Skip to main content Accesibility Help
The Cambridge History of China
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 8
  • Cited by
    This book has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Ing, Michael D. K. 2016. Philosophy in Western Han Dynasty China (206 BCE-9 CE). Philosophy Compass, Vol. 11, Issue. 6, p. 289.

    Zhuang, Yijie and Kidder, Tristram R 2014. Archaeology of the Anthropocene in the Yellow River region, China, 8000–2000 cal. BP. The Holocene, Vol. 24, Issue. 11, p. 1602.

    Ren, Kai and Li, Jun 2013. Academic Freedom and University Autonomy: A Higher Education Policy Perspective. Higher Education Policy, Vol. 26, Issue. 4, p. 507.

    Nylan, Michael 2012. Highways, Byways, and Road Systems in the Pre-Modern World. p. 33.

    Black, Antony 2011. The Way Forward in Comparative Political Thought. Journal of International Political Theory, Vol. 7, Issue. 2, p. 221.

    Sellmann, James D. 2006. On the Origin of Shang and Zhou Law. Asian Philosophy, Vol. 16, Issue. 1, p. 49.

    Hall, David L. and Ames, Roger T. 1998. The cosmological setting of Chinese gardens. Studies in the History of Gardens & Designed Landscapes, Vol. 18, Issue. 3, p. 175.

    Wang, Eugene Yuejin 1994. Mirror, Death, and Rhetoric: Reading Later Han Chinese Bronze Artifacts. The Art Bulletin, Vol. 76, Issue. 3, p. 511.


Book description

This volume begins the historical coverage of The Cambridge History of China with the establishment of the Ch'in empire in 221 BC and ends with the abdication of the last Han emperor in AD 220. Spanning four centuries, this period witnessed major evolutionary changes in almost every aspect of China's development, being particularly notable for the emergence and growth of a centralized administration and imperial government. Leading historians from Asia, Europe, and America have contributed chapters that convey a realistic impression of significant political, economic, intellectual, religious, and social developments, and of the contacts that the Chinese made with other peoples at this time. As the book is intended for the general reader as well as the specialist, technical details are given in both Chinese terms and English equivalents. References lead to primary sources and their translations and to secondary writings in European languages as well as Chinese and Japanese.

Refine List
Actions for selected content:
Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive
  • Send content to

    To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to .

    To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

    Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

    Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

    Please be advised that item(s) you selected are not available.
    You are about to send

