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The Cambridge History of Latin America
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  • Cited by 4
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    This book has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Brass, Tom 2017. Viva La Revolución? Reassessing Hobsbawm on peasants. Critique of Anthropology, Vol. 37, Issue. 3, p. 244.

    Schincariol, Vitor Eduardo 2015. Ten Years of Economic Recovery in Argentina (2003–2013): An assessment of ‘Neo-developmentalism’. Agrarian South: Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 4, Issue. 3, p. 259.

    Arocena, Rodrigo and Senker, Peter 2003. Technology, Inequality, and Underdevelopment: The Case of Latin America. Science, Technology, & Human Values, Vol. 28, Issue. 1, p. 15.

    Schmit, Roberto and Rosal, Miguel A. 1995. Las exportaciones del litoral argentino al puerto de Buenos Aires entre 1783 y 1850. Revista de Historia Económica / Journal of Iberian and Latin American Economic History, Vol. 13, Issue. 03, p. 581.

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  • Volume 8: Latin America since 1930: Spanish South America
  • Edited by Leslie Bethell

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    The Cambridge History of Latin America
    • Volume 8: Latin America since 1930: Spanish South America
    • Edited by Leslie Bethell
    • Online ISBN: 9781139055246
    • Book DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521266529
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Book description

The eighth volume of The Cambridge History of Latin America consists of the separate histories of the countries of Spanish South America. Part I covers in depth the history of Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay. Part II is devoted to Chile. Part III covers Peru and Bolivia. The fourth and final section is devoted to Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela.

