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Clay minerals and organic matter occur frequently in fault zones. Their structural characteristics and their textural evolution are driven by several formation processes: (1) reaction by metasomatism from circulating fluids; (2) in situ evolution by diagenesis; and (3) neoformation due to deformation catalysis. Clay-mineral chemistry and precipitated solid organic matter may be used as indicators of fluid circulation in fault zones and to determine the maximum temperatures in these zones. In the present study, clay-mineral and organic-matter analyses of two major fault zones – the Adams-Tinui and Whakataki faults, Wairarapa, North Island, New Zealand – were investigated. The two faults analysed correspond to the soles of large imbricated thrust sheets formed during the onset of subduction beneath the North Island of New Zealand. The mineralogy of both fault zones is composed mainly of quartz, feldspars, calcite, chabazite and clay minerals such as illite-muscovite, kaolinite, chlorite and mixed-layer minerals such as chlorite-smectite and illite-smectite. The diagenesis and very-low-grade metamorphism of the sedimentary rock is determined by gradual changes of clay mineral ‘crystallinity’ (illite, chlorite, kaolinite), the use of a chlorite geothermometer and the reflectance of organic matter. It is concluded here that: (1) the established thermal grade is diagenesis; (2) tectonic strains affect the clay mineral ‘crystallinity’ in the fault zone; (3) there is a strong correlation between temperature determined by chlorite geothermometry and organic-matter reflectance; and (4) the duration and depth of burial as well as the pore-fluid chemistry are important factors affecting clay-mineral formation.
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is underdiagnosed and undertreated in schizophrenia, and has been strongly associated with impaired quality of life.
To determine the prevalence and associated factors of MDD and unremitted MDD in schizophrenia, to compare treated and non-treated MDD.
Participants were included in the FondaMental Expert Centers for Schizophrenia and received a thorough clinical assessment. MDD was defined by a Calgary score ≥6. Non-remitted MDD was defined by current antidepressant treatment (unchanged for >8 weeks) and current Calgary score ≥6.
613 patients were included and 175 (28.5%) were identified with current MDD. MDD has been significantly associated with respectively paranoid delusion (odds ratio 1.8; P = 0.01), avolition (odds ratio 1.8; P = 0.02), blunted affect (odds ratio 1.7; P = 0.04) and benzodiazepine consumption (odds ratio 1.8; P = 0.02). Antidepressants were associated with lower depressive symptoms score (5.4 v. 9.5; P < 0.0001); however, 44.1% of treated patients remained in non-remittance MDD. Nonremitters were found to have more paranoid delusion (odds ratio 2.3; P = 0.009) and more current alcohol misuse disorder (odds ratio 4.8; P = 0.04). No antidepressant class or specific antipsychotic were associated with higher or lower response to antidepressant treatment. MDD was associated with Metabolic syndrome (31.4 v. 20.2%; P = 0.006) but not with increased C-reactive protein.
Antidepressant administration is associated with lower depressive symptom level in patients with schizophrenia and MDD. Paranoid delusions and alcohol misuse disorder should be specifically explored and treated in cases of non-remission under treatment. MetS may play a role in MDD onset and/or maintenance in patients with schizophrenia.