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.
  • 1 - The state and empire of Ch'in
    pp 20-102
  • View abstract
    Ch'in long existed as a small state or principality and then as a major dynasty and empire. The Chinese world became divided into a multitude of political entities; some 170 are believed to have existed during the Chou subperiod known as the Spring and Autumn period. Both non-Marxist and Marxist historians have been exercised over the appropriate use of the term feudalism. The improvement in agriculture was probably accompanied by a growth of population, despite the simultaneous intensification of warfare. In Ch'in and several contemporary principalities, the political changes just noted were accompanied by an evolution toward more sophisticated institutions and organs of central government. The Ch'in empire is regarded as the supreme embodiment of the ideas and techniques known as Legalism. Shang Yang had been chancellor in Ch'in, and Shen Pu-hai had been chancellor in the much smaller neighboring state of Hann.
  • 2 - The Former Han dynasty
    pp 103-222
  • View abstract
    The Han dynasty bequeathed to China an ideal and a concept of empire that survived basically intact for two thousand years. Modernist policies derived from the unification of China by Ch'in and the operation of imperial government under the principles of Shang Yang, Shen Pu-hai, and Han Fei. The first century of the Han empire witnessed the implementation, modification, or extension of these policies in a number of ways. The imperial institutions and intellectual framework of the Han empire were evolved and modified as a result of controversy, violence, or rebellion. Ch'en She and Wu Kuang are named as the two men who were the first to challenge the authority of the Ch'in empire. The major difference between the systems of government of Ch'in and Han lay in the organization of the provinces. During the last fifty years of the Former Han period, foreign policy was marked at times by a refusal to engage potential enemies.
  • 3 - Wang Mang, the restoration of the Han dynasty, and Later Han
    pp 223-290
  • View abstract
    The Han Chinese were firm believers in the art of physiognomy. It was claimed that Wang Mang was descended from Shun and the Yellow Emperor sovereigns hallowed in Chinese mythology, by way of the dukes of Ch'i of the house of T'ien. Wang Mang's reliable genealogy begins with his great-grandfather, who filled no office and apparently lived as a country gentleman in what is now northern Shantung. Wang Mang's manipulation of the public and the methods later used to support the restoration of the Han dynasty were identical. To gain a correct perspective, one must look at Wang Mang's enactments against the broad vista of Former and Later Han policies. Pan Ku's account of Wang Mang's policies toward non-Chinese peoples within and outside the borders is equally biased and in need of redressing. Population growth in Han China was retarded by a number of factors. Agricultural techniques, hygiene, and medicine were primitive in all parts of the country.
  • 4 - The conduct of government and the issues at stake A.D. 57–167
    pp 291-316
  • View abstract
    This chapter assesses in what ways the practical operation of imperial government varied during the Later Han or how it was affected by the turmoil of factional strife. There are signs that during the second half of the first century AD and even earlier, the administration of the restored Han government had been oppressive and over-rigorous. Chang-ti's reign saw a distinct improvement in internal communications in the southern part of the empire. At the beginning of the Yung-ch'u period, a succession of droughts and floods had created distress in a number of areas. P'ang Ts'an's suggestion was opposed by Yii Hsu, who was serving as a gentleman of the palace on the staff of Li Hsiu, the supreme commander. In 126 Yu Hsu, who had just been appointed colonel, internal security, raised the cry that the government had been oppressive.
  • 5 - The fall of Han
    pp 317-376
  • View abstract
    The Han dynasty fell because the concept of dynastic change had made its way from the people to influential circles in Ts'ao Ts'ao's entourage. Weak emperors, or eunuchs, empresses, and the Yellow Turbans are blamed for the decline of Han, but until a thousand years after its fall efforts were still being made to restore the dynasty. For some, the creation of the Wei dynasty remained an unlawful act which tainted those emperors and their successors with illegitimacy. Liu Yuan had a detailed knowledge of the vicissitudes of Later Han history and the events accompanying its fall. In AD 338, a new Han dynasty was proclaimed in the same city that had served as Liu Pei's capital, in the southwestern corner of China. When the Chinese dynasties were driven to the southeast after 316 by non-Chinese invaders from the north, it was important for them to know that they were the true holders and inheritors of the mandate.
  • 6 - Han foreign relations
    pp 377-462
  • View abstract
    As Tsou Yen's theory increasingly gained currency, China's self-image of its geographical situation underwent a fundamental change. The Han Chinese world order not only existed as an idea, but, more important, also expressed itself in an institutional form. The Han world order was defined mainly in terms of the so-called five-zone or wu-fu theory. The five-zone theory played an important historical role in the development of foreign relations during the Han period. Central to the institutional expressions of the Han understanding of world order is the development of the famous tributary system. The first great challenge faced by Han statesmen in their shaping of a foreign policy emanated from the steppe-based empire to the north, that of the Hsiung-nu. On the financial and material side, Hu-han-yeh was rewarded for his participation in the tributary system. The financial part of the tributary system proved to be particularly attractive to the Hsiung-nu.
  • 7 - The structure and practice of government
    pp 463-490
  • View abstract
    The system of imperial government evolved during the Ch'in and Han periods was marked by the division of responsibilities, the duplication of some offices, and the organization of civil servants into hierarchies. The principal method of recruiting civil servants was by the recommendation of provincial officials or of senior ministers in the central government. The academy flourished in Later Han, admitting foreigners as well as Chinese. The importance of the secretariat was recognized as early as 46 BC in a telling remark made by the statesman Hsiao Wang-chih. The great majority of the inhabitants of the Ch'in and Han empires lived on the land in villages. Major decisions of state policy depended theoretically on the choice and authority of the emperor, or on that of the empress dowager The government of Ch'in and Han rested on principles enunciated by Shang Yang and Han Fei: that meritorious service must be encouraged by rewards, and infringement of the law must be punished.
  • 8 - The institutions of Later Han
    pp 491-519
  • View abstract
    The most important source for the study of Later Han institutions is the "Treatise on the hundred officials" in the Hou-Han shu or Later Han history. During Former Han, the office of the grand tutor had been filled only at the beginning and end of the dynasty. The Later Han dynasty maintained the system established in 8 BC by which the three highest regularly appointed career officials had the same rank. These were the so-called three excellencies: the grand minister of finance, the marshal of state and the grand minister of works. In AD 35, the founder of Later Han recognized the depopulation of Shuo-fang due to Hsiung-nu pressure, abolished the province, and added its territory to an adjoining unit. Both Han dynasties appointed staffs for the purpose of inspecting the performance of all officials in the commanderies and kingdoms.
  • 9 - Ch'in and Han law
    pp 520-544
  • View abstract
    Early Chinese law is the law of a fully developed archaic society. The ancient nobility of the predynastic period had long since disappeared; the marquises of the Ch'in-Han period had titles but no real fiefs, and consequently no power. The orders of honor which were conferred during the Ch'in and Han periods carried with them several privileges, including that of a reduction in punishment for crime; but the marquises, or nobles, enjoyed no special status other than that of holders of the highest orders. Early traditional China knew three types of punishment: the death penalty, the mutilating punishments, and hard labor. Redemption of punishment was common practice during both the Ch'in and the Han periods; the technical term, shu, is also used for slaves buying their freedom. The Han period saw the birth of several systems which were to continue throughout the imperial period: the entry into the civil service through recommendation, through examinations, and by title of birth.
  • 10 - The economic and social history of Former Han
    pp 545-607
  • View abstract
    This chapter discusses social and economic conditions in China under the Han dynasty when the unified, centralized state that had been achieved by the short-lived Ch'in empire was consolidated into a permanent form which lasted-allowing only for the short break caused by the Hsin dynasty of Wang Mang, for some four centuries. The succeeding Han empire inherited the results of the social, economic, and administrative changes which had taken place over the preceding centuries. The Han founder Liu Pang, Kao-ti, was of peasant origins, having been born and brought up in Chung-yang li of Feng-i in P'ei-hsien. From the point of view of agriculture, the country may be divided into two main regions, north and south China, separated by the eastward-flowing Huai River and in the west by the Ch'in-ling Mountains. During the Han dynasty, agriculture along the Yangtze was greatly inferior in productivity to that of north China.
  • 11 - The economic and social history of Later Han
    pp 608-648
  • View abstract
    This chapter describes and analyzes major structural changes in the economy and society, such as the reorganization of agricultural production, the emergence of new forms of local organization, and the continuing evolution of the composition of the upper class in Han period. In the Later Han period, commerce and industry were not subject to as much political interference as they had been in the first century BC and during Wang Mang's reign. The evidence for the continued flourishing of interregional trade through Later Han is largely circumstantial. Land transportation in north China was probably as good during Later Han as it was in any period before modern times. Scholars approaching Han society from a variety of standpoints have perceived a major change in the organization of rural communities. Social stratification underwent gradual change during the Later Han. The Hou-Han shu describes a few cases of extremely prolonged prominence or of extremely fast social rise.
  • 12 - The religious and intellectual background
    pp 649-725
  • View abstract
    Many studies of Chinese thought tend to concentrate on the growth of what are regarded as the three major schools of Confucianism, Legalism, and Taoism. These terms should be used with care, particularly for the four centuries of Ch'in and Han, when major developments were taking place. Some Ch'in and Han thinkers laid deep stress on the need to organize the life and work of mankind by means of sanctions and institutions, with the specific intention of enriching and strengthening the state. Chinese mythology alludes to the emergence and work of culture heroes. The peoples of the Ch'in and Han age inherited from their forbears the worship of a number of deities. The relationship between Buddhism and Taoist religion came to be complex. The importance of music had been recognized by the designation of one text as the Yueh-ching, now long lost.
  • 13 - The concept of sovereignty
    pp 726-746
  • View abstract
    One of the principal legacies that the Han dynasty bequeathed to its successors was the demonstration that imperial sovereignty was a respectable means of government which statesmen could serve with loyalty and with due deference to the ethical ideals on which they had been nurtured. The establishment of the Ch'in empire as the sole effective political authority that could expect to command obedience was an innovation in political practice. One of the earliest contributions to political theory to be written during the Han period is the Hsin-yii of Lu Chia. According to Lu Chia, Ch'in's failure had been due to its excessive application of punishments, its arrogance, and its extravagance. Wang Ch'ung could hardly be expected to agree that Heaven is willing to interfere in the affairs of man to the extent of specifically conferring authority to rule on a particular dynastic house.
  • 14 - The development of the Confucian schools
    pp 747-765
  • View abstract
    This chapter discusses the development of the Confucian schools in the early phases of China's history. The center of Lu seems to have remained predominantly within the early Confucian tradition, concentrating on the cultivation of the ancient rites and music and the interpretation of classical lore. The rulers' charisma is sanctioned by the mandate they receive from Heaven, t'ien-ming. The oldest strata of the l-ching constitute a ritualized form of divinatory practice which ensured an orderly contact with the forces that governed the destiny of man. The special contribution of the Confucian school lies in its reflection on the meaning of the ancient ritual order and the place of man in this order, especially man entrusted with power. Tsou Yen was one of many scholars who were counted as belonging to the class of fang-shih, experts on esoteric and magical arts.
  • 15 - Confucian, Legalist, and Taoist thought in Later Han
    pp 766-807
  • View abstract
    The history of Han Confucianism is a history of the development of the variegated cross-currents of Confucian, Legalist, and Taoist thought in Han times. The triumph of Han Confucianism, unlike the triumph of Ch'in Legalism, was accompanied not by an outright suppression of the other schools of thought, but by a subtle promotion of learning and education that coincided with the basic Confucian concerns. The Confucians in the middle of the first century BC probably had good reason to believe that their doctrine had prevailed. The failure of Wang Mang evoked a critical and discriminating spirit in the thinkers of Later Han. Yang Hsiung elevated spiritual intelligence, the power of cognition that implied human intelligence, to be coefficient with the great mystery. The concept of fate or mandate, advanced by Su Ching, Pan Piao, and Pan Ku, was greatly extended by Wang Ch'ung.
  • 16 - Philosophy and religion from Han to Sui
    pp 808-872
  • View abstract
    The collapse of the Han dynasty during the second and third centuries AD together with the political, social, and economic troubles that it brought about, resulted in a period of intellectual ferment unequaied in Chinese history except at the end of the Chou period, the end of the Ming dynasty and the revolutions of the twentieth century. Toward the end of the second century BC, Chuang-tzu was well known among a group of literary men gathered at his court by the king of Huai-nan. In the midst of the upheavals of the end of the Han dynasty, the long-concealed layer of popular Taoism rose to the surface in a series of rebellions that broke out in 184. In the midst of this Taoist explosion Buddhism was introduced to China. Real philosophical exegesis of the Chuang-tzu started only with Hsiang Hsiu and Kuo Hsiang, the greatest thinkers of the generation after Ho Yen and Wang Pi.
  • Postscript to Chapter 16
    pp 873-878
  • View abstract
