To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The constructs now subsumed under the label “internalizing disorders” had garnered the attention of researchers and practitioners long before the recent terminology was coined in the 1980s. Spanning decades of research, intervention, and practice, this chapter describes childhood internalizing disorders by their traits and prevalence, and then highlights the important contribution of factor analysis in marking their scientific evolution. We learn how exposure of the underlying dimensionality of internalizing disorders, along with critical refinements to terminology, precipitated the identification of early (subsyndromal) symptoms of depression and anxiety, and paved the way for the development of assessment scales that would ultimately expand our ability to intervene with precision, refine research, develop methods for prevention, identify moderator variables, and discover the potential of universal screening. The chapter concludes by providing a brief sampler of tools currently in use by practitioners and schools for the treatment, reduction of symptoms, and prevention of internalizing disorders.
Barbiturates and benzodiazepines (BZDs) can relieve insomnia and high levels of anxiety. Effects of barbiturates are similar to that of alcohol. Barbiturate use entails risk of addiction, and death from accidental or suicidal overdose. In the 1970s, the safer BZDs became available. Like barbiturates, BZDs facilitate the neural inhibitory action of the neurotransmitter GABA, but are unlikely to produce pleasurable intoxication and are less addictive than barbiturates. BZDs can impair driving and increase the probability of accidental falls, especially when used concurrently with alcohol. Stopping extended intake of BZDs can result in a withdrawal syndrome of anxiety, insomnia, and a general feeling of malaise. Addiction to BZDs occurs most often in individuals with an SUD of another addictive drug. As a secondary drug of abuse, BZDs can potentiate the effects of opioid drugs or alcohol, and relieve the anxiety and agitation of addictive stimulant use. Newer drugs including zolpidem (Ambien), benzodiazepine-receptor agonists with little abuse potential that produce a brief hypnotic effect with little residual sedation the following day, are now most often used to treat insomnia.
Adults with significant childhood trauma and/or serious mental illness may exhibit persistent structural brain changes within limbic structures, including the amygdala. Little is known about the structure of the amygdala prior to the onset of SMI, despite the relatively high prevalence of trauma in at-risk youth.
Data were gathered from the Canadian Psychiatric Risk and Outcome study. A total of 182 youth with a mean age of 18.3 years completed T1-weighted MRI scans along with clinical assessments that included questionnaires on symptoms of depression and anxiety. Participants also completed the Childhood Trauma and Abuse Scale. We used a novel subfield-specific amygdala segmentation workflow as a part of FreeSurfer 6.0 to examine amygdala structure.
Participants with higher trauma scores were more likely to have smaller amygdala volumes, particularly within the basal regions. Among various types of childhood trauma, sexual and physical abuse had the largest effects on amygdala subregions. Abuse-related differences in the right basal region mediated the severity of depression and anxiety symptoms, even though no participants met criteria for clinical diagnosis at the time of assessment.
The experience of physical or sexual abuse may leave detectable structural alterations in key regions of the amygdala, potentially mediating the risk of psychopathology in trauma-exposed youth.
Originated in China in December 2019 Corona virus disease (COVID-19) has rapidly spread to around 216 countries in the world by May 2020. Dentists being at a higher risk of contacting the disease, the present study assessed the fear and anxiety among dental practitioners of COVID-19.
An online cross-sectional questionnaire survey comprising of nine questions was conducted among dental practitioners of Telangana. Age, gender, qualification, type of practice, years of practice, place of residence were the demographic variables recorded. The response to each question was recorded in a YES or NO format, mean fear score calculated to categorize into low and high levels of fear. Comparison of mean fear score was done using t- test for two variables and ANOVA for three or more than three variables. Multiple logistic regression analysis of the levels of fear with demographic variables was done. p<0.05 was considered statistically significant.
The mean fear and anxiety score of this study population reported was high 6.57 +2.07, with 58.31% of the population presenting with a low level of fear and anxiety. Only qualification (p=0.045)and gender (p=0.035) revealed a significant difference in fear to Q7and Q8 respectively. Irrespective of the age, gender, qualification, type of practice and years of practices the levels of fear reported in the present study was high similar. Respondents between 41- 60 yrs age (6.70+ 2.01) and those with individual practices (6.70+2.06) exhibited high level of fear score.
