In the present study we analysed the ultrastructural characteristics of the oviductal mucosa of Leptodactylus chaquensis during the preovulatory period and immediately after ovulation. Epithelial secretory cells, ciliated cells, basal cells and glandular secretory cells are described. During the preovulatory period, the oviduct exhibits its maximum degree of development at both the epithelial and the glandular levels, with numerous secretory cells that contain a large number of secretory granules whose contents are released into the oviductal lumen by apocrine and exocytotic secretory processes. The secretory cells present throughout the oviduct display considerable variability in the characteristics of their secretory granules, which show different shapes, sizes, organization of the material contained and electron density. The different cell types are distributed following a characteristic pattern for each oviductal zone, thus creating an ultrastructural mosaic along the oviduct. During the postovulatory period, the number of secretory cells decreases and the remaining ones exhibit a marked reduction in secretory granules. Ciliated cells show a typical ultrastructural organization that is not modified throughout the reproductive cycle. Basal cells, located at the basal region of the epithelium, are characterized by their heterochromatic nuclei and electron-lucent cytoplasm, while glandular secretory cells exhibit oval, round or polyhedric granules, most of them with a prominent core. Our results, which indicate a high heterogeneity of secretory cell contents, allow us to suggest differential synthesis and secretion of specific products in each oviductal zone.