    The survey of developments in Chinese philosophy and religion between Han and T'ang constitutes one of the last major publications of Paul Demieville in a career that stretched from the days of Chavannes and Pelliot to the more recent efflorescence in Paris of the study of Chinese religion. Recent Chinese writings on the Yellow Turbans have for the most part preferred to emphasize the social and political background to the uprising of 184. Certainly the past decade has shown how the Taoist canon can be used to amplify the history of Taoism in southern China, which in Demieville's narrative is subsumed under accounts of its three leading figures, Ko Hung, Lu Hsiu-ching, and T'ao Hung-ching. For although all three of these men were southerners, aristocrats, and scholars, a close reading of materials in the canon has shown that the position of Ko Hung in the history of Taoism is very different from that of Lu or T'ao.
Ōba, Osamu. Shin Gi Wa Ō. Tokyo: Gakuseisha, 1971.
Ōba, Osamu. Shin Kan hōseishi no kenkyū. Tokyo: Sōbunsha, 1982.
Ōba, Osamu. Shin Kan teikoku no iyō. Vol. II of Zusetsu Chūgoku no rekishi. Tokyo: Kōdansha, 1977.
Ōcho, Enichi. Hoku Gi bukkyō no kenkyū. Kyoto: Inoue Shirō, 1970.
Ōfuchi, Ninji. Dōkyō shi no kenkyū. Okayama: Kawara Fumio, 1964.
Abe, Takeo. Chūgokujin no tenka kannen. Kyoto: Dōshisha Univ., 1956.
Adachi, Kiroku. Chōan shiseki no kenkyū. Tokyo: Tōyō bunko, 1933.
Akizuki, Kan'ei. “Kōkin no ran no shūyōsei”. Tōyō shi kenkyū, 15: 1 Guly 1956), 43–56.
Allan, Sarah. The heir and the sage: Dynastic legend in early China. San Francisco: Chinese Materials Center, 1981.
Amano, Motonosuke. Chūgoku nōgyōshi kenkyū. Tokyo: Nōgyō Sōgō Kenkyūjo, 1962.
Ames, Roger T. The art of ruler ship: A study in ancient Chinese political thought. Honolulu: Univ. of Hawaii Press, 1983.
An-hui, sheng Po-hsien po-wu-kuan. “Po-hsien Ts'ao Ts'ao tsung-tsu mu-tsang”. Wenwu (formerly Wen-tuu ts'an-k'ao tzu-liao), 1978.8, 32–45.
Aurousseau, Léonard. “La première conquêtc chinoise des pays annamites (Ille siède avant notre ère).Bulletin de I'École française d'Extrême Orient, 23 (1923), 137–264.
Bal´zs, Stefan. “Der Philosoph Fan Dschen und sein Traktat gegen den Buddhismus.Sinica, 7 (1932), 220–34.
Balazs, Étienne. “Political philosophy and social crisis at the end of the Han dynasty.” In his Chinese civilization and bureaucracy: Variations on a theme, trans. Wright, H. M., ed. Wright, Arthur F.. New Haven and London: Yale Univ. Press, 1964, pp. 187–225.
Balazs, Étienne. Le traité juridique du “ Souei chou.Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1954.
Balazs, Étienne. Chinese civilization and bureaucracy: Variations on a theme, trans. Wright, H. M., ed. Wright, Arthur F.. New Haven and London: Yale Univ. Press, 1964.
Barnard, Noel, ed. Early Chinese art and its possible influence in the Pacific Basin. Authorized Taiwan edition, 1974.
Barnard, Noel, and Tamotsu, Satö. Metallurgical remains of ancient China. Tokyo: Nichiōsha, 1975.
Barnard, Noel. “Did the swords exist?Early China, 4 (1978–79), 60–65.
Barnard, Noel. “The nature of the Ch'in ‘reform of the script’ as reflected in archaeological documents excavated under conditions of control.” In Ancient China: Studies in early civilization, eds. Roy, David T. and Tsien, Tsuenhsuin. Hong Kong: Chinese Univ. Press, 1978, pp. 181–213.
Barrett, T. H.Taoist and Buddhist mysteries in the interpretation of the Tao-te ching.Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1982.1, 35–43.
Beal, Samuel. Travels of Fah-hian and Sung-yun, Buddhist pilgrims, from China to India. London: Trübner and Co., 1869.
Beasley, W. G., and Pulleyblank, E. G., eds. Historians of China and Japan. London: Oxford Univ. Press, 1961.
Bielenstein, Hans. The bureaucracy of Han times. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1980. [abbreviation: Bureaucracy]
Bielenstein, Hans. “The census of China during the period 2–742 A.D.Bulletin of the Museum of Far Eastern Antiquities, 19 (1947), 125–63. [abbreviation: “Census”]
Bielenstein, Hans. “The Chinese colonization of Fukien until the end of T'ang.” In Studia Serica Bernhard Karlgren dedicata, eds. Egerod, Søren and Glahn, Else. Copenhagen: Ejnar Munksgaard, 1959, pp. 98–122.
Bielenstein, Hans. “Han portents and prognostications.Bulletin of the Museum of Far Eastern Antiquities, 56 (1984), 97–112.
Bielenstein, Hans. “An interpretation of the portents of the Ts'ien-Han-shu.Bulletin of the Museum of Far Eastern Antiquities, 22 (1950), 127–43. [abbreviation: “Portents”]
Bielenstein, Hans. “Later Han inscriptions and dynastic biographies: A historiographical comparison.” In Proceedings of the International Conference on Sinology, Section on history and archaeology. Taipei: Academia Sinica, 1981, pp. 571–86.
Bielenstein, Hans. “Lo-yang in Later Han times.Bulletin of the Museum of Far Eastern Antiquities, 48 (1976), 1–142. [abbreviation: “Lo-yang”]
Bielenstein, Hans. The restoration of the Han dynasty. 4 vols. Bulletin of the Museum of Far Eastern Antiquities, 26 (1954), 1–209; 31 (1959), 1–287; 39 (1967). 1–198; 51 (1979). 1–300 [abbreviation: Restoration]
Bielenstein, Hans. Review article of Cartier, Michel and Will, Pierre-Étienne. “Démographie et institutions en Chine: Contribution à l'analyse des recensements de l'epoque impériale (2 ap. J.C.–1750).T'oung Pao, 61: 1–3 (1975), 181–85.
Biot, Édouard. Le Tchtou-li ou rites des Tcheou. 2 vols. Paris, 1851. [abbreviation Yen-t'ieh lun (Li-ch'i, Wang: Yen-t'ieh lun chiao-chu, Shanghai, 1958)]
Bloch, Jules. Les inscriptions d'Asoka. Paris: Éditions Belles Lettres, 1950.
Blue, Rhea C.The argumentation of the Shih-huo chih chapters of the Han, Wei and Sui dynastic histories.Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, 11 (1948), 1–118.
Bodde, Derk, and Morris, Clarence. Law in imperial China: Exemplified by 190 Ch'ing dynasty cases. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Univ. Press, 1967.
Bodde, Derk. China's first unifier: A study of the Ch'in dynasty as seen in the life of Li Ssu (280?–208 B.C.). Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1938; rpt. Hong Kong: Hong Kong Univ. Press, 1967. [abbreviation: China's first unifier]
Bodde, Derk. “The Chinese cosmic magic known as watching for the ethers.” In Studia Serica Bemhard Karlgren dedicate eds. Egerod, Søren and Glahn, Else. Copenhagen: Ejnar Munksgaard, 1959, pp. 14–35. [abbreviation: “Chinese cosmic magic”]
Bodde, Derk. Essays on Chinese civilization, ed. and introduction, Blanc, Charles and Borei, Dorothy. Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1981. [abbreviation: Essays]
Bodde, Derk. Festivals in classical China: New Year and other annual observances during the Han dynasty, 206 B.C.–A.D. 220. Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, and Hong Kong: Chinese Univ. of Hong Kong, 1975. [abbreviation: Festivals]
Bodde, Derk. “Forensic medicine in pre-imperial China.Journal of the American Oriental Society, 102: 1 (1982), 1–15.
Bodde, Derk. Statesman, patriot and general in ancient China: Three Shih-chi biographies of the Ch'in dynasty (255–206 B.C.). New Haven, Conn.: American Oriental Society, 1940; rpt. New York: Kraus Reprint, 1967. [abbreviation: Statesman]
Boltz, William G.The religious and philosophical significance of the ‘Hsiang Erh’ Lao-tzu in the light of the Ma-wang-tui silk manuscripts.Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 45: 1 (1982), 95–117.
Boodberg, Peter A. See Gale, Esson M., “Discourses on salt and iron” (1934).
Boulnois, L. The Silk Road, trans. Chamberlin, Dennis. London: George Allen and Unwin, 1966.
Bréhier, Émile. Plotin Ennéades. 6 vols. Paris: Éditions Belles Lettres, 1924–38.
Brewitt-Taylor, C. H. San Kuo or Romance of the Three Kingdoms. Shanghai, Hong Kong, and Singapore: Kelly and Walsh, Ltd., 1925 (popular edition 1929).
Bunker, Emma C.The Tien culture and some aspects of its relationship to the Dong-son culture.” In Early Chinese art and its possible influence in the Pacific basin, ed. Barnard, Noel. Authorized Taiwan edition, 1974, pp. 291–328.
Ch'ü, T'ung-tsu. Han social structure, ed. Dull, Jack L.. Seattle and London: Univ. of Washington Press, 1972.
Ch'ü, T'ung-tsu. Law and society in traditional China. Paris and The Hague: Mouton, 1961.
Ch'en, Ch'i-yün. Hsün Yüeh and the mind of Late Han China: A translation of the Shen-chien with introduction and annotations. Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1980. [abbreviation: Hsün Yüeh and the mind of Late Han China]
Ch'en, Chih. Liang Han ching-chi shih-liao lun-ts'ung. Sian: Shensi Jen-min Ch'u-pan-she, 1958; rpt. 1980.
Ch'en Shou, comp. San-kuo chih. Peking: Chung-hua Shu-chü, 1959. [abbreviation: San-kuo chih (Peking: Chung-hua shu-chü, 1959)]
Ch'en, Yüan Erh-shih shih shuo-jun piao. Originally published 1925; rpt. Peking: Ku-chi Ch'u-pan-she, 1956.
Ch'en, Yin-k'o. “Chih Min-tu hsüeh-shuo k'ao”. In his Ch'en Yin-k'o hsien-sheng lun-chi. Academia Sinica, Institute of History and Philology, Special Publication 3. Taipei: Institute of History and Philology, 1971, pp. 426–43.
Ch'en, Yin-k'o. “T'ien-shih tao yü pin-hai ti-yü chih kuan-hsi”. In his Ch'en Yin-k'o hsien-sheng lun-chi. Academia Sinica, Institute of History and Philology, Special Publication 3. Taipei: Institute of history and philology, 1971, pp. 271–98.
Ch'en, Kenneth K. S. Buddhism in China: A historical survey. Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1964. [abbreviation: Buddhism in China]
Ch'en, Kenneth. “Anti-Buddhist propaganda during the Nan-ch'ao.Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, 15 (1952), 166–92.
Ch'en, Kenneth. “On some factors responsible for the anti-Buddhist persecution under the Pei-ch'ao.Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, 17 (1954), 261–73.
Ch'eng, Hsin-jen. “Wu-han ch'u-t'u ti liang k'uai Tung Wu ch'ien ch'üan shih-wen”. Kaogu (formerly K'ao-ku t'ung-hs¨n), 1965.10, 529–30.
Ch'eng, Shu-te. Han-lü k'ao. Nanking, 1919. Revised edition included in Shu-te, Ch'eng. Chiu-ch'ao lü-k'ao. 2 vols. Shanghai: Shang-wu Yin-shu-kuan, 1927.
Ch'eng, Yao-t'ien. “Chiu-ku k'ao” In Huang Ch'ing ching-chieh Ts'ui-wen t'ang revision. Canton, 1860.
Ch'i, Hsia Ch'in Han nung-min chan-cheng shih. Peking: Sheng-huo, Tu-shu, Hsin-chih San-lien Shu-tien, 1962.
Ch'i, Ssu-hoHsiung-nu hsi-ch'ien chi ch'i tsai Ou-chou ti huo-tung’. Li-shih yen-chiu, 1977.3, 126–41.
Ch'i, Ch'ao-ting. Key economic areas in Chinese history, as revealed in the development of public works for water-control. London: George Allen and Unwin, 1936.
Ch'ien, Mu. Liang Han ching-hsüeh chin-ku-wen p'ing-i. Hong Kong: Hsin-ya Yen-chiu-so, 1958.
Ch'in, Chung-hsing. “Ch'in Cheng Kuo ch'ü ch'ü-shou i-chih tiaoch'a-chi”. Wenwu (formerly Wen-tuu ts'an-k'ao tzu-liao), 1974.7, 33–38.
Ch'in, Ming. “Ch'in yung k'eng ping-ma-yung chün-chen nei-jung chi ping-ch'i shih-t'anWenwu (formerly Wen-tuu ts'an-k'ao tzu-liao), 1975.11, 19–23.
Ch'in, Po. “Hsi-Han huang-hou yü-hsi ho Kan-lu erh nien t'ung-fang-lu ti fa-hsien”. Wenwu (formerly Wen-tuu ts'an-k'ao tzu-liao), 1973.5, 26–29.
Ch'in, yung k'ao-ku-tui. “Ch'in shih-huang ling erh hao t'ung ch'e ma ch'ing-li chien-pao”. Wenwu (formerly Wen-tuu ts'an-k'ao tzu-liao), 1983.7, 1–16.
Chan, Wing-tsit. A source book in Chinese philosophy. Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press; London: Oxford Univ. Press, 1963.
Chang, Chen-hsin. “Han-tai ti niu-keng”. Wenwu (formerly Wen-tuu ts'an-k'ao tzu-liao), 1977.8, 57–62.
Chang, Cheng-lang. “Shih shih Chou ch'u ch'ing-t'ung ch'i ming-wen chung ti i kua”. Kaogu xuebao (K'ao-ku hsüeh-pao), 1980.4, 403–15.
Chang, Cheng-lang. Trans. Huber, H., Yates, R., et al., “An interpretation of the divinatory inscriptions on early Chou bronzes.” In Early China, 6 (1980–81), 80–96.
Chang, T'ing-yü. Ming shih. Peking: Chung-hua Shu-chü, 1974.
Chang, Wei-hua. Lun Han Wu-ti. Shanghai: Jen-min Ch'upan she, 1957.
Chang, ya-ch'u, and , Liu Yü.Ts'ung Shang Chou pa-kua shutzu fu-hao t'an shih-fa ti chi ko wen-t'iKaogu (formerly K'ao-ku t'ung-hs¨n), 1981.2, 155–63.
Chang, K. C. Art, myth and ritual: The path to political authority in ancient China. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Univ. Press, 1983.
Chang, Kwang-chih. The archaeology of ancient China. 3rd ed. New Haven and London: Yale Univ. Press, 1977.
Chang, Kwang-chih. Early Chinese civilization: Anthropological perspectives. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Univ. Press, 1976.
Chang-chia-shan, Han-mu chu-chien cheng-li hsiao-tsuChiang-ling Chang-chia-shan Han-chien kai-shuWenwu (formerly Wen-tuu ts'an-k'ao tzu-liao) 1985.1, 9–15.
Chao, K'o-yao and Tao-hsün, Hsü. “Lun Huang-chin ch'i-i yü tsung-chiao ti kuan-hsi”. Chung-kuo-shihyen-chiu, 1 (1980), 45–56.
Chavannes, Édouard. Les documents chinois découverts par Aurel Stein dans Us sables du Turkestan Oriental. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 1913. [abbreviation: Documents]
Chavannes, Édouard. Les Mémoires Historiques de Se-Ma Ts'ien. Vol. I–V. Paris: Ernest Leroux, 1895–1905; rpt. Paris: Adrien Maisonneuve, 1969. Vol. VI. Paris: Adrien Maisonneuve, 1969. [abbreviation: Mémoires historiques (see Chavannes, )]
Chavannes, Édouard. Le T' ai chan. Paris: Annales du Musée Guimet, 1910.
Chen, Chi-yun (Ch'en Ch'i-yün). “A Confucian magnate's idea of political violence: Hsün Shuang's (128–190) interpretation of the Book of changes,” T'oung Pao, 54 (1968), 73–115.
Chen, Chi-yun. Hsün Yüeh (A.D. 148–209): The life and reflections of an early medieval Confucian. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1975. [abbreviation: Ufe and reflections]
Chen, Tsu-lung (Ch'en Tso-lung). Index du Han-kouan ts'i-tchong. Paris: Institut des Hautes Études Chinoises de l'Université de Paris, 1962.
Cheng, Te-k'un. Archaeology in China. 3 vols. Cambridge: Heffer, 1959–63.
Cheng, Te-k'un. “Han burial remains in the Huangho Basin.Journal of the Institute of Chinese Studies, the Chinese University of Hong Kong, 14 (1983), 145–272.
Cheng, Te-k'un. “Yin-yang wu-hsing and Han art.” HJAS, 20 (1957), 162–86.
Cheng-chou, shih po-wu-kuan. “Cheng-chou ku Ying-chen Hantai yeh-t'ieh i-chih fa-chüeh chien-pao”. Wenwu (formerly Wen-tuu ts'an-k'ao tzu-liao), 1978.2, 28–43.
Chi, HsünYün-meng Shui-hu-ti Ch'in chien kai-shuWenwu (formerly Wen-tuu ts'an-k'ao tzu-liao), 1976.5, 1–6.
Chi-nan-ch'eng, Feng-huang-shan i-liu-pa hao Han mu fa-chüeh cheng-li tsu. “Hu-pei Chiang-ling Feng-huangshan i-liu-pa hao Han mu fa-chüeh chien-paoWenwu (formerly Wen-tuu ts'an-k'ao tzu-liao), 1975.9, 1–7.
Chiang, HuaYang-chou Kan-ch'üan-shan ch'u-t'u Tung-Han Liu Yüan-t'ai mai-ti chuan-ch'üanWenwu (formerly Wen-tuu ts'an-k'ao tzu-liao), 1980.6, 57–58.
Chiang, Jun-hsün Wei-liang, Ch'en, and Ping-liang, Ch'en Chia I yen-chiu. Hong Kong: Ch'iu-ching Yin-wu Kung-ssu, 1958.
Chien, Po-tsan. “Kuan-yü liang Han ti kuan ssu nu-pi wen-t'i”. Li-shih yen-chiu, 1954.4, 1–24.
Chin, Wei-no. “Ho-lin-ko-erh Tung-Han pi-hua mu nien-tai ti t'an-so”. ww, 1974.1, 47–50.
Chou, Wei-yen. “Ku Yeh-lang san t'i”. Li-shih yen-chiu, 1979.11, 74–85.
Chu, Ch'eng-chang. “Shou-hsien An-feng-t'ang Han-tai sao-kung wen-t'i ti t'an-t'ao”. Wenwu (formerly Wen-tuu ts'an-k'ao tzu-liao), 1979.5, 86–87.
Chung-hua, shu-chü pien-chi pu, ed. Yün-meng Ch'in chien yen-chiu. Peking: Chung-hua Shu-chü, 1981.
Chung-kuo, k'o-hsüeh yüan. yen-chiu-so, K'ao-ku, ed. Hsin Chung-kuo ti k'ao-ku shou-huo. Peking: Wen-wu Ch'u-panshe, 1961.
Chung-kuo, k'o-hsueh yüan. yen-chiu-so, K'ao-ku. fa-chüeh-tui, Man-ch'eng. “Man-ch'eng Han mu fa-chüeh chi-yaoKaogu (formerly K'ao-ku t'ung-hs¨n), 1972.1, 8–18, 28.
Chung-kuo, li-shih ti-t'u chi pien-chi-tsu, ed. Chung-kuo li-shih ti-t'u chi. Vol. II. Shanghai: Chung-hua Ti-t'u-hsüehshe, 1975.
Chung-kuo, li-shih-hsüeh nien-chien pien-chi-tsu, ed. Chung-kuo li-shih-hsüeh nien-chien 1981, chien-pen. Peking: Jen-min ch'u-pan-she, 1981.
Chung-kuo, she-hui k'o-hsüeh yüan. yen-chiu-so, K'ao-ku, ed. Chü-yen Han chien chia, i pien. 2 vols. [Peking]: Chung-hua Shu-chü, 1980.
Chung-kuo, she-hui k'o-hsüeh yüan. yen-chiu-so, K'ao-ku, kuan-li-ch'u, Ho-pei sheng wen-wu. Man-ch'eng Han mu fa-chüeh pao-kao. 2 vols. Peking: Wen-wu Ch'u-pan-she, 1980.
