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Although the rumen fluke, Calicophoron daubneyi is now very common and widespread throughout Western Europe, reports of clinical cases are still rare. This study explores the epidemiological background to a severe rumen fluke outbreak in 6-month-old heifers on a dairy farm in Ireland. Sequence analysis of the cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (Cox1) gene of the rumen fluke metacercariae on pasture failed to identify predominant, possibly pathogenic subtypes. However, estimates of metacercarial load indicated that the animals were exposed to a daily dose of about 5334 C. daubneyi metacercariae for a period of 3 weeks resulting in the build-up of very large numbers of immature worms in the small intestine. It is hypothesized that specific environmental conditions may favour this parasite over its competitor, the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica, possibly by allowing it to emerge earlier. The possibility that C. daubneyi may be better adapted to the Irish climate than F. hepatica together with the fact that selective treatment against F. hepatica effectively frees the niche for C. daubneyi, may result in the gradual replacement of F. hepatica by C. daubneyi.
This article provides an introduction to the use of the Creative Commons licence system, and sets it in a historical, economic and political context. It is written from the perspective of involvement in open educational projects in an arts university that has used the licences. A description of the fundamental features of the licences and their uses is given, together with an outline of how the Creative Commons organisation works and its strategic aims. An assessment of the usefulness of these licences is provided, together with a description of the challenges faced in dealing with low levels of legal awareness amongst academics. Practical advice and sources of further information and guidance are offered to help readers implement the licences locally.
To observe patient care across hemodialysis facilities enrolled in the National Opportunity to Improve Infection Control in ESRD (end-stage renal disease) (NOTICE) project in order to evaluate adherence to evidence-based practices aimed at prevention of infection.
SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS
Thirty-four hemodialysis facilities were randomly selected from among 772 facilities in 4 end-stage renal disease participating networks. Facility selection was stratified on dialysis organization affiliation, size, socioeconomic status, and urban/rural status.
Trained infection control evaluators used an infection control worksheet to observe 73 distinct infection control practices at the hemodialysis facilities, from October 1, 2011, through January 31, 2012.
There was considerable variation in infection control practices across enrolled facilities. Overall adherence to recommended practices was 68% (range, 45%–92%) across all facilities. Overall adherence to expected hand hygiene practice was 72% (range, 10%–100%). Compliance to hand hygiene before and after procedures was high; however, during procedures hand hygiene compliance averaged 58%. Use of chlorhexidine as the specific agent for exit site care was 19% overall but varied from 0% to 35% by facility type. The 8 checklists varied in the frequency of perfect performance from 0% for meeting every item on the checklist for disinfection practices to 22% on the arteriovenous access practices at initiation.
Our findings suggest that there are many areas for improvement in hand hygiene and other infection prevention practices in end-stage renal disease. These NOTICE project findings will help inform the development of a larger quality improvement initiative at dialysis facilities.
There is evidence for health benefits from ‘Palaeolithic’ diets; however, there are a few data on the acute effects of rationally designed Palaeolithic-type meals. In the present study, we used Palaeolithic diet principles to construct meals comprising readily available ingredients: fish and a variety of plants, selected to be rich in fibre and phyto-nutrients. We investigated the acute effects of two Palaeolithic-type meals (PAL 1 and PAL 2) and a reference meal based on WHO guidelines (REF), on blood glucose control, gut hormone responses and appetite regulation. Using a randomised cross-over trial design, healthy subjects were given three meals on separate occasions. PAL2 and REF were matched for energy, protein, fat and carbohydrates; PAL1 contained more protein and energy. Plasma glucose, insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) and peptide YY (PYY) concentrations were measured over a period of 180 min. Satiation was assessed using electronic visual analogue scale (EVAS) scores. GLP-1 and PYY concentrations were significantly increased across 180 min for both PAL1 (P= 0·001 and P< 0·001) and PAL2 (P= 0·011 and P= 0·003) compared with the REF. Concomitant EVAS scores showed increased satiety. By contrast, GIP concentration was significantly suppressed. Positive incremental AUC over 120 min for glucose and insulin did not differ between the meals. Consumption of meals based on Palaeolithic diet principles resulted in significant increases in incretin and anorectic gut hormones and increased perceived satiety. Surprisingly, this was independent of the energy or protein content of the meal and therefore suggests potential benefits for reduced risk of obesity.
In this work, we take advantage of injection molding as a high volume and repeatable method to create surface areas for the growth of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). Ultraviolet lithography, combined with deep reactive ion etching, was used to generate micro-features over a relatively large surface area of a silicon wafer. The micro-featured silicon wafer was used as a mold insert for the micro-injection molding process to create polystyrene and low density polyethylene surfaces. Micro-geometry was used to alter the effective surface stiffness of the polymer substrate. Created samples were characterized via scanning electron microscopy and tensile testing. hMSCs were seeded onto samples for initial studies. Actin and vinculin were visualized through ICC to compare cytoskeletal elements. Changes in cell morphology were examined using ICC. Results indicate that injection molding of microfeatured substrates is a viable technique to produce surfaces amenable to stem cell growth.
To identify sociodemographic and environmental correlates of sweetened beverages (regular soft drinks, fruit juice) among children of pre-school age.
Children's dietary intake, food behaviours and screen time were measured by parental report. A Geographic Informational System was used to assess the number of grocery stores and fast-food restaurants available within 1 km of the children's residence. Multivariate log-binomial regression models were constructed to determine correlates of drinking soft drinks during the previous week.
Edmonton region, Canada.
Children aged 4 and 5 years (n 2114) attending a public health unit for immunization were recruited for a cohort study on determinants of childhood obesity, between 2005 and 2007.
