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Research on the longitudinal courses of child social–emotional symptoms and sleep during the COVID-19 pandemic within societies would be of key value for promoting child well-being in global crises. We characterized the course of children’s social–emotional and sleep symptoms before and throughout the pandemic in a Finnish longitudinal cohort of 1825 5- to 9-year-old children (46% girls) with four follow-up points during the pandemic from up to 695 participants (spring 2020–summer 2021). Second, we examined the role of parental distress and COVID-related stressful events in child symptoms. Child total and behavioral symptoms increased in spring 2020 but decreased thereafter and remained stable throughout the rest of the follow-up. Sleep symptoms decreased in spring 2020 and remained stable thereafter. Parental distress was linked with higher child social–emotional and sleep symptoms. The cross-sectional associations between COVID-related stressors and child symptoms were partially mediated by parental distress. The findings propose that children can be protected from the long-term adverse influences of the pandemic, and parental well-being likely plays a mediating role between pandemic-related stressors and child well-being. Further research focusing on the societal and resilience factors underlying family and child responses to the pandemic is warranted.
A final chapter analyses the idea of sleep and closure in The Tempest, Waiting for Godot, The Winter’s Tale, A Midsummer Night’s Dream, Macbeth, Cascando, Nacht und Träume, Footfalls and Rockaby. The rhythm of sleeping and waking pervades the diurnal structure of Waiting for Godot, and many of Beckett’s characters sleep waking or wake sleeping. Likewise, the chapter addresses the many ways in which Shakespeare’s œuvre stages sleep. Staged sleep introduces a further level to the theatrical experience of seeing and being seen, of active and passive characters. In Shakespeare’s and in Beckett’s plays sleep can be read as a liminal state, in which the bodily presence simultaneously refers to a mental absence. Sleep, the chapter argues, becomes a productive meta-dramatic state, in which the theatre foregrounds the boundary between reality and illusion that affects the relation between the actor and the audience.
This chapter shows how competing notions of care shape ethical, political, and amorous life in Shakespearean drama. If care is a virtue, it seems unique among other classically recognized virtues such as courage, justice, and temperance, in that care is more ubiquitous as a feature of normative life and yet less conceptually distinct. While sometimes appearing as a virtue in itself — or as a precondition to the sharpening of any particular virtue — care just as often shows up in Shakespeare’s plays as a demanding expenditure of psychosomatic energies that shades into anxious worry or self-consuming attachments. This chapter in turn illustrates how ancient Greek and Roman virtue ethics inform Shakespeare’s articulations of care as an innate and omnipresent facet of human experience, which can benefit self and others but in its extreme forms also weigh upon body and soul to cause harm. Despite cultivating skepticism concerning our human abilities to know and to exercise the virtues of care, Shakespearean drama also stages encounters with care in its rarest guise: as a benefit that alleviates forms of suffering or distress to which human life is invariably susceptible, and which cultivates our capacities for virtue.
The effect of environmental enrichment on the welfare of stabled horses was estimated on the basis of positive and negative behavioural indicators. Six stabled horses were exposed for seven days to each of two conditions in early spring: i) a window at the back of the loose box was opened, but no horses were within the view of the subject horses (OW) and ii) the window in the loose box was opened and two horses that had been in the same stable as the subject horses were turned out to the paddock next to the stable and were within view of the subject horses (OWH). The window in the loose box had been closed prior to the start of the study for protection against the cold during winter months (CW condition) but horses could see outside the loose box through the grille door. The behaviour of the subject horses was recorded by video camera from 1300 to 1530h, firstly, in the CW condition for the three days prior to treatment as the control condition, and then for the last three days of each week in the OW and OWH conditions. The behaviour was focal- and instantaneous-sampled at 30-s intervals. Significant differences between the effects of the loose box conditions on the mean percentage of time spent in standing behaviour, looking behaviour, and bedding investigation behaviour (which may be an indicator of frustration) were observed but no significant difference in the mean percentage of time spent in standing-sleep behaviour (which may be an indicator of behavioural satisfaction) was observed. When the window was opened, bedding investigation and standing behaviour decreased and, when the conspecifics were within view, bedding investigation behaviour decreased and looking behaviour increased. The results suggested that the OW and OWH treatments suppressed the frustration of stabled horses which did not perform any abnormal behaviour, but may not increase the behavioural satisfaction of stabled horses.
