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Insomnia is a common major health concern, which causes significant distress and disruption in a person's life. The objective of this paper was to evaluate a 6-week version of Mindfulness-Based Therapy for Insomnia (MBTI) in a sample of people attending a sleep disorders clinic with insomnia, including those with comorbidities. Thirty participants who met the DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of insomnia participated in a 6-week group intervention. Outcome measures were a daily sleep diary and actigraphy during pre-treatment and follow-up, along with subjective sleep outcomes collected at baseline, end-of-treatment, and 3-month follow-up. Trend analyses showed that MBTI was associated with a large decrease in insomnia severity (p < .001), with indications of maintenance of treatment effect. There were significant improvements in objective sleep parameters, including sleep onset latency (p = .005), sleep efficiency (p = .033), and wake after sleep onset (p = .018). Significant improvements in subjective sleep parameters were also observed for sleep efficiency (p = .005) and wake after sleep onset (p < .001). Overall, this study indicated that MBTI can be successfully delivered in a sleep disorders clinic environment, with evidence of treatment effect for both objective and subjective measures of sleep.
We investigated (a) whether psychosocial factors (experienced stress, anticipatory worry, social detachment, sleeping disturbances, alcohol use) predict the course of paranoid ideation between the ages of 24 to 50 years and (b) whether the predictive relationships are more likely to proceed from the psychosocial factors to paranoid ideation, or vice versa. The participants (N = 1534–1553) came from the population-based Young Finns study. Paranoid ideation and psychosocial factors were assessed by reliable self-report questionnaires in 2001, 2007, and 2011/2012. The data were analyzed using growth curve and structural equation models. High experienced stress, anticipatory worry, social detachment, frequent sleeping disturbances, and frequent alcohol use predicted more paranoid ideation. More risk factors predicted increasing paranoid ideation. There were bidirectional predictive relationships of paranoid ideation with experienced stress, anticipatory worry, social detachment, and sleeping disturbances. The link between alcohol use and paranoid ideation was only correlative. In conclusion, paranoid ideation increases by reciprocal interactions with stress, worry, social detachment, and sleeping disturbances. The findings support the threat–anticipation model of paranoid ideation, providing important implications for treatment of paranoia.
To characterize sleep and associated factors to their inadequacy, mainly social behaviour and food consumption of children and adolescents.
Sleep information, social behaviour (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire), food consumption, demography, nutritional status, lifestyle and biochemical tests were investigated. Participants: Schoolchildren of the 4th grade of the municipal school system of a large Brazilian city.
A total of 797 schoolchildren, 50.9% was female, median of 9.7 (9.5-10.0) y old and energy consumption of 1819.7 (1429.9-2334.2) kcal. It was identified 31.6% of overweight and 76.8% reported insufficient weekly practice of physical activity. It was observed a median of 9.6 (8.9-10.5) h of sleep (lower values on weekdays: 9.3 vs 10.5h, P<0.001). In addition, 27% of individuals with inadequate sleep (<9h) enjoy longer screen time daily (≥2h/day) (P=0.05), inadequate bedtime (>22h) or adequate wake-up time (5-7h), study in the morning (P<0.001) and never take a shower before school (P<0.001). There was 9.9% of the sample with poor and very poor sleep quality and a greater probability of always sleep talking, have difficulty getting to sleep and inadequate social behaviour between these in relation to those with positive quality of sleep. There was no association of sleep with the other variables investigated.
Sleep impairment contributed to changes in sleep and social behaviour in schoolchildren. The findings of this study may reinforce the importance of developing actions to promote adequate sleep and lifestyle at school age.
Sleep disturbances are common in people with dementia and increase with the severity of the disease. Sleep disturbances are complex and caused by several factors and are difficult to treat. There is a need for more robust and systematic studies dealing with sleep disturbances in older people with dementia. The aim of this study was to investigate effects from robot-assisted (Paro) group activity on sleep patterns in nursing home (NH) residents with dementia.
A cluster randomized controlled trial.
Special care units in 10 NH in Norway.
A total of 60 participants over 65 years with dementia were recruited. Thirty participants were recruited to the intervention group and 30 participants to the control group.
