles using Google was also performed to assess unpublished inpatient bat encounters. A workgroup was established including IPC staff, physicians, and facilities management. The county animal services department and the state public health department veterinarian were consulted to aid in development of a protocol. Results: Literature review yielded a single report of a bat discovered in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). A lack of protocol resulted in PEP administration to 7 neonates without observed exposure after the bat was released instead of being submitted for testing. Of the first 100 articles retrieved via Google search of “bat in hospital,” 9 pertained to nosocomial discovery of bats in 5 different states over the past 7 years. Encounters included infestations requiring unit shutdowns and PEP administration. One tertiary-care referral center reported 10 encounters per year but did not elaborate on associated procedures. The county animal services staff assisted in training maintenance and engineering services (MES) personnel on how to secure bats for testing and helped develop a “bat kit” with protective gear and equipment to do so safely. In the new protocol, an inpatient bat encounter prompts personnel to capture the bat and begin an investigation into known or potential occult exposure. Known or potential exposures merit submission of the bat for rabies testing, the results of which guide PEP recommendations. All encounters are investigated for point of entry or roost. Conclusions: Inpatient bat encounters are not uncommon. Encounters should prompt systematic assessment for exposures and an investigation of the root cause. Following a protocol may limit unnecessary PEP administration, prevent nosocomial transmission of rabies from bat to patient, and attenuate associated anxiety.
Incumbent city councillors have an almost insurmountable advantage in Canadian municipal elections. This article aims to improve our understanding of the municipal incumbency advantage by considering the ability of electors to correctly identify the two most competitive candidates in one's ward and the factors associated with being able to do so. Using survey data from the Canadian Municipal Election Study (CMES), we consider the case of the 2018 elections in Mississauga, a city with typically high rates of incumbent re-election. Survey respondents were asked to identify the two most competitive candidates in their local ward races. We find that comparatively few electors are able to recognize which challenger serves as the strongest threat to a sitting councillor, a finding that suggests that coordination problems may help to contribute to high rates of incumbent success. We identify several individual-level and ward-level correlates of correctly identifying the first-place and second-place finishers. We do note, however, that there is a significant amount of variation among the thousands of municipalities in Canada, so findings from this case should be tested in other settings, including larger or smaller cities where levels of information might be different.
The Fontan Outcomes Network was created to improve outcomes for children and adults with single ventricle CHD living with Fontan circulation. The network mission is to optimise longevity and quality of life by improving physical health, neurodevelopmental outcomes, resilience, and emotional health for these individuals and their families. This manuscript describes the systematic design of this new learning health network, including the initial steps in development of a national, lifespan registry, and pilot testing of data collection forms at 10 congenital heart centres.
Affect reactivity to stress may play a role in the development of internalizing symptoms during the college transition, a critical developmental juncture for Latinx adolescents, the largest ethnic minority group on college campuses. This study examined whether affect reactivity during high school is associated with internalizing symptoms in college and explored two potential protective factors, perceived family and peer support. Participants were 209 Latinx adolescents (Mage = 18.10; 64.4% female) who completed standard surveys and four diary assessments per day over 7 days (N > 4,500 momentary observations). First, to measure affect reactivity, we assessed whether perceived stress was associated with negative affect at the momentary level during high school (senior year). Second, we tested whether affect reactivity predicted internalizing symptoms during the first year of college. Third, we tested whether perceived family or peer support buffered the negative consequences of affect reactivity. Results indicated statistically significant within- and between-person associations between stress and negative affect. Moreover, affect reactivity significantly predicted depressive, but not anxiety, symptoms. Buffering was found for family, but not peer, support. Findings extend previous research by detecting associations between momentary affect reactivity and internalizing symptoms during a sociocultural shift in Latinx adolescents’ lives and have implications for culturally appropriate programs to prevent depressive symptoms.