Merikangas, KR, Jin, R, He, JP, Kessler, RC, Lee, S, Sampson, NA, et al. Prevalence and correlates of bipolar spectrum disorder in the world mental health survey initiative. Arch Gen Psychiatry
2011; 68: 241–51.
Lopez, AD, Mathers, CD, Ezzati, M, Jamison, DT, Murray, CJ. Global and regional burden of disease and risk factors, 2001: systematic analysis of population health data. Lancet
2006; 367: 1747–57.
Hirschfeld, RM, Lewis, L, Vornik, LA. Perceptions and impact of bipolar disorder: how far have we really come? Results of the national depressive and manicdepressive association 2000 survey of individuals with bipolar disorder. J Clin Psychiatry
2003; 64: 161–74.
Goodwin, F, Jamison, R. Manic-Depressive iiiness: Bipolar Disorders and Recurrent Depression.
Oxford University Press, 2007.
Angst, J, Gamma, A. Diagnosis and course of affective psychoses: was Kraepelin right?
Eur Arch Psychiatry Ciin Neurosci
2008; 258 (suppl 2): 107–10.
Duffy, A, Horrocks, J, Doucette, S, Keown-Stoneman, C, McCloskey, S, Grof, P. The developmental trajectory of bipolar disorder. Br J Psychiatry
2014; 204: 122–8.
Duffy, A. Early identification of recurrent mood disorders in youth: the importance of a developmental approach. Evid Based Ment Health
2015; 18: 7–9.
Duffy, A. Toward a comprehensive clinical staging model for bipolar disorder: integrating the evidence. Can J Psychiatry
2014; 59: 659–66.
Duffy, A, Alda, M, Crawford, L, Milin, R, Grof, P. The early manifestations of bipolar disorder: a longitudinal prospective study of the offspring of bipolar parents. Bipoiar Disord
2007; 9: 828–38.
Mesman, E, Nolen, WA, Reichart, CG, Wals, M, Hillegers, MH. The Dutch bipolar offspring study: 12-year follow-up. Am J Psychiatry
2013; 170: 542–9.
Shaw, JA, Egeland, JA, Endicott, J, Allen, CR, Hostetter, AM. A 10-year prospective study of prodromal patterns for bipolar disorder among Amish youth. J Am Acad Chiid Adoiesc Psychiatry
2005; 44: 1104–11.
Nurnberger, JI, McInnis, M, Reich, W, Kastelic, E, Wilcox, HC, Glowinski, A, et al. A high-risk study of bipolar disorder. Childhood clinical phenotypes as precursors of major mood disorders. Arch Gen Psychiatry
2011; 68: 1012–20.
Axelson, D, Goldstein, B, Goldstein, T, Monk, K, Yu, H, Hickey, MB, et al. Diagnostic precursors to bipolar disorder in offspring of parents with bipolar disorder: a longitudinal study. Am J Psychiatry
2015; 172: 638–46.
Hafeman, DM, Merranko, J, Axelson, D, Goldstein, BI, Goldstein, T, Monk, K, et al. Toward the definition of a bipolar prodrome: dimensional predictors of bipolar spectrum disorders in at-risk youths. Am J Psychiatry
2016; 173: 695–704.
Egeland, JA, Endicott, J, Hostetter, AM, Allen, CR, Pauls, DL, Shaw, JA. A 16-year prospective study of prodromal features prior to BPI onset in well Amish children. J Affect Disord
2012; 142: 186–92.
Correll, CU, Hauser, M, Penzner, JB, Auther, AM, Kafantaris, V, Saito, E, et al. Type and duration of subsyndromal symptoms in youth with bipolar I disorder prior to their first manic episode. Bipolar Disord
2014; 16: 478–92.
Findling, RL, Youngstrom, EA, McNamara, NK, Stansbrey, RJ, Demeter, CA, Bedoya, D, et al. Early symptoms of mania and the role of parental risk. Bipolar Disord
2005; 7: 623–34.
Lewinsohn, PM, Klein, DN, Seeley, JR. Bipolar disorder during adolescence and young adulthood in a community sample. Bipolar Disord
2000; 2: 281–93.