Participants participated in group activity with Paro for 30 minutes twice a week over 12 weeks or in control group (treatment as usual).
Sleep–wake patterns were assessed objectively by 7 days of wrist actigraphy before and after the intervention. Data were collected between March 2013 and September 2014. Data were analyzed using mixed models.
Positive effects on change in sleep were found in the intervention group as compared with the control group. The intervention group increased percentage of sleep efficiency, increased the amount of total sleep time and reduced number of nocturnal awakenings. In addition, a significant effect was found in reduced awakenings after sleep onset.
Social stimulation through engaging group activity could contribute to improved sleep in people with dementia in NH. Increased sleep efficiency and total sleep time, in addition to fewer night awakenings, affect central indicators of good sleep quality across the life span. Improved sleep quality will also affect quality of life and comorbidities in vulnerable groups. We believe group activity with Paro to be an accessible and feasible non-pharmacological treatment for those who enjoy Paro.
To explore the association between behavioural characteristics with the prevalence of abdominal obesity (AO) among a population of Southern Brazilian shift working women.
A cross-sectional study was conducted. AO was estimated using waist circumference (WC), and it was used to classify women as having AO (WC ≥ 88 cm). Prevalence ratios were estimated using Poisson regression with robust variance.
A large plastic utensils company in Southern Brazil.
450 female shift workers.
The prevalence of the AO in the women shift workers was 44·5 % (95 % CI 40·0, 49·2 %). In night shift workers, the prevalence of AO was 56·1 % compared with 40·9 % among hybrid shift workers. After adjustments for covariates, women who were current smokers had a decrease in the prevalence of AO compared with those who never smoked. Women who had three or fewer meals per day had a 46 % increase in the AO prevalence compared with those eating more frequent meals. Night shift work was associated with increase in AO prevalence compared with hybrid shift (PR 1·33; 95 % CI: 1·08, 1·64).
Our findings indicate that behavioural characteristics are associated with a high prevalence of AO in female shift workers, thus suggesting that behavioural modifications among women working shifts, such as increase in meal frequency and physical activity, may reduce AO.
Bipolar disorder (BD) is linked to circadian rhythm disruptions resulting in aberrant motor activity patterns. We aimed to explore whether motor activity alone, as assessed by longitudinal actigraphy, can be used to classify accurately BD patients and healthy controls (HCs) into their respective groups.
Ninety-day actigraphy records from 25 interepisode BD patients (ie, Montgomery–Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) < 15) and 25 sex- and age-matched HCs were used in order to identify latent actigraphic biomarkers capable of discriminating between BD patients and HCs. Mean values and time variations of a set of standard actigraphy features were analyzed and further validated using the random forest classifier.
Using all actigraphy features, this method correctly assigned 88% (sensitivity = 85%, specificity = 91%) of BD patients and HCs to their respective group. The classification success may be confounded by differences in employment between BD patients and HCs. When motor activity features resistant to the employment status were used (the strongest feature being time variation of intradaily variability, Cohen’s d = 1.33), 79% of the subjects (sensitivity = 76%, specificity = 81%) were correctly classified.
A machine-learning actigraphy-based model was capable of distinguishing between interepisode BD patients and HCs solely on the basis of motor activity. The classification remained valid even when features influenced by employment status were omitted. The findings suggest that temporal variability of actigraphic parameters may provide discriminative power for differentiating between BD patients and HCs while being less affected by employment status.
There is increasing evidence of a strong association between sleep and mental health in both adolescents and adults. CBT for insomnia is being applied to good effect with adults with mental health difficulties but there are few studies examining its applicability to adolescents within mental health services.
We carried out a case series analysis (n = 15) looking at the feasibility, accessibility and impact of a low-intensity sleep intervention for young people (14–25 years) being seen by a secondary care Youth Mental Health team in the UK. The intervention was based on cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia (CBTi) and acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) approaches and involved six individual sessions delivered on a weekly basis by a graduate psychologist. Routine outcome measures were used to monitor insomnia, psychological distress and functioning with assessments at baseline, session 3, session 6 and at 4 weeks after end of intervention. All participants scored in the clinical range for insomnia at the start of the study.