Many captive giraffes perform oral stereotypies, in particular tongue-playing, licking of objects (including conspecifics) and vacuum chewing. Typically, the diet of these large ruminants in captivity consists mostly of food concentrates, which are consumed rapidly and do not provide stimulation for their long, prehensile tongues. In the wild, browsing requires extensive use of this organ but in captivity material upon which to browse is limited. Consequently, vacuum activities, such as mock leaf-feeding behaviour, and stereotypies may develop. Rumination is also a major component of a giraffe's behavioural repertoire. It is essential for proper digestion, but may also be connected with non-REM sleep. Inadequate opportunities for rumination may also contribute to the development of oral stereotypies. In this study of captive giraffes, we examined the effect of increasing dietary fibre on the time spent ruminating and feeding and the extent to which oral stereotypies were performed. Two giraffes of different age, sex and sub-species were studied at Paignton Zoo Environmental Park. Dietary fibre was increased by the addition of coarse meadow hay to their existing diet. Following the addition of hay, time spent feeding did not change significantly but there was a significant increase in the time spent ruminating and a significant reduction in time spent performing oral stereotypies by both giraffes, suggesting that oral stereotypies may be connected with rumination rather than feeding. Stereotypic behaviour is generally accepted to be an indicator of sub-optimal welfare. Thus, the reduction in this behaviour by the simple addition of coarse fibre to the diet can be interpreted as enhancing the welfare of these animals.
Subjects performed a decision task (Grether, 1980) in both a well-rested and experimentally sleep-deprived state. We found two main results: 1) final choice accuracy was unaffected by sleep deprivation, and yet 2) the estimated decision model differed significantly following sleep-deprivation. Following sleep deprivation, subjects placed significantly less weight on new information in forming their beliefs. Because the altered decision process still maintains decision accuracy, it may suggest that increased accident and error rates attributed to reduced sleep in modern society stem from reduced auxiliary function performance (e.g., slowed reaction time, reduced motor skills) or other components of decision making, rather than the inability to integrate multiple pieces of information.
Methods to assess changes in the mental state of animals in response to their environment can be used to provide information to enhance animal welfare. One of the most profound changes of mental state observable in mammals is the change between wakefulness and sleep. Sleeping mammals have characteristics that are similar to one another and are measurable, such as specific behaviours, changes in responsiveness to external stimuli and changes in electrophysiology and neurochemistry. Although sleep is a ubiquitous behaviour in the life of mammals, there has been relatively little research on this topic in domesticated animals. All animals are motivated to sleep and this motivation increases after a prolonged period of wakefulness. In humans, sleep can be affected by what has occurred in the prior period of wakefulness and this has also been demonstrated in some non-human mammals. An important aspect of human sleep medicine is the association between stress and subsequent sleep disturbances. Studying changes in amount, bout length, distribution or type of sleep after exposure to potentially stressful events, could help us understand how animals respond to changes in their environment. It is possible that different types of stressors could affect sleep characteristics in different ways and that monitoring and identifying these changes could be useful in providing an additional way of identifying management procedures that have the potential to affect welfare. Sleep measurement is a potentially valuable tool in studies to assess animal welfare.
Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) are the most recently discovered photoreceptor class in the human retina. This Element integrates new knowledge and perspectives from visual neuroscience, psychology, sleep science and architecture to discuss how melanopsin-mediated ipRGC functions can be measured and their circuits manipulated. It reveals contemporary and emerging lighting technologies as powerful tools to set mind, brain and behaviour.
We evaluated associations between food insecurity (FI) and the quality and quantity of sleep in adults (≥18 years).
The current study represented a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.
Databases of PubMed, Scopus, Embase and Web of Science were searched from inception until 6 June 2022. Meta-analyses were conducted using random-effects models, and effect sizes were reported as OR and 95 % CI.
Data from ten eligible observational studies, including 83 764 participants, were included.