Chung-kuo, she-hui k'o-hsüeh yüan. yen-chiu-so, K'ao-ku, kung-tsotui, Lo-yang. “Han Wei Lo-yang ch'eng nan-chiao ti Ling-t'ai i-chih”. Kaogu (formerly K'ao-ku t'ung-hs¨n), 1978.1, 54–57.
Chung-kuo, she-hui k'o-hsüeh yuan. yen-chiu-so, Che-hsüeh, ed. Chung-kuo che-hsüeh nien-chien 1982.
Cohen, Jerome A., Edwards, R. Randle, and Chen, Fu-mei Chang, eds. Essays on China's legal tradition. Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1980.
Creel, Herrlee G.Legal institutions and procedures during the Chou dynasty.” In Essays on China's legal tradition, eds. Cohen, Jerome A., Edwards, R. Randle, and Chen, Fu-mei Chang. Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1980, pp. 26–55.
Creel, Herrlee G. The origins of statecraft in China. Vol. I. The Western Chou empire. Chicago and London: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1970.
Creel, Herrlee G. Shen Pu-hai: A Chinese political philosopher of the fourth century B.C. Chicago and London: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1974.
Creel, Herrlee G. What is Taoism? and other studies in Chinese cultural history. Chicago and London: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1970.
Crump, J. I. Jr. Chan-kuo ts'e. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1970.
Cullen, Christopher. “Joseph Needham on Chinese astronomy.” Past and present, 87 (May 1980), 39–53.
Cullen, Christopher. “Some further points on the shih.” Early China, 6 (1980–81), 31–46.
Daniélou, Jean. Platonisme et theologie mystique. Paris: Aubier, 1944.
de Bary, William Theodore, Chan, Wing-tsit, and Watson, Burton. Sources of Chinese tradition. 2 vols. New York and London: Columbia Univ. Press, 1960.
de Crespigny, Rafe. The biography of Sun Chien. Occasional Paper no. 5, Centre of Oriental Studies. Canberra: Australian National Univ. Press, 1966.
de Crespigny, Rafe. The last of the Han: being the chronicle of the years 181–220 A.D. as recorded in chapters 58–68 of the Tzu-chih t'ung-chien of Ssu-ma Kuang. Canberra: Australian National Univ. Press, 1969. [abbreviation: Last of the Han]
de Crespigny, Rafe. Northern frontier: The policies and strategy of the Later Han empire. Canberra: Australian National Univ. Press, 1984.
de Crespigny, Rafe. Official titles of the Former Han dynasty. Canberra: Australian National Univ. Press, 1967.
de Crespigny, Rafe. “An outline of the local administration of the Later Han empire.” Chung-chi Journal, 7: 1 (1967), 57–71.
de Crespigny, Rafe. Portents of protest in the Later Han dynasty: The memorials of Hsiang K'ai to Emperor Huan. Canberra: Australia National Univ. Press, 1976. [abbreviation: Portents of protest]
de Crespigny, Rafe. The records of the Three Kingdoms. Australian National University Centre of Oriental Studies, Occasional Paper no. 9. Canberra: Australian National Univ. Press, 1970.
de Crespigny, Rafe. “The recruitment system of the imperial bureaucracy of the late Han.” Chung-chi Journal, 6: 1 (1966), 67–78.
de Gandillac, Maurice. La philosophie de Nicolas de Cues. Paris: Aubier, 1941.
de Groot, J. J. M. Chinesische Urkunden zur Geschichte Asiens: Vol. I. Die Hunnen der vorchristlichen Zeit, Vol. II. Die Westlande Chinas in der vorchristlichen Zeit. Berlin and Leipzig: de Gruyter, 1921–26.
de Groot, J. J. M. The religious system of China. 6 vols. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1892–1910; rpt. Taipei: Literature House, 1964.
De Mailla, J. A. M. Moyriac. Histoire générate de la Chine, ou Annales de cet empire; traduites du Tong-Kien Kang-Mou. 13 vols. Paris: Pierres & Clousier, 1777–85.
Demiéville, Paul. “Les apocryphes bouddhiques en Chine,” I, II. Annuaire, 55 (1955). 237–39.
Demiéville, Paul. “Le bouddhisme chinois.” In Encyclopédie de la Pleiade, Histoire des religions. Vol. I. Paris: Gallimard, 1970, pp. 1249–1319.
Demiéville, Paul. “Le bouddhisme et la guerre.” Mélanges, 1 (1957), 347–85.
Demiéville, Paul. Choix a'études bouddhiques (1929–70). Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1973.
Demiéville, Paul. Choix d'études sinologiques (1921–70). Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1973.
Demiéville, Paul. “Études sur la formation du vocabulaire philosophique chinois.” Annuaire, 47 (1947), 151–57; 48 (1948), 158–60; 49 (1949), 177–82.
Demiéville, Paul. “Notes d'archéologie chinoise.” Bulletin de I'École française d'Extrême Orient, 25 (1926), 449–67.
Demiéville, Paul. “La présetration du bouddhisme dans la tradition philosophique chinoise.“ Cahiers d'Histoire Mondiale. Neuchatel: Unesco, 1956, pp. 19–381. [abbreviation: “La penetration”]
Demiéville, Paul. “Présentation d'un poéte.” T'oung Pao, 56 (1970), 241–61.
Demiéville, Paul. “Récents travaux sur Touen-houang.” T'oung Pao, 56 (1970), 1–95.
Demiéville, Paul. “Sur l'authenticité du Ta tch'eng k'i sin loutn.” Bulletin de la Maison Franco-Japonais, 2: 2 (1929), 1–78.
Demiéville, Paul. “Tchouang-tseu et ses interpretations dans l'exégèse chinoise.” (“L'explication du premier chapitre de Tchouang-tseu” and “L'explication du deuxième chapitre de Tchouang-tseu”). Annuaire, 47 (1947), 156–57; 48 (1948), 160–62; and 49 (1949), 182.
Demiéville, Paul. “La Yogācārabhūmi de Saṅgharaksa.” Bulletin de I'École française d'Extrême Orient, 44: 2 (1954), 339–436.
Dien, Albert E., trans. “Excavation of the Ch'in dynasty pit containing pottery figures of warriors and horses at Ling-t'ung, Shensi Province.“ Chinese Studies in Archeology, 1: 1 (Summer 1979), 8–55.
Dien, Albert E., Translation of “Ch'in Shih-huang ling tung-tse ti-erh-hao ping ma yung k'eng tsuan-t'an shih-chueh chien-pao”, Wenwu (formerly Wen-tuu ts'an-k'ao tzu-liao), 1978.5, 1–18.
Dubs, Homer H. The History of the Former Han dynasty. 3 vols. Baltimore: Waverly Press, 1938–55. [abbreviation: HFHD]
Dubs, Homer H. The works of Hsüntze. London: Probsthain, 1928.
Dull, Jack L.A historical introduction to the apocryphal (ch'an-wei)texts of the Han dynasty.“ Diss. Univ. of Washington, 1966.
Duyvendak, Jan Julius Lodewijk. The hook of Lard Shang: A classic of the Chinese school of law. London: Arthur Probsthain, 1928; rpt., London: Unesco's collection of representative works, Chinese Series, 1963.
Eberhard, Wolfram, Gawlikowski, Krzysztof, and Seyschab, Carl-Albrecht, eds. East Asian civilizations: New attempts at understanding traditions: No. 2 Nation and mythology. Munich: Simon and Magiera, 1983.
Eberhard, Wolfram. “Beiträge zur kosmologischen Spekulation der Chinesen der Han-Zeit.” Vol. I. Baessler Archiv, 16 (1933), 1–100; Vol. II.
Eberhard, Wolfram. Sitzungsberichte der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Berlin: Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1933, pp. 937–79.
Eberhard, Wolfram. Lokalkulturen im alten China. Vol. I. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1942; Vol. II. Peking: Catholic Univ. of Peking, 1942. English translation of Vol. II. The local cultures of south and east China, trans. Eberhard, A.. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1968. [abbreviation: Lokalkulturen]
Eberhard, Wolfram. “The political function of astronomy and astronomers in Han China.” In Chinese thought and institutions, ed. Fairbank, John K.. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1957, pp. 33–70.
Ebrey, Patricia Buckley. The aristocratic families of early imperial China: A case study of the Po-ling Ts'ui family. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1978. [abbreviation: Aristocratic families]
Ebrey, Patricia Buckley. “Estate and family management in the Later Han as seen in the Monthly instructions for the four classes of people”. Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, 17 (1974), 173-205. [abbreviation: “Estate and family management”]
Ebrey, Patricia Buckley. “Later Han stone inscriptions”. Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, 40 (1980), 325–53.
Ebrey, Patricia Buckley. “Patron-client relations in the Later Han”. Journal of the American Oriental Society, 103: 3 (July-September. 1983), 533–42.
Egerod, Søren, and Glahn, Else, eds. Studio Serica Bernhard Karlgren dedicata: Sinological studies dedicated to Bernhard Karlgren on his seventieth birthday, October Fifth, 1959. Copenhagen: Ejnar Munksgaard, 1959.
Eichhorn, Werner. “T'ai-p'ing und T'ai-p'ing Religion.” Mitteiltungen des Instituts für Orientforschung, 5 (1957), 113–40.
Elvin, Mark. The pattern of the Chinese past. London: Eyre Methuen, 1973. Fa-yen.> See Yang Hsiung.
Fairbank, John King, ed. Chinese thought and institutions. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1957.
Fairbank, John King, ed. The Chinese world order: Traditional China's foreign relations. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Univ. Press, 1968.
Fairbank, John King. The United States and China. 3rd. ed. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Univ. Press, 1971.
Fan, Wen-Ian. Chung-kuo t'ung-shih. Peking: Jen-min Ch'upan-she, 1965.
Fan, Yeh et al., comp. Hou-Han shu. Peking: Chung-hua Shu-chü, 1965. References to treatises are given in parentheses as (tr.). [abbreviation: HHS]
Fang, Hsüan-ling. Chin shu. Peking: Chung-hua Shu-chü, 1974. [abbreviation: CS]
Fang, Achilles. The chronicle of the Three Kingdoms. 2 vols. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Univ. Press, 1952–65.
Feuerwerker, Albert, ed. History in Communist China. Cambridge, Mass., and London: MIT Press, 1968.
Finsterbusch, Käte. Verzeichnis und Motivindex der Han-Darstellungen. 2 vols. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1966, 1971.
Fisher, Carney Thomas. “The Great Ritual Controversy in Ming China.” Diss. Univ. of Michigan, 1971.
Fong, Wen, ed. The Great Bronze Age of China: An exhibition from the People's Republic of China. New York: Knopf, 1980.
Forke, Alfred. Lun-heng. Part I. Philosophical essays of Wang Ch'ung. Part II. Miscellaneous essays of Wang Ch'ung. 2 vols. Shanghai: Kelly and Walsh; London: Luzac; Leipzig: Harrassowitz, 1907 and 1911., rpt. New York: Paragon Book Gallery, 1962.
Franke, Otto. Geschichte des chinesischen Reiches. 5 vols. Berlin and Leipzig: de Gruyter, 1930–52.
Freedman, Maurice. Lineage organization in southeastern China. London: Univ. of London, Athlone Press, 1958.
Fujikawa, Masakazu. Kandai ni okeru reigaku no kenkyū. Tokyo: Kazama Shobō, 1968.
Fujita, Katsuhisa. “‘Shimin gatsurei’ no seikaku ni tsuite Kan dai gunken no shakaizō”. Tōhōgaku, 67 (1984), 34–47.
Fujita, Shizen. Go-Kan jo goi shūsei. 3 vols. Kyoto: Jinbun Gakkai, 1960–62.
Fukui, Kōjun. Dōkyō no kisoteki kenkyū. Tokyo: Sasaki Takahiko, 1952.
Fukui, Shigemasa (Jūga). “Kōkin no ran no kigi to kōgō”. Taishō daigaku kenkyū kiyo, 59 (1973), 67–86.
Fukui, Shigemasa. “Kōkin no ran to dentō no mondai”. Tōyō shi kenkyū, 34: 1 (June 1975), 24–57.
Fukui, Shigemasa. “Kōkin shūdan no soshiki to sono seikaku”. Shikan, 89 (March 1974), 18–32.
Fung, Yu-lan. Chuang-tzu: A new selected translation with an exposition of the philosophy of Kuo Hsiang. Shanghai: Commercial Press, 1933; rpt. New York: Paragon Book, 1954.
Fung, Yu-lan. A history of Chinese philosophy, trans. Bodde, Derk. 2 vols. London: George Allen and Unwin; Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1952. Translation of Yu-lan, Feng. Chung-kuo che-hsüeh shih. 2 vols. Ch'ang-sha: Shang-wu Yin-shu-kuan, 1934.
Gale, Esson M., trans. Discourses on salt and iron: A debate on state control of commerce and industry in ancient China; chapters I-XIX, translated from the Chinese of Huan K'uan with introduction and notes. Leyden: E. J. Brill, 1931; rpt. Taipei: Ch'eng-wen Publishing Co., 1967 [abbreviation: Gale, , Discourses (1931)]
Gale, Esson M., Boodberg, Peter A., and Lin, T. C.. “Discourses on salt and iron (Yen T'ieh Lun: chaps. XX-XXVIII).” Journal of the North China Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, 65 (1934), 73–110. Rpt. Taipei: Ch'engwen Publishing Co., 1967. [abbreviation: Gale, , “Discourses” (1934)]
Gardiner, K. H. J. The early history of Korea. Canberra: Australian National Univ. Press, 1969. [abbreviation: Early Korea]
Gardiner, K. H. J., and Crespigny, R. R. C.. “Tan-shih-huai and the Hsien-pi tribes of the second century A.D.Papers on Far Eastern History (Canberra), 15 (1977), 1–44.
Gardner, Charles S. Chinese traditional historiography. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Univ. Press, 1938.
Gaubil, Antoine. Correspondance de Pékin, 1722–1759. Geneva: Librairie Droz, 1970.
Gernet, Jacques. Les aspects économiques du bouddhisme dans la société chinoise du Ve au Xe siècle. Saigon: École Française d'Extrême-Orient, 1956. [abbreviation: Les aspects économiques]
Gernet, Jacques. “Les suicides par la feu chez les bouddhistes chinois du Ve au Xe siède.” Mélanges, 2 (1960), 527–58.
Giles, H. A. The travels of Fa-hsien (399–414 A.D.) or Record of the Buddhistic kingdoms. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1923; rpt. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1956.
Goi, Naohiro. “Go-Kan ōchō to gōzoku”. Iwanami Kōza Sekai rekishi, 4. Kodai, Vol. IV: Higashi Ajia sekai no keisei, Part I. Tokyo: Iwanami shoten, 1970, pp. 403–44.
Goodrich, Luther Carrington. The literary inquisition of Ch'ien-lung. Baltimore: Waverly Press, 1935.
Goodrich, Luther Carrington, and Fang, Chaoying. Dictionary of Ming biography 1368–1644. 2 vols. New York and London: Columbia Univ. Press, 1976.
Graham, A. C.‘Being’ in Western philosophy compared with shih/fei and yu/wu in Chinese philosophy.” Asia Major (new series), NS 7 (1959), 79–112.
Graham, A. C. The Book of Lieh-tzu. London: John Murray, 1960.
Graham, A. C. Chuang-tzu: The seven inner chapters and other writings from the book Chuang-tzu. London: George Allen and Unwin, 1981.
Graham, William T. Jr.The lament for the south”: Yü Hsin's “Ai Chiang-nan fu”. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1980.
Hakeda, Yoshito, trans. The awakening of faith, attributed to Aśvaghosha. New York and London: Columbia Univ. Press, 1967.
Haloun, G.The Liang-chou rebellion 184–221 A.D.Asia Major (new series), NS 1: 1 (1949), 119–32.
Han, Fei. Han-fei-tzu. References are to Han-fei-tzu chi-shih, ed. Ch'i-yu, Ch'en. 2 vols. Peking: Chung-hua Shu-chü, 1958.
Harada, Yoshito, and Kingo, Tazawa. Rakurō: A report on the excavation of Wang Hsü's tomb in the “Lo-lang” province, an ancient Chinese colony in Korea. Tokyo: Tōkō-shoin, 1930.
Harper, Donald J.The Han cosmic board.” Early China, 4 (1978–79), 1–10.
Harper, Donald J.The Han cosmic board: A response to Christopher Cullen.” Early China, 6 (1980–81), 47–56.
Harrison, James P. The Communists and Chinese peasant rebellions (A study in the rewriting of Chinese history). London: Victor Gollancz, 1970.
Hawkes, David. Ch'u Tz'u: The songs of the south. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1959. [abbreviation: Songs of the south]
Hayashi, Minao. Kandai no bunbutsu. Kyoto: Kyōto Daigaku Jinbun Kagaku Kenkyūjo, 1976.
Hearn, Maxwell K.The terracotta army of the First Emperor of Qin (221–206 B.C.).” In The Great Bronze Age of China: An exhibition from the People's Republic of China, ed. Fong, Wen. New York: Knopf, 1980.
Hedin, Sven, in collaboration with Bergman, Folke et al. History of the expedition in Asia 1927–35. 4 vols. Stockholm: Sino-Swedish Expedition, 1943–45.
Henricks, Robert G. Philosophy and argumentation in third century China: The essays of Hsi K'ang. Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1983.
Hervouet, Yves. Le Chapitre 117 du Che-ki (Biographie de Sseu-ma Siang-jou); traduction avec notes. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1972.
Hervouet, Yves. Un poète de cour sous les Han: Sseu-ma Siang-jou. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1964. [abbreviation: Un poète de cour]
Hervouet, Yves. “La valeur relative des textes du Che-ki et du Han chou.” In Mélanges de Sinologie offerts à Monsieur Paul Demiéville. Institut des Hautes Études Chinoises, Vol. XX. Paris: Bibliothèque de l'lnstitut des Hautes Études Chinoises, 1974, Vol. II, pp. 55–76.
Herzer, Christine. “Das Szu-min yüeh-ling des Ts'ui Shih: Ein Bauern-Kalender aus der Späteren Han-Zeit.” Diss. Hamburg Univ., 1963.