High uptake, attendance and measure completion rates were observed. Large effect sizes were observed for insomnia, psychological distress and functioning. Twelve of the fifteen participants (80%) no longer scored above threshold for insomnia at follow-up. All seven under-18s no longer met threshold for clinical ‘caseness’ on the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS) at follow-up.
The findings suggest that the intervention was well accepted by young people and feasible to apply within a secondary care setting. Strong effect sizes are encouraging but are probably inflated by the small sample size, uncontrolled design and unblinded assessments.
To examine whether bedtime is associated with usual sleep duration and eating behaviour among adolescents, emerging adults and young adults.
Cross-sectional multivariable regression models, stratified by developmental stage, to examine: (1) association between bedtime and sleep duration and (2) associations between bedtime and specific eating behaviours at each developmental period, controlling for sleep duration. All models adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, depressive symptoms and screen time behaviours.
National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, waves I–IV, USA.
A national probability sample surveyed in adolescence (aged 12–18 years, wave I: 1994–1995, n 13 048 and wave II: 1996, n 9438), emerging adulthood (aged 18–24 years, wave III: 2001–2002, n 9424) and young adulthood (aged 24–34 years, wave IV: 2008, n 10 410).
Later bedtime was associated with shorter sleep duration in all developmental stages, such that a 1-h delay in bedtime was associated with 14–33 fewer minutes of sleep per night (Ps < 0·001). Later bedtime was also associated with lower odds of consuming healthier foods (i.e. fruits, vegetables; range of adjusted OR (AOR), 0·82–0·93, Ps < 0·05) and higher odds of consuming less healthy foods and beverages (i.e. soda, pizza, desserts and sweets; range of AOR, 1·07–1·09, Ps < 0·05). Later bedtime was also associated with more frequent fast-food consumption and higher sugar-sweetened beverage consumption (Ps < 0·05).
Later bedtime was associated with shorter sleep duration and less healthy eating behaviours. Bedtime may be a novel behaviour to address in interventions aiming to improve sleep duration and dietary intake.
To investigate the association between energy drink (ED) use and sleep-related disturbances in a population-based sample of young adults from the Raine Study.
Analysis of cross-sectional data obtained from self-administered questionnaires to assess ED use and sleep disturbance (Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire (FOSQ-10) and the Pittsburgh Sleep Symptoms Questionnaire–Insomnia (PSSQ-I)). Regression modelling was used to estimate the effect of ED use on sleep disturbances. All models adjusted for various potential confounders.
Males and females, aged 22 years, from Raine Study Gen2–22 year follow-up.
Of the 1115 participants, 66 % were never/rare users (i.e. <once/month) of ED, 17·0 % were occasional users (i.e. >once/month to <once/week) and 17 % were frequent users (≥once/week). Compared with females, a greater proportion of males used ED occasionally (19 % v. 15 %) or frequently (24 % v. 11 %). Among females, frequent ED users experienced significantly higher symptoms of daytime sleepiness (FOSQ-10: β = 0·93, 95 % CI 0·32, 1·54, P = 0·003) and were five times more likely to experience insomnia (PSSQ-I: OR = 5·10, 95 % CI 1·81, 14·35, P = 0·002) compared with never/rare users. No significant associations were observed in males for any sleep outcomes.
We found a positive association between ED use and sleep disturbances in young adult females. Given the importance of sleep for overall health, and ever-increasing ED use, intervention strategies are needed to curb ED use in young adults, particularly females. Further research is needed to determine causation and elucidate reasons for gender-specific findings.
