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Prehistoric population decline is often associated with social collapse, migration and environmental change. Many scholars have assumed that the abandonment of the fortified tell sites of the Great Hungarian Plain c. 1500–1450 BC led to significant regional depopulation. The authors investigate the veracity of this assumption by dating graves from Békés 103—a recently excavated Bronze Age cemetery in eastern Hungary. Using decorative motifs and radiocarbon dates to measure changing ceramic styles over more than 1300 years, they consider the implications for non-tell sites known only through surface survey. The results suggest that, even though people abandoned tell sites, regional populations were maintained.
Hypomanic symptoms may be a useful predictor of mood disorder among young people at high risk for bipolar disorder.
To determine whether hypomanic symptoms differentiate offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (high risk) and offspring of well parents (control) and predict the development of mood episodes.
High-risk and control offspring were prospectively assessed using semi-structured clinical interviews annually and completed the Hypomania Checklist-32 Revised (HCL-32). Clinically significant sub-threshold hypomanic symptoms (CSHS) were coded.
HCL-32 total and active or elated scores were higher in control compared with high-risk offspring, whereas 14% of high-risk and 0% of control offspring had CSHS. High-risk offspring with CSHS had a fivefold increased risk of developing recurrent major depression (P=0.0002). The median onset of CSHS in high-risk offspring was 16.4 (6–31) years and was before the onset of major mood episodes.
CSHS are precursors to major mood episodes in high-risk offspring and could identify individuals at ultra-high risk for developing bipolar disorder.
This article provides a close study of the University of Iowa Electronic Music Studios. The point of such a detailed account of one studio is to shed light on activity within the field of electronic music that previously did not occupy a place in the literature. Few of the studios listed in Hugh Davies’s International Electronic Music Catalog have received detailed attention. Until a wider range of close studies that pay attention to the particularities of individual cases becomes available, it will be difficult to do the comparative work necessary to gain an appropriately textured overall account of the development of electronic music in the post-war period. As these detailed studies, based largely on first-hand documentation, increase the resolution of electronic music’s history, they may highlight significant but previously unnoticed, or at least under-appreciated, patterns in the development of electronic music and act as an effective barometer of changing trends.
The concept of affect in contemporary theory marks a return to the body as a site for the interplay of thought and feeling, and its importance derives from its refusal to reduce the body to the status of a container for either the mind or, by implication, the emotions. The body is the very condition for the transmission or distribution of affect both in terms of its capacity for movement and for perceptual engagement, whereas emotion is a particular type of containment and localisation of affect within the body. For modernist dance, the breadth of the theory of affect means that it is able to explain the radical shift from the sentimentality of the nineteenth century to the depersonalised abstract intensities of the avant-garde without arguing that this is based on the removal or suppression of feeling. Contours of feeling are always present but their modality changes depending on the structure of presentation, style and the particular manifestations of the gestural and intensive movements of the body. As a way of investigating this interrelationship, this chapter will focus on corporeal tension as a condition for understanding affectivity in modernist dance with reference to two key works of the Ballets Russes, Leonide Massine's Parade (1917) and Vaslav Nijinsky's L'aprèsmidi d'un faune (1912). These works deploy forms of abstraction that allow for, and indeed suggest, a depersonalisation of affect which can be described and analysed in terms of tension and intensity. Abstraction, affect and bodily tension are entwined in the material properties of these modernist dancing bodies in a way that challenged the representation of emotion in the nineteenth century; in particular, the belief that emotion constitutes a form of self-expression.
Studies of feeling, affect and emotion have long been linked to conscious emotional states, but in recent studies in the humanities the concept of affect refers to a much more general condition of being affected that incorporates both mind and body, or mind in body.
Bipolar disorder is highly heritable and therefore longitudinal
observation of children of affected parents is important to mapping the
early natural history.
To model the developmental trajectory of bipolar disorder based on the
latest findings from an ongoing prospective study of the offspring of
parents with well-characterised bipolar disorder.