The present study demonstrates a cross sectional data of fear and anxiety among dental practitioners during the COVID-19 outbreak. Heightened levels of fear observed call for a nationwide analysis of fear among dentists and deliberate management strategies for the same.
Psychosocial factors have been implicated as both a cause and consequence of hypertension in the general population but are less understood in relation to hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP). The aims of this review were to (1) synthesize the existing literature examining associations between depression and/or anxiety in pregnancy and HDP and (2) assess if depression and/or anxiety in early pregnancy was a risk factor for HDP.
A comprehensive search of Medline, Embase, CINAHL, and PsycINFO was conducted from inception to March 2020 using terms related to ‘pregnancy’, ‘anxiety’, ‘depression’, and ‘hypertensive disorders’. English-language cohort and case-control studies were included if they reported: (a) the presence or absence of clinically significant symptoms of depression/anxiety, or a medical record diagnosis of depression or an anxiety disorder in pregnancy; (b) diagnosis of HDP; and/or (c) data comparing the depressed/anxious group to the non-depressed/anxious group on HDP. Data related to depression/anxiety, HDP, study characteristics, and aspects related to study quality were extracted independently by two reviewers. Random-effects meta-analyses of estimated pooled relative risks (RRs) were conducted for depression/anxiety in pregnancy and HDP.
In total, 6291 citations were retrieved, and 44 studies were included across 61.2 million pregnancies. Depression and/or anxiety were associated with HDP [RR = 1.39; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.25–1.54].
When measurement of anxiety or depression preceded diagnosis of hypertension, the association remained (RR = 1.27; 95% CI 1.07–1.50). Women experiencing depression or anxiety in pregnancy have an increased prevalence of HDP compared to their non-depressed or non-anxious counterparts.
Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is effective for most patients with a social anxiety disorder (SAD) but a substantial proportion fails to remit. Experimental and clinical research suggests that enhancing CBT using imagery-based techniques could improve outcomes. It was hypothesized that imagery-enhanced CBT (IE-CBT) would be superior to verbally-based CBT (VB-CBT) on pre-registered outcomes.
A randomized controlled trial of IE-CBT v. VB-CBT for social anxiety was completed in a community mental health clinic setting. Participants were randomized to IE (n = 53) or VB (n = 54) CBT, with 1-month (primary end point) and 6-month follow-up assessments. Participants completed 12, 2-hour, weekly sessions of IE-CBT or VB-CBT plus 1-month follow-up.
Intention to treat analyses showed very large within-treatment effect sizes on the social interaction anxiety at all time points (ds = 2.09–2.62), with no between-treatment differences on this outcome or clinician-rated severity [1-month OR = 1.45 (0.45, 4.62), p = 0.53; 6-month OR = 1.31 (0.42, 4.08), p = 0.65], SAD remission (1-month: IE = 61.04%, VB = 55.09%, p = 0.59); 6-month: IE = 58.73%, VB = 61.89%, p = 0.77), or secondary outcomes. Three adverse events were noted (substance abuse, n = 1 in IE-CBT; temporary increase in suicide risk, n = 1 in each condition, with one being withdrawn at 1-month follow-up).
Group IE-CBT and VB-CBT were safe and there were no significant differences in outcomes. Both treatments were associated with very large within-group effect sizes and the majority of patients remitted following treatment.
The perinatal period is a vulnerable time for the development of psychopathology, particularly mood and anxiety disorders. In the study of maternal anxiety, important questions remain regarding the association between maternal anxiety symptoms and subsequent child outcomes. This study examined the association between depressive and anxiety symptoms, namely social anxiety, panic, and agoraphobia disorder symptoms during the perinatal period and maternal perception of child behavior, specifically different facets of development and temperament. Participants (N = 104) were recruited during pregnancy from a community sample. Participants completed clinician-administered and self-report measures of depressive and anxiety symptoms during the third trimester of pregnancy and at 16 months postpartum; child behavior and temperament outcomes were assessed at 16 months postpartum. Child development areas included gross and fine motor skills, language and problem-solving abilities, and personal/social skills. Child temperament domains included surgency, negative affectivity, and effortful control. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses demonstrated that elevated prenatal social anxiety symptoms significantly predicted more negative maternal report of child behavior across most measured domains. Elevated prenatal social anxiety and panic symptoms predicted more negative maternal report of child effortful control. Depressive and agoraphobia symptoms were not significant predictors of child outcomes. Elevated anxiety symptoms appear to have a distinct association with maternal report of child development and temperament. Considering the relative influence of anxiety symptoms, particularly social anxiety, on maternal report of child behavior and temperament can help to identify potential difficulties early on in mother–child interactions as well as inform interventions for women and their families.