Carlson, GA, Kelly, KL. Manic symptoms in psychiatrically hospitalized children – what do they mean?
J Affect Disord
1998; 51: 123–35.
Hazell, PL, Carr, V, Lewin, TJ, Sly, K. Manic symptoms in young males with ADHD predict functioning but not diagnosis after 6 years. J Am Acad Chiid Adoiesc Psychiatry
2003; 42: 552–60.
Fiedorowicz, JG, Endicott, J, Leon, AC, Solomon, DA, Keller, MB, Coryell, WH. Subthreshold hypomanic symptoms in progression from unipolar major depression to bipolar disorder. Am J Psychiatry
2011; 168: 40–8.
Faedda, GL, Marangoni, C, Serra, G, Salvatore, P, Sani, G, Vázquez, GH, et al. Precursors of bipolar disorders: a systematic literature review of prospective studies. J Ciin Psychiatry
2015; 76: 614–24.
Tijssen, MJA, van Os, J, Wittchen, H-U, Lieb, R, Beesdo, K, Mengelers, R, et al. Prediction of transition from common adolescent bipolar experiences to bipolar disorder: 10-year study. Br J Psychiatry
2010; 196: 102–8.
Duffy, A, Alda, M, Hajek, T, Sherry, SB, Grof, P. Early stages in the development of bipolar disorder. J Affect Disord
2010; 121: 127–35.
Duffy, A, Grof, P, Grof, E, Zvolsky, P, Alda, M. Evidence supporting the independent inheritance of primary affective disorders and primary alcoholism in the families of bipolar patients. J Affect Disord
1998; 50: 91–6.
Blacker, D, Lavori, PW, Faraone, SV, Tsuang, MT. Unipolar relatives in bipolar pedigrees: a search for indicators of underlying bipolarity. Am J Med Genet
1993; 48: 192–9.
Manchia, M, Adli, M, Akula, N, Ardau, R, Aubry, JM, Backlund, L, et al. Assessment of response to lithium maintenance treatment in bipolar disorder: a consortium on lithium genetics (ConLiGen) report. PLoS One
2013; 8: e65636.
Endicott, J, Spitzer, RL. A diagnostic interview: the schedule for affective disorders and schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry
1978; 35: 837–44.
Axelson, D, Birmaher, BJ, Brent, D, Wassick, S, Hoover, C, Bridge, J, et al. A preliminary study of the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children mania rating scale for children and adolescents. J Child Adoiesc Psychopharmacoi
2003; 13: 463–70.
Angst, J, Adolfsson, R, Benazzi, F, Gamma, A, Hantouche, E, Meyer, TD, et al. The HCL-32: towards a self-assessment tool for hypomanic symptoms in outpatients. J Affect Disord
2005; 88: 217–33.
Hollingshead, A. Commentary on the indiscriminate state of social class measurement. Soc Forces
1970; 49: 563.
Meyer, TD, Schrader, J, Ridley, M, Lex, C. The Hypomania Checklist (HCL) – systematic review of its properties to screen for bipolar disorders. Compr Psychiatry
2014; 55: 1310–21.
Richardson, T, Garavan, H. Hypomanic symptoms in female undergraduate students diagnosed with unipolar depression based on scores on the hypomania checklist. Ciin Pract Epidemioi Ment Heaith
2009; 5: 22–5.
Lee, K, Oh, H, Lee, EH, Kim, JH, Kim, JH, Hong, KS. Investigation of the clinical utility of the hypomania checklist 32 (HCL-32) for the screening of bipolar disorders in the non-clinical adult population. BMC Psychiatry
2016; 16: 124.
Goodday, S, Levy, A, Flowerdew, G, Horrocks, J, Grof, P, Ellenbogen, M, et al. Early exposure to parental bipolar disorder: findings from a 16-year prospective cohort study. Eariy interv Psychiatry
2016; 19: pyv071.
Brand, S, Luethi, M, von Planta, A, Hatzinger, M, Holsboer-Trachsler, E. Romantic love, hypomania, and sleep pattern in adolescents. J Adoiesc Heaith
2007; 41: 69–76.
Angst, J, Sellaro, R. Historical perspectives and natural history of bipolar disorder. Bio Psychiatry
2000; 48: 445–57.