Children from neighbourhoods with low socio-economic status (relative risk (RR) = 1·17, 95 % CI 0·98, 1·40) or who participated in >2 h of screen time daily (RR = 1·28, 95 % CI 1·13, 1·45) were significantly more likely to have consumed regular soft drinks within the last week. Those who lived within 1 km of a grocery store were significantly less likely to consume regular soft drinks (RR = 0·84, 95 % CI 0·73, 0·96). Children who participated in >2 h of screen time daily (RR = 1·16, 95 % CI 1·06, 1·27) were more likely to exceed the recommended weekly number of servings of fruit juice.
Socio-economic and built environment factors are associated with soft drink consumption in children of pre-school age. These findings may help health professionals to advocate for policies that reduce soft drink consumption among children.
The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that equine growth hormone (eGH), in combination with insulin growth factor-I (IGF-I), influences positively in vitro nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation of equine oocytes. Cumulus–oocyte complexes were recovered from follicles that were < 25 mm in diameter, characterized by morphology and were allocated randomly as follow: (a) control (no additives); (b) 400 ng/ml eGH; (c) 200 ng/ml IGF-I; (d) eGH + IGF-I; and (e) eGH + IGF-I + 400 ng/ml anti-IGF-I antibody. Oocytes were matured for 30 h at 38.5°C in air with 5% CO2 and then stained with 10 μg/ml propidium iodide (PI) to evaluate nuclear status and 10 μg/ml Lens culinaris agglutinin-fluorescein complex (FITC-LCA) to assess cortical granule migration by confocal microscopy. The proportion of immature oocytes that developed to the metaphase II (MII) stage in the eGH + IGF-I group (15 of 45) was greater than in the groups that were treated only with IGF-I (7 of 36, p = 0.03). Oocytes that reached MII in the control group (20 of 56; 35.7%) showed a tendency to be different when compared with eGH + IGF-I group (15 of 45; 33.3%, p = 0.08). The treated group that contained anti-IGF-I (15 of 33; 45.4%) decreased the number of oocytes reaching any stage of development when compared with eGH (47 of 72; 65.3%) and eGH + IGF-I (33 of 45; 73.3%) groups (p = 0.05) when data from MI and MII were combined. We concluded that the addition of eGH to in vitro maturation (IVM) medium influenced the in vitro nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation of equine oocytes. The use of GH and IGF-I in vitro may represent a potential alternative for IVM of equine oocytes.
Midway Sunset crude oil and well-head oil were treated at elevated temperatures in a closed system with the presence of water. Mild to moderate upgrading, as measured by increase in API gravity, was observed at 400°C or above. Reduced pressure operation exhibited upgrading activity comparable to upgrading under normal aqueous pyrolysis conditions. Reduced pressure operation was obtained by the use of specific blending methods, a surfactant, and the proper amount of water. The use of metal complexes provided additional upgrading. The best of the minimum set tested was Co(ll) 2-ethylhexanoate. Fe, Zn, Mo, Cu, and Ni complexes also showed some levels of activity.
A review of epigraphic, numismatic and historical sources examines the episode of the war of Commodus in Britain. The relationship of this event to the present interpretation of the later campaign of Severus is discussed. Current views of the occupation of Hadrian’s Wall are examined in the light of Commodus’ policy in Britain.
The recent government health strategy document described the integration between primary and secondary care in Ireland as often poor and outlined plans to redress this deficit. In mental health care, the gradual shift away from institutions over the past four decades has resulted in the GP becoming the most frequent professional contact for people with mental disorders. However, access to specialist opinion is usually available only for the fraction of psychiatric presentations which are formally referred to the psychiatric service.
On-site psychiatric liaison to primary care is commonly practised in other countries but not in Ireland. Research in the area suggests possible advantages for approaches which aim to enhance GPs' psychiatric skills while selectively encouraging referral of more serious disorders. This model has been adopted by GPs and psychiatrists in east Cavan and may be relevant to other similar settings, especially in the context of forthcoming changes in the organisation of primary care services.
Infection control in British nursing homes is different from that in U.S. nursing homes in several ways. Most British nursing homes, for example, do not have a designated on-site infection control nurse, and several agencies are responsible for regulatory oversight. This article discusses the state of infection control in British nursing homes.
Objectives: Prompted by the current debate in Ireland regarding involuntary detention, we undertook a survey of psychiatric trainees to examine their level of knowledge of the legislation governing such admissions.
Method: Eighty psychiatric trainees working in centres affiliated to a particular training scheme were invited to complete a purpose-designed instrument.
Results: Response rate was 52/80. Trainees were well informed concerning the procedures necessary to initiate detention. Their knowledge of the legal indications for involuntary detention and restrictions on its duration was patchy.
Conclusions: We suggest that training in the area of mental health legislation needs to be increased and to focus on satisfying legal requirements in real-life scenarios.
The use of metaphors as the main marketing strategy in psychotropic drug advertising in journals and the quality of information provided in these advertisements has been criticised. We investigated marketing strategies and information provision in advertisements appearing in three different psychiatric journals. The majority of advertisements in two of the journals used metaphors as their main marketing strategy. The level of prescribing information varied between journals. Our findings suggest that improvements are needed in psychotropic drug advertising in journals.
The last decade has seen renewed interest in late Roman Britain and its transition to Saxon England. There have been a number of attempts to clarify the chronology of events between the collapse of the central Roman administration and the establishment of a substantial and permanent Saxon presence. These attempts at chronological certainty have, of necessity, focused upon the entries in the so-called Gallic Chronicles since these sources are the nearest in date of composition to the events which they record. Two events in the Chronicles relate to Britain. One records a Saxon invasion in the first decade of the fifth century whilst the second alludes to the subjection of Britain, or some substantial part of it, to the Saxons some thirty years later.