Smoking rates in people with depression and anxiety are twice as high as in the general population, even though people with depression and anxiety are motivated to stop smoking. Most healthcare professionals are aware that stopping smoking is one of the greatest changes that people can make to improve their health. However, smoking cessation can be a difficult topic to raise. Evidence suggests that smoking may cause some mental health problems, and that the tobacco withdrawal cycle partly contributes to worse mental health. By stopping smoking, a person's mental health may improve, and the size of this improvement might be equal to taking antidepressants. In this article we outline ways in which healthcare professionals can compassionately and respectfully raise the topic of smoking to encourage smoking cessation. We draw on evidence-based methods such as cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) and outline approaches that healthcare professionals can use to integrate these methods into routine care to help their patients stop smoking.
Prior theory and research has implicated disgust as relevant to some, but not all phobias.
The current study examined whether anxiety sensitivity is more relevant to certain specific phobias and whether disgust sensitivity is more relevant to other specific phobias.
Participants (n = 201) completed measures of anxiety sensitivity, disgust sensitivity and measures of aversive reactions in the presence of two fear-relevant stimuli (i.e. heights and small, enclosed spaces) and two disgust-relevant stimuli (i.e. spiders and blood/injury).
Results of multiple linear regression analyses revealed that disgust sensitivity showed significant associations with aversive reactions in all four stimulus domains after controlling for anxiety sensitivity. After controlling for disgust sensitivity, anxiety sensitivity showed associations with the two fear-relevant phobias but not with the two disgust-relevant phobias included in this study. Anxiety sensitivity also showed an association with variance specific to one of the two fear-relevant specific phobias included in the study. Disgust sensitivity also showed associations with variance specific to both of the disgust-relevant phobias included in the study but not with variance specific to either of the fear-relevant specific phobias.
These results provide evidence that the distinction between fear-relevant and disgust-relevant specific phobias is meaningful and also implicate disgust sensitivity as relevant to aversive reactions to all stimuli included in this study.
Generalised anxiety disorder and symptoms are associated with poor physical, emotional and social functioning and frequent primary and acute care visits. We investigated recent temporal trends in anxiety and related mental illness in UK general practice.
The aims of this analysis are to examine temporal changes in recording of generalised anxiety in primary care and initial pharmacologic treatments.
Annual incidence rates of generalised anxiety diagnoses and symptoms were calculated from 795 UK general practices contributing to The Health Improvement Network (THIN) database between 1998 and 2018. Poisson mixed regression was used to account for age, gender and general practitioner practice. Subsequent pharmacologic treatment was examined.
Generalised anxiety recording rates increased in both genders aged 18–24 between 2014 and 2018. For women, the increase was from 17.06 to 23.33/1000 person years at risk (PYAR); for men, 8.59 to 11.65/1000 PYAR. Increases persisted for a composite of anxiety and depression (49.74 to 57.81/1000 PYAR for women; 25.41 to 31.45/1000 PYAR for men). Smaller increases in anxiety were seen in both genders age 25–34 and 35–44. Anxiety rates among older patients remained stable, although a composite of anxiety and depression decreased for older women. About half of drug-naïve patients were prescribed anxiety drugs within 1 year following diagnosis. The most common choice was a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. Benzodiazepine prescription rate has fallen steadily.
We observed a substantial increase in general practitioner consulting for generalised anxiety and depression recently, concentrated within younger people and in particular women.
The Geriatric Anxiety Inventory (GAI) and its short form (GAI-SF) are self-reported scales used internationally to assess anxiety symptoms in older adults. In this study, we conducted the first critical comprehensive review of these scales’ psychometric properties. We rated the quality of 31 relevant studies with the COSMIN checklist. Both the GAI and GAI-SF showed adequate internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Convergent validity indices were highest with generalized anxiety measures; lowest with instruments relating to somatic symptoms. We detected substantial overlap with depression measures. While there was no consensus on the GAI’s factorial structure, we found the short version to be unidimensional. Although we found good sensitivity and specificity for detecting anxiety, cut-off scores varied. The GAI and GAI-SF are relevant instruments showing satisfactory psychometric properties; to broaden their use, however, some psychometric properties warrant closer examination. This review calls attention to weaknesses in the methodological quality of the studies.