FI was associated with an increased risk of poor sleep quality (OR = 1·45; 95 % CI (1·24, 1·70), I2 = 95, P < 0·001, n 7). Besides, subgroup analysis showed increased risk of poor sleep quality corresponding to the severity of FI across mild (OR = 1·31; 95 % CI (1·16, 1·48), I2 = 0 %, P < 0·001, n 5), moderate (OR = 1·49; 95 % CI (1·32, 1·68), I2 = 0 %, P < 0·001, n 5) and severe (OR = 1·89; 95 % CI (1·63, 2·20), I2 = 0 %, P < 0·001, n 5) levels. Similarly, subgroup analysis by sleep problems showed that FI was associated with an increased the risk of trouble falling asleep (OR = 1·39; 95 % CI (1·05, 1·83), I2 = 91 %, P = 0·002, n 3) and trouble staying asleep (OR = 1·91; 95 % CI (1·37, 2·67), I2 = 89 %, P < 0·001, n 3). Moreover, FI was associated with the odds of shorter (OR = 1·14; 95 % CI (1·07, 1·21), I2 = 0 %, P < 0·001, n 4) and longer sleep duration (OR = 1·14; 95 % CI (1·03, 1·26), I2 = 0 %, P = 0·010, n 4).
Collective evidence supports that FI is associated with poor sleep quality and quantity in adults. Preventative and management strategies that address FI may provide health benefits beyond improving nutritional status per se.
International studies have demonstrated associations between sleep problems and poor psychological well-being; however, Canadian data are limited. This study investigated this association using cross-sectional baseline data from the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging, a national survey of 30,097 community-dwelling adults, 45–85 years of age. Short sleep duration, sleep dissatisfaction, insomnia symptoms, and daytime impairment were consistently associated with a higher prevalence of dissatisfaction with life, psychological distress, and poor self-reported mental health. Long sleep duration was associated with a higher prevalence of psychological distress and poor self-reported mental health, but not with dissatisfaction with life. Associations between sleep problems and psychological distress were 11–18 per cent stronger in males. With each 10-year increase in age, the association between daytime impairment and life dissatisfaction increased by 11 per cent, and insomnia symptoms and poor mental health decreased by 11 per cent. Sleep problems in middle-aged and older adults warrant increased attention as a public health problem in Canada.
Sleep is an integral part of individuals' health and wellbeing. Despite evidence showing that social stressors are important contributors to older adults' sleep problems, how the accumulative stressful life events (SLEs) and ageing attitudes independently and jointly affect sleep quality among older adults in developing countries remains unclear. This study examined the effects of SLEs on subjectively rated sleep quality among older adults in China, and explored the potential mediating and moderating roles of positive and negative ageing attitudes on the above association. Using data from the 2014 China Longitudinal Ageing Social Survey, we had complete data for 7,780 older adults aged 60 and older. We employed logistic regression models and the Karlson–Holm–Breen decomposition method. Our findings indicated that SLEs significantly increased the risk of poor sleep quality, especially for those who had experienced two or more SLEs during the past year. Positive ageing attitudes were associated with lower odds of poor sleep quality, whereas negative ageing attitudes were related to higher odds of poor sleep quality. Moreover, the mediation analyses suggested that SLEs were associated with poor sleep quality via negative ageing attitudes. The moderating effects further documented that higher levels of positive ageing attitudes can significantly attenuate the deleterious impact of SLEs on sleep quality. The findings highlight the significance of SLEs for older adults' sleep quality and shed light on the importance of ageing attitudes to improve older adults' sleep in China as well as other low- and middle-income countries, where the social safety nets are still underdeveloped.
Chapter 2 explores lifestyle factors which have a significant impact on children’s and young people’s mental health, including sleep, nutrition, exercise and movement, technology, bullying and academic pressures and alcohol and drugs.
Here we uncover the mysteries of the baby as it develops in the womb, discussing how fetal development is controlled. We give insights into aspects of pregnancy not widely known, from the fetus starting to breathe months before it is born, to the question of whether it sleeps – and dreams. We discuss the ways in which information about the mother’s life and her environment affect the baby’s development. Although birth may seem the first major milestone for a baby, we emphasise that many other milestones have been passed before that, inside the womb, out of sight but over which parents can have substantial influence. We give insights into new discoveries about how the organs of the fetal body develop in prediction of the world in which that individual ‘expects’ to live, and what happens when the prediction turns out to be wrong. The idea that the fetus is preparing for life after birth will get the reader thinking about the long-term consequences of the way a fetus develops. Each of us is unique as a result of our development – and nobody is perfect. Our unique development starts from the moment of conception, which introduces the next chapter on sex.
