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This study aimed to examine the efficacy of combining paroxetine and mirtazapine v. switching to mirtazapine, for patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) who have had an insufficient response to SSRI monotherapy (paroxetine) after the first 2 weeks of treatment.
This double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, three-arm study recruited participants from five hospitals in China. Eligible participants were aged 18–60 years with MDD of at least moderate severity. Participants received paroxetine during a 2-week open-label phase and patients who had not achieved early improvement were randomized to paroxetine, mirtazapine or paroxetine combined with mirtazapine for 6 weeks. The primary outcome was improvement on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression 17-item (HAMD-17) scores 6 weeks after randomization.
A total of 204 patients who showed early non-response to paroxetine monotherapy were randomly assigned to receive either mirtazapine and placebo (n = 68), paroxetine and placebo (n = 68) or mirtazapine and paroxetine (n = 68), with 164 patients completing the outcome assessment. At week 8, the least squares (LS) mean change of HAMD-17 scores did not significantly differ among the three groups, (12.98 points) in the mirtazapine group, (12.50 points) in the paroxetine group and (13.27 points) in the mirtazapine plus paroxetine combination group. Participants in the paroxetine monotherapy group were least likely to experience adverse effects.
After 8 weeks follow-up, paroxetine monotherapy, mirtazapine monotherapy and paroxetine/mirtazapine combination therapy were equally effective in non-improvers at 2 weeks. The results of this trial do not support a recommendation to routinely offer additional treatment or a switch in treatment strategies for MDD patients who do not show early improvement after 2 weeks of antidepressant treatment.
Photocatalytic hydrogen production from water is a facile and clean approach to convert rich solar energy into chemical fuel. Developing efficient and robust catalysts to accelerate water-splitting speed is key. Porphyrins exist widely in green plants and are a key photosensitizer to absorb and transfer light energy to other parts of the photosynthesis system of plants. They are considered an ideal model to construct artificial photocatalysts for hot-carrier-mediated hydrogen production. This article discusses recent achievements in constructing porphyrin-based photocatalysts for hydrogen production, including porphyrin molecules, self-assembled porphyrins, metal–organic frameworks, conjugated porphyrin polymers, and hybrid nanomaterial-based photocatalysts. The design and synthesis principles, structure–property relationships, as well as urgent issues to be solved in the future for every type of photocatalyst are also discussed.
To evaluate the effects of gestational weight gain (GWG) in the first trimester (GWG-F) and the rate of gestational weight gain in the second trimester (RGWG-S) on gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), exploring the optimal GWG ranges for the avoidance of GDM in Chinese women.
A population-based prospective study was conducted. Gestational weight was measured regularly in every antenatal visit and assessed by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) criteria (2009). GDM was assessed with the 75-g, 2-h oral glucose tolerance test at 24–28 weeks of gestation. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to assess the effects of GWG-F and RGWG-S on GDM, stratified by pre-pregnancy BMI. In each BMI category, the GWG values corresponding to the lowest prevalence of GDM were defined as the optimal GWG range.
Pregnant women (n 1910) in 2017.
After adjusting for confounders, GWG-F above IOM recommendations increased the risk of GDM (OR; 95 % CI) among underweight (2·500; 1·106, 5·655), normal-weight (1·396; 1·023, 1·906) and overweight/obese women (3·017; 1·118, 8·138) compared with women within IOM recommendations. No significant difference was observed between RGWG-S and GDM (P > 0·05) after adjusting for GWG-F based on the previous model. The optimal GWG-F ranges for the avoidance of GDM were 0·8–1·2, 0·8–1·2 and 0·35–0·70 kg for underweight, normal-weight and overweight/obese women, respectively.
Excessive GWG in the first trimester, rather than the second trimester, is associated with increased risk of GDM regardless of pre-pregnancy BMI. Obstetricians should provide more pre-emptive guidance in achieving adequate GWG-F.
Radiation exposure during paediatric cardiac catheterisation procedures should be minimised to “as low as reasonably achievable”. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a modified radiation safety protocol in reducing patient dose during paediatric interventional cardiac catheterisation.
Radiation dose data were retrospectively extracted from January 2014 to December 2015 (Standard group) and prospectively collected from January 2016 to December 2017 (Low-dose group) after implementation of a modified radiation safety protocol. Both groups included five most common procedures: atrial septal defect closure, patent ductus arteriosus closure, perimembranous ventricular septal defect closure, pulmonary valvuloplasty, and supraventricular tachycardia ablation.
