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The original description of the large and characteristic belemnite species Arctoteuthis bluethgeni Doyle was based on fragmentary material from a relatively uncertain stratigraphic interval in Kong Karls Land, Svalbard. Recent collection of a belemnite assemblage in the Lower Cretaceous Rurikfjellet Formation on Spitsbergen include numerous complete specimens, allowing a detailed description of the species. With the exception of a specimen reported from Arctic Canada, its distribution is restricted to Svalbard. Its stratigraphic range appears to be restricted to the upper Valanginian – lower Hauterivian from ages obtained from palynostratigraphy. A. bluethgeni is therefore considered to be a useful Lower Cretaceous guide fossil in the Boreal High Arctic.
Köhnlein (2016) proposes to represent the Franconian tone contrast as a difference in foot structure, whereby Accent 1 appears in lexically marked syllabic trochees and Accent 2 in default moraic trochees, as an alternative to analyses with an underlying privative tone for Accent 2. After sketching the two approaches, we argue against three arguments Köhnlein advances in favour of the metrical analysis. We then show that one of the disadvantages incurred by the metrically derived tonal representations is the introduction of a novel and otherwise unsupported concept of a single tone that incorporates two morphologically different but phonologically identical tones. We also evaluate Köhnlein's (2018) more recent proposal to use the syllabic trochee to account for subtractive plurals in tonal dialects. Finally, we compare the predictive powers of the metrical and tonal analyses of the Arzbach dialect.
This chapter addresses a special category of cases in which an asserted patent is, or has been declared to be, essential to the implementation of a collaboratively developed voluntary consensus standard, and the holder of that patent has agreed to license it to implementers of the standard on terms that are fair, reasonable, and nondiscriminatory (FRAND).This chapter explores how the existence of such a FRAND commitment may affect a patent holder’s entitlement to monetary damages and injunctive relief. In addition to issues of patent law, remedies law, and contracts law, we consider the effect of competition law on this issue.
This research aims to explore the submerged landscapes of the Pilbara of western Australia, using predictive archaeological modelling, airborne LiDAR, marine acoustics, coring and diver survey. It includes excavation and geophysical investigation of a submerged shell midden in Denmark to establish guidelines for the underwater discovery of such sites elsewhere.
The structural characterization of dealloyed nanoporous metals is a fundamental and active area of research, needed for the optimization of these structures for catalytic, electrosensing, biomedical, and mechanical functions. The prediction of properties requires identifying and quantifying salient structural characteristics, while insights into the relevant mechanisms of dealloying and coarsening can be achieved through in situ observations of structural evolution. Three-dimensional structural characterization techniques have advanced such that nanoscale quantification of topology, morphology, and crystallographic parameters are achievable, yet the field is new enough that the assessment and comparison of such parameters of different nanoporous metals are just beginning. Here, we explore the state of the art in structural characterization, focusing on nanoporous gold to exemplify the challenges, the achievements, and the potential associated with establishing an appropriate set of structural parameters for this unique class of materials.
Two-or three-dimensional avalanche-simulation models offer a wide range of applications; however, a challenging model-verification process is demanded, accompanied by a reliable determination of model-input parameters. We show that a verification process can be arranged with remote-monitoring data from an artificially triggered avalanche, leading to the calculation of avalanche mass balance. Two numerical methods are applied to increase the quality of the parameter fit and to reduce the number of simulations. The quality of the parameter fit is verified by comparing measured and simulated run-out lengths. In addition, a cross-check is performed using velocities derived from Doppler radar measurements.
The transformation of ocean water masses at high latitudes is closely related to the freezing and melting processes during the year. Downward salt fluxes from brine rejection during freezing increase the salinity and density of the water column underneath. Fresh-water input from river run-off and melting of sea ice reduces the density, mainly of the surface layer. Hydrographic profiles collected in Storfjorden, Svalbard, in spring and summer, show the strong seasonal and interannual variability of the water masses. Using, in addition, data from moorings, a ship-borne acoustic Doppler current profiler and drifting buoys, and results from models of ice drift, polynya evolution, ice formation and convection processes during freezing, we document the seasonal water-mass transformation and try to explain its interannual variability. The advection of ice and water through the two northern sounds and over the sill in the south of the fjord is examined. The release of brine-enriched bottom water over the sill must be balanced by advection from the Barents Sea in the upper layers. The interannual variability of the brine-enriched bottom layer is very high, and higher salinities are observed in a milder winter. The density anomaly resulting from freezing might depend more on the ice cover and geographical position of the polynya than on the total atmospheric forcing during winter.