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is characterized by anxiety regarding social situations, avoidance of external social stimuli, and negative self-beliefs. Virtual reality self-training (VRS) at home may be a good interim modality for reducing social fears before formal treatment. This study aimed to find neurobiological evidence for the therapeutic effect of VRS.
Fifty-two patients with SAD were randomly assigned to a VRS or waiting list (WL) group. The VRS group received an eight-session VRS program for 2 weeks, whereas the WL group received no intervention. Clinical assessments and functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning with the distress and speech evaluation tasks were repeatedly performed at baseline and after 3 weeks.
The post-VRS assessment showed significantly decreased anxiety and avoidance scores, distress index, and negative evaluation index for ‘self’, but no change in the negative evaluation index for ‘other’. Patients showed significant responses to the distress task in various regions, including both sides of the prefrontal regions, occipital regions, insula, and thalamus, and to the speech evaluation task in the bilateral anterior cingulate cortex. Among these, significant neuronal changes after VRS were observed only in the right lingual gyrus and left thalamus.
VRS-induced improvements in the ability to pay attention to social stimuli without avoidance and even positively modulate emotional cues are based on functional changes in the visual cortices and thalamus. Based on these short-term neuronal changes, VRS can be a first intervention option for individuals with SAD who avoid society or are reluctant to receive formal treatment.
Questions have been raised regarding differences in the standards of care that patients receive when they are admitted to or discharged from in-patient units at weekends.
To compare the quality of care received by patients with anxiety and depressive disorders who were admitted to or discharged from psychiatric hospital at weekends with those admitted or discharged during the ‘working week’.
Retrospective case-note review of 3795 admissions to in-patient psychiatric wards in England. Quality of care received by people with depressive or anxiety disorders was compared using multivariable regression analyses.
In total, 795 (20.9%) patients were admitted at weekends and 157 (4.8%) were discharged at weekends. There were minimal differences in quality of care between those admitted at weekends and those admitted during the week. Patients discharged at weekends were less likely to be given sufficient notification (48 h) in advance of being discharged (OR = 0.55, 95% CI 0.39–0.78), to have a crisis plan in place (OR = 0.65, 95% CI 0.46–0.92) or to be given medication to take home (OR = 0.45, 95% CI 0.30–0.66). They were also less likely to have been assessed using a validated outcome measure (OR = 0.70, 95% CI 0.50–0.97).
There is no evidence of a ‘weekend effect’ for patients admitted to psychiatric hospital at weekends, but the quality of care offered to those who were discharged at weekends was relatively poor, highlighting the need for improvement in this area.
In this article, I provide an analysis of the widespread, intellectually fascinating, and existentially challenging phenomenon of self-reflexive anxiety in which we feel threatened by what or who we are (or have been or will become). I focus on those cases in which we take an event or action whose possible occurrence we attribute to ourselves to be expressive or constitutive of our identity. As I argue, depending on the kind of event we are dealing with, our descriptive self-conception, our self-esteem, or our evaluative self-conception are at stake. In all cases, we are confronted with a dialectic between self and other, activity and passivity inherent in our personhood or even in our agency. I demonstrate how my analysis is not only of intrinsic value, but it can also help us in achieving a better understanding of self-reflexive emotions in general and ‘traditional’ self-reflexive emotions like shame in particular.
The aim of this chapter is to highlight the impact of trauma and intervention with Palestinian children. A reanalysis of secondary data of previous work in the field using the words trauma, Palestinians, intervention, PTSD, anxiety, depression, Gaza Strip, and West Bank was entered in web-based research databases including Medline, PsycINFO, and Scholar Portal. The severity of traumatic events is changing and the types of traumatic experiences now include seeing mutilated bodies on TV, hearing and seeing shelling, exposure to sonic bombs, and witnessing home bombardment and demolition. PTSD prevalence ranged in children from 10 percent to 71 percent while the rate of PTSD in the West Bank ranged from 35 percent to 36 percent. The rate of anxiety ranged from 28.5 percent to 33.9 percent, and depression ranged from 40 percent in children of Gaza and the West Bank to 50.6 percent. The general mental health of children rated by parents and teachers was 20.9 percent and 31.8 percent. Studies showed risk factors that interfered with well-being such as being a boy, living in a large family, low socioeconomic status of the family, exposure to domestic and political violence, and being an orphaned child. Other risk factors included children in the labor force, with physical problems, and living near the border areas. Intervention studies had equivocal results when using psychodrama, school mediation, writing for recovery, and teaching children recovery techniques. This review showed that Palestinian children’s exposure to war and conflict leads to negative outcomes including mental health problems that triggered the start of community intervention programs. These programs did not change the negative impact of trauma, which highlights the need to find other ways to protect children in Palestine and help them cope with their daily life adversities and war.