Median air Kerma was 48.4, 50.5, 29.75, 149, 218, and 12.9 mGy for atrial septal defect closure, pulmonary valvuloplasty, patent ductus arteriosus closure <20 kg, ventricular septal defect closure <20 kg, ventricular septal defect closure ≧20 kg, and supraventricular tachycardia ablation in Standard group, respectively, which significantly decreased to 18.75, 20.7, 11.5, 41.9, 117, and 3.3 mGy in Low-dose group (p < 0.05). This represents a reduction in dose to each patient between 46 and 74%. Among five procedural types in Low-dose group, dose of ventricular septal defect closure was the highest with median air Kerma of 62.5 mGy, dose area product of 364.7 μGy.m2, and dose area product per body weight of 21.5 μGy.m2/kg, respectively, along with the longest fluoroscopy time of 9.9 minutes.
We provided a feasible radiation safety protocol with specific settings on a case-by-case basis. Increasing awareness and adequate training of a practical radiation dose reduction program are essential to improve radiation protection for children.
The design and engineering of the size and shapes of photoactive building blocks enable the fabrication of functional nanocrystals, especially for applications in light harvesting, photocatalytic synthesis, water splitting, and photodegradation. Synthesis of such nanocrystals has been demonstrated recently through noncovalent interactions such as π–π stacking and ligand coordination using optically active porphyrin as a functional building block. Depending on the kinetic conditions, the resulting nanocrystals exhibit well-defined one- to three-dimensional shapes such as spheres, nanowires, and nano-octahedra. These well-defined porphyrin nanocrystals show interesting size- and shape-dependent photocatalytic activity. This article reviews the synthesis and formation of porphyrin nanocrystals with controlled size and shape. Important photocatalytic processes such as photodegradation of organic pollutants, photocatalytic water splitting and hydrogen production, and photosynthesis of metallic fuel-cell catalysts are highlighted. Insights on size- and shape-dependent properties are discussed.
Photocatalytic water splitting to form hydrogen can effectively alleviate energy and environmental problems attracting wide attention. However, the current photocatalysts have low photocatalytic efficiencies due to the narrow absorption spectrum, which is far from the actual application requirements. Herein, we use the as-prepared zinc porphyrin self-assemblies to visible-light-drive photocatalytic hydrogen evolution with Pt as the cocatalyst and ascorbic acid (AA) as the sacrificial agent. The results exhibit morphology-dependent performance and hexagonal stacks achieved optimal H2 evolution rate (47.1 mmol/h/g), then followed by nanodiscs, nanorod and tetragonal stacks, meanwhile the nanorods with different aspect ratios show size-dependent properties. The UV-vis absorption and photoluminescence spectra and the shortening of decay time of the corresponding ZnTPyP aggregates reveal that the well-defined self-assembled porphyrin networks are J-aggregation and boost efficient energy transfer with respect to monomer. Such porphyrin self-assemblies are standing for one of the most promising photosensitizers in photocatalysis field and provide an important reference for designing the next generation of hydrogen production.
We study numerically the dynamics of an insoluble surfactant-laden droplet in a simple shear flow taking surface viscosity into account. The rheology of drop surface is modelled via a Boussinesq–Scriven constitutive law with both surface tension and surface viscosity depending strongly on the surface concentration of the surfactant. Our results show that the surface viscosity exhibits non-trivial effects on the surfactant transport on the deforming drop surface. Specifically, both dilatational and shear surface viscosity tend to eliminate the non-uniformity of surfactant concentration over the drop surface. However, their underlying mechanisms are entirely different; that is, the shear surface viscosity inhibits local convection due to its suppression on drop surface motion, while the dilatational surface viscosity inhibits local dilution due to its suppression on local surface dilatation. By comparing with previous studies of droplets with surface viscosity but with no surfactant transport, we find that the coupling between surface viscosity and surfactant transport induces non-negligible deviations in the dynamics of the whole droplet. More particularly, we demonstrate that the dependence of surface viscosity on local surfactant concentration has remarkable influences on the drop deformation. Besides, we analyse the full three-dimensional shape of surfactant-laden droplets in simple shear flow and observe that the drop shape can be approximated as an ellipsoid. More importantly, this ellipsoidal shape can be described by a standard ellipsoidal equation with only one unknown owing to the finding of an unexpected relationship among the drop’s three principal axes. Moreover, this relationship remains the same for both clean and surfactant-laden droplets with or without surface viscosity.