Hightower, James Robert. Han Shih Wai Chuan: Han Ying's illustrations of the didactic application of the Classic of songs; an annotated translation. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard Univ. Press, 1952.
Hiranaka, Reiji. Chūgoku kodai no densei to zeihō Oriental Research Series, no. 16. Kyoto: Tōyōshi Kenkyūkai, Kyoto University, 1967.
Hiranaka, Reiji. “T'ien-tsu or land tax and its reduction and exemption in case of natural calamities in the Han period.” 3 parts. Memoirs of the Research Department of the Tōyō Bunko, 31 (1973), 53–82; 32 (1974). 73–97; 33 (1975), 139–60. [abbreviation: “Land tax”]
Ho, Ch'ang-ch'ün. Han T'ang chien feng-chien t'u-ti so-yu-chih hsing-shih yen-chiu. Shanghai: Jen-min Ch'u-pan-she, 1964. [abbreviation: Han T'ang t'u-ti so-yu-chih]
Ho, Ch'ang-ch'ün. “Kuan-yü tsung-tsu, tsung-pu ti shang-ch'üeh”. Li-shih yen-chiu, 1956. 11, 89–100.
Ho-nan, sheng po-wu-kuan. “Ho-nan Han-tai yeh-t'ieh chi-shu ch'u-t'an”. Kaogu xuebao (K'ao-ku hsüeh-pao), 1978.1, 1–24.
Ho-nan, sheng po-wu-kuan. “Ling-pao Chang-wan Han mu”. Wenwu (formerly Wen-tuu ts'an-k'ao tzu-liao), 1975. 11, 75–93.
Ho-pei, sheng wen-hua-chüwen-wu kung-tso-tui Wang-tu erh hao Han mu. Peking: Wen-wu Ch'u-pan-she, 1959.
Hoang, P. Concordance des chronologies néomeniques chinoise et européenne. Variétés Sinologiques no. 29. Shanghai: Impr. de la Mission Catholique, 1910.
Holzman, Donald. “Les débuts du système médiéval de choix et de classement des fonctionnaires: Les neuf catégories et l'lmpartial et Juste.” Mélanges publiés par l' Institut des Hautes Études Chinoises, 1 (1957), 387–414.
Holzman, Donald. “Les sept sages de la forêt des bambous et la société de leur temps.” T'oung Pao, 44 (1956), 317–46.
Holzman, Donald. La vie et la pensée de Hi K'ang (223–262 ap. J.C.). Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1957.
Hotaling, Stephen James. “The city walls of Han Ch'ang-an.” T'oung Pao, 64: 1–3 (1978), 1–46.
Hou, Wai-lu. “Chung-kuo feng-chien she-hui ch'ien-hou ch'i ti nungmin chan-cheng chi ch'i kang-ling k'ou-hao ti fa-chan”. Li-shih yen-chiu, 1959.4, 45–59.
Hsü, Fu-kuan Liang Han ssu-hsiang shih. Taipei: T'ai-wan Hsüeh-sheng Shu-chü, 1976.
Hsü, Heng-pin. “Kuang-tung Fo-shan shih-chiao Lan-shih Tung-Han mu fa-chüeh pao-kao”, ed. wei-yüan-hui, Kuang-tung sheng wen-wu kuan-li. Kaogu (formerly K'ao-ku t'ung-hs¨n), 1964.9, 448–57.
Hsü, T'ien-lin. Hsi-Han hui-yao. 2 vols. Shanghai: Jen-min Ch'u-pan-she, 1976.
Hsü, T'ien-lin. Tung-Han hui-yao. Peking: Chung-hua Shu-chü, 1955.
Hsüeh, Chü-cheng. Chiu Wu-tai shih. Peking: Chung-hua Shu-chü, 1976.
Hsün, Ch'ing. Hsün-tzu. References are to Hsün-tzu chien-shih, ed. Ch'i-hsiung, Liang. Peking: Ku-chi Ch'u-pan-she, 1956.
Hsün, Yüeh. Ch'ien-Han chi, ed. Chi-shui, Huang, 1548, Ssu-pu-ts'ung-k'an ed. Rpt. from an amended copy, Taipei: T'ai-wan Shang-wu Yin-shu-kuan, 1973.
Hsia, Nai. “San-shih nien lai ti Chung-kuo k'ao-ku-hsüeh”. Kaogu (formerly K'ao-ku t'ung-hs¨n) 1979.5, 385–92.
Hsia, Wei-ying. Lü-shin ch'un-ch'iu shang-nung teng ssu p'ien chiao-shih. Peking: Chung-hua Shu-chü, 1956.
Hsiao, Chih-hsing. “Kuan-yü Hsiung-nu hsi-ch'ien kuo-ch'eng ti t'ant'ao”. Li-shih yen-chiu, 1978.7, 83–87.
Hsiao, Chih-hsing. “Shih shih ‘Han kuei-i Ch'iang chang’ yin”. Wenwu (formerly Wen-tuu ts'an-k'ao tzu-liao), 1976.7, 86.
Hsiao, Han. “Ch'ang-sha Ma-wang-tui Han mu po-shu kai-shu”. Wenwu (formerly Wen-tuu ts'an-k'ao tzu-liao) 1974.9, 40–44.
Hsiao, Kung-chuan. A history of Chinese political thought. Vol. 1. From the beginnings to the sixth century A.D., trans. Mote, Frederick W.. Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1979.
Hsieh, Chien. “Hsiung-nu cheng-chih chih-tu ti yen-chiu”. Bulletin of the Institute of History and Philology, Academia Sinica, Taipei, 41: 2 (June 1969), 231–71.
Hsin-chiang, Wei-wu-erh tzu-chih-ch'ü po-wu-kuan. Hsin-chiang li-shih wen-wu. Peking: Wen-wu Ch'u-pan-she, 1978.
Hsu, Cho-yun. Ancient China in transition: An analysis of social mobility, 722–222 B.C. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford Univ. Press, 1965.
Hsu, Cho-yun. Han agriculture: The formation of early Chinese agrarian economy (206 B.C.–A.D. 220), ed. Dull, Jack L.. Seattle and London: Univ. of Washington Press, 1980. [abbreviation: Han agriculture]
Hu, Chao-hsi. “Lun Han Chin ti Ti-Ch'iang ho Sui-T'ang i-hou ti Ch'iang tsuLi-shih yen-chiu, 1963.2, 153–70.
Hu, Shih. “Wang Mang, the socialist emperor of nineteen centuries ago.” Journal of the North China Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, 59 (1928), 218–30.
Hu-nan, sheng po-wu-kuan, and k'o-hsüeh-yüan, Chung-kuo. yen-chiu-so, K'ao-ku. Ch'ang-sha Ma-wang-tui i hao Han mu. 2 vols. Peking: Wen-wu Ch'u-pan-she, 1973.
Hu-pei, sheng wen-hua-chü wen-wu kung-tso-tuiHu-pei Chiang-ling san tso Ch'u mu ch'u-t'u ta p'i chung-yao wen-wu”. Wenwu (formerly Wen-tuu ts'an-k'ao tzu-liao), 1966.5, 33–59.
Huan, K'uan. Yen-t'ieh lun References are to Wang Li-ch'i. Yen-t'ieh lun chiao-chu. Shanghai: Ku-tien Wen-hsüeh Ch'u-pan-she, 1958. [abbreviation: YTL]
Huang, Sheng-chang. “Ch'ing-ch'uan hsin ch'u Ch'in t'ien lü mu tu chi ch'i hsiang-kuan wen-t'i”. Wenwu (formerly Wen-tuu ts'an-k'ao tzu-liao), 1982.9, 71–75.
Huang, Sheng-chang. “Ho-lin-ko-erh Han mu pi-hua yü li-shih ti-li wen-t'i”. Wenwu (formerly Wen-tuu ts'an-k'ao tzu-liao), 1974.1, 38–46.
Huang, Wen-pi. Lo-pu-nao-erh k'ao-ku chi. Peiping: Mission of the North-western Expedition of China and the Institute of Historical Studies and Archaeology, 1948.
Hulsewé, A. F. P.The Ch'in documents discovered in Hupei in 1975.” T'oung Pao, 64: 4–5 (1978). 175–217. [abbreviation: ?“Ch'in documents”]
Hulsewé, A. F. P. China in Central Asia: The early stage 125 B.C.–A.D. 23, with an introduction by M. A. N. Loewe. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1979. [abbreviation: China in central Asia (see Hulsewé, )]
Hulsewé, A. F. P.Chinese Communist treatment of the origins and foundations of the Chinese empire.” The China Quarterly, July-September 1965, 78–105. Rpt. in History in Communist China, ed. Feuerwerker, Albert. Cambridge, Mass., and London: MIT Press, 1968, pp. 96–123.
Hulsewé, A. F. P.‘Contracts’ of the Han period.” In Il diritto in Cina, ed. Lanciotti, L.. Florence: Olschki, 1978, pp. 11–38. [abbreviation: “Contracts”]
Hulsewé, A. F. P.Han time documents.” T'oung Pao, 45 (1957), 1–50.
Hulsewé, A. F. P.The influence of the state of Qin on the economy as reflected in the texts discovered in Yunmeng Prefecture.” In The scope of state power in China, ed. Schram, S. R.. London: School of Oriental and African Studies; Hong Kong: Press of Chinese Univ., 1985, pp. 211–36.
Hulsewé, A. F. P.A lawsuit of A.D. 28.” In Studia sino-mongolica, Festschrift für Herbert Franke, ed. Bauer, W.. Münchener Ostasiatische Studien 25. Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner Verlag, 1979, pp. 23–34.
Hulsewé, A. F. P.The Legalists and the laws of Ch'in.” In Leyden studies in Sinology, ed. Idema, W. L.. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1981, pp. 1–22.
Hulsewé, A. F. P.Notes on the historiography of the Han period.” In Historians of China and Japan, ed. Beasley, W. G. and Pulleyblank, E. G.. London: Oxford Univ. Press, 1961, pp. 31–43.
Hulsewé, A. F. P.The problem of the authenticity of Shih-chi ch. 123, the memoir on Ta Yüan.” T'oung Pao, 61: 1–3 (1975), 83–147.
Hulsewé, A. F. P.Quelques considérations sur le commerce de la soie au temps de la dynastie des Han.” In Mélanges de Sinologie offerts à Monsieur P. Demiéville. Bibliothèque de l'Institut des Hautes Études Chinoises, Vol. XX. Paris: Bibliothèque de l'Institut des Hautes Études Chinoises, 1974, Vol. II, pp. 117–36. [abbreviation: “Quelques considérations”]
Hulsewé, A. F. P. Remnants of Ch'in law: An annotated translation of the Ch'in legal and administrative rules of the 3rd century B.C. discovered in Yün-meng Prefecture, Hu-pei Province, in 1975. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1985.
Hulsewé, A. F. P. Remnants of Han law. Vol. I. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1955. [abbreviation: Remnants]
Hulsewé, A. F. P.Royal rebels.” Bulletin de I'École française d'Extrême Orient, 69 (1981), 315–25.
Hulsewé, A. F. P.The Shuo-wen dictionary as a source for ancient Chinese law.” In Studia Serica Bernhard Karlgren dedicate, eds. Egerod, Søren and Glahn, Else. Copenhagen: Ejnar Munksgaard, 1959, pp. 239–58. [abbreviation: “The Shuo-wen”]
Hulsewé, A. F. P.Some remarks on statute labour during the Ch'in and Han period.” In Orientalia Venetiana, ed. Sabattini, Mario. Vol. I. Florence: Olschki, 1984, pp. 195–204.
Hulsewé, A. F. P.Watching the vapours: An ancient Chinese technique of prognostication.” Nachrichten der Gesellschaft für Natur- und Völkerkunde Ostasiens/Hamburg, 125 (1979), 40–49.
Hulsewé, A. F. P.Weights and measures in Ch'in law.” In State and law in East Asia: Festschrift Karl Bünger, eds. Eikemeier, Dieter and Franke, Herbert. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1981, pp. 25–39.
Hulsewé, A. F. P.Zur Frage nach der Methode der chinesischen Historiographen.” Orientalistische Literatur Zeitung, 53: 1–2 (1958), 12–21.
Hung, K'uo. Li hsü Preface dated 1167. Wang's edition, postface 1778.
Hung, K'uo. Li shih. Preface dated 1167. Ssu-pu-ts'ung-k'an ed. (based on a print of 1588).
Hung, Shih-ti Ch'in Shih-huang. Shanghai: Jen-min Ch'u-pan-she, first edition 1972; second edition, 1973.
Hurvitz, Leon. Chih-i (538–597): An introduction to the life and ideas of a Chinese Buddhist monk. Mélanges chinois et bouddhiques, Vol. XII. Bruxelles: Institut Beige des Hautes Études Chinoises, 1962.
Hurvitz, Leon. “Chih Tun's notions of Prajnā.” Journal of the American Oriental Society, 88: 2 (1968), 243–61.
Hurvitz, Leon. “Render unto Caesar in early Chinese Buddhism.” Sino-Indian Studies (Santiniketan), 5: 3–4 (1957; Liebenthal Festschrift), pp. 80–114.
Idema, W. L., ed. Leyden studies in sinology. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1981.
Ikeuchi, . Mansen shi kinkyū: Jōsei hen:. Kyoto: Sokokusha, 1951.
Ise, Sentarō Chūgoku saiiki keiei shi kinkyū. Tokyo: Gannandō Shoten, 1955.
Ishiguro, Tomio. “Senbi yūboku kokka no ryōiki”. Hokudai shigaku, 4 (October 1957), 80–91.
Jan, Yün-hua. “Buddhist self-immolation in medieval China.” History of Religions, 4: 2 (1965), 243–68.
Jan, Yün-hua. “The silk manuscripts on Taoism.” T'oung Pao, 63 (1977), 65–84.
Jan, Yün-hua. “Tao, principle and law: The three key concepts in the Yellow Emperor Taoism.” Journal of Chinese Philosophy, 7: 3 (1980), 205–28.
Jan, Yün-hua. “Tao yüan or Tao: The origin.” Journal of Chinese Philosophy, 7: 3 (1980), 195–204.
Jao, Tsung-i, and Hsien-t'ung, Tseng. Yün-meng Ch'in chien jih-shu yen-chiu. Hong Kong: Chinese Univ. of Hong Kong, 1982.
Jao, Tsung-i. Chung-kuo shih-hsüeh shang chih cheng-t'ung-lun. Hong Kong: Lung-men Shu-tien, 1977.
Jao, Tsung-i. Lao-tzu Hsiang-erh chu chiao-chien. Hong Kong: Tong Nam, 1956.
Jao, Tsung-i. “Lao-tzu Hsiang-erh chu hsü lun”. In Fukui Hakushi shōju kinen Tōyō bunka ronshū, ed. Kankōkai, Fukui Hakushi Shōju Kinen Rombunshū. Tokyo: Waseda Daigaku Shuppanbu, 1969, pp. 1155–71.
Jenner, W. J. F. Memories of Loyang: Yang Hsüan-chih and the lost capital (493–534). Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1981.
Jongchell, Ardid. Huo Kuang och hans tid. Göteborg: Elander, 1930.
Jugel, Ulrike. Politische Funktion und soziale Stellung der Eunuchen zur späteren Hanzeit (25–220 n. Chr.). Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner Verlag, 1976.
Künstler, Mieczyslaw Jerzy. Ma Jong: Vie et oeuvre. Warsaw: Panstwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe, 1969.
Kai, Shan-lin. Ho-lin-ko-erh Han-mu pi-hua. Hu-ho-hao-t'e, Inner Mongolia: Nei Meng-ku Jen-min Ch'u-pan-she, 1978.
Kaltenmark, Max. Lao Tzu and Taoism, trans, from the French by Greaves, Roger. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford Univ. Press, 1969.
Kaltenmark, Max. “Ling-pao, note sur un terme du taoísme religieux.” Mélanges, 2 (1960), 559–88.
Kamada, Shigeo. Shin Kan seiji seido no kinkyū. Tokyo: Nihon Gakujutsu Shinkōkai, 1962.
Kamata, Shigeo. Chūgoku bukkyō shi. 8 vols. Tokyo: Tōkyō Daigaku Shuppan Kai, 1982–.
Kan-su, sheng po-wu-kuan. “Wu-wei Mo-chü-tzu san tso Han mu fa-chüeh chien pao”. Wenwu (formerly Wen-tuu ts'an-k'ao tzu-liao), 1972.12, 9–23.
Kao, Heng. “Ch'in lü chung ‘li ch'en ch'ieh’ wen-t'i ti t'an-t'ao”. Wenwu (formerly Wen-tuu ts'an-k'ao tzu-liao), 1977.7, 43–50.
Karlgren, Bernhard. “The Book of documents.” Bulletin of the Museum of Far Eastern Antiquities, 22 (1950), 1–81.
Karlgren, Bernhard. The Book of odes. Stockholm: Museum of Far Eastern Antiquities, 1950.
Karlgren, Bernhard. “The early history of the Chou li and Tso chuan texts.” Bulletin of the Museum of Far Eastern Antiquities, 3 (1931), 1–59.
Karlgren, Bernhard. “Excursions in Chinese grammar.” Bulletin of the Museum of Far Eastern Antiquities, 23 (1951), 107–33.
Karlgren, Bernhard. Philology and ancient China. Oslo: Aschehoug, 1926.
Katō, Shigeshi (Shigeru). Shiki Heijunsho, Kanjo Shokkashi yakuchū,. Tokyo: Iwanami, 1942.
Katō, Shigeshi. Shina keizaishi kōshō English summaries by Pulleyblank, E. G.. 2 vols. Tokyo: Tōyō Bunko, 1952–3.
Katō, Shigeshi. “A study on the Suan-fu, the poll tax of the Han dynasty,” Memoirs of the Research Department of the Tōyō Bunko, 1 (1926), 51–68.
Kawakatsu, Yoshio. “Kanmatsu no rejisutansu undō”. Tōyō shi kenkyū, 25:4 (1967), 386–413.
Keightley, David N. Sources of Skang history: The oracle-bone inscriptions of bronze age China. Berkeley, Los Angeles, and London: Univ. of Calif. Press, 1978.
Keightley, David N.Where have all the swords gone? Reflections on the unification of China.” Early China, 2 (Fall 1976), 31–34.
Kierman, Frank A. Jr., and Fairbank, John K., eds. Chinese ways in warfare. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Univ. Press, 1974.
Kim, Byung-mo. “Aspects of brick and stone tomb construction in China and south Korea: Ch'in to Silla period.” Diss. Univ. of Oxford, 1978.
Kimura, Masao. “Kōkin no ran”. Tōkyō Kyōiku daigaku bungakubu kiyō, 91 (1973), 1–54.
Kirby, E. Stuart. Russian studies of China: Progress and problems of Soviet sinology. London: Macmillan, 1975.
Knechtges, David R. The Han Rhapsody: A. study of the Fu of Yang Hsiung (53 B.C.–A.D. 18). Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1976.
Koga, Noboru. “Kan Chōanjō no kensetsu puran: Sempaku kinkyō seido to no kankei o chūshin to shite” :. Tōyō shi kenkyū, 31: 2 (September 1972), 28–60.
Koga, Noboru. Kan Chōanjō to sempaku, kinkyō teiri seido. Tokyo: Yüsankaku, 1980.
Koizumi, Akio. The tomb of painted basket and other two tombs of Lo-lang. Keijō (Seoul): Society for the Study of Korean Antiquities, 1934.
Koizumi, Akio. Rakurō saikyō tsuka. Engish résumé by Kōsaku, Hamada. Keijō (Seoul): Society for the Study of Korean Antiquities, 1934.
Kramers, R. P. K'ung Tzu Chia Yü: The school sayings of Confucius. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1950.
Kroll, J. L.Toward a study of the economic views of Sang Hung-yang.” Early China, 4 (1978–79), 11–18.
Ku, Chieh-kang, and Wen-shan, Hsü, eds. Shih-chi i-pai san-shih chüan: po-wen chih pu. Peiping: Kuo-li Pei-p'ing Yen-chiu-yüan, 1936.
Ku, Chieh-kang. Ch'in Han ti fang-shih yüju-sheng. Shanghai: Ch'ün-lien Ch'u-pan-she, 1955.
Ku, Chieh-kang. Han tai hsüeh-shu shih-lüeh. Shanghai: Ya-hsi-ya Shu-chü, undated (before 1949).
Ku, Chieh-kang. Shih-lin tsa-shih. Peking: Chung-hua Shu-chü, 1963.
Kuan, Tung-kuei. “Han-tai ti Ch'iang-tsu”. Shih-huo, NS 1: 1 (April 1971), 15–20; 1: 2 (May 1971), 13–23.
Kuang-chou, Hsiang-kang Han mu fa-chüeh tui. “Hsi-Han Nan Yüeh wang mu fa-chüeh ch'u-pu pao-kaoKaogu (formerly K'ao-ku t'ung-hs¨n), 1984.3, 222–30.
Kuang-chou, shih wen-wu kuan-li wei-yüan-hui, and po-wu-kuan, Kuang-chou shih. Kuang-chou Han-mu. 2 vols. Peking: Wen-wu Ch'u-pan-she, 1981.
Kubo, Yasuhiko. “Boki kōi setchi no mokuteki ni tsuiteShien, 26: 2–3 (January 1966), 55–66.
Kuo, Mo-jo Shihp'i-p'an shu. Chungking: Ch'ün-i Ch'u-pan-she, 1945.