The Storfjorden (Svalbard) ice cover has been observed via European remote-sensing satellite (ERS-2) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) over two winters from 1997 to 1999 that showed a high interannual variability in atmospheric forcing. This has resulted in different scenarios in the formation of the ice cover. We reconstruct the ice-cover evolution with a simple ice-drift and polynya model consistent in parameterization for both winters and with ERS-2 SAR and ground-truth observations. The observations showed that, during the rather cold winter of 1997/98, a fast-ice cover developed over the whole northern part of Storfjorden that closed the ice advection through two sounds. A polynya of up to 6000 km2 developed persistently under northerly winds. The mild winter of 1998/99 showed a different pattern in the Storfjorden ice cover: the fast-ice extent was reduced to the coastal region, so ice motion was more important than in the previous winter. A larger thin-ice and open-water area over the whole fjord resulted in lower total ice production, but relocated the strong ice production sites to shallower waters. Thus, freezing in a large region of shallow waters in the north of Storfjorden in 1998/99 produced denser waters than freezing in a smaller polynya over the deeper centre of Storfjorden during the colder winter 1997/98.
We report on a target system supporting automated positioning of nano-targets with a precision resolution of
in three dimensions. It relies on a confocal distance sensor and a microscope. The system has been commissioned to position nanometer targets with 1 Hz repetition rate. Integrating our prototype into the table-top ATLAS 300 TW-laser system at the Laboratory for Extreme Photonics in Garching, we demonstrate the operation of a 0.5 Hz laser-driven proton source with a shot-to-shot variation of the maximum energy about 27% for a level of confidence of 0.95. The reason of laser shooting experiments operated at 0.5 Hz rather than 1 Hz is because the synchronization between the nano-foil target positioning system and the laser trigger needs to improve.
Saterland Frisian (Sfrs. Seeltersk) is the only living remnant of Old East Frisian. It is an endangered language, with an estimated number of 2250 speakers (Stellmacher 1998: 27) and is spoken in the municipality of the Saterland (Sfrs. Seelterlound), which is located in the federal state of Lower Saxony in northwestern Germany.
Modern chirped pulse amplification laser systems with continuously improving controllability and increasing power are about to reach intensities of up to
and have proven their potential to accelerate ions out of plasma to several tens percent of the speed of light. For enabling application, one important step is to increase the repetition rate at which ion bunches are at the disposal. In particular, techniques used so far for thin foil target production can require several days of preparing reasonable amounts for a single campaign. In this paper we describe the reasonably droplet method which we have tested and improved so that the emerging foils with thicknesses of a few nanometres up to micrometre can be used as targets for laser ion acceleration. Their quality and performance can compete with so far employed techniques thereby enabling the production of hundreds of targets per day.
pCO2/pH perturbation experiments were carried out under two different pCO2 levels to evaluate effects of CO2-driven ocean acidification on semi-continuous cultures of the marine diatom Skeletonema pseudocostatum CSA48. Under higher pCO2/lowered pH conditions, our results showed that CO2-driven acidification had no significant impact on growth rate, chlorophyll-a, cellular abundance, gross photosynthesis, dark respiration, particulate organic carbon and particulate organic nitrogen between CO2-treatments, suggesting that S. pseudocostatum is adapted to tolerate changes of ~0.5 units of pH under high pCO2 conditions. However, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration and DOC/POC ratio were significantly higher at high pCO2, indicating that a greater partitioning of organic carbon into the DOC pool was stimulated by high CO2/low pH conditions. Total fatty acids (FAs) were significantly higher under low pCO2 conditions. The composition of FAs changed from low to high pCO2, with an increase in the concentration of saturated and a reduction of monounsaturated FAs. Polyunsaturated FAs did not show significant differences between pCO2 treatments. Our results lead to the conclusion that the balance between negative or null effect on S. pseudocostatum ecophysiology upon low pH/high pCO2 conditions constitute an important factor to be considered in order to evaluate the global effect of rising atmospheric CO2 on primary productivity in coastal ocean. We found a significant decrease in total FAs, however no indications were found for a detrimental effect of ocean acidification on the nutritional quality in terms of essential fatty acids.
Cathars have long been regarded as posing the most organised challenge to orthodox Catholicism in the medieval West, even as a "counter-Church" to orthodoxy in southern France and northern Italy. Their beliefs, understood to be inspired by Balkan dualism, are often seen as the most radical among medieval heresies. However, recent work has fiercely challenged this paradigm, arguing instead that "Catharism" was a construct of its persecutors, mis-named and mis-represented by generations of subsequent scholarship, and its supposedly radical views were a fantastical projection of the fears of orthodox commentators. This volume brings together a wide range of views from some of the most distinguished international scholars in the field, in order to address the debate directly while also opening up new areas for research. Focussing on dualism and anti-materialist beliefs in southern France, Italy and the Balkans, it considers a number of crucial issues. These include: what constitutes popular belief; how (and to what extent) societies of the past were based on the persecution of dissidents; and whether heresy can be seen as an invention of orthodoxy. At the same time, the essays shed new light on some key aspects of the political, cultural, religious and economic relationships between the Balkans and more western regions of Europe in the Middle Ages.
Antonio Sennis isSenior Lecturer in Medieval History at University College London Contributors: John H. Arnold, Peter Biller, Caterina Bruschi, David d'Avray, Jörg Feuchter, Bernard Hamilton, Robert I. Moore, MarkGregory Pegg, Rebecca Rist, Lucy Sackville, Antonio Sennis, Claire Taylor, Julien Théry-Astruc, Yuri Stoyanov