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  • 1 - Argentina, 1930–46
    pp 1-72
    • By David Rock, University of California at Santa Barbara
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521266529.002
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The year 1930 opens the gateway into modern Argentina, and also marked the acceleration of a profound ideological shift that later coloured the texture of Argentine politics. The revolution of September 1930 sprang from deep personal animosities towards Hipolito Yrigoyen, president of the republic from 1916 to 1 922 and again from 1928, on the part of conservatives. The coup of 6 September 1930 was an almost exclusively military action. General Jose F. Uriburu, its leader, who had participated in the failed insurrection against Juarez Celman in July 1890, explicitly forbade civilian involvement on the grounds that civilians had caused defeat forty years before. In February 1932, Justo assumed the presidency, as Uriburu departed for Europe, where he died a victim of cancer a short time later. The revolution of September 1930 occurred as the Argentine economy was hit by the world depression. The depression struck an agrarian society whose basic features had changed little during the past generation.
  • 2 - Argentina since 1946
    pp 73-194
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521266529.003
  • View abstract
    Summary
    On 24 February 1946 General Juan Domingo Peron was elected president of Argentina in an open poll. Peron, after trying with limited success to obtain the backing of the traditional parties, decided to launch his presidential candidacy by appealing to the popular support he had developed when in office. In January 1947, when the organizers of the new party approached Peron to approve the name 'Partido Peronista', they explicitly sanctioned another and more decisive feature of the political structure of the movement. The Argentine Revolution found itself on the defensive at the end of 1966. Ongania had alienated those who had supported him and was under pressure on the military front. Between 1946 and 1948, Argentina had to face the obstacles to its foreign trade raised by boycott which the United States government had imposed as a consequence of Argentina's neutrality in the Second World War.
  • 3 - Uruguay since 1930
    pp 195-232
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521266529.004
  • View abstract
    Summary
    At mid-century Uruguay had fully recovered from the authoritarianism of Gabriel Terra in the 1930s and was now engaged in an attempt to re-establish and extend the political and social institutions of the batllista system of the pre-1930 period. The factors which had made Uruguay a special case by 1930 were its favourable natural endowment and its social structure, as well as the political and legislative achievements of the first two decades of the century. In Uruguay, as elsewhere in Latin America, the depression signified the end of the era of export-led growth, even though its political sequel resulted in power being held by interests which were closely linked to the export sector. This chapter discusses batllistas, second colegiado, Nationalists, military rule and Uruguayan democracy. Domestically, the broader changes occurring in the economy and society contributed to the revival of the batllistas.
  • 4 - Paraguay since 1930
    pp 233-266
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521266529.005
  • View abstract
    Summary
    In 1930, Paraguay was on the verge of a major upheaval. Paraguay and Bolivia went to war in July 1932, a month before Ayala took office. The Chaco War was the bloodiest war in modern Latin American history. Moreover, it left both sides financially exhausted. Franco promised that his government would institute sweeping changes favouring the popular classes, ignored for so long by the Liberal governments. The new laws and institutions were never put into effect and tested since the government of the February Revolution was overthrown by a Liberal-inspired counter-revolution within eighteen months. With the Liberals and febreristas in exile, and the Colorados withdrawn once more into sullen non-participation, Morinigo was obliged to rely primarily on the military. The Colorados nominates Alfredo Stroessner for president and Mendez would regain his control over the distribution of favours as head of the Central Bank. So began the rule of Stroessner, which Paraguayans came to call the stronato.
  • 5 - Chile, 1930 — 58
    pp 267-310
    • By Paul Drake, University of California at San Diego
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521266529.006
  • View abstract
    Summary
    During the three decades after 1930, and indeed until the coup which brought down the government of Salvador Allende in 1973, Chilean politics were unique in Latin America. Only Chile sustained in this period an electoral democracy including major Marxist parties. Chile's population growth rate had by the 1960s reached 2.5 per cent, close to the Latin American average. Chile was more profoundly affected by the world depression than any other country in the Western world. President Alessandri's personal authority, electotal mandate and economic success reinvigorated constitutional legitimacy in Chile after 1932. At the end of 1938 Arturo Alessandri peacefully transferred the presidential sash to Pedro Aguirre Cerda of the Popular Front. Chile's foreign trade had almost recovered from the impact of the depression by the end of the Radical era. The disappointments of the Radical years and of the return of Ibanez convinced many Chileans that more comprehensive and dramatic cures would be required.
  • 6 - Chile since 1958
    pp 311-382
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521266529.007
  • View abstract
    Summary
    Since 1958, Chile has been ruled by four administrations, profoundly different in their ideologies and political aims, social basis and economic policies. The government of Jorge Alessandri, elected in 1958, was conservative and pro-business. Alessandri proved incapable of dealing with Chile's persistent and increasing economic and social problems, and in 1964 Eduardo Frei, a Christian Democrat, was elected president. The social structure of Chile became increasingly urban, employment in modern manufacturing enterprises generated a relatively small proportion of total employment. One reason for the political importance of inflation was the central role of the state in almost every aspect of economic activity. Chile was economically dependent on the United States, and this was to cause serious difficulties for the Allende government. Since the election of Arturo Alessandri in 1932, Chile had experienced a long period of constitutional government. Although his candidacy was backed by the parties of the Right, Jorge Alessandri was elected president in 1958 as an independent.
  • 7 - Peru, 1930–60
    pp 383-450
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521266529.008
  • View abstract
    Summary
    During the period from 1890 to 1930 Peru had been characterized by an export-led economy, a strong oligarchy-dominated state known as the c, and a hierarchical social order with strong roots in agrarian institutions. The Peruvian economy has been heavily dependent on export performance throughout the twentieth century. The existence of a clearly defined upper class of large capitalists and rentiers, the 'oligarchy', is widely accepted in the literature on republican Peruvian society and politics. Peru was one of many Latin American countries in which the government fell in 1930. Leguia's resignation on 24 August and Sanchez Cerro's triumphal entry into Lima three days later the anti-Leguia civilista leaders, hungry for power and revenge, returned from exile. In April 1933 General Oscar Benavides, behind the scenes a long-standing patron of Sanchez Cerro, was brought back from Europe to take charge of the war effort.
  • 8 - Peru since 1960
    pp 451-508
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521266529.009
  • View abstract