Kuo, Mo-jo. “Chung-kuo ku-tai-shih ti fen-ch'i wen-t'i”. Hung-ch'i, 1972.7, 56–62; also in Kaogu (formerly K'ao-ku t'ung-hs¨n), 1972.5, 2–7.
Kuo, Mo-jo. English translation in Chinese Studies in History, 6: 4 (Summer 1973), 3–15.
Kuo, Mo-jo. Chung-kuo shih kao. 2 vols. Peking: Jen-min Ch'u-panshe, 1976, 1979.
Kurihara, Tomonobu. Shin Kan shi no kenkyū. Tokyo: Yoshikawa Kobunkan, 1960.
Kusuyama, Haruki. Rōshi densetsu no kenkyū. Tokyo: Sōbunsha, 1979.
, Ssu-mien. Ch'in Han shih. 2 vols.: Shu-tien, K'ai-ming, 1947; Hong Kong: T'ai-p'ing Shu-chü, 1962.
, Ssu-mien. Yen shih cha-chi. Shanghai: Shang-wu Ch'ien-yin-pen (Kuang-hua Ta-hsüeh Ts'ung-shu), 1937.
Lamotte, Étienne, trans. Le traité de la Grande Vertu de sagesse de Nāgārjuna (Mahāprajnāpāramitāsāśtra) ch. i–lii. 5 vols. Louvain: Université de Louvain, Institut Orientaliste, 1944–80.
Lao, Kan. Chü-yen Han-chien k'ao-shih. Academia Sinica, Institute of History and Philology, Special Publication 40. Taipei, 1960.
Lao, Kan. “Han-tai ti Hsi-yü tu-hu yü wu-chi hsiao-wei”. Bulletin of the Institute of History and Philology, Academia Sinica, Taipei, 28: 1 (1956), 485–96.
Lao, Kan. “Han-tai ti ku-yung chih-tu”. Bulletin of the Institute of History and Philology, Academia Sinica, Taipei, 23 (1951), 77–87.
Lao, Kan. “Liang Han chün-kuo mien-chi chih ku-chi chi k'ou-shu tsengchien chih t'ui-ts'e”. Bulletin of the Institute of History and Philology, Academia Sinica, Taipei, 5: 2 (1935) 215–40.
Lao, Kan. “Liang Han hu-chi yü ti-li chih kuan-hsi”. Bulletin of the Institute of History and Philology, Academia Sinica, Taipei, 5: 2 (1935), 179–214.
Lao, Kan. English translation, “Population and geography in the two Han dynasties,” Chinese social history, eds. Sun, E-tu Zen and Francis, John. Washington D.C.: American Council of Learned Societies, 1956, pp. 83–101.
Lao, Kan. “Lun Han-tai chih lu-yün yü shui-yün”. Bulletin of the Institute of History and Philology, Academia Sinica, Taipei, 16 (1947), 69–91.
Lau, D. C. Lao tzu: Tao te ching. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1963.
Lau, D. C. Mencius. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1970.
Laufer, Berthold. “The name China.” T'oung Pao, 13 (1912), 719–26.
Le Blanc, Charles. “The idea of resonance (kan-ying) in the Huai-nan-tzu, with a translation and analysis of Chapter 6.” Diss. Univ. of Pennsylvania, 1978.
Leban, Carl. “Managing heaven's mandate: Coded communication in the accession of Ts'ao P'ei, A.D. 220.” In Ancient China: Studies in early civilization, eds. Roy, David T. and Tsien, Tsuen-hsuin. Hong Kong: Chinese Univ. Press, 1978, pp. 315–42.
Lee, James. “Migration and expansion in Chinese history.” In Human migration: Patterns and policies, eds. McNeill, William H. and Adams, Ruth. Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Press, 1978, pp. 25–47.
Legge, James. The Chinese Classics. 7 vols. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1893.
Leslie, Donald D., Mackerras, Colin, and Gungwu, Wang. Essays on the sources for Chinese history. Canberra: Australian National Univ. Press, 1973.
Levi, Sylvain, trans. Mahāyāna-sūtralamkāra, Exposé de la doctrine du Grand Véhicule selon le système Yogācāra. 2 vols. Paris: H. Champion, 1907–11.
Levy, Howard. “Yellow Turban religion and rebellion at the end of Han.Journal of the American Oriental Society, 76 (1956), 214–27.
Li, Chao-ho. ‘Ch'ing-ch'uan ch'u-t'u mu-tu wen-tzu chien-k'ao'’. Wenwu (formerly Wen-tuu ts'an-k'ao tzu-liao), 1982.1 24–27.
Li, Chien-nung. Hsien-Ch'in liang Han ching-chi shih kao. Peking: Sheng-huo, Tu-shu, Hsin-chih San-lien Shu-tien, 1957.
Li, Hsuuml;eh-ch'in. “Ch'ing-ch'uan Hao-chia-p'ing mu-tu yen-chiu”. Wenwu (formerly Wen-wu ts'an-k'ao tzu-liao), 1982.10, 68–72.
Li, Shao-ming. “Kuan-yü Ch'iang-tsu ku-tai-shih ti chi ko wen-t'i”. Li-shih yen-chiu, 1963.5, 165–82.
Li, Yu-ning, ed. The politics of historiography: The First Emperor of China. White Plains, N.Y.: International Arts and Sciences Press, 1975.
Li, Yu-ning, ed. Shang Yang's reforms and state control in China. White Plains, N.Y.:M. E. Sharpe, 1977.
Liao, W. K. The complete works of Han Fei Tzu. London: Arthur Probsthain. Vol. I, 1939, rpt. 1959; Vol. II, 1959.
Liebcnthal, Walter. “Chinese Buddhism during the 4th and 5 th centuries.” Monumenta Nipponica, 11: 1 (1955), 44–83.
Liebenthal, Walter. “A biography of Chu Tao-sheng.Monumenta Nipponica, 11:3 (1955), 64-96.
Liebenthal, Walter. trans. Chao lun: The treatises of Seng-chao. Hong Kong: Hong Kong Univ. Press, 1968.
Liebenthal, Walter. “The immortality of the soul in Chinese thought.” Monumenta Nipponica, 8 (1952), 327–97.
Liebenthal, Walter. “New light on the Mahāyāna-śraddhotpāda śāstra.T'oung Pao, 46 (1958), 155–216. [abbreviation: “New light”]
Liebenthal, Walter. “Shih Hui-yuan's Buddhism.” Journal of the American Oriental Society, 70 (1950), 243–59.
Liebenthal, Walter. “The world conception of Chu Tao-sheng.” Monumenta Nipponica, 12: 1–2 (1956), 65–103; 12: 3–4 (1956), 73–100.
Lien-yün-kang, shih po-wu-kuan. “Lien-yün-kang shih K'ungwang-shan mo-ai tsao-hsiang tiao-ch'a pao-kao”. Wenwu (formerly Wen-tuu ts'an-k'ao tzu-liao), 1981.7, 1–7.
Lin, Lü-chih. Han Wu-ti chuan. Hong Kong: San-yü T'u-shu Wen-chü Kung-ssu, 1958.
Lin, T. C. See Gale, Esson M., “Discourses on salt and iron” (1934).
Link, Arthur E.Biography of Shih Tao-an.” T'oung Pao, 59 (1973), 1–48.
Link, Arthur E.Shyh Daw-an's preface to Saṅgharaksa's Yogācārabhūmisutra and the problem of Buddho-Taoist terminology in early Chinese Buddhism.” Journal of the American Oriental Society, 77: 1 (1957), 1–14.
Link, Arthur E.The Taoist antecedents of Tao-an's Prajñā ontology.” History of Religions, 9: 2–3 (November 1969–February 1970), 181–215.
Link, Arthur E., and Lee, Tim. “Sun Ch'o's Yü-tao lun: A clarification of the way.” Monumenta Serica, 25 (1966), 169–96.
Liu, An. Huai-nan-tzu. References are to Liu Wen-tien. Huai-nan hung-lieh chi-chieh. Shanghai: Shang-wu Yin-shu-kuan, 1926; rpt. Taipei: T'ai-wan Shang-wu Yin-shu-kuan, 1969.
Liu, Chih-yüan (posthumous). “K'ao-ku ts'ai-liao so chien Han-tai ti Ssu-ch'uan nung-yeh”. Wenwu (formerly Wen-tuu ts'an-k'ao tzu-liao), 1979.12. 61–69.
Liu, Nai-ho. “Po-shu so chi 'Chang Ch'u' kuo hao yü Hsi-Han fachia cheng-chih”. Wenwu (formerly Wen-tuu ts'an-k'ao tzu-liao), 1975.5, 35–37.
Liu, Tseng-kuei. Han-tai hun-jin chih-tu. Taipei: Hua-shih Ch'u-pan-she, 1980.
Liu, Wen-tien. Chuang-tzupu-cheng. Shanghai: Shang-wu Yinshu-kuan, 1947.
Liu, Yün-ts'ai. “Chung-kuo ku-tai kao-lu ti ch'i-yüan ho yen-pienWW. 1978.2, 18–27.
Lo, Ssu-ting. “Lun Ch'in Han chih chi ti chieh-chi tou-cheng”. Hung-ch'i, 1974.8, 16–26.
Lo-yang, ch'ü k'ao-ku fa-chüeh-tui. Lo-yang Shao-kou Han mu. Peking: Chung-kuo K'so-hsüeh-yüan, 1959.
Loewe, Michael. “Attempts at economic co-ordination during the Western Han dynasty.” In The scope of state power in China, ed. Schram, S. R.. London: School of Oriental and African Studies; Hong Kong: Press of Chinese Univ., 1985, pp. 237–66.
Loewe, Michael. “The authority of the emperors of Ch'in and Han.” In State and law in East Asia: Festschrift Karl Bünger, eds. Eikemeier, Dieter and Franke, Herbert. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1981, pp. 80–111. [abbreviation: “Authority of the emperors”]
Loewe, Michael. “The campaigns of Han Wu-ti.” In Chinese ways in warfare, eds. Kierman, Frank A. Jr., and Fairbank, John K.. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Univ. Press, 1974, pp. 67–122. [abbreviation: “Campaigns of Han Wu-ti”]
Loewe, Michael. Chinese ideas of life and death: Faith, myth and reason in the Han period (202 B.C.–A.D. 220). London: George Allen and Unwin, 1982. [abbreviation: Ideas of life and death]
Loewe, Michael. Crisis and conflict in Han China. London: George Allen and Unwin, 1974. [abbreviation Crisis and conflict]
Loewe, Michael. “The Han view of comets.” Bulletin of the Museum of Far Eastern Antiquities, 52 (1980), 1–31.
Loewe, Michael. “Man and beast: The hybrid in early Chinese art and literature.” Numen, 25: 2 (1978), 97–117. [abbreviation: “Man and beast”]
Loewe, Michael. “Manuscripts found recently in China: A preliminary survey.T'oung Pao, 63: 2–3 (1977), 99–136. [abbreviation: “Manuscripts”]
Loewe, Michael. “The manuscripts from tomb number three, Ma-wang-tui.” In: (a) Proceedings of the International Conference on Sinology, Section on history and archaeology. Taipei: Academia Sinica, 1981, pp. 181–98, and (b) China: Continuity and change: Papers of the XXVIIth Congress of Chinese studies 31.8–5.9.1980, Zürich University. Zürich, 1982, pp. 29–57.
Loewe, Michael. “The measurement of grain during the Han period.” T'oung Pao, 49: 1–2 (1961), 64–95.
Loewe, Michael. “The orders of aristocratic rank of Han China.” T'oung Pao, 48: 1–3 (1960), 97–174. [abbreviation: “Aristocratic ranks”]
Loewe, Michael. Records of Han administration. 2 vols. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1967. [abbreviation: Records]
Loewe, Michael. “Spices and silk: Aspects of world trade in the first seven centuries of the Christian era.Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1971.2, 166–79. [abbreviation: “Spices and silk”]
Loewe, Michael. “Water, earth and fire - the symbols of the Han Dynasty.” Nachrichten der Gesdlschaft für Natur- und Völkerkmde Ostasiensl Hamburg, 125 (1979). 63–68.
Loewe, Michael. Ways to paradise: The Chinese quest for immortality. London: George Allen and Unwin, 1979.
Lu, Pi. San-kuo chih chi-chieh. Rpt. in facsimile form, Peking: Ku-chi Ch'u-pan she, 1957. [abbreviation: San-kuo chih chi-chieh (Lu Pi: reprinted Peking, Ku-chi ch'u-pan-she, 1957)]
Lu, Po. “Han-tai Hsü Sheng mai-ti ch'ien-ch'üan chien-chieh”. Wenwu (formerly Wen-tuu ts'an-k'ao tzu-liao), 1972.5, 60–62.
Ma, Ch'ang-shou. Pei-Ti yü Hsiung-nu. Peking: Sheng-huo, Tu-shu, Hsin-chih San-lien Shu-tien, 1962.
Ma, Ch'ang-shou. Wu-huan yü Hsien-pi. Shanghai: Jen-min Ch'upan-she, 1962.
Ma, Fei-pai. “Ch'in-Han ching-chi-shih tzu-liao”. Shihhuo, 2:8 (1935), 22–33; 2: 10 (1935), 7–32: 3: 1 (1936), 9–31: 3: 2 (1936), 2–25; 3:3 (1936), 8–38: 3:8 (1936), 37–52; 3: 9 (1936), 9–33.
Ma, Heng. Han shih-ching chi-ts'un. Peking: Chung-kuo K'ohsüeh-yüan K'ao-ku Yen-chiu-so, 1957.
Ma, T'ung-po, ed. Han Ch'ang-li wen-chi chiao-chu. Shanghai: Ku-tien Wen-hsüeh Ch'u-pan-she, 1957.
Ma-wang-tuihsiao-tsu, Han mu po-shu cheng-li, ed. Chan-kuo tsung-heng chia shu. Peking: Wen-wu Ch'u-pan-she, 1976.
Ma-wang-tuihsiao-tsu, Han mu po-shu cheng-li. “Ma-wang-tui po-shu ‘Liushih-ssu kua’ shih-wen”. Wenwu (formerly Wen-tuu ts'an-k'ao tzu-liao), 1984.3, 1–8.
MacGowan, D. S.Self-immolation by fire in China.” Chinese Recorder, 19: 10 (1888), 445–51:19:11 (1888), 508–21.
Major, John S.Topography and cosmology in early Han thought: Chapter four of the Huai-nan-tzu.” Diss. Harvard Univ., 1973.
Makino, Tatsumi. “Saikan no hōken sōzoku hō. Tōhō gakuhō, 3 (Tokyo, 1932), 255–329.
Makita, Tairyō. Chūgoku kinsei bukkyō shi kenkyū. Kyoto: Inoue Shirō, 1957.
Mansvelt Beck, B. J.The date of the Taiping Jing.” T'oung Pao, 66: 4-5 (1980), 149–82.
Mansvelt Beck, B. J.The true emperor of China.” In Leyden studies in sinology, ed. Idema, W. L.. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1981, pp. 25–33.
Martini, Martin. Novus Atlas Sinensis, Part VI of Theatrum orbis terrarum sive Novus Altas, ed. Blaeu, Joannis. Amsterdam, 1655.
Maspero, Henri, “Études d'histoire d'Annam: V. L'expédition de Ma Yuan.” Bulletin de I'École française d'Extrême Orient, 18: 3 (1918), 11–28.
Maspero, Henri, and Balazs, Étienne. Histoire et institutions de la Chine ancienne. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1967. [abbreviation: Histoire et institutions]
Maspero, Henri. “Communautés et moines bouddhistes chinois aux IIe et Ille siècles.” Bulletin de I'École française d'Extrême Orient, 10 (1910), 222–32.
Maspero, Henri. Les documents chinois de la troisiéme expédition de Sir Aurel Stein en Asie Centrale. London: Trustees of the British Museum, 1953. [abbreviation: Documents]
Maspero, Henri. “Les instruments astronomiques des Chinois au temps des Han.” In Mélanges chinois et bouddhiques, Vol. VI, pp. 183–370. Brussels: Institut Beige des Hautes Études Chinoises, 1939.
Maspero, Henri. Mélanges posthumes sur les religions et l'histoire de la Chine. 3 vols. Paris: Civilisations du Sud, S.A.E.P., 1950.
Maspero, Henri. “Rapport sommaire sur une mission archéologique au Tchö-kiang.” Bulletin de I'École française d'Extrême Orient, 14: 8 (1914), 1–75.
Maspero, Henri. Les taoīsme et les religions chinoises. Paris: Gallimard, 1971.
Maspero, Henri. English translation by Kierman, Frank A. Jr., as Taoism and Chinese religion. Amherst: Univ. of Massachusetts Press, 1981.
Masubuchi, Tatsuo. Chūgoku kodai no shakai to kokka. Tokyo: Kōbundō, 1960.
Mather, Richard B.The controversy over conformity and naturalness during the Six Dynasties.” History of Religions, 9: 2–3 (November 1969–February 1970), 160–80.
Mather, Richard B., trans. Shih-shuo hsin-yü: A new account of tales of the world. By I-ch'ing., Liu, commentary by Chun, Liu. Translated with introduction and notes. Minneapolis: Univ. of Minnesota Press, 1976.
Mathieu, Rémi. Étude sur la mythologie et l'ethnologic de la Chine ancienne. Traduction annotée du Shanhai jing. 2 vols. Paris: Collége de France, Institut des Hautes Études Chinoises, 1983.
Matsuzaki, Tsuneko. “Go-Kan matsu no shōkyōteki nōmin hanran”. Sundai Shigaku, 29 (September 1971), 90–107.
McGovern, William Montgomery. The early empires of Central Asia: A. study of the Scythians and the Huns and the part they played in world history, with special reference to the Chinese sources. Chapel Hill, N. C.: Univ. of North Carolina Press, 1939.
McKnight, Brian E. The quality of mercy: Amnesties and traditional Chinese justice. Honolulu: Univ. Press of Hawaii, 1981.
McLeod, Katrina C. D., and Yates, Robin D. S.. “Forms of Ch'in law: An annotated translation of the Feng-ehen shih.” Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, 41: 1 (1981), 111–63.
Meng, Ch'ih. “Ts'ung Hsin-chiang li-shih wen-wu k'an Han-tai tsai Hsi-yü ti cheng-chih ts'o-shih ho ching-chi chicn-sheWenwu (formerly Wen-tuu ts'an-k'ao tzu-liao), 1975.2, 27–34.
Michaud, Paul. “The Yellow Turbans.” Monumenta Serica, 17 (1958), 47–127.
Miller, J. Innes. The spice trade of the Roman Empire, 29 B.C. to A.D. 641. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1969.
Miller, Roy A. Review article on A linguistic study of the Shih Ming: Initials and consonant clusters, by Bodman, N. C.. T'oung Pao, 44: 1–3 (1956), 266–87.
Miyazaki, Ichisada. “Shin Butei no kochōshiki ni tsuite”. In Ajiashi Kenkyū (Studies in Oriental History) no. 1 (Asiatica: Studies in Oriental History; Oriental Research Series, no. 4, part 1). Kyoto: Tōyōshi Kenkyūkai, 1957, pp. 185–212.
Mori, Masao. “Kyōdo no kokka”. Shigaku zasshi, 59: 5 (May 1950), 1–21.
Mori, Osamu, and Hiroshi, Naitō. Ying-ch'eng-tzu: Report upon the excavation of the Han brick-tomb with fresco paintings etc. near Chien-mu-cheng-j, South Manchuria. Tokyo and Kyoto: Far Eastern Archaeological Society, 1934.
Mori, Shikazō. Tōyōgaku kenkyū: Kyoen Kankan hen. Kyoto: Dōbōsha, 1975.
Morohashi, Tetsuji. Dai Kanwa jiten 13 vols. Tokyo: Suzuki Ippei, 1955–60.
Munro, Donald J. The concept of man in early China. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford Univ. Press, 1969.
Nan-ching, po-wu-yüan. “Chiang-su Han-chiang Kan-ch'üan erh hao Han muWenwu (formerly Wen-tuu ts'an-k'ao tzu-liao), 1981.11, 1–10.
Needham, Joseph, et al. Science and civilisation in China. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1954–. [abbreviation: SCC, or Science and civilisation]
Needham, Joseph, et al. Science and civilisation in China: Vol. VI, Biology and biological technology, Part II, Francesca Bray. Agriculture. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1984.
Needham, Joseph. The development of iron and steel technology in China. London: Newcomen Society, 1958. [abbreviation: Development of iron and steel]
Nei, Meng-ku tzu-chih-ch'ü po-wu-kuan wen-wu kung-tso-tui ed. Ho-lin-ko-erh Han mu-pi-hua. Peking: Wen-wu Ch'u-pan-she, 1978.