Previous studies on capsule dynamics in shear flow have dealt with Newtonian fluids, while the effect of fluid viscoelasticity remains an unresolved fundamental question. In this paper, we report a numerical investigation of the dynamics of capsules enclosing a viscoelastic fluid and which are freely suspended in a Newtonian fluid under simple shear. Systematic simulations are performed at small but non-zero Reynolds numbers (i.e.
) using a three-dimensional front-tracking finite-difference model, in which the fluid viscoelasticity is introduced via the Oldroyd-B constitutive equation. We demonstrate that the internal fluid viscoelasticity presents significant effects on the deformation behaviour of initially spherical capsules, including transient evolution and equilibrium values of their deformation and orientation. Particularly, the capsule deformation decreases slightly with the Deborah number De increasing from 0 to
. In contrast, with De increasing within high levels, i.e.
, the capsule deformation increases continuously and eventually approaches the Newtonian limit having a viscosity the same as the Newtonian part of the viscoelastic capsule. By analysing the viscous stress, pressure and viscoelastic stress acting on the capsule membrane, we reveal that the mechanism underlying the effects of the internal fluid viscoelasticity on the capsule deformation is the alterations in the distribution of the viscoelastic stress at low De and its magnitude at high De, respectively. Furthermore, we find some new features in the dynamics of initially non-spherical capsules induced by the internal fluid viscoelasticity. Particularly, the transition from tumbling to swinging of oblate capsules can be triggered at very high viscosity ratios by increasing De alone. Besides, the critical viscosity ratio for the tumbling-to-swinging transition is remarkably enlarged with De increasing at relatively high levels, i.e.
, while it shows little change at low De, i.e. below
In this paper, a new type of stabilized finite element method is discussed for Oseen equations based on the local L2 projection stabilized technique for the velocity field. Velocity and pressure are approximated by two kinds of mixed finite element spaces, Pl2–P1, (l = 1,2). A main advantage of the proposed method lies in that, all the computations are performed at the same element level, without the need of nested meshes or the projection of the gradient of velocity onto a coarse level. Stability and convergence are proved for two kinds of stabilized schemes. Numerical experiments confirm the theoretical results.
The oxidation behavior of nonstoichiometric Ti2AlCx (x = 0.69) powders synthesized by combustion synthesis was investigated in flowing air by means of simultaneous thermal gravimetric analysis-differential thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive spectroscopy, with an effect of powder size. The oxidation of the fine Ti2AlC powders with the size of about 1 μm starts at 300 °C and completes at 980 °C, while with increasing the powder size around 10 μm the corresponding temperature increases to 400 and 1040 °C, respectively. The oxidation of nonstoichiometric Ti2AlCx (x = 0.69) powders is controlled by surface reaction in 400–600 °C, and mainly diffusion in 600–900 °C, with the corresponding oxidation activation energy of 2.35 eV and 0.12 eV, respectively. In other words, the critical temperature of changing oxidation controlling step is around 600 °C. The oxidation products were mainly rutile-TiO2 and α-Al2O3. The tiny white flocculent particles of α-Al2O3 appeared on the surface of fine Ti2AlC powders and increased with increasing the oxidation temperature.
This article outlines the evolution of a rescue team in responding to adenovirus prevention with a deployable field hospital. The local governments mobilized a shelter hospital and a rescue team consisting of 59 members to assist with rescue and response efforts after an epidemic outbreak of adenovirus. We describe and evaluate the challenges of preparing for deployment, field hospital maintenance, treatment mode, and primary treatment methods. The field hospital established at the rescue scene consisted of a medical command vehicle, a computed tomography shelter, an X-ray shelter, a special laboratory shelter, an oxygen and electricity supply vehicle, and epidemic prevention and protection equipment. The rescue team comprised paramedics, physicians, X-ray technicians, respiratory therapists, and logistical personnel. In 22 days, more than 3000 patients with suspected adenovirus infection underwent initial examinations. All patients were properly treated, and no deaths occurred. After emergency measures were implemented, the spread of adenovirus was eventually controlled. An emergency involving infectious diseases in less-developed regions demands the rapid development of a field facility with specialized medical personnel when local hospital facilities are either unavailable or unusable. An appropriate and detailed prearranged action plan is important for infectious diseases prevention. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;12:109–114)
The on-site hydrogen supply is a key issue for the commercialization of the fuel cells, which is one of the important ways for realizing a hydrogen-economy society. Composite NaNH2–NaBH4 is regarded as a promising high-capacity hydrogen storage material. In this paper, the composite NaNH2–NaBH4 (2/1) was synthesized via a solid-state ball milling method. To improve the hydrogen generation kinetics, a multiplex metal boride Mg–Co–B was selected as the catalyst. It was found that Na3BN2 and metal Na were byproducts in the thermal decomposed sample by X-ray diffraction analysis. Thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis indicated that the main decomposition stages of the catalyst promoted NaNH2–NaBH4 material were split into three stages. The activation energy of the Mg–Co–B promoted NaNH2–NaBH4 (2/1) material below 300 °C was 76.4 KJ/mol, which is only 47.9% of that of the pristine NaNH2–NaBH4 (2/1), and implying much better hydrogen generation kinetics.