    Summary
    Peru after i960 experienced significant changes in its social structure, a notable expansion and intensification of political participation and advances in the national integration of the peasants. Six candidates contested the presidential elections of 1962. The most important were Haya de la Torre, in his first presidential bid since 1931, the former dictator general Manuel Odria and Fernando Belaunde Terry. The Revolutionary Government of the Armed Forces decreed a series of changes of a clearly authoritarian, nationalist, anti-oligarchic nature, which shook the foundations of society. The 'second phase' of the military revolution began with the transfer of state control to the military junta, composed of the chiefs of the armed forces. Interest in the 1985 elections was focussed on two political fronts, Izquierda Unida (IU) and Alianza Popular Revolucionaria Americana (APRA), and two new figures who had redefined the representation of the political interests of the country's middle and lower classes: Alfonso Barrantes of IU and Alan Garcia of APRA.
  • 9 - Bolivia since 1930
    pp 509-584
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521266529.010
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The history of Bolivia could be viewed as the history of a small elite whose members were frequently on first-name terms with one another and whose alliances and divisions often had as much to do with private as with public life. The half-century after 1930 was dominated by a series of social convulsions that can hardly be encompassed by an account based on the preoccupations of the Bolivian elites. Patino Mines and Enterprises had risen from its former status as an outstandingly successful Bolivian mining company to a position of strategic dominance in the world tin market. Economic hardship affected the population unevenly. The biggest losers were probably the urban cholos, who lacked real property or foreign trade connections to defend them from the currency depreciation. Just as the Chaco War shaped most of the major developments of the 1930s, so, despite Bolivia's geographical remoteness, the Second World War heavily influenced its internal evolution between 1939 and 1946.
  • 10 - Columbia, 1930–58
    pp 585-628
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521266529.011
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The consolidation of Colombia as a nation-state has faced a major obstacle in the country's geography, the main topographical feature of which is the Andean mountain range. Before the economic crisis of the early 1930s Colombia had undergone two decades of export-led growth. The world depression put an end to this boom, dubbed by the future Liberal president, Alfonso Lopez Pumarejo, the 'dance of the millions'. Proclaiming a revolucion en marcha, Lopez offered a broad reformist and welfare programme within the framework of a liberal democracy with increased political participation. The balance of power within the Liberal Party shifted from the reformists to the consolidators led, after Olaya's death in 1937, by Eduardo Santos, who reassured an upper class alarmed by the populist techniques of Lopez and Gomez. Eduardo Santos epitomized a cautious brand of Liberalism which was so acceptable to the Conservative propertied classes that they did not field a rival candidate in the 1938 presidential election.
  • 11 - Colombia since 1958
    pp 629-686
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521266529.012
  • View abstract
    Summary
    Like other Latin American countries, Colombia adopted policies of import substitution and, later, of manufacturing for export. A high level of protection encouraged an influx of capital from transnational manufacturing enterprises, based mainly in the United States. In the 1970s Colombia was the fourth industrialized country of Latin America, it was only the seventh recipient of transnational investment. The Liberal defectors established the Movimiento de Recuperacion Liberal (MRL), which was rebaptized the Movimiento Revolucionario Liberal in enthusiasm for the Cuban Revolution. Reaching an apogee of influence in 1962, the MRL absorbed some guerrilla and bandit leaders into mainstream politics and preserved the Liberal mystique in the face of National Front coalition politics. Before the 1974 elections, the Liberals and Conservatives began a lengthy process of consultation aimed at producing a formula that would preserve the stability which the National Front arrangement had provided yet permit a political apertura.
  • 12 - Ecuador since 1930
    pp 687-726
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521266529.013
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The consolidation of a nation-state in Ecuador began at the end of the nineteenth century, more than half a century after it won independence from Spain. Liberalism was based upon Ecuador's integration into the international economy, national economic integration, most notably by means of the Quito-Guayaquil railway, and the restoration of state authority over the Church. The world depression of 1929-32 had devastating consequences for the Ecuadorian economy. During the 1930s industrial growth, which had begun in the 1920s, was modest but nevertheless appreciable. The industrial sectors that grew most were textiles, food, construction and wood, all of which were already established. Carlos Arroyo del Rio was elected president in January 1940 by the usual fraudulent methods, defeating the Conservative candidate Jacinto Jijon y Caamano and Velasco Ibarra, who had returned from voluntary exile to participate in the elections. The new military dictatorship, which lasted from 1972 to 1979 coincided with a period of unprecedented economic prosperity.
  • 13 - Venezuela since 1930
    pp 727-790
    • By Judith Ewell, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, Virginia
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521266529.014
  • View abstract
    Summary
    Venezuela's political, economic and social development in the twentieth century has been unique in Latin America. Under the dictatorship of another Tachira caudillo, Juan Vicente Gomez, Venezuela's economy began to undergo a singular transformation with the discovery of rich oil fields in the western province of Zulia and in the eastern coastal region. When Gomez died, therefore, on 17 December 1935, the Council of Ministers named Lopez provisional president, an 'election' ratified by Congress on 2 January 1936. Medina extended Lopez's economic and social initiatives, and went so far as to endorse a modest social security programme through the Instituto de Seguro Social. Some of Medina's critics, including members of the newly formed Accion Democratica (AD) party, criticized the 1943 law for not going far enough. Venezuelans continue to debate whether the armed movement which removed President Medina Angarita from office on 18 October 1945 was necessary or deserves the name of 'revolution'.
  • Bibliographical essays
    pp 791-868
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521266529.015
  • View abstract
    Summary
    This bibliography presents a list of reference materials that are related to aspect of the history, culture and society of Latin America. Ysabel Rennie, The Argentine Republic remains one of the best general introductions to Argentine history and offers an excellent analysis of the years 1943-45. The literature on Uruguay since 1930 is very uneven in its coverage. The 1930s and 1940s in particular have been neglected, and it was not until the crisis years of the 1960s that a substantial literature developed on Uruguay's contemporary situation and recent past. Modern Paraguay begins with the Chaco War, which has been studied by many Paraguayan and Bolivian historians, usually in a polemical fashion. For the history of Chile since the late 1950s, reviews and magazines are an important source of information. The best general political history of Peru, with an excellent bibliography, is D. P. Werlich, Peru: A Short History.

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