Nei, Meng-ku wen-wu kung-tso-tui. “Nei Meng-ku Cha-laino-erh ku-mu ch'ün fa-chüeh chien-paoKaogu (formerly K'ao-ku t'ung-hs¨n), 1961.12, 673–80.
Nei, Meng-ku wen-wu kung-tso-tui, po-wu-kuan, Nei Meng-ku. “Ho-lin-ko-erh fa-hsien i tso chung-yao ti Tung-Han pi-hua muWenwu (formerly Wen-tuu ts'an-k'ao tzu-liao), 1974.1, 8–23.
Neininger, Ulrich. “Burying the scholars alive: On the origin of a Confucian martyrs' legend.” In East Asian civilizations: New attempts at understanding traditions, no. 2: Nation and mythology, eds. Eberhard, Wolfram, Gawlikowski, Krzysztof, and Seyschab, Carl-Albrecht. Munich: Simon and Magiera, 1983, pp. 121–36.
Ngo, Van Xuyet. Divination, magie et politique dans la Chine ancienne. Bibliothéque de l'École des Hautes Études, Section des Sciences religieuses, Vol. 78. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1976.
Niida, Noboru. Chūgoku hōseishi kenkyū: Tochihō, torihikihō. Tokyo: Tōky¯ Daigaku Shuppan Kai, 1960.
Niida, Noboru. “Kan Gi Rikuch¯ ni okeru saiken no tampo”. Tōyogakuhō, 21: 1 (1933), 91–103.
Nishijima, Sadao, ed. Nara Heian no miyako to Chōan Tokyo: Shōgakukan, 1983.
Nishijima, Sadao. “Characteristics of the unified states of Ch'in and Han.” In Proceedings of the XIIe Congrès International des Sciences Historiques. Vienna, 1965. (Rapports: II), pp. 71–90.
Nishijima, Sadao. Chūgoku kzizaishi kenkyū. Tokyo: Tōkyō Daigaku Shuppankai, 1966.
Nishijima, Sadao. Chūgoku kodai no shakai to keizai. Tokyo: Tōkyō Daigaku Shuppankai, 1981.
Nishijima, Sadao. Chūgoku kodai teikoku no keisei to kōzō. Tokyo: Tokyo Daigaku Shuppankai, 1961.
Nishijima, Sadao. Shin Kan teikoku. Vol. II of Chūgoku no rekishi. Tokyo: Kōdansha, 1974.
Nishikawa, Yasuji. “Kanjo ni okeru Kōrō shisō no ichi sokumen”. Tōhōgaku, 62 (1981), 26–39.
Nunome, Chōfū. “Hansen hankoku ron”. Ritsumeikan bungaku, 148 (1967), 633–53.
Oba, Tsunekichi, and Kamejirō, Kayamoto Rakurō Ō Kō bo. The tomb of Wang Kuang of Lo-lang. Keijō (Seoul): Society for the Study of Korean Antiquities, 1935.
Ochō, Enichi. Chūgoku bukkyō no kenkyū. Kyoto: Hōzōkan, 1958.
Okamura, Shigeru. “Seidan no keifu to igi”. Nippon Chūgoku gakkai hō, 15 (1963), 100–19.
Ou-yang, Hsiu. Hsin Wu-tai shih Peking: Chung-hua Shu-chü. 1974.
P'an, Chi-hsing. Chung-kuo tsao-chih chi-shu shih kao. Peking: Wen-wu Ch'u-pan she, 1979.
P'an, Chi-hsing. “Ts'ung ch'u-t'u ku-chih ti mo-ni shih-yen k'an Han-tai tsao ma-chih chi-shuWenwu (formerly Wen-tuu ts'an-k'ao tzu-liao), 1977.1, 51–58.
P'eng, Hsin-wei. Chung-kuo huo-pi shih. 2 vols. Shanghai: Ch'ün-lien Ch'u-pan-she, 1958.
Pan, Ku. Han shu. Peking: Chung-hua Shu-chü, 1962. [abbreviation: HS]
Pelliot, Paul. “Le Chou king en caractéres anciens et le Chang chou che wen.” Mémoircs concernant l'Asie Orientale. Vol. II. Paris, 1916.
Pelliot, Paul. “Encore à propos du nom de ‘Chine.’T'oung Pao, 14 (1913), 427–28.
Pelliot, Paul. “Meou-tseu ou Les doutes levés.T'oung Pao, 19 (1920), 255–453.
Pelliot, Paul. “L'origine du nom de ‘Chine.’T'oung Pao, 13 (1912), 727–42.
Perelomov, L. S. Imperiya Tsin—pervoe tstntralizovannoe gosudarstvo v Kitae. Moscow: Izdatel'stvo Vostochnoi Literatury, 1962.
Perelomov, L. S. Kniga pravitelya oblasti Shan (Shan tsyun shu). Moscow: Nauka Publishers, 1968.
Pokora, Timotcus. Čchin Š'chuang-ti. Prague: Orbis, 1967.
Pokora, Timoteus. “Hsi-men Pao in fiction and history.” Altorientalische Forschungen, 8 (1981), 265–98.
Pokora, Timoteus. Hsin-lun {New treatise) and other writings by HUM T'an (43 B.C.–28 A.D.). Michigan papers in Chinese studies, no. 20. Ann Arbor: Center for Chinese Studies, Univ. of Michigan, 1975. [abbreviation: Hsin-lun]
Pokora, Timoteus. Review of Imperiya Tsin, by Perelomov, L. S.. Archiv Orientalni, 31 (1963), 165–71.
Pritsak, Omeljan. “Die 24 Ta-ch'en; Studie zur Geschichte des Verwaltungsaufbaus der Hsiung-nu Reiche.” Oriens Extremus, 1 (1954), 178–202.
Pu, Lien-sheng. “K'ung-wang-shan Tung-Han mo-ai fo-chiao tsaohsiang ch'u pien”. Wenwu (formerly Wen-tuu ts'an-k'ao tzu-liao), 1982.9, 61–65.
Qian, Hao, Heyi, Chen, and Suichu, Ru. Out of China's earth. London: Frederick Muller Ltd.; Peking: China Pictorial, 1981.
Rémusat, Abel. Foě Kouě Ki. Paris: Imprimerie Royale, 1836. English version as The pilgrimage of Fa Hian from the French edition of the Foe Koue Ki. Calcutta: Baptist Mission Press, 1848.
Rashke, Manfred G.New studies in Roman commerce with the east.” In Aufstieg und Niedergang der Römischen Welt, Geschichte und Kultur Koms im Spiegel der neueren Forschung II, 9, eds. Temporini, Hildegard and Haase, Wolfgang. Berlin and New York: Walter de Gruyter, 1978, Part 2, pp. 604–1361. [abbreviation: “New studies in Roman commerce”]
Reischauer, Edwin O., and Fairbank, John K.. East Asia: The great tradition. London: George Allen and Unwin, 1958.
Renou, Louis, and Filliozat, Jean. L'Inde classique: Manuel des études indiennes. Vol. I. Paris: Payot, 1947; Vol. II. Paris: École Française d'Extrême-Orient Hanoi, 1953.
Roberts, Moss, trans. Three kingdoms: China's epic drama, by Kuan-chung, Lo. New York: Pantheon Books, 1976.
Robinson, Richard H. Early Mādhyamika in India and China. Madison (Milwaukee) and London: Univ. of Wisconsin Press, 1967.
Rogers, Michael C. The chronicle of Fu Chien: A case of exemplar history. Berkeley and Los Angeles: Univ. of California Press, 1968.
Roy, David T., and Tsien, Tsuen-hsuin, eds. Ancient China: Studies in early civilization. Hong Kong: Chinese Univ. Press, 1978.
Rozman, Gilbert. “Soviet reinterpretations of Chinese social history.” Journal of Asian Studies, 34: 1 (November 1974), 49–72.
Rudenko, S. I. Die Kultur der Hsiung-nu und die Hügelgrāber von Noin Ula, trans. from the Russian by Pollems, Helmut. Bonn: Rudolf Habelt Verlag, 1969.
Sakade, Yoshinobu. Shin Kan shisō kenkyū bunken mokuroku. Osaka: Kansai Daigaku, 1978.
Salmony, Albert. Antler and tongue: An essay on ancient Chinese symbolism. Ascona: Artibus Asiae, 1954.
Santayana, George. The life of reason. New York: Scribner's, 1905.
Sargent, Clyde B. Wang Mang: A translation of the official account of his rise to power as given in the History of the Former Han Dynasty. Shanghai: Graphic Art Book Co., 1947.
Sargent, G. E. Tchou Hi contre le bouddhisme. Paris: Imprimcric Nationale, 1955.
Satō, Taketoshi. Chōan. Tokyo: Kondō Shuppansha, 1971.
Satō, Taketoshi. “Zen-Kan no kokka”. Jinbun kenkyū, 18: 3 (1967), 22–38.
Schipper, Kristofer. Concordance du Pao-p'ou-tseu, nei-p'ien, wai-p'ien. 2 vols. Paris: Institut des Hautes Études Chinoises de l'Université de Paris, 1965, 1969.
Schipper, Kristofer. Le corps taoïste. Paris: Fayard, 1982.
Schram, S. R., ed. The scope of state power in China. London: School of Oriental and African Studies; Hong Kong: Chinese Univ. Press, 1985.
Seidel, Anna K. La divinisation de Lao tseu dans le taoïsme des Han. Paris: École Française d'Extrême-Orient, 1969. [abbreviation: Divinisation]
Seidel, Anna K.The image of the perfect ruler in early Taoist messianism: Lao-tzu and Li Hung.” History of Religions, 9: 2–3 (November 1969–February 1970), 216–47.
Sekino, Takeshi. Chūgoku kōkogaku kenkyū. Tokyo: Tōyō Bunka Kenkyūjo, 1963.
Shan-hsiwei-yüan-hui, sheng wen-wu kuan-li. “Shan-hsi P'ing-lu Tsao-yüan-ts'un pi-hua Han-mu”. Kaogu (formerly K'ao-ku t'ung-hs¨n), 1959.9, 462–63.
Shan-tung, sheng po-wu-kuan, and yen-chiu-so, Shan-tung sheng wen-wu k'ao-ku, eds. Shan-tung Han hua-hsiangshih hsüan-chi. [Chi-nan]: Ch'i-lu Shu-she, 1982.
Shang, Yang. Shang-chun shu. References are to Chu Shih-ch'e. Shang-chün shu chieh-ku ting-pen. Peking: Ku-chi Ch'u-pan-she, 1956.
Shchutskii, Julian K. Researches on the I ching. London and Henley: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1980.
Shen, Chia-pen. Han-lū chih-i. Preface dated 1912. In Shen Chi-i hsien-sheng i-shu. Undated.
Shen, Yüeh. Sung shu. Peking: Chung-hua Shu-chü, 1974.
Shen-hsi, sheng po-wu-kuan, ed. Hsi-an li-shih shu-lüeh. Sian: Shen-hsi Jen-min Ch'u-pan-she, 1959.
Shen-hsi, Shih-huang ling Ch'in yung k'eng k'ao-ku fa-chüeh tui, and po-wu-kuan, Ch'in Shih-huang ping-ma-yung. Ch'in Shih-huanglingping-ma-yung. Peking: Wen-wu Ch'u-pan-she, 1983. Japanese translation by Shōzō, Tanabe. Shin Shikō ryō heibayō. Tokyo: Heibonsha, 1983.
Shih, Nien-hai. “Ch'in Shih-huang chih-tao i-chi ti t'an-so”. Wenwu (formerly Wen-tuu ts'an-k'ao tzu-liao), 1975.10, 44–54.
Sheng-han, Shih. Fan Sheng-chih shu. References are to Fan Sheng-chih shu chin-shih (ch'u kao). Peking: K'o-hsüeh Ch'u-pan-she, 1956. An English version of this book has appeared under the title On “Fan Sheng-chih shu”: An agriculturist book of China written by Fan Sheng-chih in the first century B.C. Peking: Science Press, 1959.
Shih, Sheng-han. A preliminary survey of the book Ch'i-min yao-shu: An agricultural encyclopaedia of the 6th century. Peking: Science Press, 1958.
Shih, Robert. Biographies des moines éminent (Kao seng tchouan). Louvain: Université de Louvain, Institut Orientaliste, 1968.
Shih, Vincent Y. C.Some Chinese rebel ideologies.” T'oung Pao, 44 (1956), 150–226.
Shih-huang, ling Ch'in yung k'eng k'ao-ku fa-chüeh tui. “Lin-t'ung hsien Ch'in yung-k'eng shih-chüeh ti i hao chien pao”. Wenwu (formerly Wen-tuu ts'an-k'ao tzu-liao), 1975.11, 1–18.
Shui-hu-ti, Ch'in-mu chu-chien cheng-li hsiao-tsu. Shui-hu-ti Ch'in-mu chu-chien. 7 vols. Peking: Wen-wu Ch'u-pan-she, 1977.
Shui-hu-ti, Ch'in-mu chu-chien cheng-li hsiao-tsu. Shui-hu-ti Ch'in-mu chu-chien. Peking: Wen-wu Ch'u-pan-she, 1978. [abbreviation: Shui-hu-ti or Shui-hu-ti Ch'in-mu chu-chien]
Shyrock, John K. The origin and development of the state cult of Confucius. New York and London: Century, 1932. [abbreviation: State cult]
Shyrock, John K. The study of human abilities: The Jen wu chih of Liu Shoo. New Haven: American Oriental Society, 1937; rpt. New York: Kraus Reprint, 1966.
Sivin, Nathan. “Cosmos and computation in early Chinese mathematical astronomy.” T'oung Pao, 55: 1–3 (1969), 1–73.
Sivin, Nathan. “On the word ‘Taoist’ as a source of perplexity. With special reference to the relations of science and religion in traditional China.” History of Religions, 17: 3–4 (February–May 1978), 303–30.
Sommarström, Bo. Archaeological researches in the Edsen-gol region, Inner Mongolia, together with the catalogue prepared by F. Bergman. 2 vols. Stockholm: Sino-Swedish Expedition, 1956–58.
Soymié, M.Biographie de Chan Tao-k'ai.” Mélanges, 1 (1957), 415–22.
Ssu-ch'uan, sheng po-wu-kuan, and kuan, Ch'ing-ch'uan hsien wen-hua. “Ch'ing-ch'uan hsien ch'u-t'u Ch'in keng-hsiu t'ien lü mu-tu”. Wenwu (formerly Wen-tuu ts'an-k'ao tzu-liao), 1982.1, 1–13.
Ssu-ma, Ch'ien et al. Shih-chi. Peking: Chung-hua Shu-chü, 1959. [abbreviation: Shih-chi (Peking: Chung-hua shu-chü, 1959)]
Ssu-ma, Kuang. Tzu-chih t'mg-chien. Peking: Ku-chi Ch'upan-she, 1956. [abbreviation: Tzu-chih t'ung-chien]
Stange, Hans O. S. Die Monographic ūber Wang Mang (Ts'ien-Han-Shu Kap. 99). Leipzig: Deutsche Morgenländische Gesellschaft, 1939.
Stein, R. A.Illumination subite ou saisie simultanée. Note sur la terminologie chinoise et tibétaine.” Revue de I'Histoire des Religions, 169 (1970), 3–30.
Stein, R. A.Remarques sur les mouvements du taoisme politico-religieux au IIe siècle ap. J. C.T'oung Pao, 50 (1963), 1–78. [abbreviation: “Remarques”]
Strickmann, Michel. Le taoïsme du Mao Chan: Chronique d'une révélation. Paris: Collège de France, Institut des Hautes Études Chinoises, 1981.
Su, Ch'eng-chien. Hou-Han Shih-huo-chih ch'ang-pien. Shanghai: Shang-wu Yin-shu-kuan, 1947.
Sun, Tso-yün. “Ma-wang-tui i hao Han mu ch'i kuan hua k'ao-shih”. Kaogu (formerly K'ao-ku t'ung-hs¨n), 1973.4, 247–54.
Sun, E-tu Zen, and Francis, John. Chinese social history: Translations of selected studies. Washington, D.C.: American Council of Learned Societies, 1956.
Sung, Hsü-wu. Hsi-Han huo-pi shih ch'u-kao. Hong Kong: Chinese Univ. of Hong Kong, 1971.
Swann, Nancy Lee. Food and money in ancient China. Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1950.
Swann, Nancy Lee. Pan Chao, foremost woman scholar of China, first century A.D. New York and London: Century, 1932.
T'ang, Ch'ang-ju. Wei-Chin Nan-pei-ch'ao shih lun ts'ung. Peking: Sheng-huo, Tu-shu, Hsin-chih San-lien Shu-tien, 1955.
T'ang, Yung-t'ung. “The editions of the Ssu-shih-erh-chang-ching,” trans. Ware, J. R.. Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, 1 (1936), 147–55.
T'ang, Yung-t'ung. Han Wei Hang-Chin Nan-pei-ch'ao fo-chiao shih. 2 vols. Ch'ang-sha, 1938; rpt. Peking: Chung-hua Shu chü, 1955.
T'ang, Yung-t'ung. “On ko-yi, the earliest method by which Indian Buddhism and Chinese thought were synthesized.” In Rädhakrishnan comparative studies in philosophy, presented in honour of his sixtieth birthday. London: George Allen and Unwin, 1951, pp. 276–86.
T'ang, Yung-t'ung. “Wang Pi's new interpretation of the I ching and Lun-yü,” trans. Liebenthal, Walter. Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, 10 (1947), 124–61.
T'ao, Fu.Ch'in Hsien-yang kung ti i hao i-chih fu-yüan wen-t'i ti ch'u-pu t'an-t'ao”. Wenwu (formerly Wen-tuu ts'an-k'ao tzu-liao), 1976.11, 31–41.
T'ao, Hsi-sheng, and Chü-ch'en, Shen. Ch'in Han cheng-chih chih-tu. Shanghai: Shang-wu Yin-shu-kuan, 1936; rpt. Taipei, 1967. References are to the original edition.
T'ien, Ch'ang-wu. “Tu Ts'ao Ts'ao tsung-tsu mu chuan-k'o tz'u”. Wenwu (formerly Wen-tuu ts'an-k'ao tzu-liao), 1978.8, 46–50.
Tőkei, Ferenc. Genre theory in China in the 3rd-6th centuries: Liu Hsieh's theory on poetic genres. Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 1971.
Tada, Kensuke. “Go-Kan gōzoku no nōgyō keiei”. Rekishigaku Kenkjū, 286 (1964.3), 13–21.
Tada, Kensuke. “Kandai no chihō shōgyō ni tsuite”. Shichō, 92 (1965), 36–49.
Takakusu, Junjirō, and Kaigyoku, Watanabe, eds. Taishō shinshū Daizōkō. 55 vols. Tokyo: Taishō Issai-kyō Kankyōkai, 1924–28. [abbreviation: Taishō]
Takigawa, Kametarō. Shiki kaichū kōshō. 10 vols. Tokyo: Tōhō Bunka Gakuin Tōkyō Kenkyujo, 1932–34; rpt. Peking: Wen-hsüeh Ku-chi K'an-hang she, 1955.
Tarn, W. W. The Greeks in Bactria and India. 2nd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1951.
Tezuka, Takayoshi. “Kyōdo bokkō shiron”. Shien, 31: 2 (March 1971). 59–72.
Tezuka, Takayoshi. “Kyōdo Zen'u sōzoku kōShien, 20: 2 (December 1959), 17–27.
Tezuka, Takayoshi. “Minami Kyōdo no ‘koko’ to ‘shinkō’ to ni tsuite”. Shien, 27: 1 (June 1966), 1–10.
Tezuka, Takayoshi. “Nitchiku ō Hi no dokuritsu to minami Kyōdo no Zen'u keishō ni tsuite”. Shien, 25: 2 (November 1964), 1–12.
Tezuka, Takayoshi. “Kan sho Kyōdo to no washin jōyaku ni kansuru ni san no mondai”. Shien, 12: 2 (1938), 11–34.
Tjan, Tjoe Som. Po hu t'ung: The comprehensive discussions in the White Tiger Hall. 2 vols. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1949, 1952.
Trautmann, Thomas R. Kautilya and Arthaiaśātra: A statistical investigation of the authorship and evolution of the text. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1971.
Trousdale, William. “Where all the swords have gone: Reflections on some questions raised by Professor Keightley.” Early China, 3 (Fall 1977), 65–66.
Ts'ui, Shih. Ssu-min yūeh-ling. References are to Shih Sheng-han. Ssu-min yūeh-ling chiao-chu. Peking: Chung-hua Shu-chü, 1965.
Tschepe, Albert. Histoire du royaume de Ts'in (777–207 av. J.C.). Variétes Sinologiques no. 27. Shanghai: Orphelinat de T'ou-se-we, 1909.
Tseng, Chin-sheng. Chung-kuo Ch'in Han cheng-chih chih-tu shih. Taipei: Ch'i-yen Shu-chü, 1969.
Tsien, Tsuen-hsuin. Written on bamboo and silk: The beginnings of Chinese books and inscriptions. Chicago and London: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1962.
Tsukamoto, Zenryū, ed. Jōron kenkyū. Kyoto: Hōzōkan, 1955.
Tsukamoto, Zenryū et al. Chūgoku bukkyō shigaisetsu: Chūgoku hen. Kyoto: Heirakuji Shoten, 1960.
Tsukamoto, Zenryū. Chūgoku bukkyō tsūshi. Vol. I. Tokyo: Suzuki Gakujutsu Zaidan, 1968.
Tsukamoto, Zenryū. Gisho Shaku-Rō-shi no kenkyū. Kyoto: Bukkyō Bunka Kenkyūjo, 1961.
Tsukamoto, Zenryū. Shina bukkyō shi kenkyū: Hoku Gi hen: Kyoto: Kobundo, 1942.
Tsukamoto, Zenryū. “The Śramana superintendent T'an-yao and his time,” trans. Sargent, Galen Eugene. Monumenta Serica, 16: 1–2 (1957), 363–96.