Precise control of structural parameters through nanoscale engineering to continuously tailor optical and electronic properties of functional nanomaterials remains an outstanding challenge. Previous work focused largely on chemical or physical interactions that occur under ambient pressures. In this article, we introduce a new pressure-directed assembly and fabrication method that uses a mechanical compressive force applied to nanoparticles (NPs) to induce structural phase transitions and consolidate new nanomaterials with precisely controlled structures and tunable properties. By manipulating NP coupling through external pressure instead of through chemistry, a reversible change in assembly structure and properties can be demonstrated. In addition, over a certain threshold, the external pressure forces these NPs into contact, allowing the formation and consolidation of one- to three-dimensional nanostructures. Through stress-induced NP assembly, unusual materials engineering and synthesis, in which morphology and architecture can be readily tuned to produce desired optical and electrical properties, appear feasible.
The deformation of a compound capsule (an elastic capsule with a smaller capsule inside) in simple shear flow is studied by using three-dimensional numerical simulations based on a front tracking method. The inner and outer capsules are concentric and initially spherical. Skalak et al.’s constitutive law is employed for the mechanics of both the inner and outer membranes. Our results concerning the deformation of homogeneous capsules (i.e. capsules without the inner capsules) are quantitatively in agreement with the predictions of previous numerical simulations and perturbation theories. Compared to homogeneous capsules, compound capsules exhibit smaller deformation. The deformations of both the inner and outer capsules are significantly affected by the capillary numbers of the inner and outer membranes and the volume ratio of the inner to the outer capsule. When the inner capsule is small, it presents smaller deformation than the outer capsule. However, when the inner capsule is sufficiently large, it can present larger deformation than the outer capsule, even if the inner membrane has much lower capillary number than the outer membrane. The underlying mechanisms are discussed: (i) the inner capsule is deformed by rotational flow with lower rate of strain rather than by simple shear flow that deforms the outer capsule, and thus the inner capsule exhibits smaller deformation; and (ii) when the inner and outer membranes are sufficiently close (i.e. the inner capsule is sufficiently large), the hydrodynamic interaction between the two membranes becomes significant, which is found to inhibit the deformation of the outer capsule but to promote the deformation of the inner capsule.
Rhizoma et Radix Notopterygii is often used as a traditional medicine in China. In our recent work, we found that the ethanol crude extract of Rhizoma et Radix Notopterygii could reduce phytotoxicity of acetochlor on rice. The crude extract of Rhizoma et Radix Notopterygii was isolated and purified by activity-guided fractionation. Two coumarins, isopimpinellin and 5-methoxypsoralen (5-MOP) were identified, and their bioactivity was tested in a growth chamber. The results showed that the two coumarins increased herbicide tolerance of rice shoots, and 5-MOP demonstrated better protection than isopimpinellin. The treatment of 5-MOP at 50 g ai ha−1 recovered the shoot height of rice from 42.6% (treated with acetochlor only) to 81.6% of the control treated without acetochlor, whereas the phytocidal activity of acetochlor on barnyardgrass was not impaired by 5-MOP. Further study suggested that 5-MOP increases herbicide tolerance of rice by enhancing the glutathione S-transferase level of activity in rice. Our findings suggest that isopimpinellin and 5-MOP have the potential to be applied as safeners for rice.
A completely solid state dye sensitized solar cell (DSSSC) is proposed in which chemically robust phthalocyanine (Pc) sensitizers, F16ZnPc and F40ZnPc, are sandwiched between n-TiO2 and p-NiO. While the energy conversion efficiencies of conventional Grätzel cells are continually increasing, the DSSSC design effectively solves the long term stability issues of the volatile liquid electrolyte. Through analysis of the electronic structure of the Pc|semiconductor systems, the free energy associated with hole injection into the valence band of NiO upon photoexcitation of the sensitizer and electron injection into the conduction band of TiO2 from the reduced form of the sensitizer as well as the competing charge recombination processes are calculated. Thermodynamically, the charge injection processes are found to be favored over the undesired charge recombination processes. These findings suggest promising energy conversion for the NiO|Pc|TiO2 DSSSC.