Poor post-prandial glucose control is a risk factor for multiple health conditions. The second-meal effect refers to the progressively improved glycaemic control with repeated feedings, an effect which is achievable with protein ingestion at the initial eating occasion. The most pronounced glycaemic response each day therefore typically occurs following breakfast, so the present study investigated whether ingesting protein during the night could improve glucose control at the first meal of the day. In a randomised crossover design, fifteen adults (seven males, eight females; age, 22 (sd 3) years; BMI, 24·0 (sd 2·8) kg/m2; fasting blood glucose, 4·9 (sd 0·5) mmol/l) woke at 04.00 (sd 1) hours to ingest 300 ml water with or without 63 g whey protein. Participants then completed a mixed-macronutrient meal tolerance test (1 g carbohydrate/kg body mass, 2356 (sd 435) kJ), 5 h 39 min following the nocturnal feeding. Nocturnal protein ingestion increased the glycaemic response (incremental AUC) to breakfast by 43·5 (sd 55·5) mmol × 120 min/l (P = 0·009, d = 0·94). Consistent with this effect, individual peak blood glucose concentrations were 0·6 (sd 1·0) mmol/l higher following breakfast when protein had been ingested (P = 0·049, d = 0·50). Immediately prior to breakfast, rates of lipid oxidation were 0·02 (sd 0·03) g/min higher (P = 0·045) in the protein condition, followed by an elevated post-prandial energy expenditure (0·38 (sd 0·50) kJ/min, P = 0·018). Post-prandial appetite and energy intake were similar between conditions. The present study reveals a paradoxical second-meal phenomenon whereby nocturnal whey protein feeding impaired subsequent glucose tolerance, whilst increasing post-prandial energy expenditure.
Social jetlag (SJ) occurs when sleep-timing irregularities from social or occupational demands conflict with endogenous sleep–wake rhythms. SJ is associated with evening chronotype and poor mental health, but mechanisms supporting this link remain unknown. Impaired ability to retrieve extinction memory is an emotion regulatory deficit observed in some psychiatric illnesses. Thus, SJ-dependent extinction memory deficits may provide a mechanism for poor mental health. To test this, healthy male college students completed 7–9 nights of actigraphy, sleep questionnaires, and a fear conditioning and extinction protocol. As expected, greater SJ, but not total sleep time discrepancy, was associated with poorer extinction memory. Unexpectedly, greater SJ was associated with a tendency toward morning rather than evening chronotype. These findings suggest that deficient extinction memory represents a potential mechanism linking SJ to psychopathology and that SJ is particularly problematic for college students with a greater tendency toward a morning chronotype.
Cognitive deficits affect a significant proportion of patients with bipolar disorder (BD). Problems with sustained attention have been found independent of mood state and the causes are unclear. We aimed to investigate whether physical parameters such as activity levels, sleep, and body mass index (BMI) may be contributing factors.
Forty-six patients with BD and 42 controls completed a battery of neuropsychological tests and wore a triaxial accelerometer for 21 days which collected information on physical activity, sleep, and circadian rhythm. Ex-Gaussian analyses were used to characterise reaction time distributions. We used hierarchical regression analyses to examine whether physical activity, BMI, circadian rhythm, and sleep predicted variance in the performance of cognitive tasks.
Neither physical activity, BMI, nor circadian rhythm predicted significant variance on any of the cognitive tasks. However, the presence of a sleep abnormality significantly predicted a higher intra-individual variability of the reaction time distributions on the Attention Network Task.
This study suggests that there is an association between sleep abnormalities and cognition in BD, with little or no relationship with physical activity, BMI, and circadian rhythm.
Daytime sleepiness is associated with multiple negative outcomes in older adults receiving long-term services and supports (LTSS) including reduced cognitive performance, need for greater assistance with activities of daily living and decreased social engagement. The purpose of this study was to identify predictors of change in subjective daytime sleepiness among older adults during their first 2 years of receiving LTSS.
Design and Setting:
Secondary analysis of data from a prospective longitudinal study of older adults who received LTSS in their homes, assisted living communities or nursing homes interviewed at baseline and every 3 months for 24 months.
470 older adults (60 years and older) newly enrolled in LTSS (mean = 81, SD = 8.7; range 60–98; 71% women).
Subjective daytime sleepiness was assessed every 3 months through 2 years using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Multiple validated measures were used to capture health-related quality of life characteristics of enrollees and their environment, including symptom status (Symptom Bother Scale), cognition (Mini Mental Status Exam), physical function (Basic Activities of Daily Living), physical and mental general health, quality of life (Dementia Quality of Life, D-QoL), depressive symptoms (Geriatric Depression Scale) and social support (Medical Outcomes Survey-Social Support).