Sleep is incredibly important for the creation and maintenance of memories. It is an active process managed by the brain to allow for bodily rest and repair and maintenance of homeostasis. Good sleep is necessary for life and health and is essential for the encoding and storage or memories made during wakefulness. Poor sleep can interfere with all aspects of cognitive function, particularly attention and memory. Reduced sleep amount and quality has been linked to depression and impaired immune function. The length of sleep is not the only important factor; the quality of sleep is also vital. Animal studies have revealed that sleep deprivation damages gut bacteria and produces hazardous free radicals, called oxidative stress. Cognitive reserve is closely related to sleep. Too many people take sleep for granted or think getting a restful sleep is a luxury, not a necessity. But recent research shows the pattern on neuronal firing is replayed during sleep, which enhances the formation of memories. Older people frequently have sleeping problems that may impact the quality of life. This chapter reviews several things that you can do to improve the quality of your sleep.
Humans are social beings and relationships with family and friends are critical for health at all stages of life. Studies have shown a higher risk of dementia in later life in individuals with poor social interactions. At all stages of life, it’s desirable for people to have healthy relationships with others. Maintaining a socially active lifestyle in later life enhances cognitive reserve and benefits cognitive function. The physical component of social interactions is also of value. Interpersonal experiences can influence the structure and function of the brain in both early and later life. Opportunities for interactions with other people enhances social reserve and improves cognitive, physical, and psychological reserves. Studies suggests that dementia is more common in those whose social engagement declines from mid- to late-life. Having stronger social contacts protects people from the manifestations of aging and age-related brain disease. Social interactions can be enhanced in aging through community organizations, social action groups, religious activities, and travel. Pursuing activities that help you find meaning will also help you make social connections.
During stressful experiences the endocrine and brain systems involved have distinct neurochemical processes which enhance the power of the memory. Post-traumatic stress disorder is due not only to psychological factors, but neurochemical and evolutionary ones as well. It is valuable for people who have experienced stressful life events to realize that the power these memories have is not entirely psychological. It is in a deeply developed neural pathway created and preserved in the brain in a resilient fashion. Understanding that this is not a question primarily of “getting over It,” but rather “learning to live with it” may help. Stress has many effects on the brain and the body. Bolstering your physical reserves with physical activity, effective sleep, and a healthy diet enhances the ability to deal with stress. The experience of stress involves not only the brain, but also the body’s cardiovascular system and other parts. It is best if the work of dealing with stressful factors is accomplished early, before the achlyievement of great age. Several strategies can help to deal with stress: restful sleep, meditation, diet, cognitive and physical exercise, and avoidance of toxins.
Depression is common in older people and people who are depressed may have significant memory problems. Recurrent thoughts of sadness may interfere with the registration of new memories. It can develop as a response to life events and appear independently of what is happening. People with a history of serious depression may experience more depression with age. However, people who didn’t experience depression in their younger years may also develop depression. Depression may be a warning sign of mental or physical illness, or a sign of a troubled relationship. Many depressed older persons are aware of their depression, but some are not. Recognizing the presence of depression is key to dealing with it effectively. Signs of depression include sadness and recurring thoughts of regret. Depression is also indicated by loss of appetite, loss of weight, difficulty with sleeping, and loss of interest in activities. There is a vicious cycle in which lack of activity leads to depression, which leads to a lack of activity. Also, social media can also induce negative emotional states. The ability to manage our response to life events is a fundamental part of psychological reserve.
Women over 40 who are hoping to conceive or pregnant should optimize their lifestyle as quickly as possible to improve their fecundity and chance of having a healthy baby. There is a paucity of data regarding lifestyle factors and fertility and pregnancy. Women should be informed of the areas in which there is extensive evidence such as the need for preconception folic acid and optimizing BMI and be counselled on the matters that are less clear cut for instance physical activity. A Mediterranean diet has been shown to improve fecundity in women who had previously had difficulty conceiving. Women should be counselled on taking folic acid whilst trying to conceive, and vitamin D if they are found to be deplete. All women undergoing fertility treatment should not smoke and should be educated about possible risks of alcohol and caffeine consumption. The importance of sleep and stress reduction should be recognized and women over 40 planning to undergo fertility treatments should manage these as best as possible.