Nanoparticles (NPs) of Indium Antimonide (InSb) were synthesized using a vapor phase synthesis technique known as Inert Gas Condensation. NPs were directly deposited, at room temperature and under high vacuum, on glass cover slides, TEM grid, 1 inch-square (111) p-type Silicon wafer and Sodium Chloride substrates. XRD study revealed the crystalline behavior of these NPs exhibiting a cubic symmetry with preferred growth direction of (111). The average grain size of the NPs obtained using XRD results and the Debye-Scherrer formula was 25.62 nm. TEM studies showed a bimodal distribution of NPs with average NPs size of 13.70 and 33.20 nm. These values are consistent with the value obtained using XRD. 1:1 composition ratio of In:Sb was confirmed by the Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy studies. The band gap of the NPs obtained using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was 0.413 eV at 300 K, which indicates quantum confinement in the band structure of these NPs.
We report the synthesis of Cu2SnS3 (CTS) nanostructures and its incorporation into an inorganic-organic hybrid device to enhance the photoresponse under AM 1.5 G solar illumination. The nanostructures were structurally and optically characterized. From X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) the CTS nanocrystals were found to be tetragonal. Flower like structures of CTS were obtained as seen from Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A band gap of 1.4 eV was obtained from absorption studies. Two devices have been studied, P3HT: PCBM = 1: 1 and CTS: P3HT: PCBM = 8:1:1. The photocurrent increased from a value of 2.33 mA at dark to 2.5 mA for the P3HT-PCBM blend to 3.36 mA for CTS: P3HT: PCBM = 8:1:1 device. The responsivity, sensitivity, external quantum efficiency and specific detectivity increased from 18.81 mA/W, 1.07, 4.25% and 6.88 × 108 Jones respectively for P3HT:PCBM sample to 189.97 mA/W, 1.44, 42.9% and 6.95 × 109 Jones for CTS: P3HT: PCBM = 8:1:1 sample at 1V bias and 1 Sun illumination intensity. The time dependent photoresponse was stable over different ON-OFF cycles. From the fit to the rise and decay curves, the rise and decay time constants were obtained.
Nanomedicine is fostering significant advances in the development of platforms for early detection and treatment of diseases. Nanoparticles (NPs) like quantum dots (QDs) exhibit size-dependent optical properties for light-driven technologies, which might become important in bio-imaging, sensing and photo-dynamic therapy (PDT) applications. The present research addresses the synthesis of water-stable Cd-based QDs via a Microwave-Assisted synthesis approach using cadmium sulfate salt, and thioglycolic acid as Cd- and S-precursors, respectively. Selenide ions were available by reductive leaching of metallic Selenium in Sodium bisulfite solution. The size control and the tunability of the optical properties were achieved by a suitable control of the reaction temperature (in the 140°C- 190°C range) and reaction time (10 minutes-40 minutes). X-ray diffraction analyses suggested the development of a CdSe,S face cubic centered structure; the broadening of the diffraction peaks indicated the presence of very small nanocrystals in the samples. The average crystallite size was estimated at 5.50 nm ± 1.17nm and 3.72 nm ± 0.04 nm, for nanoparticles synthesized at 180°C after 40 minutes or 10 minutes of reaction, respectively. HRTEM images confirmed the crystalline nature and the small size of the synthesized nanocrystals. In turn, the exciton was red-shifted from 461nm to 549 nm when the reaction temperature was prolonged from 140°C to 190 °C, suggesting the crystal growth. The corresponding band gap values were approximately 2.2 eV, confirming the quantum confinement effect (bulk value 1.74eV). This red shift was also evidenced in PL measurements where the main emission peak was shifted from 507 nm to 564 nm when the samples were excited at 420 nm. A narrow size-tunable emission also was supported by the full width at half maximum (∼ 45 nm) for the synthesized nanocrystals. The reactive oxygen species generation capability of as-synthesized QDs was also investigated. The correlation between the particle size and the generation of (ROS) by the degradation of methylene blue was evident with a reduction of MB concentration from 10μM to 7.5μM and 6.7μM after 15 minutes of UV irradiation for reaction time of 10 min. and 40 min. respectively. No additional degradation was noticed after 60 minutes of irradiation.