Field experiments were conducted to determine the effect of different rates and application times of MON 37500 on downy brome control in winter wheat and on rotational crop injury. In southeastern Washington, MON 37500 applied postemergence at 36 to 72 g ai/ha in the fall and spring controlled downy brome 90 to 97% and 45 to 71%, respectively. MON 37500 was applied postemergence to winter wheat at 18, 36, and 72 g/ha during fall 1995 and spring 1996 near Moscow, ID; Pendleton, OR; and Endicott, WA, to determine its effect on rotational crops planted during spring 1997. At Pendleton, OR, fall applications of MON 37500 at 18, 36, and 72 g/ha applied to actively growing wheat reduced seed yield of spring barley and pea 13 to 59% and 26 to 29%, respectively, when these crops followed winter wheat in the rotation. At this site, spring applications of 36 and 72 g/ha reduced seed yield of spring barley 17 to 34%; when applied in the fall or spring, MON 37500 reduced canola yield 31 to 73%. MON 37500 at 18 g/ha in the spring reduced pea biomass 32% at Endicott. Aboveground biomass and seed yield of barley, pea, lentil, and mustard at Moscow were not affected by MON 37500 carryover. However, using a grain sorghum bioassay, predicted final concentrations of MON 37500 in soil at all three locations 360 d after treatment (DAT) was similar, ranging from 0.5 to 2 ng ai/g. In growth chamber herbicide dose–response studies, grain sorghum shoot height was reduced more at lower doses (0.025 to 5 ng/g) of MON 37500 in Pendleton soil than in soils from the other field locations. Perhaps the greater rotational crop injury observed at the Pendleton location was partly related to greater soil activity of the herbicide.