A total of 229 offspring from families in which 1 parent had confirmed
bipolar disorder and 86 control offspring were prospectively studied for
up to 16 years. High-risk offspring were divided into subgroups based on
the parental long-term response to lithium. Offspring were clinically
assessed and DSM-IV diagnoses determined on masked consensus review using
best estimate procedure. Adjusted survival analysis and generalised
estimating equations were used to calculate differences in lifetime
psychopathology. Multistate models were used to examine the progression
through proposed clinical stages.
High-risk offspring had an increased lifetime risk of a broad spectrum of
disorders including bipolar disorder (hazard ratio (HR) = 20.89;
P = 0.04), major depressive disorder (HR = 17.16;
P = 0.004), anxiety (HR = 2.20; P =
0.03), sleep (HR = 28.21; P = 0.02) and substance use
disorders (HR = 2.60; P = 0.05) compared with controls.
However, only offspring from lithium non-responsive parents developed
psychotic disorders. Childhood anxiety disorder predicted an increased
risk of major mood disorder and evidence supported a progressive
transition through clinical stages, from non-specific psychopathology to
depressive and then manic or psychotic episodes.
Findings underscore the importance of a developmental approach in
conjunction with an appreciation of familial risk to facilitate earlier
accurate diagnosis in symptomatic youth.
Walter G, Byrne S, Griffiths O, Hunt G, Soh N, Cleary M, Duffy P, Crawford G, Krabman P, Concannon P, Malhi G. Can young people reliably rate side effects of low-dose antipsychotic medication using a self-report survey?
We studied the course of major mood disorders in the offspring of parents with well-characterised bipolar disorder prospectively for up to 15 years. All consenting offspring were assessed annually or anytime symptomatic. The participants began to develop major mood episodes in adolescence and not before. The index major mood episode was almost always depressive, as were the first few recurrences. Onsets and recurrences continued throughout the observation period into adulthood. We did not find evidence of pre-pubertal mania. In summary, adolescence marks the beginning of the high-risk period for major mood episodes related to bipolar disorder.
Multiple adsorption of phages to individual bacteria can lead to coinfection, which can occur with reasonable likelihood given sufficiently high phage densities. As there can be an incredible diversity of phages that infect the same host (e.g., the coliphages), coinfection between unrelated phages is also possible. This chapter begins with a discussion of phenomena associated with multiple phage adsorption, including coinfection as well as superinfection exclusion and immunity. Subsequently we consider the evolutionary ecological effects specifically of coinfection: genetic exchange via recombination, reassortment, complementation between phages, phenotypic mixing, and within-host competition. Finally, we highlight research with the RNA phage ø6 to illustrate the long-term effects of coinfection on the evolution of phage genes, genomes, individual phages, phage populations, and communities.
Evolutionary ecology of phage—phage interaction
Evolutionary ecology sits at the interface of ecology and evolutionary biology. In considering how organisms have evolved to become adapted to their environments, it examines the selective pressures imposed by the environment and the evolutionary response to these pressures (Pianka, 1999). From a purely evolutionary standpoint, a lytic phage's main goal is to successfully harness the host cell's machinery to make progeny. These offspring determine the growth capacity (fitness) of the virus relative to other genetic variants in the population.
Evolutionary biology and microbiology, with the ushering in of the molecular revolution, developed a tenuous relationship (Woese, 1994). Further isolating these disciplines, once unified university biology departments split in two, with organismal versus molecular emphases. Because phage biologists were pioneers in molecular biology, they were placed on the molecular side of the divide along with the rest of microbiology, whereas evolutionary biologists, with their less reductionist approaches to biology, were grouped with researchers in zoology, botany, paleontology, and ecology (Rouch, 1997). Consequently, microbiologists were physically isolated from model organism researchers such as Drosophila evolutionary geneticists, and intellectually removed from discoveries such as rapid ecological radiations of wild populations and theories explaining biodiversity and speciation. Evolutionary biologists, in turn, were isolated from microbial experiments that bore on evolution, even though some historically significant discoveries in evolutionary biology used microbes, especially bacteriophages. Despite these past rifts, there exists a newfound appreciation for the power of using microbes to explore evolution and ecology: as molecular researchers had long realized, there are profound advantages to employing small, relatively simple, and rapidly replicating organisms as models for deciphering universal biological truths. Microbiologists, too, in this age of genomics, are increasingly aware of the crucial importance of ecology and evolution in their research.
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