Longitudinal mixed effects modeling was used to examine the relationship between independent variables and continuous measure of daytime sleepiness. Increased feelings of belonging, subscale of the D-QoL (effect size = −0.006, 95% CI: −0.013 to −0.0001, p = 0.045) and higher number of depressive symptoms (effect size = −0.002, 95% CI: −0.004 to −0.001, p = 0.001) at baseline were associated with slower rates of increase in daytime sleepiness over time.
Comprehensive baseline and longitudinal screening for changes in daytime sleepiness along with depression and perceived quality of life should be used to inform interventions aimed at reducing daytime sleepiness among older adults receiving LTSS.
Emotional experiences are often more likely than neutral experiences to be remembered, or to be retrieved richly. In this chapter, we provide an overview of how the effects of emotion arise, emphasizing the effects that operate during the initial experience of the event (encoding), the storage and stabilization of the memory trace for that experience (consolidation), and the accessing of that trace (retrieval). We discuss how these effects of emotion can explain both why emotion enhances many aspects of memory throughout the adult life span and also why there are often age-by-valence interactions in memory, with older adults remembering information more positively than younger adults.
We aimed to examine the association of recovery from work and sleep with workers’ dietary habits.
Cross-sectional study. Need for recovery (NFR) from work was assessed with a validated questionnaire. Sleep was assessed with five questions from the Nordic Sleep Questionnaire and sleep quality question. Dietary habits were estimated using a validated sixteen food groups-containing questionnaire. Ordered logistic regression was used to explore the associations of NFR and sleep with dietary habits adjusted for age, education, marital status, work schedule, working full or part time and occupation.
Follow-up visits of type 2 diabetes prevention study cohort in a Finnish airline company
The study included 737 men and 605 women.
Poor recovery from work was associated with a higher eating frequency (OR = 1·03, 95 % CI 1·00, 1·06), higher intake of fast food (OR = 1·05, 95 % CI 1·02, 1·08) and sweets (OR = 1·05, 95 % CI 1·02, 1·08) as well as lower intake of vegetables (OR = 0·96, 95 % CI 0·93, 0·98) and fruits (OR = 0·96, 95 % CI 0·93, 0·98) among men. In women, poor recovery from work was associated with higher fast food (OR = 1·06, 95 % CI 1·02, 1·09) and desserts consumption (OR = 1·04, 95 % CI 1·00, 1·07). Among men and women, sleep problems were associated with higher eating frequency (men: OR = 1·04, 95 % CI 1·00, 1·07, women: OR = 1·06, 95 % CI 1·02, 1·11), consumption of fast food (men: OR = 1·07, 95 % CI 1·04, 1·11, women: OR = 1·06, 95 % CI 1·02, 1·10) and sweets (men: OR = 1·05, 95 % CI 1·01, 1·08, women: OR = 1·04, 95 % CI 1·00, 1·08).
Poor recovery from work and sleep problems were associated with unfavourable dietary habits especially in men.
Prazosin has been an accepted treatment for patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) who experience sleep disturbances, including nightmares. Results of a recent large randomized control trial did not find benefit of prazosin vs placebo in improving such outcomes. A meta-analysis that includes this most recent trial was conducted to examine the pooled effect of prazosin vs placebo on sleep disturbances and overall PTSD symptoms in patients with PTSD.
A systematic review of the published literature on trials comparing prazosin vs placebo for improvement of overall PTSD scores, nightmares, and sleep quality was conducted. Hedges’ g standardized mean differences (SMD) between prazosin and placebo were calculated for each outcome across studies.
Six randomized placebo-controlled studies representing 429 patients were included in the analysis, including two studies with a crossover design. Results showed prazosin significantly improved overall PTSD scores (SMD = −0.31; 95% confidence intervals [CI]: −0.62, −0.01), nightmares (SMD = −0.75; 95% CI: −1.24, −0.27), and sleep quality (SMD = −0.57; 95% CI: −1.02, −0.13). In the largest trial, prazosin showed a reduction in clinical outcome measures similar to past studies, but a relatively large placebo effect size, particularly for nightmares, contributed to no treatment differences.
Despite the results of a recent, large randomized study, pooled effect estimates show that prazosin has a statistically significant benefit on PTSD symptoms and sleep disturbances. Limitations that should be considered include heterogeneity of study design and study populations as well as the small number of studies conducted and included in this meta-analysis.