Tsukamoto, Zenryū. “Wei Shou: ‘Treatise on Buddhism and Taoism.’ English translation by Leon Hurvitz of the original text of the Wei shu cxiv and of the Japanese annotation by Tsukamoto Zenryū.” In Yün-kang: The Buddhist cave-temples of the fifth century A.D. in north China, eds. Seiichi, Mizuno and Toshio, Nagahiro. Vol. XVI (supplement). Kyoto: Jimbun Kagaku Kenkyūsho, 1956, pp. 23–103.
Tung, Chung-shu. Ch'un-ch'iufan-lu. References are to Su Yü. Ch'un-ch'iufan-lu i-cheng. Preface by Hsien-ch'ien, Wang, dated 1914; rpt. in facsimile, , Taipei: Ho-lo T'u-shu Ch'u-pan-she, 1974.
Tung, Tso-pin. Chronological tables of Chinese history. Hong Kong: Hong Kong Univ. Press, 1960.
Twitchett, D. C. Financial administration under the T'ang dynasty. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1963; 2nd ed., 1970. [abbreviation: Financial administration]
Twitchett, Denis, ed. Cambridge history of China. Vol. III. Sui and T'ang China, 589–906, Part 1. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1979.
Uchida, Gimpu. “Ugan-zoku ni kansuru kenkyū”. Man-Mō shi ronsō, 4 (1943), 1–104.
Uchida, Tomoo. Kanjo keihō shi. Kyoto: Dōshisha Univ., 1958.
Umehara, Sueji, and Ryōsaku, Fujita. Chōsen kobunka sokan. 2 vols. Nara: Yotokusha, 1946–48.
Utsunomiya, Kiyoyoshi. Kandai shakai keizaishi kenkyū. Tokyo: Kobund¯, 1955.
van der Loon, P.The ancient Chinese chronicles and the growth of historical ideals.” In Historians of China and Japan, eds. Beasley, W. G. and Pulleyblank, E. G.. London: Oxford Univ. Press, 1961, pp. 24–30.
van der Loon, P.On the transmission of Kuan-tzu.” T'oung Pao, 41: 4–5 (1952), 357–93
Vandermeersch, Léon. La formation du légisme. Paris: École Fran¸hise d'Extrême-Orient, 1965.
Wagner, Rudolf G.Lebensstil und Drogen in chinesischen Mittelalter.” T'oung Pao, 59 (1973), 79–178.
Waldron, Arthur N.The problem of the great wall of China.” Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, 43: 2 (1983), 643–663.
Waley, Arthur, trans. The Analects of Confucius. London: George Allen and Unwin, 1938.
Waley, Arthur, trans. The Book of songs. London: George Allen and Unwin, 1937.
Waley, Arthur. The life and times of Po Chü-i, 772–846 A.D. London: George Allen and Unwin, 1949.
Waley, Arthur. The nine songs: A study of shamanism in ancient China. London: George Allen and Unwin, 1955.
Waley, Arthur. Three ways of thought in ancient China. London: George Allen and Unwin, 1946.
Wallacker, Benjamin E.Han Confucianism and Confucius in Han.” In Ancient China: Studies in early civilization, eds. Roy, David T. and Tsien, Tsuenhsuin. Hong Kong: Chinese Univ. Press, 1978, pp. 215–28.
Walter, Georges. Chine, An—81: Dispute sur le set et lefer, Yantie lun. Introduction Walter, Georges, trans. Baudry-Weulersse, Delphine, Levi, Jean, Baudry, Pierre, in collaboration with Walter, Georges. Paris: J. Lanzmann and Seghers, 1978.
Wang, Ch'ung. Lun-heng. References are to Hui, Huang. Lunheng chiao-shih. Ch'ang–sha: Shang–wu Yin–shu–kuan, 1938; rpt., from a copy incorporating Hu Shin's handwritten notes, Taipei: T'ai–wan Shang–wu Yin–shu–kuan, 1969. [abbreviation: Lun-heng (Huang Hui: Lun-heng chiao-shih, Ch'ang-sha, 1938)]
Wang, Chü-hua, and Yü–hua, Li. “Ts'ung chi chung Han chih ti fen–hsi chien–ting shih lun wo-kuo tsao chih shu ti fa-ming”. Wenwu (formerly Wen-tuu ts'an-k'ao tzu-liao), 1980.1, 78–85.
Wang, Fu. Ch'ien-fu lun. References are to Ch'ien-fu lun chien, annotated by Tuo, P'eng. Peking: Chung-hua Shu-chü, 1979. [abbreviation: Ch'ien-fu lun (P'eng Tuo: Ch'ien-fu lun chien, Peking, 1979)]
Wang, Hsien-ch'ien. Han shu pu-chu. Ch'ang-sha, , 1900; rpt. in facsimile, Taipei: I-wen Yin-shu-kuan, 1955. [abbreviation: Han shu pu-chu (Wang Hsien-ch'ien; Ch'ang-sha, 1900)]
Wang, Hsien-ch'ien. Hou-Han shu chi-chieh. Ch'ang-sha, , 1915; rpt. in facsimile, Taipei: I–wen Yin–shu–kuan, 1955. [abbreviation: Hou-Han shu chi-chieh (Wang Hsien-ch'ien; Ch'ang-sha, 1915)]
Wang, Wen-ts'ai. “Tung-Han Li Ping shih-hsiang yü Tu-chiang-yen'shui tse'”, Wenwu (formerly Wen-tuu ts'an-k'ao tzu-liao), 1974.7, 29–32.
Wang, Yü-ch'üan. Early Chinese coinage. Numismatic Notes and Monographs, no. 122. New York: American Numismatic Society, 1951.
Wang, Yü-ch'uan. “An outline of the central government of the Former Han dynasty.” Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, 12 (1949), 134–87. Rpt. in Studies of governmental institutions in Chinese history, ed. Bishop, John L.. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Univ. Press, 1968, pp. 1–55. [abbreviation: “Outline of government”]
Wang, Yü-ch'uan. Wo kuo ku-tai huo-pi ti ctü-yüan ho fa-chan. Peking: K'o-hsüeh Ch'u-pan-she, 1957.
Wang, Chung-lo. Wei Chin Nan–pei–ch'ao shih. Shanghai: Jen-min Ch'u–pan–she, 1979.
Wang, Chung-shu. “Chūgoku kodai tojōsei gairon”. In Nara Heian no miyako to Chōan, ed. Sadao, Nishijima. Tokyo: Shdgakukan, 1983.
Wang, Chung-shu. “Han Ch'ang-an ch'eng k'ao-ku kung-tso shou-huo hsüchi—Hsüan–p'ing ch'cng–men ti fa–chüeh”. Kaogu (formerly K'ao-ku t'ung-hs¨n), 1958.4, 23–32.
Wang, Chung-shu. “Han Ch'ang-an ch'eng k'ao-ku kung-tso ti ch'u-pu shou-huo”. Kaogu (formerly K'ao-ku t'ung-hs¨n), 1957.5, 102–10.
Wang, Chung-shu. “Shuo Tien wang chih yin yü Han wo-nu-kuo wang yin”. Kaogu (formerly K'ao-ku t'ung-hs¨n), 1959.10, 573–75.
Wang, Fu-chih. Tu T'ung-chien lun. Peking: Chung-hua Shuchü, 1975.
Wang, Ning-sheng. “Han-Chin Hsi-yu yü tsu-kuo wen-ming”. Kaogu xuebao (K'ao-ku hsüeh-pao), 1977.1, 23–42.
Wang, Ning-sheng. Yün-nan k'ao-ku. K'un-ming: Yün-nan Jen-min Ch'u-pan-she, 1980.
Wang, Zhongshu. Han civilization, trans. Chang, K. C. et al. New Haven and London: Yale Univ. Press, 1982.
Ware, James R.The Wei shu and the Sm shu on Taoism.” Journal of the American Oriental Society, 53: 3 (1933), 215–50.
Watanabe, Takashi. “Bokka no shudan to sono shisōShigaku zasshi, 70: 10 (1964), 1–34; 70: 11 (1964), 40–74.
Watson, Burton. Han Fei Tzu: Basic writings. New York and London: Columbia Univ. Press, 1964.
Watson, Burton. Records of the Grand Historian of China: Translated from the Shih–chi of Ssu–ma Ch'ien. 2 vols. New York and London: Columbia Univ. Press, 1961. [abbreviation: Records]
Watson, Burton. Ssu-ma Ch'ien: Grand Historian of China. New York: Columbia Univ. Press, 1958.
Watson, William. Cultural frontiers in ancient East Asia. Edinburgh: Edinburgh Univ. Press, 1971.
Wei, Ch'i-p'eng. “T'ai-p'ing ching yü Tung-Han i-hsüehShih-chieh tsung-chiao jen-chiu, 3 (1981), 101–9.
Wei, Cheng et al., comp. Sui shu. Peking: Chung-hua Shu-chü, 1973.
Wei, Shou, comp. Wei shu. Peking: Chung-hua Shu-chu, 1974.
Welch, Holmes H.The Bellagio conference on Taoist studies.” History of Religions, 9: 2–3 (November 1969-February 1970), 107–36.
Welch, Holmes H. The parting of the Way: Lao Tzu and the Taoist movement. Boston: Beacon Press, 1957; London: Methuen, 1958.
Wen-wu, ch'u-pan-she, ed. Ch'ang-sha Ch'u mupo-hua. Peking: Chung-kuo Kuo-chi Shu-tien, 1973.
Wen-wu, Ch'u-pan-she, ed. Hsi-Hanpo-hua. Peking: Wen-wu Ch'upan-she, 1972.
Weng, Fang-kang. Liang-Han chin-shih chi. Preface 1786.
Wheatley, Paul. The golden KJiersonese: Studies in the historical geography of the Malay Peninsula before A.D. 1500. Kuala Lumpur: Univ. of Malaya Press, 1961.
Wheatley, Paul. The pivot of the four quarters: A preliminary inquiry into the origins and character of the Chinese city. Edinburgh: Edinburgh Univ. Press, 1971.
Wiens, Herold J. China's march toward the tropics. Hamden: The Shoestring Press, 1954.
Wilbur, Clarence Martin. Slavery in China during the Former Han Dynasty. Chicago Field Museum of Natural History, Anthropological Series, Vol. XXXIV. Chicago: Field Museum of Natural History, 1943. [abbreviation: Slavery in China]
Wilhelm, Hellmut. Change: Eight lectures on the I ching. Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1973; London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1975.
Wilhelm, Hellmut. Heaven, earth and man in the Book of changes. Seattle and London: Univ. of Washington Press, 1977.
Wilhelm, Hellmut. “A note on Sun Ch'o and his Yü–tao lun.” Sino-Indian Studies (Santiniketan), 5: 3–4 (1957; Uebenthal Festschrift), 261–71.
Wilhelm, Richard. Frühling und Herbst des Lü Bu We. Jena: Rugen Diederichs, 1928.
Woo, Kang. Les trois theories politiquts du Tchouen Ts'ieou interpretíes par Tong Tchong-chou. Paris: Ernest Leroux, 1932.
Wright, Arthur F.Biography and hagiography: Hui-chiao's lives of eminent monks.” In Silver jubilee volume of the Zinbm–Kagaku–Renkyusyo, Kyoto University. Kyoto, 1934, pp. 383–432.
Wright, Arthur F.The formation of Sui ideology, 581–604.” In Chinese thought and institutions, ed. Fairbank, John K.. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1957, pp. 71–104.
Wright, Arthur F.Fo-t'u-teng: A biography.” Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, 11 (1948), 321–71.
Wright, Arthur F.Sui Yang-ti: Personality and stereotype.” In The Confucian persuasion, ed. Wright, Arthur F.. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford Univ. Press, 1960, pp. 47–76.
Wu, Ch'eng-lo. Chmg-kuo tu-liang-heng shih. Shanghai: Shang-wu Yin-shu-kuan, 1937.
Wu, Jung-ts'eng. “Ho-lin-ko-erh Han-mu pi-hua chung fan-ying ti Tung-Han she-hui sheng-huoWenwu (formerly Wen-tuu ts'an-k'ao tzu-liao), 1974.1, 24–30.
Wu, T'ien-ying. “Han-tai mai-ti ch'uan k'ao”. Kaogu xuebao (K'ao-ku hsüeh-pao), 1982.1, 15–34.
Wu, Chi-yu, ed. Pen-tsi king (Livre du terme originel), ouvrage taoïste inédit du Vile süècle, manuscrits retrouvés à Touen-houang reproduits en facsimilé. Paris: Centre Nationale de la Recherche Scientifique, 1960.
Wu, Hung. “Ch'in ch'uan yen-chiu”. Ku-kung Po-wu-yüan Yüan-k'an, 1979.4, 33–47.
, Hao-liang. “Ch'in chien ‘jih shu’ chi shih chi yüeh chu wen-t'i”. In Yūn-meng Ch'in chien yen-chiu, ed. pien-chi-pu, Chung-hua Shu-chü. Peking: Chung-hua Shu-chü, 1981, PP. 351–57.
, Hao-liang. “Shih Ch'ing-ch'uan Ch'in mu mu-tu”, Wenwu (formerly Wen-tuu ts'an-k'ao tzu-liao), 1982.1, 22–23.
, Ying-shihHan-Chin chih chi shih chih hsin tzu-chüeh yü hsin ssu-ch'ao”. Hsin-ya hsūeh-pao, 4: 1 (August 1959), 25–144.
, Ying-shih. Early Chinese history in the People's Republic of China The report of the Han Dynasty Studies Delegation, October-November 1978. Seattle: School of International Studies, Univ. of Washington, 1981.
, Ying-shih. “Life and immortality in the mind of Han China.Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, 25 (1964–65), 80–122.
, Ying-shih. Trade and expansion in Han China: A study in the structure of Sino-barbarian economic relations Berkeley and Los Angeles: Univ. of California Press, 1967. [abbreviation: Trade and expansion]
Yüan, Hung. Hou-Han chi SPTK ed. References in parentheses are to the punctuated edition, Taipei: T'ai-wan Shang-wu Yin-shu-kuan, 1976. [abbreviation: Hou-Han chi (references are to Ssu-pu-ts'ung-k'an and the punctuated reprint, Taipei, 1976)]
Yüan, K'o. Chung-kuo ku-tai shen-hua Shanghai: Shang-wu Yin-shu-kuan, 1951.
Yün-meng, Ch'in-mu chu-chien cheng-li hsiao-tsu. “Yün-meng Ch'in chien shih-wen”. 3 parts. Wenwu (formerly Wen-tuu ts'an-k'ao tzu-liao), 1976.6, 11–14; 1976.7, 1–10; 1976.8, 17–37.
Yün-meng, Shui-hu-ti Ch'in mu pien-hsieh tsu. Yün-meng Shui-hu-ti Ch'in mu Peking: Wen-wu Ch'u-pan-she, 1981.
Yün-nan, sheng po-wu-kuan. Yūn-nan Chin-ning Shih-chai-shan kumu-ch'ūn fa-chūeh pao-kao 2 vols. Peking: Wen-wu ch' u-pan-she, 1959.
Yün-nan, sheng po-wu-kuan, ed. Yun-nan ch'ing-t'ung ch' i Peking: Wen-wu ch'u-pan-she, 1981.
Yabuki, Keiki. Sankaikyō no kenkyū Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten, 1927.
Yabuki, Keiki. “The teaching of the third stage and Japanese Buddhism.” Commemoration volume, the twenty–fifth anniversary of the foundation of the professorship of science of religion in Tokyo Imperial University, ed. the Celebration Committee. Tokyo: The Herald Press, 1934, pp. 353–61.
Yagi, Shōzaburō. Manshū kōkogaku. Tokyo: Ogiwara Seibunkan, 1944.
Yamazaki, Hiroshi. Zui-To bukkyo shi no kenkyu. Kyoto: Hōzōkan, 1967.
Originally appeared in Chinese as Yang, Chung-i, “Pu-ch'ü yen-ko lueh-k'ao”. Shih-huo, 1: 3 (January 1935), 97–107
Yang, Hsüan-chih. A record of Buddhist monasteries in Loyang, trans. Wang, Yi-t'ung. Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1984. See also Jenner, W. J. F.
Yang, K'uan. Chan-kuo shih. Shanghai: Jen-min Ch'u-pan-she, 1955.
Yang, K'uan. Ch'itt Shih-huang. Shanghai: Jen-min Ch'u-pan-she, 1956.
Yang, K'uan. Chmg-kuo ku-taiyeh-t'ieh chi-shu tifa-ming ho fa-chan. Shanghai: Jen-min Ch'u-pan-she, 1956.
Yang, K'uan. “Hsien Ch'in mu shang chien-chu wen-t'i ti tsai t'an-t'ao”. Kaogu (formerly K'ao-ku t'ung-hs¨n), 1983.7, 636–38, 640.
Yang, K'uan. Shang Yangpien-fa. Shanghai: Jen-min Ch'u-pan-she, 1955.
Yang, K'uan. “Shih Ch'ing-ch'uan Ch'in tu ti t'ien-mu chih-tu”. Wenwu (formerly Wen-tuu ts'an-k'ao tzu-liao), 1982.7, 83–85.
Originally appeared in Chinese as Yang, Lien-sheng, “Tung-Han ti hao-tsu”. Ch'ing-hua Hsueh-pao, 11:4 (1936), 1007–63. [abbreviation: ”Great families”]
Yang, Shu-ta. Han shu k'uei-kuan Peking: K'o-hsüeh Ch'upan-she, 1955.
Yang, Shu-ta. Han-tai htm-sangli-su k'ao Shanghai: Shang-wu Yin-shu-kuan, 1933.
Yang, Chung-i. “Evolution of the status of ‘dependents.’” In Chinese social history, eds. Sun, E-tu Zen and Francis, John. Washington, D.C.: American Council of Learned Societies, 1956, pp. 142–56.
Yang, Hsien-i, and Yang, Gladys. Records of the historian. Hong Kong: Commercial Press, 1974.
Yang, Lien-sheng. Les aspects iconomiques des travaux publics dans la Chine impériale. Paris: College de France, 1964. English translation: “Economic aspects of public works in imperial China.” In his Excursions in sinology. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Univ. Press, 1969, pp. 191–248.
Yang, Lien-sheng. “Historical notes on the Chinese world order.” In The Chinese world order: Traditional China's foreign relations, ed. Fairbank, John K.. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Univ. Press, 1968, pp. 20–33.
Yang, Lien-sheng. “Hostages in Chinese history.” Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, 15 (1952), 507–21. References are to the reprint, in his Studies in Chinese institutional history. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Univ. Press, 1961, pp. 43–57.
Yang, Lien-sheng. Money and credit in China: A short history. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Univ. Press, 1952. [abbreviation: Money and credit]
Yang, Lien-sheng. “Numbers and units in Chinese economic history.” Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, 12 (1949), 216–25. Reprinted in his Studies in Chinese institutional history. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Univ. Press, 1961. [abbreviation: “Numbers and units”]
Yang, Lien-sheng. Studies in Chinese institutional history. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Univ. Press, 1961.
Yao, Ssu-lien. Liang shu Peking: Chung-hua Shu-chü, 1973.
Yen, K'o-chün. Ch'ūan Hou-Han wen In Ch'ūan shang-ku san-tai Ch'in Han San-kuo Liu-ch'ao wen Kuangchou: Kuang-ya Shu-chü, 1887–93. [abbreviation: Ch'üan Hou Han wen (in K'o-chün, Yen: Ch'¨an shang-ku san-tai Ch'in Han San-kuo liu-ch'ao wen)]
Yen, Keng-wang. Chung-kuo ti-fang hsing-cheng chih-tu shih Part I. Ch'in Han ti-fang hsing-cheng chih-tu 2 vols. Taipei: Institute of History and Philology, 1961.
Yin, Ti-fei. “An-hui sheng Shou-hsien An-feng-t'ang fa-hsien Han-tai cha-pa kung-ch'eng i-chihWenwu (formerly Wen-tuu ts'an-k'ao tzu-liao), 1960.1, 61–62.
Yoshinami, Takashi. Shin Kan teikokushi kenkyū Tokyo: Miraisha, 1978.
Yoshioka, Yoshitoyo. Dōkyō to Bukkyō 3 vols. Vol. I. Tokyo: Nihon Gakujutsu Shinkōkai, 1959; Vol. II. Tokyo: Toyoshima Shobō, 1970; Vol. III. Tokyo: Kokusho Kankōkai, 1976.
Yoshioka, Yoshitoyo. Eisei e no negai: Dōkyō Tokyo: Tankosha, 1970.
Yoshioka, Yoshitoyo. “Shijūnishōkyō to Dōkyō”. Chizan gakuhō, 19 (1971). 257–89.
Zürcher, E. The Buddhist conquest of China 2 vols. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1959. [abbreviation: Buddhist conquest]
Zürcher, E.Buddhist influence on early Taoism: a survey of scriptural evidence.” T'oung Pao, 66: 1–3 (1980), 84–147.
Zürcher, E.Perspectives in the study of Chinese Buddhism.Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1982. 2, 161–76.