The 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, with its associated restrictions on daily life, is like a perfect storm for poor mental health and wellbeing. The purpose of this study was therefore to examine the impacts of COVID-19 on mental health and wellbeing during the ongoing pandemic in Sweden.
Standardized measures of depression, anxiety, and insomnia as well as measures of risk and vulnerability factors known to be associated with poor mental health outcomes were administered through a national, online, cross-sectional survey (n = 1,212; mean age 36.1 years; 73% women).
Our findings show significant levels of depression, anxiety, and insomnia in Sweden, at rates of 30%, 24.2%, and 38%, respectively. The strongest predictors of these outcomes included poor self-rated overall health and a history of mental health problems. The presence of COVID-19 symptoms and specific health and financial worries related to the pandemic also appeared important.
The impacts of COVID-19 on mental health in Sweden are comparable to impacts shown in previous studies in Italy and China. Importantly, the pandemic seems to impose most on the mental health of those already burdened with the impacts of mental health problems. These results provide a basis for providing more support for vulnerable groups, and for developing psychological interventions suited to the ongoing pandemic and for similar events in the future.
Recently published diagnostic criteria for mild cognitive impairment with Lewy bodies (MCI-LB) include five neuropsychiatric supportive features (non-visual hallucinations, systematised delusions, apathy, anxiety and depression). We have previously demonstrated that the presence of two or more of these symptoms differentiates MCI-LB from MCI due to Alzheimer's disease (MCI-AD) with a likelihood ratio >4. The aim of this study was to replicate the findings in an independent cohort.
Participants ⩾60 years old with MCI were recruited. Each participant had a detailed clinical, cognitive and imaging assessment including FP-CIT SPECT and cardiac MIBG. The presence of neuropsychiatric supportive symptoms was determined using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI). Participants were classified as MCI-AD, possible MCI-LB and probable MCI-LB based on current diagnostic criteria. Participants with possible MCI-LB were excluded from further analysis.
Probable MCI-LB (n = 28) had higher NPI total and distress scores than MCI-AD (n = 30). In total, 59% of MCI-LB had two or more neuropsychiatric supportive symptoms compared with 9% of MCI-AD (likelihood ratio 6.5, p < 0.001). MCI-LB participants also had a significantly greater delayed recall and a lower Trails A:Trails B ratio than MCI-AD.
MCI-LB is associated with significantly greater neuropsychiatric symptoms than MCI-AD. The presence of two or more neuropsychiatric supportive symptoms as defined by MCI-LB diagnostic criteria is highly specific and moderately sensitive for a diagnosis of MCI-LB. The cognitive profile of MCI-LB differs from MCI-AD, with greater executive and lesser memory impairment, but these differences are not sufficient to differentiate MCI-LB from MCI-AD.
This study sought to compare the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Subscale (HADS-D) and Brief Edinburgh Depression Scale (BEDS) as case-finding tools of major depressive disorder in patients with advanced cancer in a palliative care service.
An observational study was performed which included patients with advanced cancer who attended the palliative care service at the National Institute of Cancer in Mexico. Patients were asked to fill out the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and BEDS and were then assessed by a psychiatrist to evaluate major depressive disorder (MDD) as per the DSM-5 criteria. The case-finding capability of each scale was determined using receiver operating characteristic curves, assessing the area under the curve (AUC) in comparison to the clinical diagnosis.
Eighty-nine patients were included; median age was 57 years, and 71% were female. Among these, 19 patients were diagnosed with MDD during the interview. When comparing the self-reported scales, BEDS had a better performance compared with HADS-D (AUC 0.8541 vs. 0.7665). Limitations include a heterogeneous population and a limited sample size.
Significance of results
The BEDS outperformed the HADS-D tool in discriminating patients with and without depression. A BEDS cutoff value of ≥5 is suggested as a case-finding score for depression in this population.