Mood instability and sleep disturbance are common symptoms in people with mental illness. Both features are clinically important and associated with poorer illness trajectories. We compared clinical outcomes in people presenting to secondary mental health care with mood instability and/or sleep disturbance with outcomes in people without either mood instability or sleep disturbance.
Data were from electronic health records of 31,391 patients ages 16–65 years presenting to secondary mental health services between 2008 and 2016. Mood instability and sleep disturbance were identified using natural language processing. Prevalence of mood instability and sleep disturbance were estimated at baseline. Incidence rate ratios were estimates for clinical outcomes including psychiatric diagnoses, prescribed medication, and hospitalization within 2-years of presentation in persons with mood instability and/or sleep disturbance compared to individuals without either symptom.
Mood instability was present in 9.58%, and sleep disturbance in 26.26% of patients within 1-month of presenting to secondary mental health services. Compared with individuals without either symptom, those with mood instability and sleep disturbance showed significantly increased incidence of prescription of any psychotropic medication (incidence rate ratios [IRR] = 7.04, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 6.53–7.59), and hospitalization (IRR = 5.32, 95% CI 5.32, 4.67–6.07) within 2-years of presentation. Incidence rates of most clinical outcomes were considerably increased among persons with both mood instability and sleep disturbance, relative to persons with only one symptom.
Mood instability and sleep disturbance are present in a wide range of mental disorders, beyond those in which they are conventionally considered to be symptoms. They are associated with poor outcomes, particularly when they occur together. The poor prognosis associated with mood instability and sleep disorder may be, in part, because they are often treated as secondary symptoms. Mood instability and sleep disturbance need better recognition as clinical targets for treatment in their own right.
Sleep disturbance is common in psychiatry wards despite poor sleep worsening mental health. Contributory factors include the ward environment, frequent nightly checks on patients and sleep disorders including sleep apnoea. We evaluated the safety and feasibility of a package of measures to improve sleep across a mental health trust, including removing hourly checks when safe, sleep disorder screening and improving the ward environment.
During the pilot there were no serious adverse events; 50% of in-patients were able to have protected overnight sleep. Hypnotic issuing decreased, and feedback from patients and staff was positive. It was possible to offer cognitive–behavioural therapy for insomnia to selected patients.
Many psychiatry wards perform standardised, overnight checks, which are one cause of sleep disruption. A protected sleep period was safe and well-tolerated alongside education about sleep disturbance and mental health. Future research should evaluate personalised care rather than blanket observation policies.
Sleep disturbance has been consistently identified as an independent contributor to suicide risk. Inflammation has emerged as a potential mechanism linked to both sleep disturbance and suicide risk. This study tested associations between sleep duration, insomnia, and inflammation on suicidal ideation (SI) and history of a suicide attempt (SA).
Participants included 2329 adults with current or remitted depression and/or anxiety enrolled in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety. Sleep duration, insomnia, past week SI, and SA were assessed with self-report measures. Plasma levels of C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α were obtained.
Short sleep duration (⩽6 h) compared to normal sleep duration (7–9 h) was associated with reporting a prior SA, adjusting for covariates [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.68, 95% CI 1.13–2.51]. A higher likelihood of SI during the past week was observed for participants with long sleep duration (⩾10 h) compared to normal sleep duration (AOR 2.22, 95% CI 1.02–4.82), more insomnia symptoms (AOR 1.44, 95% CI 1.14–1.83), and higher IL-6 (AOR 1.31, 95% CI 1.02–1.68). Mediation analyses indicated that the association between long sleep duration and SI was partially explained by IL-6 (AOR 1.02, 95% CI 1.00–1.05).
These findings from a large sample of adults with depression and/or anxiety provide evidence that both short and long sleep duration, insomnia symptoms, and IL-6 are associated with the indicators of suicide risk. Furthermore, the association between long sleep duration and SI may operate through IL-6.
Objectives were to assess the relations of various sleep complaints with depressive and anxiety complaints in a non-clinical population. Four-hundred-and-two randomly approached adults received three questionnaires. Results showed a high interrelatedness between sleep and depressive/anxiety complaints. Both assessment and treatment of depressive and anxiety complaints should address sleep problems.